ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

In Ayurveda, the broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders is discussed under Unmada. The affected person has a hampered higher mental function and distorted perception of reality. Among the various herbal and herbo-mineral preparations explained for the treatment of Unmada, majority are made of Ghrita (cow's ghee/clarified butter). Ghrita, the best drug of oleation, assimilates the properties of the substance which accompanies it. Ghrita is capable of treating the disease as a single drug and in combination with several nootropic and mood stabilizing drugs. Ghrita opposes each of the etiology of Unmada at the level of constitution, diet and lifestyle. It is supposed to attenuate each stage of pathogenesis of the disease. It enhances the quality of diet. The anti-oxidant property of clarified butter is able to repair the degenerative changes in brain. The DHA, an omega 3 long chain poly unsaturated fatty acid is abundant in ghee which is seen in retinal and brain cells. The chemical changes in the brain due to the disorder are also corrected by the ghee. So Ghrita and its various combinations can be the appropriate medicine in diseases where higher mental functions and psyche is grossly impaired.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Archana Madhavi et al. Journal of Biological & Scientific Opinion
·
Volume 4 (4). 2016
148
Available online through
www.jbsoweb.com
ISSN 2321 - 6328
Review Article
A CRITICAL REVIEW ON THE USAGE OF GHRITA IN UNMADA
Archana Madhavi 1*, Savitha H P 2, Suhas Kumar Shetty 3, Arun C H 4, Gazala Hussain 5
1PG scholar, SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan, Karnataka, India
2Head and Associate Professor, SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan, Karnataka, India
3Professor, SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan, Karnataka, India
4PG scholar, SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan, Karnataka, India
5Associate Professor, SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan, Karnataka, India
*Corresponding Author Email: archanakeeran@gmail.com
Article Received on: 22/06/16 Accepted on: 20/08/16
DOI: 10.7897/2321-6328.04436
ABSTRACT
In Ayurveda, the broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders is discussed under Unmada. The affected person has a hampered higher mental function and
distorted perception of reality. Among the various herbal and herbo-mineral preparations explained for t he treatment of Unmada, majority are made of
Ghrita (cows ghee/clarified butter). Ghrita, the best drug of oleation, assimilates t he properties of the substance which accompanies it. Ghrita is
capable of treating the disease as a single drug and in combination with several nootropic and mood stabilizing drugs. Ghrita opposes each of the
etiology of Unmada at the level of constitution, diet and lifestyle. It is supposed to attenuate each stage of pathogenesis of the disease. It enhances the
quality of diet. The anti-oxidant property of clarified butter is able to repair the degenerative changes in brain. The DHA, an omega 3 long chain poly
unsaturated fatty acid is abundant in ghee which is seen in retinal and brain cell s. The chemical changes in the brain due to the disorder are also
corrected by the ghee. So Ghrita and its vari ous combinations can be the appropriate medicine in diseases where higher mental functions and psyche
is grossly impaired.
Keywords: Ghrita, Unmada, mind
INTRODUCTION
Ayurveda as a holistic science and a full-fledged health care
system upholds its motto of prevention and cure with scientific
explanations. It views life in a unique way as a combination of
the supreme soul, mind, sense organs and body working together
harmoniously. A breakdown at any level can cause a disorder.
The preventive and curative modalities of this science always
aim a psycho-somatic axis.
Among the 8 specialty branches, (ashta-anga) of Ayurveda, the
diseases pertaining to mind come under Graha or Bhoota vidya.
The word meaning of Graha is to seize or to possess. Bhoota can
be understood in different ways. Bhootha is the term used for
past1. Some opine that Bhoota are those which are invisible2.
The psychiatric ailments are previously considered as occurred
due to demonic possessions a nd misdeeds in the past. Unmada,
Apasmara, Atattwabhinivesa, Graha etc are the mostly discussed
diseases under this tradition. Though the causes of most of these
are unknown or unseen, our seers could enumerate its etiology
and draw a clear cut pathogenesis and treatment for these. All
pioneers of Ayurveda have detailed on Unmada and have given
systematic treatment for the same. The traditional procedures
under Daivavyapasraya- the spiritual approach, Yukti
vyapasraya- the rational approach and Satwavajaya- the
psychotherapy are employed wisely to tackle the issues.
