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Polish adaptation of Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI-24)

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Human intelligence is an indispensable tool for adaptation and creativity. But not only rational and emotional ones play such important role. Spiritual intelligence helps us to find sense of human existence – meaning of life (Emmons, 1999; Halama & Striženec, 2004; Zohar & Marshall, 2000). The Threefold Nature of Spirituality (TNS) model (Skrzypińska, 2014) explains mechanism of our functioning in spiritual sphere using spiritual intelligence as an instrument useful in searching for meaning of life. This presentation introduces Polish adaptation of a new, 24-item measure - Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI-24) by David King (2008/2014). The author defines Spiritual Intelligence as a set of mental capacities which contribute to the awareness, integration, and adaptive application of the nonmaterial and transcendent aspects of one’s existence, leading to such outcomes as deep existential reflection, enhancement of meaning, recognition of a transcendent self, and mastery of spiritual states. There are four factors in SISRI-24: 1) Critical Existential Thinking, 2) Personal Meaning Production, 3) Transcendental Awareness, 4) Conscious State Expansion. A four-factor solution of SISRI, reflecting original structure of the scale, had acceptable fit with the data and the scale demonstrated good reliability and good concurrent validity. The scores on SISRI-24 showed expected pattern of relationships with other measures of spirituality and religiosity (e.g. ASPIRES by R. Piedmont), as well as with measures of Satisfaction with Life, Basic Emotions etc. It is concluded that Polish version of SISRI has good psychometric properties, making it a promising tool in the assessment of Spiritual Intelligence in Polish samples.
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Polish adaptation of Spiritual Intelligence
Self-Report Inventory (SISRI-24)
Katarzyna Skrzypi
ń
ska
Paweł Atroszko
University of Gda
ń
sk
III Conference
of Polish Society for the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality
Kraków, 20-22 June 2016
PLAN OF PRESENTATION
(1) Theoretical frames and empirical arguments of the Spiritual
Intelligence in a context of the Threefold Nature of Spirituality
(TNS) model
(2) Empirical data
(3) Conclusions and limitations
ASSUMPTIONS
Spirituality is very complicated phenomenon (Hood, Hill,
Spilka 2009; Oman 2013; Skrzypińska 2014 etc.)
It is not a synonym for religiousness, but they share
common areas
Spirituality has a threefold nature (Skrzypińska 2014)
As a dimension of personality Spirituality uses its
intelligence as a tool for searching for meaning of life.
Spirituality in relation to Religiousness,
View of the World and Beliefs
(Skrzypińska, 2002, 2013, 2014; Saucier & Skrzypińska, 2006)
Spirituality Religiousness
Spiritual
religiousness
Religious
spirituality
Individual
View of
The World
Beliefs
THE FACES OF SPIRITUALITY
(Skrzypińska, 2012; 2014)
Spirituality
2. Dimension of personality
1. Cognitive schema 3. Atitude to life
Spirituality has a threefold nature – manifests itself as:
Spirituality as
COGNITIVE SCHEMA
-meta-cognition of reality
-understanding of self and the world
-categorisation of objects
-reduction of cognitive dissonance
-maintaining of self-evaluation
-processes of atribution
Spirituality as a cognitive schema
Atkinson & Shiffrin (1971) – Modal Model of Cognition:
Sensory registers
environmental input
working
memory
long-term memory
organizing info
according to existing knowledge structures (categories,
schemas & scripts)
Andresen (2001), Boyer (2003), Ozorak (2005) are in
accordance:
Perception, memory, knowledge structures, judgment,
decision making, problem solving etc. are processes
related to religious cognition.
