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Influence of temperature and humidity on the flight capacity of Sitobion avenae

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Abstract

The grain aphid Sitobion avenae is migratory and seriously infests wheat in China. In this study, flight performances of winged adults of the grain aphid were measured with a 32 channel, computer monitored flight mill system at ten temperatures from 8℃ to 30℃ and three relative humidities (40%, 60%, 80%). The results showed that 12℃~22℃ and 60%~80% RH are suitable for their flight. It was difficult for the aphid to take off at 8℃ and the flight time was shortened significantly. When the humidity increased, the flight time prolonged and the flight distance increased. The flight speed was greater at a RH range of about 60% RH. The maximum flight duration, distance and speed of single aphid were 22.51 h, 14.63 km and 2.05 km/h respectively.

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... This species has caused devastating damage and a serious threat to wheat production, more than billions of Euros Þnancial losses have been caused around the world each year (Doane and Olfert 2008). The dispersal ability of the adult insect has likely been underestimated, because S. mosellana has a tiny body size (Ͻ4 mm), so it has been perceived to be a weak ßyer (Cheng et al. 2002, Feng et al. 2004). Adult S. mosellana engage in (active) short-distance ßight, but also exploit weather patterns mainly for (passive) long-distance migration (Miao et al. 2013). ...
... Flight mill studies have been used to characterize ßight aptitude of a number of insect species. The grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), sustained ßights over 2.7Ð 4.8 km at 12Ð22ЊC (Cheng et al. 2002). The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), could ßy 49.3Ð 68.7 km at 16 Ð28ЊC (Tu et al. 2010). ...
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The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a chronic wheat pest worldwide. Adult S. mosellana engage in short-distance flight, but also exploit weather patterns for long-distance dispersal. However, little is known about the flight performance of S. mosellana, and the effects of the biotic and abiotic factors that influence its flight activity. In this study, we explored the active flight potential of S. mosellana under various environmental factors using a 26-channel computer-monitored flight mill system. The most suitable temperature for flight and flight distance was 16-24 degrees C; flight duration peaked at 16 degrees C while speed peaked at 28 degrees C. Flight performance gradually declined between 10 and 400 lux light intensity. More than 50% individuals of 1-d-old females flew > 500 m, while only 24% of males flew > 500 m. One-day-old S. mosellana had stronger flight ability than that of 2-d-old individuals. This research showed that S. mosellana possessed strong enough flight ability that they can fly to a high altitude and then disperse via moving air currents. These results can aid in forecasting S. mosellana outbreak.
... Many studies show that insect flight behavior is closely related to temperature (Duan et al. 1998, Jiang et al. 2002, Doane and Olfert 2008, Lu et al. 2019. The optimum temperature for flight of Sitobion avenae is 12-22°C (Cheng et al. 2002). It is difficult for this aphid to take off at temperatures below 8°C, and if flight is achieved then flight time is shortened considerably (Cheng et al. 2002). ...
... The optimum temperature for flight of Sitobion avenae is 12-22°C (Cheng et al. 2002). It is difficult for this aphid to take off at temperatures below 8°C, and if flight is achieved then flight time is shortened considerably (Cheng et al. 2002). The flight distances of Corythucha ciliata are significantly different at different temperatures, with the strongest flight capacity at 25°C (Lu et al. 2019). ...
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The movement behavior of the pine needle gall midge (Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida Et Inouye (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)), an invasive species in China, was determined by using a tethered flight technique and digital videography in the laboratory. The flight distance, duration, and speed of females were compared at different ages (2-10 h) and ambient temperatures (17, 21, 26, and 30°C). Female flight distance and duration at 26°C were significantly greater than those at 17°C and 21°C. The age of T. japonensis did not significantly affect the three flight characteristics. For females at 2-10 h of age at 26°C and 70% RH, the maximum flight distance was 667.59 m; the longest flight time was 6,222.34 s; and the fastest flight speed was 0.44 m·s-1. For larvae wetted with water, the highest jump was 5.7 cm; the longest jump was 9.6 cm; and the greatest distance moved in 5 min was 27.13 cm, which showed that the active dispersal potential of larvae was very low.