In Yukti vyapasraya arm of treatment, along with Panchakarma
therapy (the five bio-purificatory processes), several herbal and
herbo-mineral combinations are used. Alleviation of humors as
well as normalizing the mental faculties are the two main
spheres to be taken care of during the treatment. Among the
different form of drugs, the majority are in the form of Ghrita
preparations. The oral, nasal and rectal route of administration is
also opted.
UNMADA
Unmada is caused when the physical and psychological stressors
vitiate the humors- Vata, Pitta and Kapha and are expulsed
upward to the mind. The vital points- Shiras and Hridaya are
involved3. It covers a wide range of symptoms both physical and
psychological. The individual loses the power for regulating his
actions and conduct according to the demand of the personal and
social life. The derailment of Mana- thoughts/ mental faculties,
Buddhi- intellect, Samja- consciousness, Jnana- orientation,
Smriti- memory, Bhakti- attitude to the society, Cheshta-
psychomotor activities, Achara- routine/ rituals are noted in the
disease4. These can be seen at once as a single manifestation or
in a progressive order, as there will be impairment of all the
faculties when mind is affected. The person loses reality concern
and his skill to identify himself. The other associated features
are hallucinations, delusion, impulsivity, obsessions etc.
The etiological factors of Unmada can be classified under
constitutional, dietary and life-style causes. The individual prone
to Unmada are of always timid personality. They are of a weak
mental constitution so that they lack physical strength to
withstand any biological changes in the body. Incompatible and
contaminated food pattern which contribute to the dietary cause,
deranges the digestive fire. This is the root cause of all
disorders. The three basic humors which constitute the body viz,
Archana Madhavi et al. Journal of Biological & Scientific Opinion
·
Volume 4 (4). 2016
149
Vata, Pitta and Kapha attain impurity and pathological changes
are seen. Insulting elders, mental shock, fear, unnatural pleasure
are result of a stressful life style5. This will make the Hridaya-
seat of Manas and buddhi oppressed with impurities. The
channels leading to the mind are vitiated6. This results in the
disease with subtypes of Nija (endogenous) and Aganthu
(exogenous cause) 7.
Unmada, with its complexity may be correlated with a broad
spectrum of illness in modern psychiatry. The psychological and
physiological etiology contribute to the changes in structure and
functioning of brain as in pre frontal cortex, limbic region, basal
ganglia etc. the synaptic changes are noted which creates
imbalance in neurotransmitters and mitochondrial changes are
present which grossly affect the health and energy channel to the
brain8.
Treatment of Unmada
Ayurveda explains a systematic treatment protocol for Unmada
including all arms i.e., Daivavyapasraya, Yukti vyapasraya and
Satwavajaya. In the Yuktivyapasraya chikitsa, the prior line of
treatment is Snehapana (oleation of medicated ghee/ intake of
medicated ghee). It is followed by Mridu sodhana (mild
purification by emesis or purgation). The vitiated humors are
removed and the channels to the mind are cleared by this
process. Further treatment is planned in order to channelize the
impaired Doshas. Niruha vasti (enema with decotion),
Sirovirechana (medicated errhines) and Sagna prabhodhana
(medication for mood and intellect stabilization) are given9.
A list of Ghrita preparations which are commonly used in
treatment of psychiatric illness are given below
GHRITA: (GHEE/ CLARIFIED BUTTER)
Ghrita is the best of all fats24. It is one of the Nitya Rasayanas
(can be consumed daily) mentioned in Ayurveda which possess
multi-systemic benefits25. It is a dietary supplement as well as a
drug in its purest form and in combinations. It is sweet in taste,
provide unctuousness and softness to the body tissues and cold
in potency. The properties of Ghrita are to alleviate Vata and
Pitta without increasing Kapha much. It enhances the digestive
fire, improves eyesight, intelligence, memory, vitalizes the body
and gives luster. It improves semen and Ojus- the ultimate end
product of assimilation. Ghrita is known best for treating
poisoning, insanity, seizures, pain, fever, phthisis etc. it is said
to reduce inauspiciousness and provide protection26. The most
highlighted property of Ghrita is that it assimilates the property
of the drug added to it providing a synergetic action in
combination27.