Spirituality as
DIMENSION OF PERSONALITY
-introspection and processes in an area
of self structure
-looking for meaning of life
-self-realisation thanks fulfilling needs
-self-control
-motivation for acting
Spirituality as a dimension of personality
Costa & McCrae (1992) - Big Five Model
Emmons (1999), MacDonald (2000), Piedmont (1999;
2009), Skrzypi
ń
ska (2005, 2013) are in accordance:
Spirituality represents the 6th dimension of
personality
Spirituality as
ATTITUDE
-to comply with norms
-process of evaluation
-attitude to world and people
-to behave in accordance with attitudes
The faces of spirituality
Spirituality as
ATTITUDE
has its own components:
COGNITIVE
(spirituality as
cognitive schema)
EMOTIONAL-
-EXPERIENTIAL
MOTIVATIONAL
(Spirituality as
dimension of personality)
BEHAVIOURAL
(acting in accordance
with views and beliefs)
(answers of respondents: Skrzypińska, 2012a)
Spirituality as attitude to life - definition
(Skrzypińska, 2012, 2013, 2014)
spirituality as “self-fulfillment in the pursuit of the
meaning of life, happiness and the search for the
ultimate, using cognitive, emotional-experiential-
motivational and behavioural resources, sometimes
accompanied by peak experiences = attitude to
life/sacrum.”
Above definition contains:
Cognitive schema dimension of personality attitude to life
SUMMARY: Spirituality – threefold nature
(vision of a structure and mechanisms, Skrzypińska, 2014)
Attitude
to life
Dimension
of personality
Cognitive
schemas
includes
includes
creates
creates
Spiritual Intelligence
SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE
Human intelligence is an indispensable tool for adaptation
and creativity. But not only rational and emotional ones
play such important role. Spiritual intelligence helps us to
find sense of human existence – meaning of life
(Emmons, 1999; Halama & Striženec, 2004; Zohar &
Marshall, 2000 etc.).
Spiritual Intelligence – definition
(King, 2008)
a set of mental capacities which contribute to the
awareness, integration, and adaptive application of the
nonmaterial and transcendent aspects of one’s
existence, leading to such outcomes as deep existential
reflection, enhancement of meaning, recognition of a
transcendent self, and mastery of spiritual states.
Original Scales of SISRI-24
(King, 2008)
I. Critical Existential Thinking (CET)
II. Personal Meaning Production (PMP)
III. Transcendental Awareness (TA)
IV. Conscious State Expansion (CSE)
Methods/variables
ASPIRES (The Assessment of Spirituality and Religious
Sentiments) by Piedmont (2010):
- Religious Sentiments (RS) &
- Spiritual Transcendence (ST).
Religion as a Quest, Bateson & Schoenrade (1991).
View of the World, Skrzypi
ń
ska (2002).
Abridged Big Five-Dimensional Circumplex (AB5C)
Hofstee, de Raad, & Goldberg (1992).
Continued…
Basic Emotions, Wojciszke et. al. (1998).
TEIQue-SF (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire),
Petrides (2009).
PIL (Purpose in Life Test), Crumbaugh & Macholick
(1963).
SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), Diener et. al. (1985).
Participants
CFA: 638 participants
• 175 (27.4%) men
• 405 (63.5%) women
• 58 (9.1%) did not report gender
Mean age: 26.63 (SD = 9.29)
Min. 16, Max. = 73
284 did not report age
Participants - denomination
Religion/denomination:
Catholic: 224 (35.5%)
Christian other: 21 (3.3%)
Atheist, agnostic or no: 84 (13.2%)
Other religion: 19 (3.0%)
No data: 290 (45.5%)
Adaptation
The original 4 factor model had a relatively acceptable fit
(minimum value of the discrepancy function divided by
degrees of freedom (CMIN/DF) = 4.14, RMSEA = .071
(90% confidence interval (CI) = .066−.076), CFI = .89,
TLI = .88).
All standardized regression weights were above .40 and
ranged from .40 to .83.
