Article

Comparison of skin hydration in combination and single use of common moisturizers (cream, toner, and spray water)

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study aims to assess the moisturization in combination or single use (including seven general applications) of three common moisturizers: cream, toner, and spray water. Groups were set as C: cream only; T: toner only; C+T, T+C: cream or toner applied successively within a few minutes; C-T, C-S: cream applied with repeated toner or spray water every 2 h; T-T: toner applied with repeated toner every 2 h; and N: untreated group. Outcomes were the change in skin hydration from baseline at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after applications. All treated zones displayed a significantly higher degree of hydration compared with the untreated zone ( p < 0.05). For normal skin (hydration value at baseline >35 a.u.), C-T led to greatest hydration change rate compared with others, followed by C+T, T+C, and C. Those three applications exhibited analogous hydration at each test point ( p > 0.05). The hydration rate of C-S differed slightly from T-T, followed by those four mentioned above, with T being the last. For dry skin (hydration value at baseline <35 a.u.), no statistical significance could be detected between C-T zone and C+T, T+C, and C zones ( p > 0.05), the other results were identical. When cream and toner were applied successively, the application order has little effect on skin hydration. The application of cream only was an effective and brief way to achieve favorable moisturization especially for dry skin. As a complement, repeated application of toner rather than spray water is efficacious for skin hydration.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... There are three types of toner, which are hydrating toners, exfoliating toners, and treatment toners [49,50]. To give the skin a rapid improvement in hydration and refreshment, hydrating toners are used [51]. This toner contains moisturizers such as hyaluronic acid or glycerin that remove the sensation of tightness [52]. ...
... A prominent facial oil, as long as the strong foundation is controlled, it will also contain oils rich in oleic acid. On the other hand, facial moisturizers are made with water oil and other essential ingredients [43,51]. Moisturizers hydrate the epidermis, meaning the uppermost layer of the skin. ...
Article
Full-text available
What is acne vulgaris? A commonly diagnosed skin disease concerning clogging and inflammation of pilosebaceous units is called acne vulgaris. Mostly, adolescence and puberty are affected because of hormone and their daily routine. Gender is one of the critical factors to cause acne. Thus, excellent skin cares are needed to prevent acne vulgaris, leading to another symptom, including stress, low self-esteem, and depression. Importantly, due to our surroundings, there are many kinds of pollution that we have to face in our daily lives and cannot be avoided. One of the causes of acne is air pollution; air pollution can come in many kinds, such as UV rays, smoke, or PM (particulate matter). PM carries out small particles in the air that clog our skin's pores or UV rays that directly damage our face if we do not have proper protection, resulting in acne outbreaks. Treating these acne outbreaks can be a lengthy and challenging process. Therefore, this review was to provide and update the method to shield and resolving the fair facial skin among air pollution surrounding. The author conducted this review thought collecting the article from Google Scholar and Pubmed using these keywords, including Acne vulgaris, air pollution, treatment, adolescence, self-esteem, and protection. There are a few steps that will protect and help resolve your skin from air pollution. First of all, cleansing your skin with a gentle cleanser is an excellent option to keep natural moisture in your skin. After cleansing, it is essential to use a gentle and soothing toner that helps remove grease and traces of dirt from blocking your pores, which might trigger acne. Scrubbing is the next step after the toner has been applied; mild scrubbing will ensure your skin is thoroughly cleansed of all harmful particles clogging your pores. Facial oil proves to boost moisten and shield your facial skin from toxic air substances. However, for long-term using facial oil can cause irritation to your skin, another option can be moisturizer instead. Make sure to apply sunscreen to protect against both UVB and UVA rays and apply it multiple times throughout the day when you are exposed to the air pollution. In addition, high sugary, salty and fats diets have the relationship with acne vulgaris. People with acne must avoid these types of food to reduce negative effect to acne. The protection and maintenance of facial skin is significantly important to make our face healthy. Moreover, the perks of having clear and healthy facial skin can boost up your confidence as well as decreasing our stress and anxiety that are being released throughout your body.