DISCUSSION
Though the mind is included in nine Dravya (substances) in
Ayurveda, it does not possess a form or shape. All Acharyas
have given several location of mind in different contexts but the
exact location cannot be elicited and it is only assessed by the
attributes and functions. On the close observation of
Nidana(etiology), Samprapthi(pathogenesis) and Lakshana(signs
and symptoms) of Unmada, there is a total malfunctioning of
higher mental faculties. Hridaya- the seat of mind and intellect
in the pathogenesis of Unmada can be taken as the anatomical
brain which is the centre of all activities such in human beings.
The mind, which is superior to all Indriya is vitiated by the
upward movement of the deranged humors and localized in
between Shiras (head) and Talu (soft palate) and thereby
deteriorating Buddhi (intellect) 28. The concept of
Manovahasrothus can be explained as an axis of mind and body.
It is told that one of the hundred channels from Hridaya (heart)
goes to Moordha (head) 29- confirming the concept of psycho
neuro axis. This confirms the relation between the two vital
points Shiras and Hridaya and its major role in the pathogenesis
of Unmada. The psyche is affected by the upward displacement
of deranged humors and these two locations are vitiated.
The individual prone to Unmada are a mostly timid personality
who lacks physical and mental strength. The health of these
people are generally compromised, digestion and assimilation
are impaired leading to depletion of Agni and thus the final
product of metabolism- the Ojus. This depletion can be
compensated by Ghrita. The impure and incompatible foods in
the pathology of Unmada are more of Tamasika qualities. The
attributes of Ghrita like unctuousness, softness, cold in potency
provide a good dietary pattern. The activities like insulting
elders and avoiding rituals are considered to be sinful in Indian
tradition. These are thus psychological stressors letting out the
disease. Ghrita has the property of destroying inauspiciousness
and giving protection.
Vata is the controller of the mind and Medha (intellect) is the
property of Pitta30,31. So normalcy of Pitta and proper
channeling of Vata are major concerns in the treatment of
psychiatric illness like Unmada which can be done by the
Vatapitta hara property of Ghrita. It improves Sadhaka pitta and
Prana vata in general causing the person to reduce stress
produced by the psychological causes of fear, depression and
stress due to affliction of other diseases.
The Ghrita preparations used in Unmada have Medhya
(cognitive enhancing) drugs it gives a synergetic action helping
to correct the mental and intellectual faculties.
Action of Ghrita over brain
The influential factors of drug distribution in blood are mainly
difference in blood flow, lipid solubility and ionization. An
aqueous soluble drug is usually absorbed in extra cellular
spaces. They do not diffuse to CSF and other body cavities,
whereas lipid soluble drugs are readily available to extra and
intra cellular spaces. Blood brain barrier (BBB) has a lipophilic
molecular structure. This makes the lipids and lipid soluble
drugs pass easily through BBB. So the drugs which are given in
the form of ghee which are lipids rapidly absorbed in the target
areas of central nervous system32. Traditionally prepared ghee
contains DHA, an omega 3 long chain poly unsaturated fatty
acid33. This is seen in high concentration in brain cells too.
Moreover studies have shown that DHA have positive outcome
in cognitive decline. Ghee is known to have antioxidant property
which acts upon the degenerative brain cells and repair them34.
It also acts in normalizing the chemical changes in brain by
balancing the neurotransmitters.
By applying the theory of similarity, it can be said Mastishka
(brain) which resembles molten ghee can be supplemented with
clarified butter in various therapies35-39.
