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Abstract and Figures

The construction sector is very hazardous across the globe. However, in some countries there is an absence of standard recording and notifications system for construction accidents while in countries such as India, the systems exist but their implementation is an issue. In both cases, statistics on construction accidents are either unavailable or highly underreported and this leads to a situation where due attention to safety is not paid. This paper attempts to estimate fatal accidents of construction sector for all states in India. These estimates are based on reliable information derived for the construction sector of National Capital Territory (NCT) Delhi region using different sources. This study further projects the fatal accidents for all states based on working population data obtained from Census. The quantum of construction work in all states are differentiated based on their data on cement consumption using linear inter and extrapolation methods. In line with this estimate the minimum number of people that would have died annually in Indian construction sector from 2008 to 2012 was 11,614. The estimates presented here would help in drawing attention of all stakeholders to take remedial measures.
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Patel, D A and Jha, K N (2016) An Estimate of Fatal Accidents in Indian Construction. In: P W Chan
and C J Neilson (Eds.) Proceedings of the 32
Annual ARCOM Conference, 5-7 September 2016,
Manchester, UK, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, Vol 1, 577-586.
Dilipkumar Arvindkumar Patel
and Kumar Neeraj Jha
Civil Engineering Department, S.V. National Institute of Technology Surat, Ichchhanath, Dumas
Road, Surat-395007 (Gujarat), India.
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Huaz Khas, New Delhi-
110016, India.
The construction sector is very hazardous across the globe. However, in some
countries there is an absence of standard recording and notifications system for
construction accidents while in countries such as India, the systems exist but their
implementation is an issue. In both cases, statistics on construction accidents are
either unavailable or highly underreported and this leads to a situation where due
attention to safety is not paid. This paper attempts to estimate fatal accidents of
construction sector for all states in India. These estimates are based on reliable
information derived for the construction sector of National Capital Territory (NCT)
Delhi region using different sources. This study further projects the fatal accidents
for all states based on working population data obtained from Census. The quantum
of construction work in all states are differentiated based on their data on cement
consumption using linear inter and extrapolation methods. In line with this estimate
the minimum number of people that would have died annually in Indian construction
sector from 2008 to 2012 was 11,614. The estimates presented here would help in
drawing attention of all stakeholders to take remedial measures.
Keywords: estimating, accident, injury, safety, India
Safety is a basic physical and psychological need of human beings. Every day some
950 people die and over 720,000 workers get hurt because of occupational accidents.
Annually, over 48,000 workers die because of occupational accidents in India and
there are almost 37 million occupational accidents which causes at least 4 days’
absences from work (Hämäläinen 2010). In terms of economics, the International
Labour Organization (ILO) has estimated that the total costs of occupational accidents
and work related diseases are 4% of the gross national product (GNP). The total GNP
of the world was approximately 75,592,941 million USD in 2013 (World Bank 2013)
which means that worldwide the annual cost of work-related injuries and diseases is
approximately 3,023,718 million USD (0.04x75, 592,941).
The construction sector is the second largest employer in India; however, according to
Hämäläinen et al. (2010), accident statistics of the Indian construction sector are not
properly and regularly published. Therefore, they are not easily available. However,
it is expected that many fatal and non-fatal accidents would be happening in Indian
construction due to its characteristics such as dynamic nature and involvement of
Patel and Jha
many stakeholders including migrated labours in a project, and a less controlled
environment. Whatever data is available our research shows that they are
underreported (Patel 2015). Although, there is a system prescribed for compiling and
recording these statistics the implementation at every places in country is not done in
full seriousness. According to Zhou et al. (2015), this is one of the reasons for not
conducting sufficient research on construction safety in India. Therefore, this study
sets the following objectives: (1) to study the existing global and national accidents
statistics of construction sector; and (2) to estimate the number of fatal construction
accidents in India.
In the following sections, the review of existing literature on the subject and thereafter
research method are presented to achieve the objectives. The different methods
utilized to obtain the realistic estimate have been explained and thereafter the
discussions and finally the conclusions are presented.
Safety performance is generally measured by reactive (after the event) and proactive
indicators (Hinze et al., 2013). The choice of safety performance measures or
indicators relies upon the purpose of measurement. The reactive measures are most
suitable to be used for the evaluation of past safety efforts or for the purpose of
comparison; while the proactive measures can be used to indicate whether the current
systems or efforts are working properly (Hinze and Godfrey 2003; Holt 2005).
According to Hale (2009), validity, reliability, sensibility, representativeness,
openness to bias, and cost effectiveness are criteria to select good safety performance
indicators. Hinze (2013) also suggests safety regulatory agencies, insurance
companies and other companies to continue using the lagging indicators. However,
sometimes, even reputed companies are not willing to share accident and injury data
for their projects. The unavailability of accident statistics is a hurdle in conducting
research on construction safety in India (Patel 2015).
