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Nutritional and mineral contents of honey extracted by centrifugation and pressed processes

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... Apart from sources of trace elements in honey mentioned above, presence of elevated amounts of some of them can be either associated with improper beekeeping practices used for harvesting and processing of honey, e.g. extraction by centrifuging in stainless steel centrifuges or pressing in stainless steel press machines [46]. Contamination occurred during harvesting, processing, preparation or storage of honey, connected with the use of inappropriate materials and tools (e.g. ...
... stainless steel or galvanized containers for honey storage, stainless steel presses for honey extraction), or practices (e.g. pharmacological treatment of bees, conservation of honey, feeding of bees with sugar syrups) is commonly reflected by higher concentrations of certain major, minor and trace elements [2,8,9,23,25,46,49,51,54,56,62,74]. Release of elements, particularly of Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn, is facilitated by natural acidity of honey [49,56]. ...
... Honeys are collected directly from beekeepers [1,2,7e9, 16e23,25,26,28e32,34e45,49,51e53,55,57,59e67,70,73,74,76,78, 80e83]. If comb honey samples are available, they are mechanically filtrated or extracted at first [46,61,62,84]. Samples can also be purchased from local companies and beekeeping associations engaged in purchase and sale of honey [36,45,48,50,51,53,54,56,60,73,85,86] or shops and stores [8,9,30,33,42,45,50,51,54,58,75,76,79, 81e83,87e90]. ...
Article
Consumption of honey cannot raise any concern about its wholesomeness, safety and quality in reference to the content of different contaminants, particularly including trace and hazardous elements. Element analysis of honey by atomic and mass spectrometry methods is important part of its quality and safety. The present paper comprehensively reviews recent achievements in element analysis of honey that have been reported since 2012. The survey is focused on different research aspects of such analysis, including assessment of biological and geographical origin of honey by using chemometric methods, quality and safety of honey, and sample preparation of honey prior to element analysis by atomic and mass spectrometry methods. Calibration strategies and ways of quality assurance and control of the results are surveyed as well.
... Originated mainly from soil, minerals are incorporated into the plants through the roots, arriving to their last stage with the aid of honey bees that collect the raw material for the honey-making process [71]. However, minerals may also appear due to environmental pollution or beekeeping extraction methods in particular [72]. The main mineral elements found in honey are: potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), followed by iron (Fe), cop-per (Cu), manganese (Mn), chlorine (Cl) [53]. ...
... The mineral content of honey is different in Blossom honeys (0.1-0.2%) than in Honeydew varieties (1%) [41]. One of the representative minerals in honey is K, standing for 80% of the total [72], followed by P, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe. Studies reported data regarding the existence of K as the main mineral present in honey samples from Turkey [73], Serbia [74] or Morocco [13]. ...
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The nutritional and therapeutic aspects of natural products have gained more interest in recent years, owing to the importance that has been given to health and well-being. In this regard, honey represents an organic product whose high level of biologically active compounds and valuable nutrients have been extensively studied in order to prove its ability to provide an enhancement in health status. The use of honey in the process of healing or preventing certain diseases has been practiced throughout history and is now known as apitherapy. The aim of this review is to expand the knowledge and understanding towards the physicochemical characteristics of honey and the action of its main bioactive compounds towards health-beneficial properties (antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, etc.) for apitherapeutic purposes. Notwithstanding all the assets, the usage of honey for medical purposes encounters some limi-tations regarding the factors that may affect the therapeutic potential of honey in apitherapy that will be pointed out in this overview.
... Sugarcane contains major elements (N, P, K), intermediate nutrients (Ca, Mg) and secondary nutrients (S, Fe); Fe is necessary in the synthesis of chlorophyll and is an essential component for the enzymatic activity [14]; however, according to the results obtained, it is possible that the agronomic conditions and the variety did not allow a higher Fe content in the final product. Other authors also reported higher K and Ca content in NCS (5.31 g K kg -1 , 5.0 g K kg -1 and 1.02 g Ca kg -1 , 2.5 g Ca kg -1 ) [5,19]. NCS is a natural sweetener and provides a higher mineral content than syrup (0.96 g K kg -1 and 0.26 g Ca kg -1 ) [19] and refined sugar powder which does not have a mineral content [20]. ...
... Other authors also reported higher K and Ca content in NCS (5.31 g K kg -1 , 5.0 g K kg -1 and 1.02 g Ca kg -1 , 2.5 g Ca kg -1 ) [5,19]. NCS is a natural sweetener and provides a higher mineral content than syrup (0.96 g K kg -1 and 0.26 g Ca kg -1 ) [19] and refined sugar powder which does not have a mineral content [20]. K is found in fruits and fresh vegetables, whole grains, meats, salmon, milk, yogurt and pumpkin, is necessary for proper balance of fluids, the nervous and muscular system, proper maintenance of blood pressure and waste disposal [21]. ...