Adaptation
These results were analogous to the results of
confirmatory factor analysis of the original version
Taking into account the complexity of the model and the
relatively medium-low sample size, the obtained data
supports maintaining 4 factor model of the Polish version
of SISRI
Further studies with larger sample sizes should be
conducted to provide more data on factorial validity
Adaptation
Correlations between latent factors were:
CET <--> PMP .367
CET <--> TA .769
CSE <--> CET .597
PMP <--> TA .679
CSE <--> PMP .536
CSE <--> TA .720
CET -Critical Existential Thinking; PMP - Personal Meaning Production;
TA - Transcendental Awareness; CSE - Conscious State Expansion
Adaptation
These results were analogous to the results of
confirmatory factor analysis of the original version
Taking into account the complexity of the model and the
relatively medium-low sample size, the obtained data
supports maintaining 4 factor model of the Polish version
of SISRI
Further studies with larger sample sizes should be
conducted to provide more data on factorial validity
Reliability
Cronbach’s Alpha of the total scale = .911
CET = .79;
PMP = .82;
TA = .85;
CSE = .91
Reliability of the whole scale and subsceles were good
and very similar to the original version of SISRI.
CET -Critical Existential Thinking;
PMP - Personal Meaning Production;
TA - Transcendental Awareness;
CSE - Conscious State Expansion
Concurrent validity - ASPIRES
** p< .01, * p<.05
CET -Critical Existential Thinking; PMP - Personal Meaning Production;
TA - Transcendental Awareness; CSE - Conscious State Expansion
ASPIRES: SISRI CET PMP TA CSE
STS .468** .323** .308** .437** .424**
Prayer_full .399** .255** .308** .314** .399**
Universality .509** .415** .301** .524** .362**
Conectedness .094 .060 -.032 .202*.050
REL_
SENTIMENTS -.132 .069 -.306** -.153 -.098
Concurrent validity – Religion as a Quest
QUEST: SISRI CET PMP TA CSE
Readiness .234** .312** .019 .198*.129
Self_Criticism .109 .193*-.018 .148 -.037
Openness .137 .249** .012 .177*-.056
Quest_sum .201*.332** .005 .219** .004
** p< .01, * p<.05
CET -Critical Existential Thinking; PMP - Personal Meaning Production;
TA - Transcendental Awareness; CSE - Conscious State Expansion
Concurrent validity – View of the World
Views: SISRI CET PMP TA CSE
Higher
Power .302** .279** .125 .282** .272**
Human
Power -.028 .049 -.036 .019 -.147
Chance
Power -.015 .080 -.125 -.038 -.016
** p< .01, * p<.05
CET -Critical Existential Thinking; PMP - Personal Meaning Production;
TA - Transcendental Awareness; CSE - Conscious State Expansion
Concurrent validity - Personality
Personality
SISRI CET PMP TA CSE
Extraversion .188*.063 .319** .131 .097
Agreeableness .374** .092 .538** .326** .244**
Conscientiousness .187*-.007 .386** .147 .110
Emotional stability .150 -.063 .385** .088 .115
Intellect .359** .295** .303** .303** .196*
** p< .01, * p<.05
CET -Critical Existential Thinking; PMP - Personal Meaning Production;
TA - Transcendental Awareness; CSE - Conscious State Expansion
Concurrent validity - Emotions
Emotions SISRI CET PMP TA CSE
LOVE .264** .071 .391** .282** .124
JOY .279** ,029 .458** .212** .237**
SADNESS -.039 .204*-.395** .005 -.027
ANGER .011 .140 -.163*.025 -.013
FEAR -.037 .185*-.291** -.025 -.044
SHAME -.008 .190*-.340** .028 .039
Positive_E .305** .059 .476** .282** .198*
Negative_E -.023 .214** -.355** .008 -.016
** p< .01, * p<.05
CET -Critical Existential Thinking; PMP - Personal Meaning Production;
TA - Transcendental Awareness; CSE - Conscious State Expansion
Concurrent validity – Emotional Intelligence
TEIQ-ue SISRI CET PMP TA CSE
TEIQ-ue
_sum .355** .017 .608** .320** .237**
Well_being .369** .049 .598** .324** .253**
Self_control .196*-.032 .442** .092 .211**
Emotionality .240** .032 .357** .313** .060
Sociability .208** .042 .316** .173*.138
Motivation .282** -.001 .472** .255** .157*
** p< .01, * p<.05
CET -Critical Existential Thinking; PMP - Personal Meaning Production;
TA - Transcendental Awareness; CSE - Conscious State Expansion
Concurrent validity – Purpose in Life
PIL SISRI CET PMP TA CSE
PIL_SUM ,334** ,034 ,625** ,245** ,221**
GOALS ,403** ,166*,596** ,325** ,215**
