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Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight

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In today's society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity.
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REVIEW
Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight
13
Valentine Yanchou Njike,
4,5
* Teresa M Smith,
6
Omree Shuval,
7
Kerem Shuval,
8
Ingrid Edshteyn,
5
Vahid Kalantari,
4
and Amy L Yaroch
6
4
Yale University Prevention Research Center and
5
Griffin Hospital, Derby, CT;
6
The Gretchen Swanson Center for Nutrition, Omaha, NE;
7
Flexible
Minds, Rotterdam, Netherlands; and
8
American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA
ABSTRACT
In todays society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor
foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms,
for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that
persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks
between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored
the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts,
yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex
carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did
not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of
snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and
increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk,
the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. Adv Nutr 2016;7:86678.
Keywords: snack food, satiety, energy density, nutrient density, overweight
Background
Snacking is often dened as consuming a food or drink be-
tween regular meals; however, this denition varies some-
what, with some studies dening specic periods of time
after a meal (e.g., 15 min) and others specifying the amounts
of food (e.g., portion sizes smaller than regular meals) or
calories consumed (13). However, irrespective of the vari-
ations in the definition of snacking, it is important to differ-
entiate between snacks and meals to examine their specific
role in daily energy intake and their impact on health (1).
In addition, categorization of the healthfulness of snacks has
not been consistent across studies. Nevertheless, there is con-
sensus that nutrient-poor and energy-dense snacks should be
regarded as unhealthful (4, 5). The healthfulness of snacks
can be determined on the basis of their contents being consis-
tent with established dietary recommendations and guidelines
(6, 7), which promote diets consisting of more fruit, vegetables,
and whole grains and less total fat (especially solid fats), sodium,
and refined sugars. Yet, despite a general interest in the idea of
consuming more healthful foods and snacks among the popu-
lation (8), ready-to-eat highly processed snacks are both in-
creasingly available and consumed (6, 9, 10).
Indeed, snacking constitutes ;27% of childrens daily
caloric intake and there has been a significant increase in
snacking habits over the past several decades (3, 11). Specif-
ically, in 2006, children consumed 1.1 more snacks/d, with
the amount of each snack increasing by ;50 g, in compar-
ison to 1977, with a transition toward greater consump-
tion of salty and candy-like snacks (3). Similarly, among
US adults, the number of daily snacking occasions increased
by ;1 snack/d from 1997 to 2006 (11). Thus, because snacks
are pervasive in todays society, with energy-dense snacks
and snacks of low dietary quality linked to increased risk
of obesity and cardiovascular disease (3, 11), it is paramount
to investigate factors contributing to snacking behaviors. Al-
though previous research has assessed the literature on
snacking and its effects on health (12), in the current review
we aim to comprehensively examine particular aspects of the
phenomenon of snacking by investigating factors that affect
1
This article is a review from the poster session Snacking, Satiety, & Weight: A Randomized,
Controlled Trial presented at the Advances & Controversies in Clinical Nutrition Conference
held 4–6 December 2014 in National Harbor, MD. The conference was jointly provided by
the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) and Tufts University School of Medicine.
2
The authors reported no funding received for this article.
3
Author disclosures: VY Njike, TM Smith, O Shuval, K Shuval, I Edshteyn, V Kalantari, and AL
Yaroch, no conflicts of interest.
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: valentine.njike@yalegriffinprc.org.
866 ã2016 American Society for Nutrition. Adv Nutr 2016;7:866–78; doi:10.3945/an.115.009340.
snacking behavior (including psychological and physiologic
approaches) as well as the effects of various snack foods on
weight. The current study aims to provide a comprehensive
(although not systematic) review on the following 3 main
topics: 1) determinants of snacking, 2) snack food and sati-
ety, and 3) snack food and body weight.
Determinants of Snacking
Food choices in general, and snacking in particular, are
inuenced by a multitude of factors. The National Heart,
Lung, and Blood Institute describes a wide array of factors
that affect individual health behavior on the basis of the so-
cioecological model; these consist of factors on the personal,
social and cultural, organizational, environmental, and
policy levels (13). On the personal level, both biological
and demographic (e.g., age, sex, genes) and psychological
(e.g., emotions, self-efcacy, knowledge) factors affect eating
behavior (13). For example, Wouters et al. (14) found that
snacking and soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys
and less-educated youth. In addition, emotional eaters and
individuals under psychological stress have been found to
consume higher amounts of energy-dense snacks, particularly
sweet and fatty snacks (15). Moreover, knowledge about
healthful snacks and self-efcacy in choosing the right
snacks are important determinants of snacking behavior
(16). Furthermore, variations in genes are responsible for an
individuals taste receptors, which, in turn, affect taste percep-
tion and thus food and snack preferences (17). On the social
and cultural level, factors such as modeling behaviors fromthe
family and social norms are related to snacking behavior. Rhee
et al. (18), for example, found that restrictive feeding practices
by parents were related to decreased snack consumption
among children (18), whereas Robinson et al. (19) observed
that messages that emphasize that the social norm is to limit
junk food significantly reduced the intake of high-calorie
snacks (19). In addition, organizational factors and the physical
environment also affect snacking behaviors (13). For example,
lack of access to fresh fruit and vegetables in many low-income
ethnic minority neighborhoods limits residentsability to con-
sume these healthful snacks (20). Conversely, the abundance of
convenience stores in low-income neighborhoods, which often
contain numerous unhealthful snacks, adversely affects the
nutrition quality of ethnic minority populations (21).
In addition, specic properties of the snacks consumed
as well as an individuals perception of these snacks are likely
to affect snacking behavior and may lead to overeating. Specif-
ically, over the years, package sizes of snacks have markedly in-
creased (2224). This increase in package size (11) has directly
influenced total energy intake, regardless of the individuals
state of hunger or the liking and palatability of the snack (22).
In addition, when distracted (e.g., by watching television
or a movie), individuals often overconsume and are not nec-
essarily cognizant of the dietary quality and quantity of the
snacks eaten (25). Moreover, the energy density of snacks
has also increased (11), which also affects total caloric intake
and dietary quality (26). Although decreasing the package
size can affect the quantity of unhealthful snacks consumed,
increasing the portion size of less palatable healthful snacks
(e.g., a larger bowl of raw vegetables) may actually facilitate
healthful eating (25).
Furthermore, the variety of available snacks inuences
how much people consume. From an evolutionary perspec-
tive, humans historically consumed a wide variety of foods
in relatively small quantities to obtain a diversity of required
nutrients, vitamins, and minerals while limiting the amount
of toxins in the foods (27, 28). However, in todays society,
increased variety has been shown to increase food consump-
tion both during an eating occasion (e.g., at a birthday party
or wedding) and across meals (29, 30). Remick et al. (27) re-
ferred to this as the variety effect,which is regulated by
sensory-specific satiety (i.e., the palatability of a specific
food gradually declines as the food is eaten) (26) and
monotony (i.e., the liking of a food decreases in response
to food repetition across meals). Thus the variety effectre-
flects human reaction to the sensory aspects of foods
rather than their nutritional properties (i.e., energy density,
volume, and macronutrient composition). For example,
Raynor and Epstein (31) found that when participants ate
a highly palatable snack 4 times/wk for 8 wk, their hedonic
ratings (i.e., the extent to which the snack tasted pleasant)
decreased. This poses a particular challenge to consumers
when exposed to the ubiquity and overabundance of highly
processed snacks that offer variety on the basis of added fat,
sugar, salt, and spices (28).