In India, the estimated numbers of persons employed in Construction Industry are
53.45 million for year 2012 (Indian Labour Statistics 2012 and 2013) and there is a
shortage of trained man power. On account of natural attrition and the need of skills
of contemporary trades, construction industry still needs infusion of at least six
million persons per year (CIDC report 2007). This clearly shows the importance and
value of workers in construction industry and thus an inspiration to review the existing
accident statistics of Indian construction sector.
In general, the tendency of constructors is to keep away from reporting accidents to
the relevant authorities. Therefore, it becomes difficult to study the trend of accidents
and review the safety performance of the construction sector at state and national
level. As a result, it also becomes difficult to compare the safety performance of India
with other countries. Nonetheless, Indian Labour Statistics (2012-2013) consists of
the records of fatal and non-fatal accidents of mines, factories, railways. However, it
does not include the estimates of fatal and non-fatal construction accidents.
Therefore, there is a pressing need to estimate the fatal and non-fatal accidents in
Indian construction sector.
Some researchers (Hämäläinen 2010, Nelson et al. 2005, Leigh et al. 1997)
attempted to estimate the occupational accident and disease at global and national
level. ILO (1996) emphasizes the estimation of occupation accidents and diseases and
Fatal accidents in India
has prepared a code to assist the countries to set the system to record the same. So far
existing literature lacks the standard research methodology to estimate accidents in
construction sector. Therefore, a framework of the study has been developed and
discussed briefly in the following sections to estimate fatal accidents in the Indian
construction sector.
Identifying and evaluating the list of sources for accident records
A number of plausible sources were consulted for the accident data. These sources
were identified based on past researches and interaction with experts and
professionals. While some of them were part of direct approach some of them were
indirect. A total of 10 different sources were employed for the data collection. These
are briefly explained below under the data collection section.
Data collection
As pointed out above, the data were collected and complied from the following 10
25. National and International Journals
26. Websites of Government Departments and Private Bodies
27. Non-government organizations (NGO)
28. First Information Reports (FIRs) in Police Stations
29. Medical Legal Registers (MLR) at Public Health Centres and Hospitals
30. Insurance Companies
31. Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005: The Right to Information (RTI) Act
2005 mandates timely response to any Indian citizen requesting for
information from a government agency
32. Rajya Sabha: The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the
Parliament of India
33. Leading newspapers
34. Online search engines
Review of the collected accident data
There are no sound basis on which the accident statistics in Indian construction are
reported in International and National Journals. Similarly there are limitations with
the available Government (such as the concerned departments, ministries, and Rajya-
Sabha) and NGO records as these records capture the data only for an incident which
are reported. Police Stations do not sort and maintain the FIRs based on industry in
India. All leading newspapers and online search engines do not cover all accidents.
The Right to Information Act 2005 also has the same lacunae as under this Act the
available data only need to be shared with general public.
In the global context, reporting of construction accidents to the relevant authorities
varies among countries. Member countries of the European Union have mainly two
types of system to record their occupational accidents: (1) an insurance-based system,
public or private, or (2) legal obligation based system to notify accidents (Hämäläinen
2010). The reporting level is typically quite high - around 100 per cent in the
insurance-based system, while the reporting level is only 30 to 50 per cent in reporting
based on the legal obligation system. In India, the insurance companies and Medical
Legal Register (MLR) do not consist of information regarding cause of accidents and
the data is also not sorted industry-wise. In fact, due to lack of effective enforcement,
accident data is still widely under reported in India. Even in the global context, there
is huge underreporting in accident statistics. The accidents reported to ILO comprise
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only 3.9% of the estimated number of accidents that have occurred across the world
(Hämäläinen 2010). Leigh et al. (2004) have found that 33% to 69% of all
occupational injuries were missing from the injuries reported in the USA. It means
that under reporting accident data is the major global issue.
In the absence of a credible source, it was decided to make a beginning by relying on
the reports published in prestigious newspapers and complementing it with the Right
to Information Act. The data from the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) and
Indian express seem more reliable due to their effective accident recording and
reporting system. However, the collected accident statistics could not be generalized
at national level as it is not able to reflect the full estimate of fatal and non-fatal
accidents in Indian construction sector. Therefore, it needs to make a projection based
on the reliable base and suitable method to estimate the accident statistics of
construction sector at the national level.
Assumption and establishment of a baseline for the estimation
The National Capital Territory (NCT) Delhi has been considered as the baseline for
the national accident estimation. The capital of India, New Delhi is within this NCT
Delhi. The NCT Delhi covers 1483 Square Kilometre (km) and has a population of
about 16.78 million making it the second most populous city and second most
populous urban agglomeration in India. Such is the nature of urban expansion in
Delhi that its growth has expanded beyond the NCT to incorporate towns in
neighbouring states. Since 1991, under the constitution of India, the NCT has been
given special status as the National Capital Region (NCR) which includes the
neighbouring cities of Gurgaon, Ghaziabad, Noida, Faridabad, Greater Faridabad,
Greater Noida, Bahadurgarh, Sonepat, Karnal, Rohtak, Bhiwani, Rewari, Baghpat,
Alwar, Bharatpur, Panipat, Meerut and other nearby towns. To manage the urban
traffic of this territory, Delhi metro construction project is set up in year 2000 as a
project of national importance and is funded partly by Japan International Cooperation
Agency. The Delhi metro is the World's thirteenth largest metro system in terms of
length and it is expanding its network in the NCR also. The DMRC has good accident
recording system as it regularly collects, compiles, and reviews the accidents records
of the Delhi metro rail construction projects. In fact, such is the importance of safety
in this organisation that they have a separate contract conditions on safety running into
about 100 pages. Moreover, in 2010, 19th Commonwealth Games (CWG) was held in
the NCT Delhi. Therefore, a large number of construction projects were speedily
completed before commencing that mega event in the NCT Delhi.