... In China, many areas where A. artemisiifolia is distributed have high humidity levels during the growing season. Humidity is an important climatic factor that influences insect occurrence in the field (Leong and Ho 1990;Cheng et al. 2002). Therefore, the determination of optimum humidity range for the population development of O. communa is necessary, in order to predict the potential distribution of O. communa in China. ...
... Humidity is one of the most important climate factors that may affect insect population dynamics (Leong and Ho 1990;Cheng et al. 2002). The results of the current study provide important information on the humidity condition necessary for mass-rearing of O. communa in laboratory and the prediction of its establishment in the field. ...
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Ophraella communa, an unintentionally introduced leaf beetle in China, has good control efficiency on ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Aspects of the climatic requirements for development, survival, longevity and fecundity of O. communa were studied under the conditions of constant temperature (25±1°C), photoperiod of 14 L:10 D and three relative humidities (60%, 75% and 90% RHs). The results showed that the developmental periods of O. communa at different stages shortened along with the increasing relative humidity, except that of the pupal stage. Although no differences were observed in the pupal survival rate, ovipositional period, fecundity, longevity and adult female age-specific survivorship of O. communa under the three humidity conditions, the survival rates during the egg, larva and entire immature stage were significantly higher at 75% RH and 90% RH than at 60% RH. The innate rate of increase (r m), net reproductive rate (R 0), finite rate of increase (λ) reached the maximum at 75% RH, with values of 0.181, 1116.4 and 1.198, respectively. These results indicated that the optimum relative humidity for the development of O. communa ranged from 75% RH to 90% RH. Thus O. communa prefers moist microclimate habitats. Its population may expand rapidly during mid-May to late August in south, east and central China, when the humidity is relatively high. Keywords Ophraella communa -Humidity-Biological control-Life table-Development-Fecundity
... Many aphids are seriously harmful plant pests by stunting plant growth, inducing plant galls, causing deformation of leaves, buds and flowers, and transmitting plant virus diseases [18,19]. In addition, many aphid species have specific life characters, such as migration, to reduce competition and avoid unfavorable environments and natural enemies [20], which are often significantly affected by climatic factors [21][22][23]. Therefore, aphids may show different life cycle strategies in different environments and regions. ...
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Global climate warming has significant influence on individual development, population dynamics, and geographical distribution of many organisms, which has drawn much attention in recent years. As a large group of poikilotherms, insects whose life activities are closely linked with ambient temperature are supposed to be influenced by global warming. In order to test the consistency or difference of the effects of long-term climate warming on phytophagous insect pests in different geographical environments, this study collected historical data on the occurrence and population dynamics of three aphid pests (Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, and Sitobion avenae) in China, and systematically explored their phenological responses. We found that, during a period of about 60 years, in general, the first occurrence dates and the first migration dates of the three aphids almost moved earlier, while the end of the occurrence and the last migration dates were slightly delayed. However, these responses also represented geographical variation at a local scale. Basically, our results showed that the occurrence and migration seasons of these three aphid pests have been prolonged along with climate warming. This study based on historical literature data provides empirical evidence and valuable implications for understanding the impact of climate warming on insect pests and future management strategies.
... For pre-migration, aphids were tethered (not flighted) and flash-frozen. For postmigration, aphids were tethered and flighted for 24 h using a flight-mill program [14]; flighted aphids were flash-frozen. ...