Snack Foods and Satiety
Satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an
important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which
can lead to overweight and obesity (32). Identifying eating
patterns and foods that promote satiety without consider-
ably increasing overall energy intake is important for pro-
moting more healthful eating behaviors (32, 33). Eating
snacks between meals can potentially promote satiety and
suppress overconsumption at the next meal, although the
literature has explored this phenomenon in certain foods
and nutrients and, to our knowledge, has not yet examined
the collective ndings (34). A 2011 study developed a biobe-
havioral approach to assess whether objective criteria for
eating a meal and snacking could be determined through
multiple small substudies and found that, although snacks
in general exerted a weak satiety effect, snacks higher in pro-
tein, compared with those with a higher carbohydrate or
higher fat content, had the strongest satiety effect (1). Al-
though it is important to consider the ndings from this
particular study, multiple studies have found satiating effects
of a variety of foods and nutrients consumed as snacks.
Protein content of snack foods. The majority of studies
that considered snacking satiety examined the protein con-
tent of foods, especially protein-rich foods, such as nuts,
dairy, yogurt, and soy. Some studies considered the protein
compared with the carbohydrate content of snacks. Speci-
cally, Marmonier et al. (35) examined the effects of the nu-
trient composition of an afternoon snack consumed while
Snacks, satiety, and weight 867
not hungry on how soon the next meal was consumed. The
sample of young men were given a high-fat, high-protein,
or high-carbohydrate snack to be consumed 4 h after the be-
ginning of lunch. The consumption of the high-protein
snack delayed the request for dinner by the greatest length
of time, followed by the high-carbohydrate, and then the
high-fat snack. Findings from this study support the notion
that a high-protein snack has the highest satiety compared
with snacks high in other nutrients. Another study assessed
the behavioral consequences of a high-protein snack com-
pared with a high-carbohydrate snack consumed just under
4 h after lunch to investigate whether snacking when not hun-
gry could contribute to obesity (35). Compared with a session
in which no snack was consumed, the high-protein snack de-
layed the dinner request, but the high-carbohydrate snack did
not, which also supports the notion that high-protein snacks
may have the strongest ability to inuence satiety. In con-
trast, another study explored how replacing wheat our in
a soft pretzel with soy ingredients could affect satiety, as
well as other outcomes, but found that the soy addition did
not affect satiety (36).
Although it is interesting to look simply at comparisons
of nutrient content in snacks, multiple studies have consid-
ered how whole foods (e.g., nuts and yogurt) affect satiety. A
review by Tan and Mattes (37) found that tree nuts and pea-
nuts have high satiety values, as well as many other positive
energy-balance attributes, when consumed as snacks (38). A
different review article concluded that pistachios also have
satiety and satiation effects when consumed as a snack
(39). A 4-wk randomized parallel-arm study found that,
when consumed as snacks, almonds reduced hunger and de-
sire to eat during an acute-feeding session, leading the au-
thors to suggest that almonds may be a healthful snack
option (37). However, Alper and Mattes (38) found that,
despite being energy-dense, peanuts have a high satiety value
and chronic ingestion evokes strong dietary compensation
and little change in energy balance (38). A different study
compared almonds with a more conventional snack (cereal
bars) on hunger rating (40). Compared with the control
(who were not provided with snacks and were asked to con-
tinue with their habitual eating pattern) and cereal bar
groups, the almond snack group had a signicantly higher
eating frequency, although this did not result in higher en-
ergy intake, body weight, or percentage of body fat. How-
ever, there was no difference in hunger ratings across the 3
groups. For the most part, results indicated that nuts appear
to promote satiety when eaten as a snack.
The satiating effect of yogurt as a snack has also been
explored in multiple studies. One recent study in women
sought to determine whether a high-protein afternoon
yogurt snack improved satiety, among other outcomes
(41). The authors found that, compared with high-fat snacks,
the consumption of yogurt signicantly improved satiety
among a sample of healthy women. Another study also con-
ducted in women used an acute randomized crossover-design
study in which participants were given a low-protein or
high-protein yogurt 3 h after lunch (41). Perceived hunger
and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until
dinner was voluntarily requested. Snacking led to reduced
hunger and increased fullness, although no differences in
postsnack perceived hunger or fullness were observed be-
tween the low-protein and high-protein yogurt snacks (41).
A third study found that an afternoon snack of Greek yogurt
containing 24 g protein led to signicantly reduced hunger,
increased fullness, and delayed subsequent eating than did
lower-protein snacks in healthy women (42). A fourth study
observed that compared with other dairy products (e.g., milk
and cheese), yogurt had a signicantly greater effect on sup-
pressing subjective appetite ratings but did not affect subse-
quent food intake (43). Overall, results indicate that yogurt
also appears to promote satiety when eaten as a snack.
Fiber content of snack foods. Many studies that have inves-
tigated the satiety effects of snacking have done so by exam-
ining the ber content of foods. However, like protein,
some explored the effect of adding ber to processed food
products, whereas other studies looked at whole foods.
Almiron-Roig et al. (44) considered the addition of ber
to a yogurtdrink and found that it tended to be more satiating
than the other foods. In another study in which ber was
added to a food, 20 healthy adolescents were selected and ran-
domly assigned to receive a preload of barley enriched with
b-glucan or control biscuits as a midmorning snack (45). A
decrease in the desire to eat and an increase in fullness and sa-
tiety were experienced with the barley b-glucanenriched
biscuits compared with the control biscuits. Another study
looked at the effect of psyllium and oat bran on postprandial
glycemia and in vitro digestibility (46). The authors of this
study found that the addition of psyllium fiber to extruded
snack products reduced glycemic responses compared with
a control snack. They also observed that the inclusion of
oat bran in the snack products appeared to extend the glycemic
response compared with the control snack, which suggested
the possibility of prolonged glucose release that potentially
affected satiety responses.
Two studies considered how brous whole foods may re-
late to satiety when consumed as snacks. One study exam-
ined prunes consumed as a snack before a meal compared
with an isoenergetic bread product of equal weight (33).
Participantsfeeling of hunger, desire, and motivation to
eat were lower at all time points between snack and meals.
Because the macronutrient content of both foods was sim-
ilar in this study, the satiating power of prunes could be due
to their relatively high ber content. The authors con-
cluded that prunes as a snack appeared to promote satiety
and contributed valuable nutrients. In another study, the
effects of different snack foods, including dried plums, on
satiety and plasma glucose and hormone responses were as-
sessed (47). In this study, 19 women, after fasting, con-
sumed test foods including dried plums, low-fat cookies,
white bread, and water only, which (with the exception of
water) provided 238 kcal and were similar in total carbohy-
drate, fat, and protein content but differed in ber and
sugar content. They found that among these women, the
868 Njike et al.
consumption of dried plums as a snack suppressed hunger
relative to a low-fat cookie as evidenced by lower glucose
and/or satiety-regulating hormone concentrations. Overall,
the addition of ber to foods, as well as foods naturally high
in ber, appeared to promote satiety.
Other nutrient contents and factors in snack foods. Other
studies that have considered the satiating effects of snacks ex-
amined the types of fat and carbohydrates. One dietary fat
based study explored the consumption of higholeic acid
and regular peanuts compared with chips and found no ob-
served differences in perceived satiety (48). Another study ex-
amined the effects of replacement of fat by nonabsorbable fat
on energy intake and on feelings of hunger and satiety (49).
The authors concluded that fat replacement in meals or in
snacks did not result in changes in hunger and satiety ratings
throughout the day. On the basis of these studies, the type of
fat in snacks may not have differing effects on satiety, al-
though these findings are relatively limited and further studies
should explore fat content in snacks.
The types of carbohydrates in snacks and their potential
effect on satiety have also been explored. One study examined
the impact of 2 different cookies on satiety and cardiovascular
risk factors. A fructo-oligosaccharideenriched cookie pro-
duced greater ratings of satiety than a control cookie, which
showed the potential contribution of fructo-oligosaccharides
to satiety (50). Another study compared short-term satiety
from low-fat popcorn with potato chips, without making
any alterations to their nutrient composition (51). Partici-
pants expressed less hunger, more satisfaction, and lower
estimates of prospective food consumption after 6 cups of
popcorn than after consumption of the potato chips. These
studies suggest that certain carbohydrates, such as whole
grains, may promote satiety when consumed as snacks.