... Face toner can function as a cleanser after making facial repairs with facial cleansers to remove excess sebum on facial skin so that this face toner has anti-sebum activity (33,34). In addition, facial toner is also useful for hydrating the skin to maintain its moisture (35). ...
Article
Full-text available
Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a plant that has been widely used in Asia, especially in the health sector. This can be related to other than that saffron is also known for its use as a cosmetic because Saffron has various kinds of pharmacological activities beneficial to human skin. Today's cosmetic users prefer cosmetics with herbal or natural ingredients, especially in Indonesia. This happens because it is considered that herbal cosmetics are safer and harmless in long-term use. Therefore, it is necessary to do related act ivities of saffron as a cosmetic ingredient. This is narrative research where the data is obtained from PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar with keywords Saffron, Saffron for cosmetics, and others. There were eight references, with inclusion criteria being national and international journals and national websites published in 2011-2021, especially regarding the study of saffron activity as an ingredient for cosmetics. Then the data is analyzed narratively. It was found that Saffron (Crocus sativus) contains compounds that have a cosmetic activity such as safranal which can be used as a perfume, crocin as an antioxidant and as anti-dark spot, crocin, safranal, and crocetin as anti-UV, crocin, and crocetin as an anti-inflammatory and as coloring pigment in cosmetics, vitamin C, flavonoids and zinc as a face toner, kaempferol, crocin and crocetin as anti-wrinkle, zeaxanthin, lycopene, carotene, crocetin, picrocrocin, kaempferol, and crocin as anti-aging. Saffron (Crocus sativus) has various beneficial activities for the skin, so it can be used as an ingredient in making cosmetics.Keywords : Cosmetics, Herbal, Saffron, Herbal Cosmetics, Active Ingredient
... 26,27 Toning would infuse the skin with a first load of hydration. 28 The eye cream would be dedicated to target skin concerns specific to this area, especially when considering recent evidences that moisturizers containing SPF are insufficiently applied on this part of the face. 29 The main purpose of serum would be the delivery of relevant actives to the skin, for pore reduction, antioxidant, and anti-aging benefits in the current study. ...
Article
Background: The use of a skin care routine is commonly promoted by the cosmetic industry, yet there is a lack of clinical evidence to support this practice over the use of a single skin care product. Aims: In the present study, we aimed at showing the clinical benefits of using a comprehensive skin care routine vs a simple one. Methods: Skin micro-/macro-topographic, skin color, and superficial/deep hydration were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks of use, on forty-nine women randomly allocated to two groups. The first one followed the use of an advanced routine (AR: Cleanser/Toner/Eye cream/Serum/Day & Night cream), while the other group was instructed to use a simple routine (SR: Cleanser & Day cream). Results: Hemoglobin heterogeneity was found to be significantly reduced only in the SR group. However, the AR outperformed the SR when it comes to improving superficial hydration, deep hydration, skin roughness, mean pore area, melanin heterogeneity, and crow's feet wrinkle depth. A significant increase in skin brightness from baseline was only recorded when using the AR while both routines significantly improved the nasolabial wrinkles. Conclusion: These findings advocate for using a relevant daily routine as it demonstrates the visible skin benefits over a short period, while driving the creation of habits for the prevention of aging signs.
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a pseudoceramide-containing moisturizer as maintenance therapy in patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (AD). This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label clinical trial of a twice-daily application of a pseudoceramide-containing moisturizer for 4 weeks as maintenance therapy in 40 patients with stable, mild-to-moderate AD in a tropical climate. Clinical and skin barrier assessment was done at week 0, week 2 and week 4. Any adverse effects were also recorded during the study period. The objective scoring atopic dermatitis decreased from 29.1 [interquartile range (IQR) 21.9-33.7] at week 0 to 22.0 (IQR 21.2-27.8) at week 4 (p < 0.001). There was no detectable difference in transepidermal water loss after 4 weeks; however, stratum corneum (SC) hydration was significantly increased from 39.7 (IQR 35.3-46.4) at week 0 to 49.2 (IQR 41.2-54.6) after 4 weeks (p < 0.001). Both Dermatology Life Quality Index and patient-oriented eczema measure showed significant improvement at week 4 (p < 0.001). The moisturizer was well tolerated with no serious adverse events recorded. After 4 weeks of barrier maintenance therapy with a pseudoceramide moisturizer, there was a significant improvement in disease severity, SC hydration and quality of life in both pediatric and adult patients with mild-to-moderate AD.