Arguably, accident statistics collected from the Indian Express newspaper and DMRC
New Delhi appear more reliable than the remaining sources discussed earlier. The
accident statistics of DMRC collected through the RTI 2005 Act is considered for the
estimation due to its greater reliability. All these have led to consider the NCT Delhi
as the baseline for the accident estimation for other states of India in this study.
Estimation of fatal accidents in the NCT Delhi
As mentioned earlier, the accident statistics of the NCT Delhi has been estimated
based on the Indian Express Newspaper reports and the records obtained through the
DMRC under the RTI Act, 2005. Authors have referred all hard copies of the Indian
Express newspaper from 2008-2012 and enlisted all of them to avoid their duplication
from different sources. The accident report from the Indian Express Newspaper is
categorised into three sources: (1) reports pertaining to projects of DMRC in the NCT
Delhi (10 fatal); (2) reports pertaining to projects of Commonwealth Games (CWG) in
Fatal accidents in India
the NCT Delhi (43 fatal); (3) reports pertaining to other construction projects of the
NCT Delhi (176 fatal) as shown in Table 1. In brief, from 2008 to 2012, a minimum
of 229 fatal accidents would have occurred in NCT Delhi region alone based on the
records of the DMRC and the Indian Express. However, the coverage of construction
accidents by the Indian express may not be 100% as the Indian express has only
reported a total of 10 fatal accidents in Delhi metro construction project as against the
record of DMRC which says that a total of 56 fatal accidents occurred from 2008 to
2012 as shown in Table 1. It is assumed here that DMRC has covered all accidents.
In other words, the Indian Express reported only 17.85 % fatal (10 fatal against 56
fatal accidents) accidents in the NCT Delhi during 2008-2012.
Therefore, using the linear interpolation method and rate of underreported accidents
(17.85 % for fatal accidents), the data of 229 fatal accidents can be adjusted. Based
on this adjustment, it can be safely assumed that 1282 (229÷0.1785) fatal accidents
would have occurred in NCT Delhi from 2008 to 2012. In other words, on an
average, a minimum of 256 fatal accidents must have happened every year in the NCT
Delhi between 2008 and 2012. Post analysis, safety personnel of few leading
companies were contacted to comment on the results. On the condition of
confidentiality, they agreed that they were not much surprised with this result as they
were fairly in line with the statistics they maintain with them.
Selection of parameters (working population, accident rate and cement
consumption) for the estimation
According to Hämäläinen (2010), number of total employment, Gross Domestic
Product (GDP), urbanization, number of women, and time series analysis of
developed countries could be useful to estimate the occupational accidents and work
related diseases. To estimate the global estimate of the occupational accident,
Hämäläinen (2010) used the accident rate of each country to its respective economical
active population. However, as per the records available with Government agencies,
under the BOCW 1996 Act, only 30,603 and 27,248 construction workers have been
registered in central sphere across the country for the year 2011-12 and 2012-13
Patel and Jha
respectively. The figure for the NCT Delhi region as per the records is only 473 and
317 for the year 2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively. Registered workers can avail
many financial benefits and perks under welfare scheme of the governments. Less
number of registered workers reflects the non-availability of the sound record of the
workers associated with construction sector.
The study requires estimating the number of workers employed in construction sector
in various states in 2012 as the above statistics fail to reveal the number of workers
employed in construction sector. However, working population is available as per
record of census 2011 published by Indian labour Statistics (2012). According to the
report of Planning Commission of India (2012), the projected share of employment in
construction sector for the year 2011-12 is 10.91% and the growth rate of the
population is estimated as 1.77% per year (Indian labour Statistics 2012). Based on
this information, the working population in construction sector is estimated state-wise
for the year 2012. As per this record, in the NCT Delhi region, 619,767 persons are
employed while 53,455,595 are employed all over the country in the construction
sector in 2012.
Hämäläinen (2010) formulated accident rates for India by using the rates for
Kazakhstan and the total rates for Malaysia to fill up the missing gaps related to
occupational accident data of India. In India, the fatal accident rates per 100,000
employees in agriculture, industry, and service sector is estimated 10.2, 26.4, 6.9
respectively for 1998 and similarly 9.5, 18.3, 5.2 respectively for 2001 (Hämäläinen
2010). However, this study does not report the accident rate of Indian construction
sector. Moreover, India is a vast country and it has geographical and economical
diversity among the states. Therefore, it becomes essential to consider the quantum of
the construction works in each state. But estimation of the amount of the construction
work in a state seems difficult using direct measures. Thus an indirect measure such
as the consumption of cement state wise was adopted to estimate the quantum of
construction work.