Overall, these studies suggestthatsomewholefoodshighin
protein, ber, and/or whole grains, such as nuts, yogurt, dried
plums or prunes, and popcorn, may promote satiety when con-
sumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include pro-
tein, ber, or complex carbohydrates may also promote satiety
when consumed as snacks. Promoting these foods as snacks
may contribute to satiety and suppress overconsumption at
the next meal. Table 1 provides a summary of this evidence.
Snack Foods and Body Weight
The imbalance between energy expenditure and energy in-
take that results in a positive energy balance is a contributing
factor to the development of obesity. However, the impact of
specic dietary factors has not been sufciently examined,
with the contribution of specic types of snacks subject to
controversy (53). To date, observational and interventional
studies have not sufciently shown a causal relation between
snack food and obesity. In fact, results have been quite
mixed, with various and inconsistent exposures (e.g., types
of snack food) and outcome measures (e.g., BMI compared
with waist circumference) and variations in intervention pe-
riods, study populations, and the quality of the methodology
used in the studies.
Nutrient-dense snack foods and body weight. A random-
ized clinical trial that examined the impact of including ei-
ther a daily dark-chocolate or a nonchocolate snack on
weight and anthropometric measurements in premeno-
pausal women observed that both groups showed decreased
body weight, hip and waist circumference, and fat mass (54).
In comparison, a different randomized trial, over a 12-wk
period, examined the effects of daily consumption of either
cereal or an almond snack in healthy overweight or obese
men (44). Study results showed no increase in energy intake,
body weight, or percentage of body fat in either group (40).
An additional study that focused on lean men examined the
effects of eating isoenergetically dense snacks high in pro-
tein, fat, or carbohydrates, which comprised 30% of daily
energy requirements, in the setting of an ad libitum diet of
xed nutrient composition (55). In this study, snack compo-
sition did not differentially affect total daily food intake or
energy intake, nor did snacking lead to increased body
weight (56). Another intervention study in normal-weight
adults also suggested the ability to maintain a normal
body weight through accurate compensation after snack
consumption (57). Specically, after 8 wk of a daily manda-
tory snack that provided 25% of energy requirements, there
were no differences in energy intakes or body composition
across groups who were assigned snacks either with or be-
tween meals and snacks having either a low or high energy
density (58). A recent study by Njike et al. (59) found that
the consumption of nut-based snack bars for 12 wk (compared
with conventional snack bars) did not result in any weight
change; however, they did observe reductions in percentage of
body fat and visceral fat in overweight participants. In addition,
an observational longitudinal study in school-aged children
found that there was no increased risk to move into the over-
weight category on the basis of snackingor junk or conve-
nienteating patterns (60). However, children who adhered
to dietary guidelines, including intakes of vegetables, fruit,
and unrefined cereal products, had a lower risk of remaining
overweight over time (61).
Energy-dense snack foods and body weight. In the Mon-
itoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases
(MORGEN)-EPIC (European Investigation into Cancer
and Nutrition) population-based cohort study, there was
some evidence, albeit inconsistent, that the consumption
of energy-dense snacks (e.g., sweets, cakes, pastries, and sa-
vory snacks) was positively associated with an annual in-
crease in weight among normal- to overweight adults (53).
This relation also held true for children. In another cross-
sectional study, the total amount of foods consumed,
specically from snacks, was positively associated with
overweight status in children; yet, the odds of being over-
weight were very small (55). This may stem from an inter-
action effect of response inhibition and implicit preference
for snack foods. One study in a group of predominantly
normal-weight women found that those with strong im-
plicit preferences for snack foods and low inhibitory capac-
ity gained the most weight (57). Another mechanism for
Snacks, satiety, and weight 869
TABLE 1 Overview of studies that assessed snack foods and satiety
Study Target population Study design Intervention type Comparison group Results
Almiron-Roig et al. (44) 30 participants, 9 men and 21
women; mean age:
36.6 69.1 y
Randomized crossover
trial
Participants were given 5 preloads
(a ber-enriched drinking
yogurt, a regular drinking
yogurt, plain crackers, fresh
banana, or an isovolumetric
serving of water) over 5
sessions (with a minimum of
2 d between sessions).
Water served as the comparison. Fiber-enriched yogurt was more
satiating than regular yogurt,
banana, crackers, and water. A
trend was suggested, with ber-
enriched yogurt having the
highest satiating effect followed
by regular yogurt, then banana
and crackers.
Alper and Mattes (38) 15 participants, 7 women
and 8 men; mean age: 33 69y
Crossover intervention
study
Participants were provided
peanuts that equaled ;505 6
118 kcal/d for 8 wk with no
dietary guidance, 3 wk with
instructions to add peanuts to
their customary diet, and 8 wk
in which peanuts replaced an
equal amount of other fats in
the diet.
The period of time when
peanuts that equaled ;
505 6118 kcal/d were
provided for 8 wk with no
dietary guidance served as
the control.
There were no signicant differ-
ences in the mean desire to eat,
mean prospective consumption,
and mean fullness ratings with
regard to the intervention.
However, peanuts had a high
satiety value overall.
Barbour et al. (48) 24 participants, 11 women
and 13 men; mean age:
61 61y
Triple crossover study Participants consumed
isoenergetic amounts of high-
oleic or regular peanuts
(5684 g) or potato crisps
(6090 g) over 3 d after an
overnight fast.
Unsalted potato crisps served as
the control food.
No differences in perceived satiety
were observed.
Brennan et al. (46) 12 participants Participants consumed either a
standard 25-g glucose drink in
which psyllium and oat bran
were incorporated at a 15%
replacement concentration to
our or a control product.
The control product served as
the comparison.
The inclusion of oat bran into the
snack products extended the
glycemic response of individuals
compared with the control snack,
potentially affecting satiety
responses.
de Luis et al. (50) 38 participants, 9 men and 27
women; mean ages: 45.3 6
16.1 and 50.8 616.2 y,
depending on the subgroup
Double-blind randomized
clinical trial
Participants were randomly
assigned to a test group that
received cookies enriched with
fructo-oligosaccharides or to a
control group that received
cookies with no fructo-
oligosaccharides.
Control cookies served
as the comparison.
After the test meal, the baseline
AUC of the satiety score was
higher with the satiety cookie
than with the control cookie.
Results were similar at follow-up.
Dougkas et al. (43) 40 men; mean age: 32 69 y Randomized crossover
trial
Participants attended 4 sessions
that were 1 wk apart . They
received 3 isoenergetic (841
kJ) and isovolumetric (410 mL)
servings of dairy snacks or
water (control) 120 min after
breakfast.
Water served as the
comparison.
All dairy snacks tested reduced
appetite compared with water.
Hunger ratings were 8%, 10%,
and 24% lower after the intake of
yogurt than after cheese, milk,
and water, respectively.
(Continued)
870 Njike et al.
TABLE 1 (Continued )
Study Target population Study design Intervention type Comparison group Results
Douglas et al. (42) 15 women; mean age: 26 62 y Randomized crossover
study
Participants consumed afternoon
snacks of yogurt with 5, 14,
or 24 g protein, or no snack, for
3 d. On the fourth day, partici-
pants consumed a standard-
ized lunch, and consumed their
yogurt snack 3 h later or did not
consume any snack.
The afternoons of no snack"
served as the comparison.
The yogurt snack led to reduced
hunger and increased fullness
compared with no snack. Among
the types of snacks, hunger was
lower and fullness was higher
throughout the postsnack period
after the higher-protein yogurt
vs. the lower-protein yogurt.
Furchner-Evanson
et al. (47)
19 women; mean age: 39.2 6
0.7 y
Randomized, balanced
crossover study
Participants consumed test foods
(dried plums, low-fat cookies,
white bread, and water only)
on separate days. The test
foods (except water) provided
238 kcal and were similar in
total carbohydrate, fat, and
protein content, but differed in
ber and sugar content.