Article
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Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) is a natural sweetener with beneficial health properties. This is traditionally produced in an oven which has had technological variations. Therefore, the present study focuses on determining the effect that NCS processing technology has on its physicochemical properties. In this study, two contrasting technologies were selected: the first one corresponds to the traditional furnace, characterized by a flat combustion chamber and hemispherical pan. The second one corresponds to the furnace with a ward type combustion chamber and modified pan. The variety of sugarcane selected was RD 75-11. The physical and chemical parameters evaluated were hydrogen potential (pH), total acidity (TA), solid soluble content soluble (SSC), ash, minerals, reducing sugars, color, moisture content and heat capacity. The technology with ward- type combustion chamber and modified pan managed to concentrate the oBrix of syrup to NCS in a 36.03% unlike the traditional furnace (32.59%). The two technologies used allowed obtaining NCS with an average caloric value of 14684.9 J g-1 and soluble solid content of 90.1°Brix. It was found that the NCS is a source of minerals such as potassium (3.55 g kg -1), calcium (2.25 g kg -1) and phosphorus (0.3 g kg -1).
... Sodium, calcium, magnesium, and iron are also abundant. As can be seen in Table 6S (see Supplementary Material), a wet acid digestion with nitric acid alone (El-Haskoury, Kriaa, Lyoussi, & Makni, 2018;Karabagias et al., 2017Karabagias et al., , 2020Laaroussi, Bouddine, Bakour, Oussaid, & Lyoussi, 2020;Louppis, Karabagias, Papastephanou, & Badeka, 2019), or in combination with perchloric acid (Kadri, Zaluski, & Orsi, 2017;Paul et al., 2017) or hydrogen peroxide (Di Rosa, Leone, Cheli, & Chiofalo, 2019;Gašić et al., 2015;Liu et al., 2021;Uršulin-Trstenjak et al., 2017;Voica, Iordache, & Ionete, 2020;Zerrouk, Seijo, Escuredo, & Rodríguez-Flores, 2018), was selected as sample treatment when determining minerals in honey, and it is predominantly followed by a dilution with water. ...
... The determination techniques of choice were atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS; El-Haskoury et al., 2018;Kadri et al., 2017;Paul et al., 2017;Zerrouk et al., 2018), or inductively coupled plasma (ICP), the latter linked to either optical emission spectrometry (OES; Gašić et al., 2015;Karabagias et al., 2017;Karlidag et al., 2021;Louppis et al., 2019;Liu et al., 2021), atomic emission spectrometry (AES; Laaroussi et al., 2020), or MS (Di Rosa et al., 2019Uršulin-Trstenjak et al., 2017). Both determination methods (ICP and AAS) have their advantages and disadvantages. ...
Article
The main goal of this article is to present an overview of the analytical methodologies employed in recent years (2015-2021) to determine several honey constituents, and, specifically, those with health-promoting effects and nutritional value, like phenolic compounds, sugars, amino acids and proteins, vitamins, lipids, minerals, and organic acids. The review is structured according to the different families of compounds, and they will be discussed along with the main extraction and analytical techniques used for their determination. Phenolic compounds, sugars and amino acids have been the main compounds determined in honey. The analytical methods (sample treatment and determination techniques) are strongly dependent on the compound. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that high-performance liquid chromatography was predominantly selected for determining honey constituents; while, in relation to the sample treatment, the preferred option was a dilution of the honey with water or a buffer.
... Sub-factor References Honeybee-associated factors Effect of bee species [9,[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] Effect of bee nutrition [28][29][30] Effect of bee health status [31][32][33][34][35] Geographical origins, climatic conditions, and environmental pollution Effect of the geographical origin and climatic conditions [36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] Effect of environmental pollution: Heavy metal pollution Antibiotics in honey Pesticide pollution [47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61] [ [47][48][49][50][51][52] [ [52][53][54][55][56] [ [57][58][59][60][61] Floral origins [12,[62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70] Honey's associated factors Honey maturity [71,72] Honey harvesting [1,73,74] Honey processing and production [75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88] Honey handling, packaging, and storage [83,[89][90][91][92] Effect of honey's constituents on each other [93][94][95] The references [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] were cited in the Introduction section in four paragraphs: the definition of honey [1][2][3][4][5] ; physical characteristics of honey [1,[6][7][8] ; physicochemical properties and chemical composition of honey [9][10][11][12] ; and nutritional and medicinal uses of honey [13][14][15][16][17][18] . ...
... [73] Further, there are three types of honey according to their collection methodextracted, pressed, and drained honey -and these three types are obtained by centrifuging the decapped combs, pressing the combs, and draining the de-capped combs, respectively. [1] Kadri et al. [74] reported that pressed honey has a significantly high amount of minerals, total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ascorbic acid, and flavonoids when compared to extracted honey. ...