Article
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Objective: Previous studies showed that flight muscles degenerate after migration in some aphid species; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains virtually unknown. In this study, using the wheat aphid, Sitobion avenae, we aim to investigate aphid flight muscle degeneration and the underlying molecular mechanism. Results: Sitobion avenae started to differentiate winged or wingless morphs at the second instar, the winged aphids were fully determined at the third instar, and their wings were fully developed at the fourth instar. After migration, the aphid flight muscles degenerated via programmed cell death, which is evidenced by a Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling assay. Then, we identified a list of differentially expressed genes before and after tethered flights using differential-display reverse transcription-PCR. One of the differentially expressed genes, ubiquitin-ribosomal S27a, was confirmed using qPCR. Ubiquitin-ribosomal S27a is drastically up regulated following the aphids' migration and before the flight muscle degeneration. Our data suggested that aphid flight muscles degenerate after migration. During flight muscle degeneration, endogenous proteins may be degraded to reallocate energy for reproduction.
... Nottingham and Hardie, 1989; Rhopalosiphum maidis [Fitch], Bottenberg and Irwin, 1992;R. padi, Cheng et al., 1997; Sitobion avenae [F.], Cheng et al., 2002;Aphis gossypii, Dong et al., 2003). Species may be considered migratory or non-migratory based on these abilities, with migratory aphids predictably engaging in longer flights (Kring, 1972). ...
Article
Managing crop viruses is difficult due to complex interactions among vectors, reservoirs, and mediating factors such as land cover. Identifying the appropriate ecological neighborhood, or the spatial area in which the most influential interactions occur affecting virus epidemiology, would therefore be beneficial in exposing which of the many explanatory variables to target in the plant-pathogen system. We constructed partial least squares path models to find the neighborhood size for vectors of stylet-borne nonpersistent viruses infecting pumpkins, and compare the relative influence of within-field and extra-field land cover. Two economically important aphid-vectored viruses in the U.S. Midwest are included in these analyses: papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and watermelon mosaic virus (WMV). In 2010 and 2011, we used commercial pumpkin fields to quantify virus infection, vector (aphid) alightment (i.e., landing rates), and within-field weed communities, and subsequently analyzed extra-field cover from 1 to 5 km concentric buffer zones within the surrounding landscape. Alightment rates of total noncolonizing vectors and the top three numerically dominant species (Aphis craccivora Koch, Therioaphis trifolii (Monell), and Rhopalosiphum padi [L.]) were included in individual path models. Overall, we found that extra-field landscape composition had a far stronger influence on vector alightment than within-field weed cover; this pattern was consistent for seven of eight statistical models. In one exception, weed cover influenced alightment of the putative PRSV vector, A. craccivora, while surrounding landscape had no effect. In this case, weed coverage and vector alightment were inversely related, demonstrating that aphids were less likely to land in weed-infested fields. However, weed cover did not predict alightment of T. trifolii or total noncolonizers. The neighborhood size scales for total noncolonizers’ tended to be larger than for individual species (4–5 km), suggesting future studies of dispersal by multi-species aphid groups may benefit from an extended gradient. On balance, our results indicate that while surrounding land cover interactions are complex, they exert greater influence over vector dispersal than within-field weed cover, calling into question whether management of local weeds is an effective method of crop virus prevention in some systems.
... Flight of maize weevils was investigated using a 26-channel, computermonitored flight-mill system (Beerwinkle et al. 1995, Cheng et al. 2002, Cui et al. 2013. The arm of the flight mill was a 5-cm long (0.02-cm diameter) metal wire, and the distance of one revolution was 0.31 m. ...
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The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, is a major insect pest of stored grain worldwide. We evaluated flight of maize weevils by using a 26-channel computer-monitored flight-mill system to estimate total flight distance, total flight duration, and mean flight velocity at different temperatures. Temperature but not gender influenced propensity of maize weevils to fly. Flight distances and durations varied, but warm temperatures (34°C) diminished the ability of female maize weevils to fly. Despite apparent temperature-based patterns in flight parameters of males, effects of temperature on male flight ability were not statistically demonstrated. The effect of temperature on flight velocity was similar for both genders and indicated greater flight velocity at 28°C than at 22 or 31°C. Knowledge of differences in flight capacity between genders and among temperatures provides insights to consider for management of this major insect pest of stored grain.