A snack of 220 mL water
served as the comparison.
The satiety index AUC was greater
for the dried plum trial vs. the
low-fat cookie trial.
Marmonier et al. (35) 11 men; mean age: 22.5 60.5 y Within-subject study Participants were given a
high-fat, a high-protein, or a
high-carbohydrate snack that
they were to consume 240 min
after the beginning of lunch.
There was no control group. Consumption of the high-protein
snack delayed the request for
dinner by 60 min, the high-
carbohydrate snack delayed the
dinner request by 34 min, and the
high-fat snack delayed the dinner
request by 25 min.
Marmonier et al. (35) 8 men; mean age: 22.6 60.7 y Within-subject study Participants attended 3 sessions:
1) a basal session, 2) a session in
which they consumed a high-
protein snack, or 3) a session in
which they consumed a high-
carbohydrate snack 215 min
after lunch.
Each participant was his own
control.
Compared with the basal (no snack)
session, the high-protein snack
delayed the spontaneous dinner
request by 38 616 min, but the
high carbohydrate snack did not.
Nguyen et al. (51) 35 participants, 17 men and
18 women; mean age: 33 6
11 y
Counterbalanced within-
subject study
Across 4 trials in a laboratory setting,
participants consumed a stan-
dardized breakfast. They the n
were either gi ven a snack of
1 cup (4 g, 15 kcal) popcorn,
6 cups (27 g, 10 0 kcal) 94%
fat-free microwave popcorn,
or 1 cup (28 g, 150 kcal) potato
chips, each with 200 mL wa ter,
or they received the control
(200 mL water).
Water (200 mL) served as the
comparison.
Participants expressed less hunger,
more satisfaction, and lower esti-
mates of prospective food con-
sumption after 6 cups of popcorn
than after all other treatments.
Popcorn exerted a stronger effect
on short-term satiety than did
potato chips.
(Continued)
Snacks, satiety, and weight 871
TABLE 1 (Continued )
Study Target population Study design Intervention type Comparison group Results
Ortinau et al. (41) 20 women; mean age: 27 62 y Randomized crossover
design study
Participants participated in three
8-h testing days comparing
three 160-kcal afternoon
snacks: high-protein yogurt,
high-fat crackers, and high-
fat chocolate.
The high-fat snacks served as
the comparison.
The consumption of the yogurt
snack led to greater reductions in
afternoon hunger, but not full-
ness, vs. chocolate. The yogurt
snack also delayed the request of
dinner by 30 min compared with
the chocolate snack.
Ortinau et al. (52) 32 women; mean age: 27 62 y Acute randomized cross-
over study
Participants consumed yogurt
with either 5 or 14 g protein
3 h after consuming a
standardized lunch. They then
reported perceived hunger
and fullness throughout the
afternoon until dinner was
voluntarily requested.
The yogurt with 5 g protein
served as the comparison.
Snacking led to reductions in hun-
ger and increases in fullness, al-
though there were no differences
in postsnack-perceived hunger or
fullness between the 2 types of
yogurt.
Simmons et al. (36) 20 participants, 8 men and
12 women; mean age: 25.3 6
6.4 y
Randomized, counterbal-
anced, crossover study
Participants ate either a soy
pretzel or wheat pretzel.
The wheat pretzel served as the
comparison group.
The mean satiety score was 306.2 6
215.0 cm 3min for wheat vs.
311.3 6201.0 cm 3min for the
soy pretzel (P= 0.92). Soy did not
have any effect on satiety in this
study.
Tan and Mattes (37) 137 participants, 48 men and
89 women; mean ages ranged
from 27.8 610.7 to 32.9 611.5 y,
depending on the subgroup
Randomized, controlled,
parallel-arm study
Participants were assigned to 1
of 5 groups: control, breakfast,
lunch, morning snack, after-
noon snack. Participants in
the morning snack group were
instructed to consume 43 g
almonds as a morning snack
for 4 wk. Participants in the
afternoon snack group were
instructed to consume 43 g
almonds between lunch and
dinner, with $2 h before and
after these meals.
Participants in the control group
were asked to avoid all nuts
and seeds during the study
period.
Postprandial hungerand desire to
eatratings were significantly less
for the combined snack groups
than for the combined meal and
control groups (P= 0.026 and P=
0.023, respectively).
Vitaglione et al. (45) 20 participants, 10 men and
10 women; mean age: 18 6
0.5 y
Participants received a 628-kJ
or a 1884-kJ preload of barley
β-glucanenriched or control
biscuits as a midmorning
snack.
The control biscuits served as
the comparison.
A decrease in the AUC of the desire
to eat and an increase in the AUC
of fullness and satiety were
recorded with a small preload of
barley β-glucanenriched biscuit
compared with a small preload of
control biscuit.
(Continued)
872 Njike et al.
this effect might stem from increased portion size, because
increasing portions by 50% was found to increase daily
energy intake by 16% and increasing portion size by
100% increased energy intake by 26% (60). Given the re-
sults as a whole, it is hard to conclude that snacking leads
to increased energy intake or compensation. Another lon-
gitudinal study, which followed nonobese premenarchal
girls, found that energy-dense snacks did not inuence
weight-status change over the adolescent period; speci-
cally, soda was the only energy-dense snack that was sig-
nicantly related to BMI zscore over the 10-y study
period (62). In a prospective study of both girls and
boys, snack foods considered to be of low nutritional value
were not an important independent determinant of weight
gain among children and adolescents (5). Specifically, a
null relation between the number of snack servings per
day and subsequent changes in BMI zscore was observed
(5). Interestingly, another cross-sectional study in over-
weight and normal-weight adolescents observed that
although overweight adolescents had more irregular
meals, which may play a role in developing excess weight,
they snacked significantly less often than did adolescents
with a normal BMI (63). Other longitudinal studies have
not found a clear and positive association between child-
hood obesity development and the behavior of snacking
but did find an association with sugar-sweetened beverage
consumption (63).
Snack foods, energy intake, and body weight. Although
some ndings suggest that the relation of eating fre-
quency with BMI zscore differs from that of changes in
BMI (65), obesity-related eating behaviors, such as the
number of eating occasions, have been considered for
their contribution to higher energy intake. In a cross-
sectional study, however, no association was found be-
tween the number of obesity-related eating behaviors
and food portion size or the number of eating occasions
but the number of obesity-related eating behaviors was asso-
ciated with higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic bev-
erages (66). Thus, these studies suggest that there may not be
a link between snacking and overweight status in adults or
adolescents and that the type of snack consumed is an impor-
tant determinant that should be taken into account. In com-
parison, other studies suggested that some snack foods may
indeed lead to increased energy intake and weight gain. In
a crossover trial, participants partially compensated for en-
ergy when supplemented with commercial snack products
over 14-d periods, but this compensation was insufficient
to prevent some increase in energy balance, resulting in
body-weight gain (49, 57).
On the basis of these studies, the effects of snack foods on
body weight are mixed. Studies that used nutrient-dense
snack foods were associated with weight loss or weight
maintenance, whereas those that used energy-dense snack
foods were associated with weight gain or had no effects
on body weight. Table 2 summarizes the evidence on the
impact of snack foods on body weight.
TABLE 1 (Continued )
Study Target population Study design Intervention type Comparison group Results
Westerterp-Plantenga
et al.
(49)
48 women; mean ages ranged
from 21.0 60.7 to 33.4 69.5 y,
depending on the subgroup
Experimental design study Participants received snacks that
they could consume ad
libitum and recorded food in-
take for 2 wk. In the rst week,
all snacks were full fat, and in
the second week only half were
full fat whereas the others were
in reduced-fat reduced-energy
form, and labeled as such.