This is because cement is the basic construction material and is used mainly for the
construction works. The data of cement consumption per year is available on the web
portal of Cement Manufactures Association (CMA). The proportion of consumption
of the cement is derived for each state. The NCT Delhi consumes 3.8 million tonnes
(2.20%) out of the total consumption of 172 million tonnes at the national level.
Maharashtra state consumes 19.57 million tonnes. This is the highest among all the
states. It shows that Maharashtra has the maximum amount of construction works. In
brief, for extrapolating, measures such as the number of construction workers and
cement consumption are selected to estimate the fatal accidents in the Indian
construction sector.
Estimation of fatal accidents in Indian construction sector
The NCT Delhi has the total working population of 5,685,940 and so working
population in construction sector is estimated to be 619,767 (=5,685,940 x 10.9%).
The construction sector of the NCT Delhi consumed 2.20% (3.8 million tonnes) of the
total national cement consumption in 2012. Under these circumstances, the accident
rate, 256 fatal accidents per year, is derived in the construction sector for the NCT
Delhi region (refer Table 1). Considering this data, accident rate of each state and
union territory can be calculated using the linear extrapolation and interpolation
methods. For illustration, Jammu and Kashmir has a total population of 4,399,225 in
which 479,516 (= 4,399,225*10.9%) working population is associated with its
Fatal accidents in India
construction sector and the cement consumption was 0.46 million tonnes in 2012.
Comparing with the number of fatal accidents and working population of NCT Delhi,
Jammu and Kashmir should have a minimum 198 fatal accident (= 256
*479,516/619,767) for the year 2012, assuming safety standards are similar to that
followed in the NCT Delhi. Similarly, considering the consumption of cement by
Jammu and Kashmir state, and the NCT Delhi, number of fatal accidents is estimated
to be 31 (=256*0.46/3.8). Thus, as shown in Figure 1, the estimated fatal accidents of
each state and union territory based on its consumption of cement and population
associated with construction sector is shown in the left side (31) and right side (59)
respectively within a small bracket on the map of India, such as Jammu and Kashmir
Figure 1. State-wise estimate of average annual fatal accidents in Indian construction sector
from 2008-2012.
Based on this empirical analysis, in year 2012, approximately 11,614 and 22,080 fatal
accidents might have occurred based on the consumption of cement and working
population respectively in Indian construction sector. Estimate based on the cement
consumption, 11,614 fatal accidents seems conservative because some construction
projects may have activities where cement consumption may not be considerable, for
example, excavation of lakes, construction of bituminous road, pipe laying, roofing
work etc. Therefore, it is expected that the figure of real fatal accidents might be
between 11, 614 and 22,080 in Indian construction sector. Thus, a minimum of
Patel and Jha
11,614 fatal accidents must be occurring in Indian construction. In other words, on an
average 38 (=11,614/300 working days in a year) fatal accidents occur per day in
Indian construction sector. Based on this data, the fatality rate (fatal accidents/1000
workers), of Indian construction sector works out to be 0.22. Indian Labour Statistics
(2012 and 2013) estimates fatality rate of 0.24, 0.09, and 0.05 for coal mines,
factories, and railways respectively. In terms of fatality rate, the data shows that the
construction sector is second most hazardous in India. Although mining sector is the
most hazardous in terms of fatality rate, it kills 84 persons as against the 11,614
minimum estimated fatal accidents in construction. This calls for adoption of stricter
measures in construction.
As mentioned earlier, a few researchers (Hämäläinen 2010, Nelson et al. 2005, Leigh
et al. 1997) estimated the occupational accident and disease at global and national
level. However, in the Indian construction sector, this study has followed a novel and
simple approach to estimate fatal accidents in the absence of reliable accident
statistics. The estimates of fatal accidents presented in the previous section show poor
safety performance of the Indian construction sector. The occupational health and
safety policy should be focused on in every region and all types of construction works.
This estimate will be useful to state governments to recruit labour officers and
supervisor to monitor safety issues regularly. The accident statistics of construction
sector should be collected, compiled and published by some designated agency or
government body in India. These data will be useful to analyse and differentiate the
trend of accidents in different sectors and regions. Time series analysis of such data
will be helpful to review the implementation of occupation health and safety policy of
the state or nation. Further research can be conducted to find out causes of accidents.
Although there is a provision of keeping records of accident from construction sector,
its implementation is not enforced. Whatever data are available, they are not reliable
and complete. Every state government has its own labour ministry and a labour
officer is available at each district level. Central government has a national
informatics centre at each district head quarter. So, government can use these
facilities and make a data collection network to collect the data regularly.