SENSE ,324** ,028 ,625** ,250** ,200*
AFIRMATION ,307** ,018 ,584** ,242** ,190*
Apprais of_SELF ,315** ,074 ,569** ,243** ,187*
Apprais of_LIFE ,336** ,082 ,591** ,228** ,251**
Responsibility_
Freedom ,179*,017 ,387** ,144 ,072
Attitude to DEATH ,076 -,119 ,225** ,017 ,167*
** p< .01, * p<.05
CET -Critical Existential Thinking; PMP - Personal Meaning Production;
TA - Transcendental Awareness; CSE - Conscious State Expansion
Concurrent validity – Satisfaction With Life
SISRI CET PMP TA CSE
Satisfaction
with Life .253** .019 .421** .173*.246**
** p< .01, * p<.05
CET -Critical Existential Thinking; PMP - Personal Meaning Production;
TA - Transcendental Awareness; CSE - Conscious State Expansion
Discussion
Polish SISRI showed acceptable factorial structure
Polish SISRI showed good reliability
Polish SISRI showed good concurrent validity
Conclusion
Polish SISRI showed good psychometric properties
suggesting that it is useful tool in studying spiritual
intelligence in Polish population.
Further studies are required to provide more data on its
factorial, concurrent, discriminant, convergent, and predicitve
validity as well as temporal stability.
psyks@univ.gda.pl
... Even if Tirri and Nokelainen (2011) prefer the term sensitivity, I believe that spiritual intelligence is a valid intelligence such as demonstrated above. As noted by Zappalà (2021), spiritual intelligence is "the cognitive ability to find higher meaning, value, and purpose in life through transcending rational intelligence" but we need more empirical and theoric works (Atroszko , Skrzypińska and Balcerowska, 2021) to sustain this emerging paradigm and build a solid instrument of it measure (Ahmad Peerzadah, Mufti and Ahmed Nazir, 2018) such as SISRI 24 in the Polish context (Skrzypińska and Atroszko, 2016). Momenia and Vatankhah (2013) did similar experience among some students without a conclude result. ...
Preprint
The concept of spiritual intelligence is currently at the focus of scientific debate. One of the most important problems is if it is a valid intelligence that meets the criteria developed by scholars. In this paper, I look at this idea in the context of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and show some evidence from biology, neurology, and other scientific disciplines
Article
Full-text available
For years, spirituality and finding the meaning of life have been considered essential phenomena in the context of human existence. Zohar introduced the term spiritual intelligence (SI) in 1997, and since that time researchers have been seeking to clarify the concept. Emmons (The psychology of ultimate concerns. Guilford Press, New York, 1999) suggested that SI serves as a potentially significant construct to expand our understanding of the psychological determinants of human functioning. In recent years, several efforts to conceptualize and measure this construct have joined the body of related literature, of which King (Brighter paths to wellbeing: an integrative model of human intelligence and health. Trent University Centre for Health Studies Showcase, pp 12–13, 2008) serves as one notable example. Following, evaluating, and summarizing the theoretical debate regarding the validity of a concept, as it is presented in the literature, has long been understood as a helpful way of extending scholarly dialogue. In this project, I review psychological literature relevant to the debate on the validity of SI as a psychological construct. The literature offers many examples that demonstrate a relation between SI and other phenomena that are important for human functioning—well-being in this. Results of the analysis support theoretical considerations for viewing SI as facilitating the ability to search for the meaning of life and provide directions for future study.
CSE -Conscious State Expansion Concurrent validity – Emotional Intelligence TEIQ-ue SISRI CET
  • Ta-Transcendental Awareness
TA -Transcendental Awareness; CSE -Conscious State Expansion Concurrent validity – Emotional Intelligence TEIQ-ue SISRI CET PMP TA CSE TEIQ-ue _sum .355 ** .017 .608 ** .320 ** .237 **
• Religion as a Quest
• Religion as a Quest, Bateson & Schoenrade (1991).