Fat replacement in meals or in
snacks did not result in changes
in hunger and satiety ratings
throughout the day. These results
suggest short-term benecial
effects of fat replacement on
energy and fat intake.
Zaveri and Drummond
(40)
36 men; mean age: 39.6 66.9 y Randomized controlled
trial
Participants were given 2
packets of cereal bars (30 g and
high in carbohydrates) or al-
monds (28 g and high in pro-
tein) for 12 wk. They were free
to eat the snacks at any time.
The control group did not
receive the cereal bar or al-
monds and were asked to
continue their habitual eating
pattern.
Hunger did not signicantly differ at
baseline, 6 wk, or 12 wk between
almond, cereal bar, and control
groups.
Snacks, satiety, and weight 873
TABLE 2 Overview of studies that assessed snack foods and body weight
1
Study Target population Study design Intervention type Comparison group Results
Evans et al. (65) Urban schoolchildren, ages 915 y Cross-sectional and
prospective study
Eating frequency, the average
number of reported daily eat-
ing occasions, was assessed
by using 2 weekday 24-h diet
recalls.
Normal BMI zscore From baseline to 6 mo, BMIz
increased by 0.03 units for
each additional reported eating
occasion. This relation was
no longer signicant at 1 y.
Field et al. (5) Boys and girls between ages 9
and 14 y
Prospective cohort study Intake of snack foods was as-
sessed in 19961998 with a
validated FFQ designed
specifically for children and
adolescents.
No control group There was no relation between
intake of snack foods and
weight gain.
Hendriksen et al. (53) Normal-weight and overweight
Dutch adults
Prospective cohort study Intake of EDS foods (sweets, cakes,
and pastries and savory snacks)
was assessed at baseline by
using a validated FFQ.
Lowest tertile of EDS food
consumption
Inconsistent evidence of an asso-
ciation of EDS food consump-
tion with annual weight
change.
Jodkowska et al. (63) Polish overweight and normal-
weight adolescents, aged
1315 y, of whom 953 were
overweight and 953 had
normal body mass
Cross-sectional analysis Self-reported questionnaire
containing questions regarding
how often selected food pro-
ducts were usually consumed
during the week, how
regularly basic meals (breakfast,
lunch, supper) were eaten, and
data on snacking.
Selection in pairs,each over-
weight pupil was paired with
a pupil with normal body
weight
Overweight adolescents con-
sumed unhealthy products
such as sweets and crisps sig-
nicantly less often than their
peers with appropriate body
mass. Overweight girls ate dark
bread signicantly more often,
and consumed soft drinks less
often, than their peers with
normal weight. Nevertheless,
overweight teenagers snacked
signicantly less often than
young people with normal
body mass.
Johnstone et al. (56) 8 British men with ad libitum
access to a diet of xed
composition
Randomized controlled
crossover design
1) Mandatory snacks
compared with snacks and 2)
the composition of isoener-
getically dense snacks high in
protein, fat, or carbohydrate on
food and energy intakes.
No snack group Body weight was not affected by
snacking.
Moreno and Rodriguez (64) Children and adolescents Review Dietary aspects inuencing
obesity development
Review Longitudinal studies have only
found a clear and positive as-
sociation between obesity
development and sugar-
sweetened beverage con-
sumption; this is not the case
with snacking, fast food, or
food portion sizes.
(Continued)
874 Njike et al.
TABLE 2 (Continued )
Study Target population Study design Intervention type Comparison group Results
Muñoz-Pareja et al. (66) 10,791 persons representative of
the Spanish population who
were $18 y old in 2008
2010
Cross-sectional study Self-reported information was
collected on 12 OREBs
Participants with #1 OREB OREBs were associated with
higher food energy density and
higher consumption of sugary
and alcoholic beverages.
Nederkoorn et al. (57) Normal-weight undergraduate
female students over a 1-y
period
Longitudinal prospec-
tive cohort study
Implicit preference for food, re-
sponse inhibition and BMI
were measured.
Low implicit food preference Participants with strong implicit
preferences for snack foods and
low inhibitory capacity gained
the most weight.
Nicklas et al. (55) 1562 children aged 10 y (65%
EA, 35% AA) over a 21-y period
Cross-sectional analysis No intervention was delivered. No comparison group Food consumed from snacks was
positively associated with over-
weight status.
Njike et al. (59) 34 overweight adult participants Randomized controlled
trial
Participants were provided nut-
based snack bars to
consume daily for 12 wk.
Conventional snack bar, speci-
cally empty-calorie snack
bar
Body fat and visceral fat were
reduced and there were no
adverse effects on weight,
blood pressure, lipid prole,
satiety, or quality of life.
Oellingrath et al. (61) Primary-school children from
Norway; middle childhood
(fourth grade, 910 y old) to
early adolescence (seventh
grade, 1213 y old).
Prospective cohort,
cross-sectional, and
longitudinal
analysis
Categorization into 4 eating
patterns: snacking, junk or
convenient, varied Norwegian,
and dieting
Unchanged normal-weight
child
Children with stable or increased
varied Norwegianpattern
scores had a lower risk of re-
maining overweight over time
than children with decreased
scores for this pattern.
Piehowski et al. (54) Premenopausal overweight
women with BMIs (in kg/m
2
)
of 2543
Randomized controlled
trial, 18 wk
Reduced-calorie diet including
either a daily dark-chocolate
snack or a nonchocolate
snack
Nonchocolate snack group Women in both the dark-
chocolate snack and
nonchocolate snack groups
experienced decreases in body
weight (25.1 vs. 25.1 kg), hip
circumference (25.8 vs. 25.4
cm), waist circumference (25.7
vs. 23.5 cm), fat mass (23.9 vs.
23.6 kg), and body fat per-
centage (23.4% vs. 23.1%),
respectively, with no change in
lean mass.
Phillips et al. (62) Nonobese premenarchal girls 8
12 y old were enrolled
between 1990 and 1993 and
followed until 4 y after
menarche
Prospective cohort study Relation between EDS foods
and relative weight change
No control group There was no relation between
BMIz or %BF and total EDS food
consumption. Soda was the
only EDS food that was
signicantly related to BMIz
over the 10-y study period.
(Continued)
Snacks, satiety, and weight 875
Summary and Conclusions
Although efforts have been put forth to examine the effects
of snack foods on satiety and weight status, to our knowl-
edge the association between snack foods and body weight
has not been sufciently summarized to date. In addition,
studies on the topic used various study designs (ranging
from cross-sectional to randomized controlled trials) and
often had methodologic limitations. For the intervention
studies, the intervention duration as well as the timing of
the introduction of the snack food varied; specically,
some studies advised participants to consume the snack
food between meals whereas others advised participants to
snack as needed. The intervention studies included in this
review were primarily short term. The type of snack foods
that were used in the various studies also varied; some stud-
ies used snack foods that were high in protein and/or ber,
whereas others used snacks that were high in fat and/or
sugar. In addition, the sample sizes of participants in the in-
cluded studies were small, and the composition of the con-
trol groups was inconsistent across studies, with some
studies lacking a control group altogether. In addition, the
variation in the dietary patterns of participants makes it dif-
cult to interpret the ndings. Yet, this inherent variation in
dietary patterns in the study participants is also a strength
because it is similar to a real-world scenario, in which die-
tary patterns and habits vary. Although the ndings of the
studies that evaluated the impact of nutrient-dense snacks
that are higher in protein and ber showed weight reduction
or weight maintenance, the ndings of the studies that as-
sessed the impact of low-nutritional-value snacks (e.g.,
sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, cakes, pastries, pizza,
and savory foods) were conicting. Specically, some studies
showed weight gain, whereas others found no weight gain.