Government should register the information about causes of death in the death
certificate also. Leading newspaper and TV channels, insurance companies, hospital
may be linked to this network to provide or verify the relevant information about
accidents. The data will be helpful to know the causes of accidents and accordingly
new policy may be framed to prevent accidents in future.
This study attempts to estimate only fatal accidents in the Indian construction sector,
because the media do not cover and report the non-fatal accidents in all seriousness.
The extrapolation and extension of results for the non-fatal accidents may cause large
error and lead to misleading insights.
Moreover, this study does not include the investigation of causes of construction
accidents, identification and implementation of the preventive measures. Several
assumptions have been made to estimate the figures of fatal accidents. For example, it
has been assumed that the safety management systems applicable in the NCT Delhi
would be there throughout the country. Cement consumption has been directly related
to the amount of construction and so on. Safety culture of each state may vary and
depend on rules and regulations of that state. These limitations can be addressed in
Fatal accidents in India
future study. There is always a room to refine the study and to estimate more
Hämäläinen et al. (2010) estimated occupational accidents across the world.
However, due to absence of a standard methodology to estimate accident statistics in
the construction sector, this study attempted to estimate fatal accidents in the Indian
construction sector. Generally many countries depend on their insurance sector and
legislations to compile accident records. However, in India, insurance sector does not
maintain such data separately for the construction sector and many accidents are under
reported under legislations. Therefore, this study explores different types of sources
where accidents statistics of construction industry may be available. Afterwards, this
study relies on some reliable sources and estimates the fatal accidents for NCT Delhi
region using linear extrapolation and interpolation methods. It extends derivation of
the estimate at national level based on number of construction workers employed in
states and their cement consumption.
As a result, in Indian construction sector, the number of people dying in construction
could be anywhere from 11,614 to 22,080. Considering the minimum estimate of fatal
accidents, i.e. 11,614, Indian construction sector alone adds 24.20%
(=11,614*100/48,000) fatality in the total 48,000 occupational accidents occurring
annually in India. The fatality rate (fatal accidents/1000 workers) of UK, Singapore,
and Taiwan are reported to be 0.02 in 2013, 0.05 in 2012, and 0.125 in 2011
respectively in their construction sectors while fatality rate is estimated to be 0.22 in
Indian construction sector as per this estimate. The comparison also shows the safety
performance of construction industry in India in poor light in comparison to UK,
Singapore and Taiwan. In fact, this estimate will draw the attention of various
stakeholders of construction sector and motivate them to make safe work places and
thus save the lives of workers.
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... So this is one of the causes for not carrying out enough study on construction safety in India (Zhou, Goh, & Li, 2015). However, due to dynamic nature and huge number of stakeholder's involvement, it is predictable that Indian construction will account for large number of fatal and non-fatal accidents (Patel & Jha, 2016). According to 11th Five-Year Plan (2007-12), the Indian construction industry, employing the largest labor force, has accounted for about 11% of all occupational injuries and 20% of deaths resulting from occupational incidents (Patel & Jha, 2016). ...
... However, due to dynamic nature and huge number of stakeholder's involvement, it is predictable that Indian construction will account for large number of fatal and non-fatal accidents (Patel & Jha, 2016). According to 11th Five-Year Plan (2007-12), the Indian construction industry, employing the largest labor force, has accounted for about 11% of all occupational injuries and 20% of deaths resulting from occupational incidents (Patel & Jha, 2016). Attributes in Indian construction industry may differ from project to project (Vigneshkumar, Salve, & Saravana, 2018). ...
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The tremendous urbanization pace of India calls for higher efficiency in housing development, currently typified by low productivity and poor sustainability performance. Although off-site construction (OSC) is a method of widely acknowledged efficiency, its current uptake in India is very low, and the factors hindering its wider adaptation have not been comprehensively researched. This paper employs interviews with experts, a questionnaire survey and the interpretive structural modelling (ISM) technique to achieve the following objectives: first, to reveal which factors are perceived as top barriers for OSC implementation in India; second, to develop a hierarchical model presenting the causality between these factors; and third, to propose the initiatives required for barriers with high impact on other barriers to be most efficiently tackled. The survey findings show that the barriers perceived as most important from the professionals’ point of view are design inflexibility, difficulties in storage and transportation, supply chain weaknesses, initial capital requirements and lack of skills. The ISM reveals, though, that the underlying causes for these barriers lie with factors such as public procurement regulations and the fragmentation of the sector. Therefore, the latter are the barriers that need to be targeted in priority, as per the suggested strategies.
... Workplace injuries and fatalities appear to be disproportionately high among males with the European Union reporting that males accounted for 94% of occupational mortalities (The Journal of Men's Health and Gender, 2013). Populous India suffers close to 48,000 occupational deaths annually from an estimated 37 million accidents with an average of 4 days of absence from work (Patel & Jha, 2016) A study in South Africa implicated occupational injury as one of the causes of unnatural deaths in the country, accounting for 17% of deaths among miners in a cohort of 40,034 between 1992 and 2008 (Lim et al., 2011). Disability associated with occupational injury has been described as a predictor for early retirement, with one study in South Africa suggesting a 15% chance of a construction worker being permanently disabled from a construction-related accident while at work (Manu et al., 2019). ...