Article
Full-text available
Moisturizing creams marketed to consumers often contain trendy ingredients and are accompanied by exciting names and attractive claims. Moisturizers are also an important part of the dermatologist's armamentarium to treat dry skin conditions and maintain healthy skin. The products can be regarded as cosmetics, but may also be regulated as medicinal products if they are marketed against dry skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis. When moisturizers are used on the so-called dry skin, many distinct disorders that manifest themselves with the generally recognized symptoms of dryness are treated. Dryness is not a single entity, but is characterized by differences in chemistry and morphology in the epidermis depending on the internal and external stressors of the skin. Patients and the society expect dermatologists and pharmacists to be able to recommend treatment for various dry skin conditions upon evidence-based medicine. Learning objective Upon completing this paper, the reader should be aware of different types of moisturizers and their major constituents. Furthermore, s/he will know more about the relief of dryness symptoms and the functional changes of the skin induced by moisturizers.
Article
Background/aims: Silicone excipients are commonly used ingredients because of their emollient and skin-conditioning effects, and their ability to form uniform, water-resistant, yet permeable films. Based on comparisons with organic materials and conflicting knowledge from silicones used in scar treatment, the misconception still exists that silicone topical excipients are occlusive substances that may block the passive loss of water through the upper skin layers. Therefore, 3 types of common silicone excipients and 3 water-in-(oil-plus-silicone) or W/(O + Si) creams, containing 10% (w/w) of the respective silicones, were investigated as a function of time and compared to petrolatum. Methods: Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration measurements were carried out after a single topical application on forearm skin of 26 healthy young female volunteers. Results: Both petrolatum and silicones significantly decreased TEWL 15 min after application, but the measurements for the silicones were not significantly different from the untreated control values. The tested silicones did not moisturize the skin. Petrolatum formed an occlusive layer, creating an increase in skin hydration for more than 4 h. The results measured for the W/(O + Si) creams indicated that they moisturized the skin, without any effect on TEWL. Conclusion: A clear difference was shown between the skin occlusive properties of petrolatum and the water vapor permeability of the common silicone excipient materials.
Article
The improvement of stratum corneum hydration is one of the most important claims in the cosmetic industry. Objective assessment of moisturization can be done with devices based on electrical methods provided these instruments are used in an appropriate manner. This paper deals with the biophysical basis behind these techniques and describes the most important variables, pitfalls and drawbacks related to measurements and current instrumentation. Individual-related and environment-related variables are also analyzed as well as study designs for predictive or use tests. Practical suggestions for standardization of measurements are given.
Article
Moisturizers increase skin hydration and can serve as adjunctive care in dermatologic conditions such as xerosis, psoriasis vulgaris, atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis, in which dry skin is implicated. A non-irritating hydrating lotion (CDA lotion) was recently developed. We assessed the effect of CDA lotion on skin hydration in two randomized, evaluator-blind and intra-individual comparison studies. After a single application, CDA lotion induced significantly greater hydration than the non-treated control for at least 24 hours (p < 0.001). After 4 days of twice-daily application, compared with the non-treated control, CDA lotion induced significantly greater skin hydration up to 3 days after treatment cessation (p < 0.05) and significant improvement in the clinical skin dryness score up to 7 days after treatment cessation (p < 0.05). The immediate and cumulative hydration effects of CDA lotion were also compared to those of several currently available moisturizing products. In summary, application of CDA lotion increases skin hydration and alleviates the condition of skin dryness.