In summary, this review suggests that the judicious selec-
tion of snack foods has the potential to contribute valuable
nutrients to the daily diet. Furthermore, snack foods have
the potential to contribute to satiety, with higher-protein
snack foods having the strongest effect. For example, the
consumption of high-protein, high-ber snack foods can
lead to reduced caloric intake at a subsequent meal when
compared with high-fat, high-sugar snack foods. Conse-
quently, thoughtful selection of snack foods may contribute
to body-weight maintenance or reduction. However, when
considering all of the aforementioned methodologic limita-
tions in these studies and the conicting results it is hard to
reach a decisive conclusion on the impact on snack foods on
weight status. Larger long-term multisite intervention trials
that take into consideration the time of consumption of the
snack foods are warranted to elucidate the impact of snack
foods on both satiety and body weight. In addition, mecha-
nistic studies are warranted to understand the underpin-
ning mechanism or mechanisms through which the various
snack foods affect body weight.
Acknowledgments
All authors read and approved the nal manuscript.
TABLE 2 (Continued )
Study Target population Study design Intervention type Comparison group Results
Viskaal-van Dongen et al. (58) 16 men and 66 women (mean
age: 21.9 y), mean BMI
(in kg/m
2
): 20.7
Randomized controlled
trial, 8 wk
Randomly assigned to 1 of 4 par-
allel groups in a 2 32 design:
snacks consumed with or be-
tween meals and snacks having
a low (,4 kJ/g) or high (.12
kJ/g) energy density. For 8 wk,
subjects consumed mandatory
snacks that provided 25% of
energy requirements on each
day.
High energydensity snack food No differences in changes in body
weight between the 4 groups.
Similarly, there were no differ-
ences in changes in body
composition, PAL, and energy
intake between the 4 groups.
1
AA, African American; BMIz, standardized BMI zscore; EA, Euro-American; EDS, energy-dense snack; OREB, obesity-related eating behavior; PAL, physical activity level; %BF, percentage of body fat.
876 Njike et al.
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... The availability of food choices also allows for observation of the role of individual nutrient types in satiety and satiation processes. It has been reported that protein is more successful at promoting satiety than fat or sugar, for instance [109][110][111][112]. In some cases, carbohydrates have been reported to be more satiating than fat [113][114][115]. ...
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The measurement of the size and timing of meals provides critical insight into the processes underlying food intake. While most work has been conducted with a single food or fluid, the availability of food choices can also influence eating and interact with these processes. The 5-Item Food Choice Monitor (FCM), a device that continuously measures eating and drinking behaviors of rats provided up to 5 foods and 2 fluids simultaneously, was designed to allow study of food choices simultaneously with meal patterns. To validate this device, adult male and female (n=8 each) Sprague-Dawley rats were housed in the FCM. Food and fluid intake were measured continuously (22-h/day) while rats were presented water and powdered chow. Then then a cafeteria diet of 5 foods varying in macronutrient content, texture, and flavors were offered along with water. Lastly, the 5 foods were offered along with 0.3 M sucrose and water. Analyses were conducted to find optimal criteria for parceling ingestive behavior into meals, then meal patterns were quantified. Total intake, as assessed by FCM software, was in good concordance with that measured by an independent scale. A minimum meal size of 1 kcal and a meal termination criterion of 15-min accounted for >90% of total intake and produced meal dynamics that were in register with the literature. Use of the cafeteria diet allowed comparisons between meal patterns with a single food versus a multi-food diet, as well as analyses of macronutrient-related food choices across subsets of meals. The FCM proved to accurately measure food intake over a 22-h period and was able to detect differences and similarities in the meal patterns of rats as a function of sex and food choice availability. Combined with any number of experimental manipulations, the FCM holds great promise in the investigation of the physiological and neural controls of ingestive behavior in a dietary environment that allows food choices, more closely emulating human eating conditions.
... However, WHO recommended a 2.5 liter/day minimum for 70 kg humans. 20 A recent report linked increased water drinking and weight loss, which was thought to be due to the upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). ANP was responsible for activating proteins that boost fat catabolism. ...
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Obesity is an increased fat accumulation to the levels that affect health and wellbeing. Body mass index (BMI) categorizes people as normal, overweight or obese depending on arithmetic equations. Obesity is a global epidemiological problem, affecting more than 30% of the world population. The main hazard is that the obesity prevalence still escalating. Human behavior plays a major role in the causes of obesity. In addition, other factors are also contributing to bodyweight increase such as, genetic, endocrine and metabolic factors. Nevertheless, obesity can be controlled and ideal weight can be achieved. Some measures and practices were suggested in this mini-review through which a one-day human life cycle was set up as a model that can be followed to ensure proper weight and maintain it thereafter. These measures include regular sleep/wake-up pattern, strict timing of meals, practicing exercise, drinking at least 2.5 liters of water and early going to bed. However, the fundamental mechanisms of weight loss and increase were not addressed in this mini-review.
... Because snack consumption among college students and young adults is associated with a lower diet quality [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] and weight gain, 12,13,[18][19][20][21] it is vital to implement interventions to improve the snacks this population consumes. Such interventions are essential in college, as the transition from adolescence to young adulthood is a challenging period to make healthy food choices due to increased independence, stress, and time constraints. ...
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Objective Evaluate college students’ perception of the effectiveness of different vending machine (VM) interventions for improving snack selection. Participants A total of 194 college students with the age of ≥18 years. Method A cross-sectional survey among a purposive sampling near VM. Results Most students use VM frequently or occasionally (63.4%). The intervention perceived as most helpful for choosing healthier snacks was labeling (on or near) which snack is healthy (score 3.83/5) followed by lowering the price of healthy options (score 3.33/5), while the least helpful was having posters nearby explaining which snacks are healthier (2.35/5). Participants suggested including snacks high in protein (58.8%) and low in sugar (56.2%). Most would like to see more healthy options in VM (83.5%) and will purchase them if available (67%). Conclusions Lowering the price for healthy snacks and including labels to indicate which are healthy may be the interventions to test for improving snack intake among college students.
... [18] However, existing evidence regarding the amount and type of effective food protein in weight loss is contradictory. [19,20] Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess and compare After obtaining consent, advertisements were offered in the female dormitory of the university. On the screening day, based on the initial eligibility criteria, people were invited to the research center. ...
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Background: Weight management is the key to prevent and treat the adverse consequences of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of consuming milk and pistachio snacks on anthropometric indices in overweight or obese women. Methods: In this randomized crossover trial, 60 overweight or obese women with a mean age of 24 ± 4.2 years were randomly divided into two groups. Women in the milk group received 200 mL/day low-fat milk while women in the other group received 30 g/day pistachio for 4 weeks. After a 6-day washout period, the participants received a similar intervention in a crossover manner. Results: Out of the total 60 participants, 52 completed the study. At the end of the study, the weight of women in the milk group significantly decreased (70.8 ± 8.4 vs. 69.9 ± 8.3, P value = 0.001). No statistically significant changes were observed in the weight of participants in the pistachio group (70.3 ± 8.4 vs. 70.6 ± 8.3, P value = 0.06). Further analyses showed a slightly significant beneficial effect on waist circumference (WC) (P-value =0.068) and body mass index (BMI) in the milk group P value = 0.01). Conclusions: Based on the observed positive effects of milk intake on weight loss in this crossover study, milk consumption may be considered an appropriate snack in weight loss programs in overweight or obese women.
... Despite the general interest in the idea of consuming snacks, ready-to-eat, highly processed snacks are becoming more readily available and consumed. Such highly processed snacks tend to be higher in energy, which leads to an excessive accumulation of energy in the body and, ultimately, to obesity or other metabolic diseases [34]. Therefore, it is important to raise concerns about reducing the public's obsession with soft drinks and pastry snacks. ...