Archana Madhavi et al. Journal of Biological & Scientific Opinion
·
Volume 4 (4). 2016
150
Table 1
Ghrita
Rasa panchaka
Karma
Doshaghnatha
Kalyanaka10
Rasa Katu,thikta
Guna-Laghu,ruksha,
Virya -Ushna
Dipana
Anulomana
Balya
Brumhana
Vrushya
Tridoshahara,
Kaphaja Unmada
Mahakalyanaka11
Rasa Thikta
Guna Laghu,Ruksha
Virya Ushna
Brumhana
Balya
Vrushya
Medhya
Anulomana
Tridoshahara
(Vatapitta samana)
Tiktaka12
Rasa Thikta
GunaRuksha, Snigdha
Virya - Sheeta
Anulomana
Medhya
Rakta prasadana
Pitta-Kapha
samana
Mahatiktaka13
RasaThikta Madhura
GunaSlightlyguru,Ruksha, Snigdha
Virya - Sheetha
Anulomana
Medhya
Rasyana
Rakta prasadana
PittaKapha samana
Hingwadi14
Rasa Katu
Guna Tikshna
Virya - Ushna
Dipana
Pachana
Medhya
Indriya prasada
Vata Kaphahara
Vaatanulomana
Sidharthaka15
Rasa Katu,Thikta,Kashaya
Guna Tikshna,Ruksha
Virya - Ushna
Dipana
Medhya
Grahaghna
Samjna prabodana
KaphaVata samana
Lasunadi16
Rasa Katu
Guna Tikshna,Snigdha
Virya - Ushna
Dipana
Medhya
Hrudhya
Balya
VataKapha samana
Chethasa17
RasaThikta, Kashaya,Madura
Guna Laghu
Virya - Ushna
Dipana
Brumhana
KaphaVata samana
Kushmanda18
Rasa madhura
Guna Guru,Snigdha
Virya - Sheeta
Brumhana
Vrushya
Medhya
Vak visudhikara
Pitta Vata samana
Brahmi19
RasaThikta
Guna Tikshna
Virya Sheetoshna
Dipana
Anulomana
Swarya
Medhya
Tridoshahara
Vata pitta samana
Panchagavya20
Rasa Thikta
Guna Tikshna
Virya - Ushna
Dipana
Anulomana
Sukshma
Medhya
KaphaVata samana
Mahapaisachika21
Rasa Thikta
GunaTikshna,Laghu, Sukshma
Virya - Sheeta
Balya
Pushtikara
Medhya
Grahaghna
Tridosha samana,
Vatanulomana
Mahabhootarava22
Rasa Thikta
GunaTikshna,Laghu,Ruksha,
Sukshma
Virya - Ushna
Dipana
Grahaghna
KaphaVata samana
Purana23
Rasa- Katu,Thikta
Guna- ugragandha
Virya- Seetha
Grahanasanam
Medhyam
Tridosha samanam
CONCLUSION
Ghrita as an individual drug and in combination is supposed to
have desired effect in many of the diseases especially of
psychiatric origin. It helps in stopping the disease of Unmada at
the level of pathology, pathogenesis and manifestation. Ghrita
can be included in daily diet in a larger quantity opposing the
unhealthy dietary pattern contributing to the etiology of
Unmada. It can be administered as a treatment modality by
which channelizes Vata and normalize Pitta. The channels to the
mind are also cleared and thus reduce stress at physical and
biological level. The property of ghee in enhancing cognitive
abilities and balancing chemical changes in brain is appreciable.
The various combinations with ghrita can be administered
according to the aggravation of humors and the symptoms
shown. All diseases are caused by deranged digestive fire. There
is no drug like Ghrita which can e nhance the fire. Ghrita which
is the best among drug for oleation can correct the digestive fire,
increase Satwa Guna (purest quality of mind) and cure the
disease.
Archana Madhavi et al. Journal of Biological & Scientific Opinion
·
Volume 4 (4). 2016
151
REFERENCES
1. M. Monier Williams. A Sanskrit English dictionary. Reprint
16 ed. Motilal Banarasidas publishers pvt ltd; 2011. P.761
2. Charaka: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, revised by
Charaka and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika
commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma. R.K
Das.B,Reprint ed. Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009,
SutraSthana, 11/45.