Article
Atopic dermatitis (AD) affects health and quality of life and it has great impact on both health-care costs and costs to the society. The objective of this study was to develop a model to analyse the cost-effectiveness of a barrier-strengthening moisturizing cream as maintenance therapy compared with no treatment after initial treatment with betamethasone valerate in adult patients with AD in Sweden. A further aim was to apply a similar health-economic analysis for Denmark, Norway and Finland. A Markov simulation model was developed including data from three sources: (i) efficacy data from a randomized controlled trial including patients with moderate AD treated with either a moisturizing cream or no treatment, (ii) resource utilization and quality of life data, and (iii) unit prices from official price lists. A societal perspective was used and the analysis was performed according to treatment practice in Sweden. The model simulation was also applied for Denmark, Norway and Finland with inclusion of country-specific unit costs. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. The results from the present analyses of treatment for patients with moderate AD indicate that maintenance treatment with a moisturizing cream during eczema-free periods could be cost-effective in a societal perspective. Similar results were obtained for Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. According to the analysis, treatment with a moisturizing cream was found to be a cost-effective option compared with no treatment in eczema-free periods in adult patients with AD in the four Nordic countries.
Article
Ointments (e.g., petrolatum) are thought to be occlusive, thereby blocking transcutaneous water loss and trapping water under the skin's surface. If this premise is correct, then petrolatum should delay barrier recovery after barrier perturbation, as shown previously in occluded murine skin. We reexamined the assumption that Vaseline Petroleum Jelly (VPJ) is occlusive, ascertaining both its site and mechanism of action. Barrier recovery was measured in VPJ-treated versus untreated sites after acetone-induced barrier disruption in human volunteers. Moreover, VPJ was localized within the stratum corneum (SC) with tracers and ruthenium tetroxide staining, which allowed visualization of the depth of VPJ penetration and its relation to intercellular membrane structures. VPJ accelerated, rather than impeded, barrier recovery. Moreover, VPJ was present within the interstices at all levels of the SC, where it replaced intercellular bilayers. VPJ neither forms nor acts like an epicutaneous impermeable membrane; instead, it permeates throughout the SC interstices, allowing normal barrier recovery despite its occlusive properties.
Article
The principles of humectancy, emolliency, and occlusion, all central to stratum corneum (SC) maintenance, continue to drive the development of novel moisturizing technologies. Humectants promote water retention within the SC, whereas occlusives generally minimize water loss to the external environment. The complementary occlusive activity of emollients contributes to SC hydration as well. Moisturization technologies, ranging from face care to hand and body care, vary in the types and levels of humectants, emollients (including lipids), and occlusives; accordingly, their therapeutic effects differ as well. Emulsification of these components into a single formulation-the technologies of which are as varied as their individual components-is thought to enhance the aesthetics of the moisturizer and its overall moisturization efficiency. The present article reviews the current approaches to SC moisturization, increasingly viewed as critical to its structural and functional integrity, and to fundamental skin care.
Article
A multicentre study for measuring skin hydration with 349 volunteers was carried out in six different laboratories. The purpose of the study was to investigate physical-, physiological- and product-dependent parameters of three test emulsions (base, base + moisturizer and base + moisturizer + lipids) in a double-blind study. A comparison between analogous and digital sensor technology of the Corneometer CM825 was examined. Here, a clear relationship between both sensor types could be highlighted. A vital point of the study was the division of the test subjects according to their skin type. To get more objective limits for three different skin types - very dry, dry and normal skin - visual expert evaluation, self-assessment and hydration measurements were analysed by means of statistical methods. The moisture-related skin types were determined as follows: very dry skin was characterized with corneometer units below 30, dry skin between 30 and 40 and normal skin higher than 40 a.u. (arbitrary units). The efficacy of the three test emulsions was examined in relation to the mentioned skin types. Analysing the measured data of all test centres, a clear dependency of skin physiology (skin type) and product efficacy became evident. The drier the skin, the higher the increase of hydration. The product performance of the three test emulsions compared to the untreated control resulted in a significant increase of skin hydration in all measuring centres. The evaluation of a product ranking showed a good differentiation between the basic emulsion and the two other products. An increase of efficacy by adding lipids could be observed in four of six centres. The important influence of the skin type of the volunteers on the degree of product performance, as demonstrated in this study, should be especially considered when drawing up guidelines for efficacy testing.