This study sought to identify and document key issues affecting occupational health and safety among artisans in the informal sector in the Bibiani Municipality of the Western North Region of Ghana. To realize this objective, a descriptive cross-sectional study using the qualitative approach was employed. This was done after an ethical clearance had been obtained from the Ghana Health Service Ethics Committee and prior consent was sought from all participants and managers of the study sites. A total of fifteen artisans participated in the study. The artisans spanned three major categories namely: fabrication, construction, and auto mechanic. A semi-structured interview guide was used to obtain responses from the participants through in-depth interviews. Valuable notes were also made from observations during the interview process. Data from the interview were transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically. Firstly, most respondents displayed adequate knowledge of the concept of occupational health and safety, especially in the area of hazard identification. Secondly, most of the respondents showed positive attitudes toward occupational health and safety. This was evident in their expressed prioritization of occupational safety among all other factors needed to be productive at work. Thirdly, the artisans exhibited an appreciable level of occupational safety practices. Each respondent used at least one PPE on a regular basis. Finally, it was observed that the emergency preparedness of the respondents in the area of first aid responses and fire outbreak management was inadequate. The findings showed that there is more room for improvement for the artisans in the informal sector with regard to their knowledge, attitudes, and utilization of safe practices. There must be regular training for artisans to help update their knowledge and practices on occupational health and safety issues. The district and municipal authorities together with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must organize such training on a regular basis for artisans. Artisans must be strongly encouraged to join well-organized associations to make such training effective. There must be a national law targeting occupational health and safety issues for workers in the informal sector, with an enforcement regime visible at the local level. This will help improve compliance and minimize the incidents of workplace injuries and ill health.
... In addition, over 174,000 construction recordable injury cases were reported in the same year (BLS 2019b). Construction is globally a very hazardous industry, including in Canada (Chen et al. 2017), Europe (Eurostat 2020), and India (Patel and Jha 2016). Similarly, many workers lose their lives in construction workplaces in Iran. ...
Construction is one of the most hazardous industries with high fatal and nonfatal accidents rates. However, many accidents could be prevented by improving workers' safety performance. Numerous factors impact their performance, such as safety culture and attitude, distraction, and personal characteristics. Among these factors, age has been widely cited in past research, but there is no unanimity among researchers regarding its impact on workers' safety performance. Both positive and negative impacts of age on safety performance have been reported in studies, along with several researchers who found no significant difference in safety performance among workers of different ages. To demystify the impact of age on construction workers' safety performance, this research hypothesizes that the relationship between age and safety performance is mediated by other factors such as experience and fatigue. A survey was conducted among 135 randomly selected participants from 38 construction sites in Iran. The survey consisted of three sections, namely demographic information, subjective fatigue assessment, and safety performance measurement. Statistical analysis revealed that the relationship between age and safety performance is mediated by experience and fatigue, explaining the disparity among past research findings. The findings of this study highlight that age does not have a direct impact, but an indirect impact mediated by multiple factors, on workers' safety performance. Future research must consider mediating factors when studying the role of age in workers' safety performance. The results suggest that researchers and practitioners should focus on other factors such as fatigue and safety training, which employers can positively influence.
In construction activities, fatal accidents occur frequently due to inherently dangerous nature which accounts for around 38 fatal accidents every day as reported by leading news articles. The aim of the paper was to investigate the pattern of fatal accidents in India’s construction works by utilizing a statistical method known as frequency analysis. The methodology includes the collection of data on accidents published by government departments, private bodies, and journals related to this topic. The results were achieved by assessing the year, month, and state factors. The findings reveal that there are noticeable trends in fatal mishaps. These data can be used to offer guidance for corrective or preventive measures for occupational injuries. The pattern identified in this paper can be useful to guide the development of accident-preventative measures.
The Indian construction sector provides employment to approximately 51 million people. It is the second-largest employer after the agriculture sector. However, the construction sector is the most hazardous sector across the globe. On average, 38 fatal accidents are reported daily in Indian construction. The main reason behind such a high accident rate is because most of the workers are illiterate, semi-skilled, or unskilled and temporarily migrated. Most of them do not have a quality of life, and they work 12 h a day at their workplaces. Construction workers experience a high level of stress and suffer from musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) during or after leaving their jobs. They have complaints about lower back pain, shoulder pain, which reduce their productivity. In this connection, this study attempts to assess the exposure to risks related to MSDs of construction workers by using the tool-Quick Exposure Check (QEC). The QEC tool has been referred for preparing the questionnaire. 75 construction workers involved in various activities were interviewed based upon a prepared questionnaire. Their responses are used to obtain QEC scores of multiple activities. The findings suggest that activities related to Centering & Shuttering reported the highest QEC scores, indicating that the activities were the primary cause of severe MSDs. Shoulder and back had the highest exposure to MSDs. A fishbone diagram was prepared to discuss the root causes behind the issues. The work environment on-site can be made more suitable using ergonomic interventions to reduce MSDs in workers.