... Population numbers of aphids in large-and small-mesh cages were both much larger than that on plants with no cages (Fig. 3), which suggests that natural enemies can partially suppress A. glycines numbers in northeast China. These differences in aphid numbers among caged and uncaged treatments could be partially attributed to the different relative humidity among treatments, because it was known that aphids were sensitive to relative humidity (Chen et al. 1992;Cheng et al. 2002). The economic threshold of A. glycines has been studied (Ragsdale et al. 2007;McCarville et al. 2011) and the accepted number was 250 aphids per soybean (McCarville et al. 2011). ...
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Predators of Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were surveyed and their ability to suppress A. glycines population growth was determined in Harbin, northeast China (45.4°N, 126.4°E). Field surveys were conducted on 21 fixed sampling sites in 2004 and 17 in 2005. Impacts of natural enemies of A. glycines were studied using exclosure experiments. Thirteen natural enemies were found, the most abundant of which was Propylaea japonica (Thunberg), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Chrysopa sinica Tjeder, Chrysopa phyllochroma Wesmael, Chrysopa formosa Brauer (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), Hemerobius humuli Linnaeus (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae), Orius Wolff sp. (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), Nabis stenoferus Hsiao (Heteroptera: Reduviidae), Deraeocoris punctulatus (Fallén) (Heteroptera: Miridae), and Episyrphus balteata (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Three exclosure treatment types were established, large-mesh cages, small-mesh cages, and no cages. In exclosures, A. glycines density in small-mesh cages peaked at numbers 3.75-fold higher than in large-mesh cages and 17.44-fold higher than on plants with no cages in 2004. In 2005, these numbers were 4.59-fold and 60.98-fold. Temperature was not a factor in exclosures, but relative humidity had significant effects. These results indicated that existing predator communities could partially suppress soybean aphid population density in soybean fields in northeast China.
... Ten to 23 mosquitoes were assayed for each combination of age and gender ( Flight Mill Assays. The ßight performance of Cx. pipiens pallens was measured with a 26-channel computer-monitored ßight-mill system (Beerwinkle et al. 1995, Cheng et al. 2002. The arm of a ßight mill was a 10-cm-long (0.02-cm-diameter) metal wire, thus the distance of one complete revolution was 0.63 m. ...
Article
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Culex pipiens pallens (L.) is the most common mosquito in houses of central and northern China. It is the primary vector of lymphatic filariasis and Japanese encephalitis. The flight range of mosquitoes is an important factor predicting the risk area of transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens to vertebrate hosts. The flight performance of Cx. pipiens pallens was measured with a 26-channel computer-monitored flight-mill system. We found that females had longer flight capability than males for total flight distance (TFD) and total flight duration (TFDr), and females flew faster than males based on mean flight velocity. No significant difference in flight capability was found between different age-groups in males. However, certain age-groups of females showed significant differences in TFDr and TFD. Specifically, TFD and TFDr tended to be shortest for 5- and 6-d-old females. These significant differences in flight capability between ages and genders provide insights to determine the size of operational area to achieve effective control of Cx. pipiens pallens and minimize the risk of the related mosquito-borne epidemic diseases of lymphatic filariasis and Japanese encephalitis.
... Previous studies have mainly focused on key pests, for example Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard), Aphis glycines (Matsumura), and Adelphocoris spp. (Cheng et al. 2002;Lei et al. 2002;Zhang et al. 2008;Lu et al. in press). This study, however, was the first to quantify flight performance of a natural enemy by use of a computer-monitored flight mill. ...