3. Charaka: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, revised by
Charaka and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika
commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma. R.K
Das.B,Reprint ed. Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009,
ChikitsaSthana, 9/5.
4. Charaka: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, revised by
Charaka and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika
commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma. R.K
Das.B,Reprint ed. Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009,
NidanaSthana, 7/5.
5. Charaka: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, revised by
Charaka and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika
commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma. R.K
Das.B,Reprint ed. Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009,
NidanaSthana, 7/7.
6. Charaka: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, revised by
Charaka and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika
commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma. R.K
Das.B,Reprint ed. Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009,
ChikitsaSthana, 9/5.
7. Charaka: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, revised by
Charaka and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika
commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma. R.K
Das.B,Reprint ed. Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009,
ChikitsaSthana, 9/9-10.
8. Kaplan & Sadock: Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry,
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins publication, 8th edition,
2005, 12-Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, page
no - 1408.
9. Charaka: CharakaSamhita of Agnivesha, revised by Charaka
and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika commentary of
Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma.R.K Das.B,Reprint ed.
Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009, ChikitsaSthana, 9/25-28.
10. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari
commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed.
Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, Uttara Sthana 6/26-31.
11. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari
commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed.
Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, Uttara Sthana 6/32-33.
12. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari
commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed.
Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, chikitsa sthana 19/2-7.
13. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari
commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed.
Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, chikitsa sthana 19/8-10.
14. Charaka: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, revised by
Charaka and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika
commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma. R.K
Das.B, Reprint ed. Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009,
ChikitsaSthana, 9/34.
15. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari
commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed.
Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, UttaraSthana 5/10-12
16. Chakrapanidatta: chakradatta with English translation edited
by Sharma.P.V, 2nd ed. Chaukamba publishers. 1999,
chikitsasthana 20/39-43.
17. Chakrapanidatta: chakradatta with English translation edited
by Sharma.P.V, 2nd ed. Chaukamba publishers. 1999,
chikitsasthana 20/31-33.
18. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari
commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed.
Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, Uttara Sthana 7/28.
19. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari
commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed.
Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, Uttara Sthana 6/38-40.
20. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari
commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed.
Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, Uttara Sthana 7/18
21. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari
commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed.
Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, Uttara Sthana 6/34-37.
22. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari
commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed.
Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, Uttara Sthana 5/19.
23. Charaka: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, revised by
Charaka and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika
commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma. R.K
Das.B, Reprint ed. Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009,
ChikitsaSthana, 9/59-62.
24. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari
commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed.
Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, Sutra Sthana 5/37-39
25. Charaka: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, revised by
Charaka and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika
commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma. R.K
Das.B, Reprint ed. Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009,
VimanaSthana, 1/14.
26. Charaka: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, revised by
Charaka and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika
commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma. R.K
Das.B, Reprint ed. Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009,
SutraSthana, 27/232.
27. Charaka: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, revised by
Charaka and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika
commentary of Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma. R.K
Das.B,Reprint ed. Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009,
ChikitsaSthana, 27/233.
28. Bhela: Bhela samhitha with English translation by
P.Srinivasa Rao. 1st ed. Caukamba Krishnadas
Academy.2002, Chikitsa Sthana 8/2-3
29. Swami Krishnananda: The Chhandogyo Upanishad. Reprint
ed. sivananda asram. 1984. P. 188
30. Swatmarama: The Hatha yoga pradeepika with English
translation, edited by pancham sinh. Munshiram Manoharlal
publishers pvt ltd. 2014, p.51
31. Susrutha: Susrutha Samhitha with Nibanda sangraha
commentary of Delhana edited by Yadavji Trikamji
Acharya .2nd ed. Chaukamba Krishnadas academy. 2001,
SutraSthana 15/2.