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Metabolic syndrome, a complex group of metabolic disorders of energy use and storage, is considered as an important determinant risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to examine the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and dietary pattern among adults in Jiangsu Province of China. Data were from three rounds of cross–sectional nutrition and diet investigation projects in Jiangsu Province of China, which were conducted in 2002, 2007, and 2014 by Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A total of 13,944 participants with complete food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were eventually included in this study after further data screening. The 2009 Joint Interim Statement for China was used to define metabolic syndrome. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis: the modern dietary pattern (rich in pork, poultry, vegetables, seafood, pastry food, other animal meats, fruits, milk and its products, soft drink, whole grains, nuts, and seeds, but low in wheat), vegetable oils/condiments/soy products dietary pattern (rich in vegetable oils, other condiments, salt, soy products, and fruits and low in dry legumes), and modern high–wheat dietary pattern (rich in wheat, tubers, fruits, and other animal meats, but low in rice). Higher intake of the modern dietary pattern and modern high–wheat dietary pattern were positively associated with metabolic syndrome in both unadjusted and adjusted models by genders, whereas higher intake of the vegetable oils/condiments/soy products dietary pattern had a negative relationship with metabolic syndrome in both unadjusted and adjusted models by genders (p < 0.05). Our study recommends reducing the consumption of animal meat products, especially processed meat products, and replacing animal oils with vegetable oils as the main supply of daily oils. Furthermore, more prospective and experimental studies are needed to confirm the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome.
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Healthy eating and nutritional values have received much publicity in recent years. At the same time, food manufacturers are expected to take responsibility in general and especially for health in both food production and retail. In this study, we examine how snack companies brand their products as healthy and responsible without specific health claims. We analysed interview material from five cases through the lens of Kujala et al. (2011) concept of responsible branding. Living in harmony with nature was common to all case companies but emphasizing responsibility was rarely the goal of branding. The companies had to balance the conflicting needs of different stakeholders and make difficult choices, especially about the taste and healthiness of the snack. Our research articulates for that the perception of responsibility is contextual, and thus responsible brands require modifications to operate in different markets.
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Apelin, a member of G protein-coupled receptors and also the endogenous ligand of APJ, has been reported to be expressed in various tissues in vivo and exert significant biological effects. Apelin and APJ are expressed in the central nervous system, particularly the hypothalamus and many peripheral tissues. Apelin has been shown to be involved in the regulation of cardiovascular and fluid homeostasis, food intake, cell proliferation and angiogenesis.In addition to being a peptide found in many parts of the body, apelin is also produced and secreted by adipocytes and is therefore considered an adipokine. It has been shown that Apelin is effective on glucose and lipid metabolism and also regulates insulin secretion. In addition, different studies in both animals and humans have shown that plasma apelin concentrations are generally increased during obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this review is to provide information about the effects and interactions of apelin and its receptor, APJ, with obesity and obesity-related diseases. Keywords: Apelin, APJ, Hormone, Obesity, Diabetes
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The popping expansion is a characteristic that is positively related with the quality of popcorn. A positive correlation between the volume of expansion and the thickness of the pericarp, and between the proportion of the opaque/shiny endosperm and the grain weight and volume, were postulated. However, there are no reports in the literature that address the importance of cell wall components in the popping expansion. Here, we investigate the biochemical composition of the pericarp cell walls of three inbred lines of popcorn with different popping expansion. Inbred lines GP12 (expansion volume >40 mL g⁻¹), P11 (expansion volume 30 mL g⁻¹) and P16 (expansion volume 14 mL g⁻¹) were used for the analysis and quantification of monosaccharides by HPAEC-PAD, and ferulic and p-coumaric acids and lignin by HPLC. Our hypothesis is that the biochemical composition of the pericarp cell walls may be related to greater or lesser popping expansion. Our data suggest that the lignin content and composition contribute to popping expansion. The highest concentration of lignin (129.74 μg mg⁻¹; 12.97%) was detected in the pericarp cell wall of the GP12 inbred line with extremely high popping expansion, and the lowest concentration (113.52 μg mg⁻¹; 11.35%) was observed in the P16 inbred line with low popping expansion. These findings may contribute to indicating the quantitative trait locus for breeding programs and to developing other methods to improve the popping expansion of popcorn.
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Snacking is often presumed to contribute to obesity, but to date, studies have not demonstrated such a causal relationship, probably because a clear definition of snacking is still elusive. The usual one, i.e. any intake between traditional meals, has no physiological basis. Moreover, because some evidence suggests that frequent meals may prevent overweight, any confusion between snacks and meals may mask the deleterious effect of snacks on energy balance. Therefore, we developed a biobehavioral approach to assess whether objective criteria for eating a meal and snacking could be determined. Our main findings were that regardless of the time of consumption or macronutrient composition, snacks exerted a weak satiety effect, with those higher in protein having the strongest. The energy content of snacks was never compensated for at the next meal and led consistently to a positive energy balance compared with no-snack conditions. Biologically, the snack-induced insulin secretion suppressed the late increase in plasma FFA, which may have contributed to the inhibition of satiety. Lastly, snacking was not preceded by the glucose and insulin profile observed prior to a spontaneously requested meal. In conclusion, further studies on the role of snacking in energy balance should include criteria other than nutrient composition or consumption between meals for defining these eating occasions as snacks.
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Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high-protein afternoon yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake compared to other commonly-consumed, energy dense, high-fat snacks. Findings Twenty, healthy women (age: 27 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed the randomized crossover design study which included 3, 8-h testing days comparing the following 160 kcal afternoon snacks: high-protein yogurt (14 g protein/25 g CHO/0 g fat); high-fat crackers (0 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat); and high-fat chocolate (2 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat). Participants were acclimated to each snack for 3 consecutive days. On day 4, the participants consumed a standardized breakfast and lunch; the respective snack was consumed 3-h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested. An ad libitum dinner was then provided. The consumption of the yogurt snack led to greater reductions in afternoon hunger vs. chocolate (p < 0.01). No differences in afternoon fullness were detected. The yogurt snack also delayed eating initiation by approximately 30 min compared to the chocolate snack (p < 0.01) and approximately 20 min vs. crackers (p = 0.07). The yogurt snack led to approximately 100 fewer kcals consumed at dinner vs. the crackers (p = 0.08) and chocolate (p < 0.05). No other differences were detected. Conclusion These data suggest that, when compared to high-fat snacks, eating less energy dense, high-protein snacks like yogurt improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake in healthy women.
Article
Context While general consensus holds that food portion sizes are increasing, no empirical data have documented actual increases.Objective To determine trends in food portion sizes consumed in the United States, by eating location and food source.Design, Setting, and Participants Nationally representative data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (1977-1978) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (1989-1991,1994-1996, and 1998). The sample consists of 63380 individuals aged 2 years and older.Main Outcome Measure For each survey year, average portion size consumed from specific food items (salty snacks, desserts, soft drinks, fruit drinks, french fries, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, pizza, and Mexican food) by eating location (home, restaurant, or fast food).Results Portion sizes vary by food source, with the largest portions consumed at fast food establishments and the smallest at other restaurants. Between 1977 and 1996, food portion sizes increased both inside and outside the home for all categories except pizza. The energy intake and portion size of salty snacks increased by 93 kcal (from 1.0 to 1.6 oz [28.4 to 45.4 g]), soft drinks by 49 kcal (13.1 to 19.9 fl oz [387.4 to 588.4 mL]), hamburgers by 97 kcal (5.7 to 7.0 oz [161.6 to 198.4 g]), french fries by 68 kcal (3.1 to 3.6 oz [87.9 to 102.1 gl), and Mexican food by 133 kcal (6.3 to 8.0 oz [178.6 to 226.8 g]).Conclusion Portion sizes and energy intake for specific food types have increased markedly with greatest increases for food consumed at fast food establishments and in the home.