Article
The efficacy of using natural enemies to control pests under field conditions largely depends on their mobility and, more specifically, on their capacity to quickly locate pest infestation. For many natural enemies, for example parasitoids, mobility is directly related to flight aptitude, which is determined by the capacity and inclination of a species to engage in flight. In this study, we determined the various factors that affected flight performance of Microplitis mediator (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), using a computer-monitored flight mill. No differences were found in flight performance (i.e., flight distance, duration, speed) between both sexes of M. mediator, and flight capacity increased up to an age of 5–7 days followed by a gradual decline afterwards. For one-day-old female parasitoids, mean (±SE) flight distance and duration were 6.23±0.88km and 85.15±14.44 min, respectively, with a maximum flight distance of 18.0km. For male parasitoids, mean flight distance and duration were 5.27±0.51km and 85.74±7.63 min, respectively. Mating status did not affect flight performance of males, while flight distance of four-day-old ovipositing M. mediator females was much lower than that of un-mated females of the same age. Un-mated adults flew most actively at 22–24°C and inclination to fly gradually declined with decreasing temperature. Temperatures above 26°C considerably reduced flight activity of M. mediator. Wasps engaged in normal flight under a broad range of relative humidity (RH) conditions, with an optimum RH range identified as 75–90%. Our research shows that M. mediator is a highly active parasitoid, because both sexes show great inclination to fly under a range of environmental conditions and flight capacity at different ages. Our results can help explain parasitoid performance in the field and provide baseline information to help guide augmentative releases.
... The flight ability of males of H. armigera, H. assulta, and of F 1 hybrids of female H. armigerarmale H. assulta was measured using the bioassay described by Cheng et al. (2002). Virgin 3-day-old males were tethered on the rod of a flight-mill by using Super glue 502 (Guangdong Aibida Adhesives Co. Ltd, Guangzhou, China) for 24 h in darkness at 22 t1 C. Flight time, the number of rotations, distance and speed were automatically recorded by a computer. ...
Article
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Reciprocal hybridizations between Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) were studied. The cross between females of H. armigera and males of H. assulta yielded only fertile males and sterile individuals lacking an aedeagus, valva or ostium bursae. A total of 492 larvae of the F1 generation were obtained and 374 of these completed larval development and pupated. Only 203 pupae were morphologically normal males, the remaining 171 pupae were malformed. Larvae and pupae that gave rise to morphologically abnormal adults exhibited longer development times. Sterility was not only associated with malformed external sex organs, but also a range of abnormalities of the internal reproductive system: (i) loss of internal reproductive organs, (ii) with one to three copies of an undeveloped bursa copulatrix; or (iii) with one or two undeveloped testes. Normal male hybrid adults showed higher flight activity in comparison with males of both species. In contrast, the cross between females of H. assulta and males of H. armigera yielded morphologically normal offspring (80 males and 83 females). The interaction of the Z-chromosome from H. assulta with autosomes from H. armigera might result in morphological abnormalities found in hybrids and backcrosses, and maternal-zygotic incompatibilities might contribute to sex bias attributed to hybrid inviability.
... The birdcherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, could ßy 6.6 Ð 8.2 km at 12Ð20ЊC (Cheng et al. 1997). The grain aphid, Sitobion avenae sustained ßights over 2.7Ð 4.8 km at 12Ð22ЊC (Cheng et al. 2002), whereas Myzus persicae alates ßew 2.6 km in 1Ð5 h (Chen and Feng 2006). The ßight distance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii under characteristic environmental conditions of spring, summer, and autumn was 3.9, 1.4, and 6.1 km, respectively (Liu et al. 2003). ...
Article
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The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura), is native to eastern Asia and has recently invaded North America, where it is currently the most important insect pest of soybeans. The soybean aphid has spread rapidly within North America, presumably through a combination of active and passive (wind-aided) flight. Here, we studied the active flight potential of A. glycines under a range of environmental conditions using an aphid flight mill. Winged (alate) A. glycines were tested on a specially designed 32-channel, computer-monitored flight mill system. Aphids that were 12-24 h old exhibited the strongest flight behavior, with average flight durations of 3.3-4.1 h, which represented flight distances of 4.6-5.1 km. After the age of 72 h, A. glycines flight performance rapidly declined. The optimum temperature range for flight was 16-28 degrees C, whereas optimum relative humidity was 75%. Our findings show that A. glycines posseses a fairly strong active flight aptitude (ability and inclination) and point to the possibility of flight initiation under a broad range of environmental conditions. These results have the potential to aid forecasting and management protocols for A. glycines at the landscape level.
Article
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