32. Bloch M.H., Qaweasami.A. Omega-3 fatty acid
supplementation for the treatment of children with ADH
symptomatology: systemic review and meta analysis,
Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent
Psychiatry. Volume 50(10): 2011. Page no.99-100
33. Joshi KS. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly
higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method.
Journal of Ayurveda Integrated Medicine. Volume 5: 2014.
Page 85-88.
34. Athavale A, Jirankalgikar N, Nariya P and Dev S.
Evaluation of In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Panchagavya:
A Traditional Ayurvedic Preparation. International Journal
of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Research. Vol. 3(8):2012,
page: 2543-2549
35. Charaka: CharakaSamhita of Agnivesha, revised by Charaka
and Dridhabala with the Ayurveda - Dipika commentary of
Chakrapanidatta, edited by Sharma.R.K Das.B,Reprint ed.
Chaukamba Orientalia. 2009, SutraSthana, 1/44.
Archana Madhavi et al. Journal of Biological & Scientific Opinion
·
Volume 4 (4). 2016
152
36. M. Monier Williams. A English Sanskrit dictionary. Reprint
6th ed. Motilal Banarasidas publishers pvt ltd; 2011. P.61
37. Susrutha: Susrutha Samhitha with Nibanda sangraha
commentary of Delhana edited by Yadavji Trikamji
Acharya .2nd ed. Chaukamba Krishnadas academy. 2001,
Chikitsa Sthana 3/69.
38. Susrutha: Susrutha Samhitha with Nibanda sangraha
commentary of Delhana edited by Yadavji Trikamji
Acharya .2nd ed. Chaukamba Krishnadas academy. 2001,
Sutra Sthana 27/56.
39. Savitha H P, Suhas Kumar Shetty, Narayana Prakash B.
Critical appraisal of Rasayana for mental health in elderly.
Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 2013;4(4):626-628
http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2277-4343.04436
Cite this article as:
Archana Madhavi, Savitha H P, Suhas Kumar Shetty, Arun C H,
Gazala Hussain. A critical review on the usage of ghrita in
unmade. J Biol Sci Opin 2016;4(4):148-152 http://dx.doi.org/
10.7897/2321-6328.04436
Source of support: Nil; Conflict of interest: None Declared
Disclaimer: JBSO is solely owned by Moksha Publishing House - A non-profi t publishing house, dedicated to pub lish quality research, while every effort has been
taken to verify the accuracy of the contents pub lished in our Journal. JBSO ca nnot accept any responsibility or liability for the site content and arti cles published.
The views expressed in articles by our contri buting authors are not necessarily those of JBSO editor or editori al board members.
... Even its smell or use by nasal route has excellent benefits if it cannot be administered orally [1]. Vata dosha and Medha are the controller of the mind [5] and the property of Pitta [6] respectively, therefore, the Vatapitta hara property of Ghrita is useful in the treatment of psychiatric illness like Unmada . Table 1 improve intellect, memory and awareness as part of their many benefits. ...
... Table 1 improve intellect, memory and awareness as part of their many benefits. Previously, Madhavi (2016) in the report 'a critical review on the usage of Ghrita in Unmada' elaborately mentioned Ghrita usage in Ayurvedic formulations [6]. Ghrita has the capacity to cross the blood brain barrier and do target drug delivery. ...
... Table 1 improve intellect, memory and awareness as part of their many benefits. Previously, Madhavi (2016) in the report 'a critical review on the usage of Ghrita in Unmada' elaborately mentioned Ghrita usage in Ayurvedic formulations [6]. Ghrita has the capacity to cross the blood brain barrier and do target drug delivery. ...
Article
Full-text available
Classifying ‘Unmada’ as psychiatric, psychological or psychosomatic disorder only limits the understanding of this vast but seldom understood subject. In Charaka Samhita, the clear etiopathogenesis and subsequent line of treatment indicates both internal pathology as well as external causes including but not limited to diet, mental strength, physical injury and emotional trauma. However, irrespective of the etiopathogenesis, a strong focus on the use of Ghrita based medication to consumption of ghee as it has been observed in relation to internal medication. This perspective study discussed references and possible mode of action of Ghrita, especially Purana Ghrita (old clarified butter) in treatment of mind related pathologies.