Article
Dietary regulation of appetite may contribute to the prevention and management of excess body weight. The present study examined the effect of consumption of individual dairy products as snacks on appetite and subsequent ad libitum lunch energy intake. In a randomised cross-over trial, forty overweight men (age 32 (sd 9) years; BMI 27 (sd 2) kg/m2) attended four sessions 1 week apart and received three isoenergetic (841 kJ) and isovolumetric (410 ml) servings of dairy snacks or water (control) 120 min after breakfast. Appetite profile was determined throughout the morning and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 90 min after the intake of snacks. Concentrations of amino acids, glucose, insulin, ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine were measured at baseline (0 min) and 80 min after the intake of snacks. Although the results showed that yogurt had the greatest suppressive effect on appetite, this could be confounded by the poor sensory ratings of yogurt. Hunger rating was 8, 10 and 24 % (P < 0·001) lower after the intake of yogurt than cheese, milk and water, respectively. Energy intake was 11, 9 and 12 % (P < 0·02) lower after the intake of yogurt, cheese and milk, respectively, compared with water (4312 (se 226) kJ). Although there was no difference in the postprandial responses of hormones, alanine and isoleucine concentrations were higher after the intake of yogurt than cheese and milk (P < 0·05). In conclusion, all dairy snacks reduced appetite and lunch intake compared with water. Yogurt had the greatest effect on suppressing subjective appetite ratings, but did not affect subsequent food intake compared with milk or cheese.
Article
Clinical trial: Subjects . Thirty-four overweight participants were enrolled. Intervention . Commercially available NBSB or conventional snack foods as part of an ad libitum diet for 12 weeks. Measures . Primary outcome measures: body mass index, body weight, body composition, waist circumference. Secondary outcome measures: blood pressure, lipid profile, nutrients intake, hunger/satiety, quality of life. Analysis . Generalized linear models with time as repeated measure were used to analyze these data. Results . Daily consumption of NBSB for 12 weeks, as compared to daily consumption of conventional snacks, significantly reduced percentage body fat (-1.7% ± 10.8% vs. 6.2% ± 9.3%; p = .04) and visceral fat (-1.3 ± 5.9 vs. 2.7 ± 4.0; p = .03). There were no between-group differences (p > .05) for blood pressure, lipid panel, satiety, or quality of life measures. Conclusion . Our data suggest that daily consumption of NBSB for 12 weeks reduced body fat and had no adverse effects on weight, blood pressure, lipid profile, satiety, or quality of life in this small sample of overweight adults.
Article
Objectives: We examined the association between fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and present-time bias in a low-income community. Methods: Participants were adults from the Fair Park Study (Dallas, TX). We assessed the relationship between FV intake and measures related to present-time bias using multivariable analysis. Results: Increased future preferences and saving behaviors were significantly related to higher FV intake (p < .05). For example, increased planning of family finances was associated with a 0.08 daily (~0.6 weekly) increase in FV intake (95% CI 0.01-0.14); and having a checking/savings account was related with a 0.27 daily (~1.9 weekly) increase in FV servings (95% CI 0.11-0.44). Conclusion: Future preferences and increased propensity for monetary saving are associated with higher FV consumption among low-income community residents.
Article
Background The role of eating frequency on relative weight in childhood is not well understood.Objective To clarify this relationship by assessing the cross-sectional and prospective relationships of weekday eating frequency with BMI z-score (BMIz) and change in BMIz in a sample of schoolchildren.Methods Eating frequency, the average number of reported daily eating occasions, was assessed using two weekday 24-h diet recalls. BMIz was measured at baseline, 6 months and 1 year in 155 urban schoolchildren, ages 9–15 years. Multiple linear regression models were used.ResultsCross-sectional analyses at baseline suggest that BMIz was 0.23 units lower for each additional reported eating occasion (regression coefficient = −0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.44, −0.07). From baseline to 6 months, BMIz increased by 0.03 units for each additional reported eating occasion (regression coefficient = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05). This relationship was no longer statistically significant at 1 year (regression coefficient = 0.01; 95% CI: −0.01, 0.03).Conclusions The findings suggest that the relationship of eating frequency with BMIz differs from that of change in BMIz. This difference may be due to methodological deficiencies of cross-sectional studies, challenges of dietary assessment or differences in eating patterns among normal and overweight youth. Controlled trials are needed to further clarify this relationship.
Article
Objective: To examine the relationship between parent feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat), general parenting behaviors (acceptance, psychological control, firm control), and aberrant child eating behaviors (emotional eating and excessive snacking) among overweight and normal weight children. Methods: Overweight and normal weight children between 8 and 12 years old and their mothers (n = 79, parent-child dyads) participated in this study. Mothers completed surveys on parent feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and child eating behaviors (Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire). Children reported on their mothers' general parenting behaviors (Child Report of Parent Behavior Inventory). Parent and child height and weight were measured and demographic characteristics assessed. Logistic regression models, stratified by child weight status and adjusting for parent BMI, were used to determine which parenting dimensions and feeding practices were associated with child emotional eating and snacking behavior. Results: Overweight children displayed significantly more emotional eating and excessive snacking behavior than normal weight children. Mothers of overweight children used more restrictive feeding practices and psychological control. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with emotional eating in the overweight group (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI, 1.02, 1.56) and excessive snacking behavior in the normal weight group (OR = 1.13, 95 % CI, 1.01, 1.26). When examining general parenting, firm control was associated with decreased odds of excessive snacking in the overweight group (OR = 0.51, 95 % CI, 0.28, 0.93). Conclusion: Restrictive feeding practices were associated with aberrant child eating behaviors in both normal weight and overweight children. Firm general parenting however, was associated with decreased snacking behavior among overweight children. Longitudinal studies following children from infancy are needed to better understand the direction of these relationships.
Article
Snack foods can contribute a high proportion of energy intake to the diet. Peanuts are a snack food rich in unsaturated fatty acids, protein and fibre which have demonstrated satiety effects and may reduce total energy intake, despite their high energy density. This study examined the effects of consuming Hi-oleic (oleic acid ~75% of total fatty acids) peanuts and regular peanuts (oleic acid ~ 50% and higher in polyunsaturated fatty acids) compared with a high carbohydrate snack (potato crisps) on satiety and subsequent energy intake. Using a triple crossover study design, 24 participants (61±1 years) consumed iso-energetic amounts (56-84g) of Hi-oleic or regular peanuts or (60-90g) potato crisps after an overnight fast. Hunger and satiety were assessed at baseline, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes following snack consumption using visual analogue scales, after which a cold buffet meal was freely consumed and energy intake measured. The same snack was consumed on 3 subsequent days with energy intake assessed from dietary records. This protocol was repeated weekly with each snack food. Total energy intake was lower following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts compared with crisps, both acutely during the buffet meal (-21%; p < .001 and -17%; p < .01) and over the 4 days (-11%; p < .001 and -9%; p < .01). Despite these reductions in energy intake, no differences in perceived satiety were observed. The findings suggest peanuts may be a preferred snack food to include in the diet for maintaining a healthy weight.
Article
Snacking, or the habit of eating little and often, has been postulated to have a range of health benefits in relation to appetite control, bodyweight management and improved blood glucose control in diabetics and pre‐diabetics. However, there is widespread agreement that our current obesogenic environment is encouraging overeating in response to increased food portion sizes, palatability and/or energy‐density of foods, alongside the many social and psychological cues to eat. In this context, and as findings on the health effects of snacking are conflicting, the question remains as to whether more frequent eating and snacking can be of benefit to health. Snacks, if added to habitual meal intake, with no compensation for snack energy contribution, are likely over time to lead to positive energy balance. Hence, snacking might be a contributing factor to the obesity epidemic, in addition to more established factors, such as food choice and physical activity. This paper explores the existing evidence concerning the impact of snacking on bodyweight and the behavioural and metabolic response to snacking. The impact of snacking on cognitive function is also discussed. The review highlights the need for further research as, despite many years of scientific interest in snacking, the lack of consistency in study design and snacking definitions and the array of potential confounding factors (e.g. physical activity levels) makes interpretation of findings difficult and has led to little consensus about the optimum number and composition of meals and/or snacks for bodyweight control, health and wellbeing on a population‐wide basis.