Implication of Enzyme Immobilization in Therapeutics as Well as Diagnostics of Various Diseases

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Enzymes are now considered to be important constituents of our nutritive diet like other nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, etc.). Furthermore, they have the capability to treat several diseases. It has been stated that “they are crucial substances which make life possible” by Dr. Edward Howell (father of enzyme nutrition and therapy).

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... Overall, nafion and chitosan-based membranes have exhibited high biocompatibility in addition to enhancing the sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors. The added benefit of incorporating chitosan-based films is that they exhibit excellent oxygen barrier ability [84] and are biodegradable, non-toxic, inert and hydrophilic [85]. ...
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Glucose biosensors have received significant attention in recent years due to the escalating mortality rate of diabetes mellitus. Although there is currently no cure for diabetes mellitus, individuals living with diabetes can lead a normal life by maintaining tight control of their blood glucose levels using glucose biosensors (e.g., glucometers). Current research in the field is focused on the optimization and improvement in the performance of glucose biosensors by employing a variety of glucose selective enzymes, mediators and semipermeable membranes to improve the electron transfer between the active center of the enzyme and the electrode substrate. Herein, we summarize the different semipermeable membranes used in the fabrication of the glucose biosensor, that result in improved biosensor sensitivity, selectivity, dynamic range, response time and stability.
Enzymatic catalysis has been extensively used for wide applications ranging from chemical or pharmaceutical synthesis, food processing, bioremediation, industrial catalysis, etc. under mild conditions with utmost efficacy with respect to chemical processes without any usage of hazardous solvents under mild conditions (temperature: 10°C–50°C, pH: 4.0–8.0) in an inexpensive and environment-friendly way. Enzymes are nontoxic, readily degradable, and can be produced in unlimited quantities; therefore their derived processes are several folds higher economical than chemical-based processes. Enzymes cannot be reused, relatively fragile, much susceptible in the presence of extreme physicochemical environment and it is almost impossible to separate them from reaction mixtures. Immobilization of enzymes onto suitable matrices has been very useful to overcome various shortcomings as mentioned for soluble enzymes. It helps in protecting enzyme from inactivation due to any physicochemical challenges and optimizing in-service performance of enzyme in various industrial processes in addition to drastic decrease in overall cost of industrial productions. The immobilizing matrix (especially its chemical composition and surface morphology) and immobilization methods are the crucial determinants for catalytic efficiency of immobilized enzymes during various industrial processes. Polymeric materials as immobilization matrix for enzyme have provided versatility in immobilizing vast variety of enzymes involved in various types of applications like oxidation, reduction, inter- and intramolecular transfer of groups, hydrolysis, cleavage of covalent bonds by elimination, addition of groups to double bonds, and isomerization. It is so as polymeric materials can be modulated into various forms such as particles, membranes, and nanofibers. with adjustable physicochemical properties making it more desirous for various enzyme-based industrial applications. Most importantly, with the presence of such versatility in polymeric materials it is possible to improvise catalytic efficiency, stability, reusability cycles, as well as minimizing nonspecific interactions. It is extremely important to scrutinize polymer type and its chemical nature before using it for any specific enzyme immobilization. The chosen polymeric immobilizing support should protect enzyme structure by providing stable enzyme–matrix interactions by thorough understanding type of functional groups (important in enzyme attachment as well as its microenvironment) present on the matrix. The present chapter is based on applications of polymer-based immobilized enzyme in medicine (namely, disease diagnostics, therapeutics, strengthening immune system, and disease marker).
Engineering of biocatalysts with the help of immobilization techniques is a worthy approach for the advancement of enzyme function and stability and is finer to the other chemical as well as biological methods. These biocatalysts encapsulation methods actually use very gentle method conditions that hardly affect biocatalysts internal specific biocatalytic activity and this leads to its internment without losing its freedom but restrict the movements related to unfolding. Additionally, enzyme encapsulation somehow imitates their mode of normal incidence within the cells and it also provides secured surroundings for enzymes to the operating parameter changes. According to these advantages, enzyme encapsulation finds enhanced applications in a wide variety of fields such as medicine and sustained or continuous release delivery systems, biosensing, clinic diagnostic, biocatalysts in the manufacture of high-value yield correlated to pharmaceuticals especially in cancer cure, fragrances as well as flavors. This review mainly focuses on the current status of enzyme immobilization using nanocarriers, nanoparticles or polymeric matrix materials, which aim to summarize the latest research on the natural polymer, chitosan based nanoparticles in various enzyme immobilizations.
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