... There is a decisive role of nutrition in brain development, and thus on brain function and mental performance in humans. 34 Likewise ghee has antioxidant property which performances on the degenerative brain cells. ...
Article
Learning disorders are defined as problems in securing of developmental skills, academic achievement, social adjustment and secondarily emotional growth and development as a consequence of perceptual and linguistic processing deficits. The prevalence of learning disorders is 15.17 % in Southern India. In ayurvedic classics no separate narrative of such disease is seen, but many times delayed developmental skills such as Vāksḳalanam, alpamedha-smṛti etc. are stated and different remedies are considered for them. The Indriyās (sense faculties), Manas (mind), Buddhi (intellect) are comprised in the process of Jñānotpatti. Any altered function in these components hampers the learning process. Even if several studies have been conducted in Ayurveda on Learning disorder, the area remains still non conclusive. This is an attempt to report the studies from the postgraduate institute for Ayurveda psychiatry, with the available conclusions so as to augment the accessible possibilities in the clinical practice.
... There is no drug like Ghrita which can enhance the fire. Ghrita which is the best among drug for oleation can correct the digestive fire, increase Satwa Guna (purest quality of mind) and cure the disease [4] . Citraka [13] It is found throughout India; much cultivated in wild in the W. peninsula and probably in Bengal, Malay peninsula, Ceylon -tropics of the old world. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many ayurvedic formulations are available in the mark without any proper scientific evidence for its therapeutic effect. On this issue the Satpala ghrta was identified from the Indian Ayurvedic Formulary 2003, for which there were no scientific evidence to prove its efficacy in-order to standardize the formulation. Each ingredient possesses a unique therapeutic activity.
... Daivavyapashraya chikitsa is mentioned specially for manasika roga. intellect stabilization) can be given [40] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Depression is a serious mental health concern that will touch most people's life directly or indirectly , affecting 350 million people worldwide. It can affect a person's ability to work, form of relationships, and destroy their quality of life. At its most, severe depression can lead to suicide. It remains as a social stigma in terms of prevalence and suffering, dysfunction, morbidity and economic burden. 80% of depressed people are not currently having any treatment. Depression is mentioned in ayurvedic classics in various scattered references. It is both a state of emotion (manasika bhava) as well as a disease (manasika vyadhi). Previous scholars have tried to correlate the clinical condition with vishada, avasada, manodhukhaja unmada and kaphaja unmada. Psychopathology of depression may even extend up to somatic level. As there are multiple correlations, understanding the pathology of depression by means of ayurvedic basic principles such as sharirika dosha (bodily humor), manasika dosha (attributes of psyche), satwa bala (strength of mind), jnanendriya (sense organs), karmendriya (motor organs), agni (biological fire), dhathu (tissues sustaining the body), srotos (channels or pathways of the body) and ojus (vital essence of life) is essential. A better understanding of depression can help in effective prevention and treatment and will help reduce the stigma associated with the condition, and lead to more people seeking help.
... It is also among ketogenic diet which is specially recommended in apasmara (epilepsy) patients. 1 Brahmi Ghrita is a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation that is widely used in the management of psychiatric disorders. If we consider major Ayurvedic literatures, there are dissimilarities in its preparation and in its indications. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: This review article is an attempt to analyse the probable mode of action of Kalyanaka ghrita in psychiatric conditions.
Article
Full-text available
Vardhakya (old age) is characterized by deterioration in the levels of vital capacity, energy, sexual potency, speech, perception, absorption, retention, memory and intellectual abilities along with predominance of Vata (Basic body humour). Vata is the main controller of functions of mind. Due to this shared association of Manas (Mind), old age and Vata, impairment of mental functions are commonly observed in geriatric age group. In the present criterion, care towards psychological wellbeing in the geriatric age group is of utmost importance due to the increasing senile population and altered social situations. Ayurveda confers the knowledge of Rasayana, where various pharmacological and non-pharmacological modes (Achara Rasayana) of therapies are used for prevention, promotion and management of diseases. Medhya Rasayana (nootropic), a group of Rasayana medicines are known for their action on psychological and intellectual functioning. Rasayana can heighten mental health in old age by its unique effects on Vata. Keywords: Ayurveda, Rasayana, Medhya, Vata, Old age, Mental health.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method). Materials and methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases.