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A personal proactive headgear (construction helmet) is important and mandatory for construction workers to use during their work. Construction helmets are used in both indoors and outdoors. It protects the head from any injury caused due to the fall of stone, brick, tools, etc. As there are different types of construction helmets on the market; however, helmets have multiple problems such as low strength, uneven thickness of the outside shell, incorrect helmet sizes are not based on Indian anthropometric data, lack of air inlets, low-quality materials, and unattractive design. This paper attempts to conceptualize and compare a helmet design with advanced safety features, comfort, strength, and aesthetic appeal. To achieve the output design process is been used and create multiple ideas. A total of two helmets were conceptualized through brainstorming and concept sketching to achieve aesthetic form. The CAD models for these two helmets were developed using CATIA V5-R19. The ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) material is used on a helmet and stress-strain analysis was conducted using the same software to evaluate two concepts. The final concept is further evaluated using CATIA ergonomic DHM (digital human model) to ensure comfort. After analysis, the final selected concept was found to be strong, comfortable, and aesthetically pleasing in terms of masculine, stylish design. The physical model of the helmet needs to be made for better analysis of all factors.KeywordsDesignDigital human model (DHM)ErgonomicsHelmetSafety
The construction work requires physical exertion. The manual construction workers and labourers are assumed to be suffering from work-related musculoskeletal disorder due to physical risk factors of different work carried out in construction site. This occurs due to prolonged use of awkward postures, work repetition, heavy lifting and lowering, heavy force/efforts and manual material handling on construction site. The other factor which adds to this is working in diverse environmental conditions. In India, as mentioned above, construction work is carried out manually using manual labourers (male and female) which is a tedious job eventually. The aim of this study is to find the number of manual construction workers and labourers complaint about pain or discomfort in different body parts related to WRMSD and diseases, causes and symptoms of WRMSD due to physical risk factors. The other aim is to find the most probable parts of the body having pain or discomfort, which needs further investigation. It is concluded that the construction workers are very much suffering from work-related musculoskeletal disorders due to lack of knowledge, proper training and guidelines and properly designed ergonomics tools, equipments and workplaces and poor bad habits and further investigation is needed for its validation.
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Occupational safety and health situations are poorer in India than the world standard resulting in a proportionately higher number of hazards. 16.4% of global occupational hazards are faced by the workers in Indian construction sector that constitutes only 7.5% of world labor force. This paper deals with a review of occupational safety of construction workers in India. The study identifies major challenges and issues and discusses possible solutions. The findings through review of literature has been substantiated by primary data collected through a questionnaire survey. The results indicate that lack of proper communication, non-use of personal protective equipment, wrong postures of work and work activities, lack of training, psychological factors such as stress and burnout, lack of safety orientation and culture, and issues lying in compliance of appropriate legislation are major challenges for safety. The study discusses frequent awareness and training, focusing on workplace ergonomics, facilitating flow of information and monitoring at worksite, developing safety thinking in management, enhancing workplace support practices and workplace spirituality as possible solutions to these challenges. The findings will guide the government agencies as well as organizational authorities and supervisors of construction sites to improve occupational safety.
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There are various measures of safety performance for construction projects. Although the metric involving the incidence of lost workday/restricted work activity injuries per 200,000 hours of worker exposure has been used for many years; other measures have also evolved in recent years. The incidence rate of injuries is the measure frequently employed as an industry standard. Despite this, these types of measures have the distinct disadvantage of focusing on the negative aspects of safety performance. That is, safety performance is only good when injuries do not occur. The occurrence of injuries, a negative parameter, generates concern. Information on the physical jobsite conditions, as determined through project safety inspections, provide a measure of conditions and work behavior that do not involve the actual incidence of injuries. Similarly, the evaluation of near misses mea- sures events that could have resulted in an injury, but did not. Behavior based worker observation data is yet another measure that collects information on both safe behavior and unsafe behavior. Worker safety perception surveys provide yet another glimpse of the safety picture on a project. The advantages and disadvantages of using these measures of performance should be understood.
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Information of occupational accidents is not standardized worldwide. Especially, developing countries do not have reliable information on their occupational accidents due to lack of proper recording and notification systems. The number of accidents is under-reported but figures are still used as a baseline for occupational safety work. In this paper global estimates of occupational accidents are presented for 175 countries. These estimates are based on figures from selected countries in eight different regions. Global estimates help to compare different countries and regions to each other to detect improvements in safety and safety work. In 1998 the average estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 350 000 and there were 264 million non-fatal accidents. Global estimates are needed to guide national policies and decision-making.