Article
Full-text available
Panchagavya, a classical Ayurvedic preparation, was evaluated for its antioxidant potential by HPTLC-DPPH bioautography method as well as assays for Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH – free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and Superoxide radical scavenging activity. In addition total phenolic content was also estimated which was in fairly good amount. HPTLC-DPPH bioautography study revealed the presence of several antioxidant compounds in Panchagavya. In all the assays performed, it showed considerable antioxidant activity. On comparison of the data of three different batches of the samples studied, it showed 98.3 -99.8% correlation between total phenolic content, FRAP and DPPH assays. INTRODUCTION: Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, with its holistic approach takes into account the aetiological factors, disease condition, patient's psycho-somatic condition, food and even activities altogether while deciding the line of treatment. It mentions use of various plant, animal and mineral products as such and in unique combinations for treatment and positive health maintenance.
Article
Several studies have demonstrated differences in omega-3 fatty acid composition in plasma and in erythrocyte membranes in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with unaffected controls. Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can alter central nervous system cell membrane fluidity and phospholipid composition. Cell membrane fluidity can alter serotonin and dopamine neurotransmission. The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children with ADHD. PubMed was searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials examining omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children with ADHD symptomatology. The primary outcome measurement was standardized mean difference in rating scales of ADHD severity. Secondary analyses were conducted to determine the effects of dosing of different omega-3 fatty acids in supplements. Ten trials involving 699 children were included in this meta-analysis. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation demonstrated a small but significant effect in improving ADHD symptoms. Eicosapentaenoic acid dose within supplements was significantly correlated with supplement efficacy. No evidence of publication bias or heterogeneity between trials was found. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, particularly with higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid, was modestly effective in the treatment of ADHD. The relative efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was modest compared with currently available pharmacotherapies for ADHD such as psychostimulants, atomoxetine, or α(2) agonists. However, given its relatively benign side-effect profile and evidence of modest efficacy, it may be reasonable to use omega-3 fatty supplementation to augment traditional pharmacologic interventions or for families who decline other psychopharmacologic options.
Bhela samhitha with English translation by P.Srinivasa Rao. 1 st ed. Caukamba Krishnadas Academy
  • Bhela
Bhela: Bhela samhitha with English translation by P.Srinivasa Rao. 1 st ed. Caukamba Krishnadas Academy.2002, Chikitsa Sthana 8/2-3
The Hatha yoga pradeepika with English translation, edited by pancham sinh. Munshiram Manoharlal publishers pvt ltd
  • Swatmarama
Swatmarama: The Hatha yoga pradeepika with English translation, edited by pancham sinh. Munshiram Manoharlal publishers pvt ltd. 2014, p.51
The Chhandogyo Upanishad
  • Swami Krishnananda
Swami Krishnananda: The Chhandogyo Upanishad. Reprint ed. sivananda asram. 1984. P. 188
A Sanskrit English dictionary. Reprint 16 ed. Motilal Banarasidas publishers pvt ltd
  • M. Monier Williams
M. Monier Williams. A English Sanskrit dictionary. Reprint 6 th ed. Motilal Banarasidas publishers pvt ltd; 2011. P.61
Chaukamba publishers
  • Chakrapanidatta
Chakrapanidatta: chakradatta with English translation edited by Sharma.P.V, 2 nd ed. Chaukamba publishers. 1999, chikitsasthana 20/31-33. 18. Vagbada: Ashtanga Hridaya with the Sarvanga Sundari commentary of Indu, edited by Vaidya B.H.P, reprint ed. Chaukamba orientalia. 1995, Uttara Sthana 7/28.