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To estimate the annual incidence, the mortality and the direct and indirect costs associated with occupational injuries and illnesses in the United States in 1992. Aggregation and analysis of national and large regional data sets collected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the National Council on Compensation Insurance, the National Center for Health Statistics, the Health Care Financing Administration, and other governmental bureaus and private firms. To assess incidence of and mortality from occupational injuries and illnesses, we reviewed data from national surveys and applied an attributable risk proportion method. To assess costs, we used the human capital method that decomposes costs into direct categories such as medical and insurance administration expenses as well as indirect categories such as lost earnings, lost home production, and lost fringe benefits. Some cost estimates were drawn from the literature while others were generated within this study. Total costs were calculated by multiplying average costs by the number of injuries and illnesses in each diagnostic category. Approximately 6500 job-related deaths from injury, 13.2 million nonfatal injuries, 60,300 deaths from disease, and 862,200 illnesses are estimated to occur annually in the civilian American workforce. The total direct ($65 billion) plus indirect ($106 billion) costs were estimated to be $171 billion. Injuries cost $145 billion and illnesses $26 billion. These estimates are likely to be low, because they ignore costs associated with pain and suffering as well as those of within-home care provided by family members, and because the numbers of occupational injuries and illnesses are likely to be undercounted. The costs of occupational injuries and illnesses are high, in sharp contrast to the limited public attention and societal resources devoted to their prevention and amelioration. Occupational injuries and illnesses are an insufficiently appreciated contributor to the total burden of health care costs in the United States.
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Around the globe, work has a heavy impact on health. To better advise policy makers, we assessed the global burden of disease and injury due to selected occupational hazards. This article presents an overview, and describes the methodology employed in the companion studies. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) Comparative Risk Assessment methodology, we applied relative risk measures to the proportions of the population exposed to selected occupational hazards to estimate attributable fractions, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Numerous occupational risk factors had to be excluded due to inadequate global data. In 2000, the selected risk factors were responsible worldwide for 37% of back pain, 16% of hearing loss, 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 11% of asthma, 8% of injuries, 9% of lung cancer, and 2% of leukemia. These risks at work caused 850,000 deaths worldwide and resulted in the loss of about 24 million years of healthy life. Needlesticks accounted for about 40% of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C infections and 4.4% of HIV infections in health care workers. Exposure to occupational hazards accounts for a significant proportion of the global burden of disease and injury, which could be substantially reduced through application of proven risk prevention strategies.
A model has been developed employing an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the safe work behavior of employees using 10 safety climate constructs determined through literature review. The model utilizes safety climate constructs (determinants) as inputs and safe work behavior as an output. Two hundred twenty-two responses from several construction projects across India were collected through a questionnaire survey. A three-layer feed-forward back-propagation neural network (10-11-1) was appropriate in building this model which has been trained, validated, and tested with sufficient data sets. The model predicts the safe work behavior of employees reasonably well. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was carried out to study the impact of each construct on the safe work behavior of employees. As a result, safety climate constructs like supervisory environment, work pressure, employees’ involvement, personal appreciation of risk, and supportive environment were significantly associated with the safe work behavior of employees. This model has great potential in aiding contractors and clients in promoting safe work behavior and the efficient management of the safety of employees in construction projects
The construction industry has not had a good record on health and safety and faces tough legal and financial penalties for breaches of the law. This book provides a unique resource for all those who construct or procure the construction of projects of all sizes and in all countries and for clients who need to keep abreast of their own and their contractors' responsibilities. It gives practical guidance on best practice, including: measuring performance and recording information developing a safety policy and method statements assessing risk training and understanding people the basics of the construction/environment interface The book addresses several topics not found in other reference works, discussing techniques of health and safety and basic environmental management as applied to the industry. It uniquely provides 50 quick reference guides setting out solutions to common problems. These include falls, manual and mechanical handling, work with asbestos and noise. It also summarises the main UK legal requirements on construction safety and health and includes a number of useful checklists and model forms. Written by a very experienced health and safety practitioner, who is also author of the highly successful IOSH book Principles of Health and Safety at Work, this book will be welcomed by all responsible for health and safety. It will also provide an excellent text for the NEBOSH (National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health) Construction Safety and Health national certificate.
Little is known about cost differences for demographic groups or across occupational injuries and illnesses. In this incidence study of nationwide data for 1993, an analysis was conducted on fatal and non-fatal injury and illness data recorded in government data sets. Costs data were from workers' compensation records, estimates of lost wages, and jury awards. The youngest (age < or = 17) and oldest (age > or = 65) workers had exceptionally high fatality costs. Whereas men's costs for non-fatal incidents were nearly double those for women, men's costs for fatal injuries were 10 times the costs for women. The highest ranking occupation for combined fatal and non-fatal costs--farming, forestry, and fishing--had costs-per-worker (5,163 US dollars) over 18 times the lowest ranking occupation-executives and managers (279 US dollars). The occupation of handlers, cleaners, and laborers, ranked highest for non-fatal costs. Gunshot wounds generated especially high fatal costs. Compared to whites, African-Americans had a lower percentage of costs due to carpal tunnel syndrome, circulatory, and digestive diseases. Costs comparisons can be drawn across age, race, gender, and occupational groups as well as categories of injuries and illnesses.