Article
The physicochemical properties and chemical composition of bee’s honey determine its nutritional and medicinal uses. The chemical constituents of honey include sugars, polyphenols, flavonoids, hydroxymethylfurfural, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal, proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals while the physical properties include color, aroma, taste, and conductivity. This review considers the factors that affect the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of bee’s honey to help beekeepers produce high-quality bee’s honey.
... It contains major components of a meal, micronutrients that will enhance the digestion and absorption of dietary essentials, as well as non-essentials required for the metabolic activities and the proper functioning of the human body [5]. Natural honey, which contains up to 17 mg of carbohydrates per tablespoon consumed, has been linked to improved physical performance and provides much-needed energy, making it an inexpensive substitute for refined sugar [11]. These enzymes (amylase and Dglucose) found in natural honey aid in food digestion in the human body system [12]. ...
... Natural honey undoubtedly is a good source of natural sugars and thereby can be used as a substitute for refined sugar. Natural honey was reported to improve the growth and performance of the body when consumed with feed without any side effects [11]. However, there is scarce literature on the effect of natural honey and refined sugar, on albino rats in Awka, Anambra State Nigeria. ...
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The purpose of this research was to find out the growth performance of albino rats orally administered with honey from Apis mellifera adansonii and refined granulated sugar at varying quantities. Twenty-five (25) healthy albino rats used in the study were grouped into five treatments based on the dose of natural honey and granulated sugar as follow: T1 (1.02g of honey kg BW), T2 (1.40g of honey kg BW), T3 (1.02g of granulated sugar kg BW), and T4 (1.40g of granulated sugar kg BW). However, rats in T5 were not administered honey and refined granulated sugar hence served as the control. The data on fructose and micronutrients concentrations of natural honey and refined sugar as well as data on the weight gain and feed intake of the albino rats were determined after 28 days. According to the findings of this study, the fructose concentration was higher in natural honey (195.78mg/ml) while refined sugar (30.225mg/ml) recorded the least value. Also, copper (0.15ppm) and manganese (0.05ppm) had the highest mean concentration in natural honey, while iron (0.04ppm) and zinc (0.07ppm) were higher in refined sugar. The study's findings revealed Original Research Article Ononye et al.; ARRB, 37(3): 41-48, 2022; Article no.ARRB.84971 42 that the highest feed intake by albino rat was recorded in T1 (148.16g) while T5 (140.27g) had the least. There were no significant differences in albino rat feed intake among the five treatments (p>0.05). The highest weight gain was recorded by the albino rat in T1 (69.84g) while T5 (32.28g) had the least. There were no significant differences in the weight gain of the albino rats among the five treatments. This study's findings led to the conclusion that the doses of natural honey used did not significantly increase the weight gain of albino rats.
... Essentially, natural honey is a sticky and viscous solution with a content of 80-85% carbohydrate (mainly glucose and fructose), 15-17% water, 0.1-0.4% protein, 0.2% ash, and minor quantities of amino acids, enzymes and vitamins as well as other substances like phenolic antioxidants (Gheldof & Engeseth, 2002;James et al., 2009;Jeffrey & Echazarreta, 1996;National Honey Board, 2003;White & Doner, 1980). The composition, colour, aroma, and flavour of honey depend mainly on the flowers, geographical regions, climate, and honey bee species involved in its production, and are also affected by weather conditions, processing, manipulation, packaging, and storage time (Escuredo et al., 2014;Kadri et al., 2017;Silva et al., 2016;Tornuk et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Sour honey is a natural product produced by Trigona species, which is a stingless bee. The distribution of this honey is very low because of the limited knowledge and has resulted in being less popular in terms of industrial production and quality standard. The objective of the present study is the biochemical and bioactivity analysis of 7 sour honeys (Trigona species) and one sweet honey collected from Nagaland, Northeast India. The biochemical and physiochemical screening of all samples was performed. The results of these tests are certainly encouraging its utilization as food supplements. In the antioxidant assay, the honey samples have exhibited 31-81% (P > 0.05) of inhibition on DPPH as compared to standard ascorbic acid. Antibacterial test of the 7 sour honey samples has displayed a zone of inhibition ranging from 12 ± 0.21 mm to 17 ± 0.5 mm (P > 0.05)against Escherichia coli. The catalase and oxidase tests conducted on the isolated microbial colonies from honey samples expressed positive results. In HPLC analysis, the retention time of the highest peak in all samples (3.79- 3.84) was identical to the retention time of standards (3.79-3.87) at dilution 10⁻⁵ and a percentage of the area was nearly similar in all honey samples (11.93-14.84%) except SH6 which has 19.92%. In brief, the beneficial effects of stingless bee honey in different contexts, such as biochemical components, physicochemical properties, quantification of sugars, antioxidant and antibacterial activity has experimented and all the results were positive. Further, these honey samples may have the probable potential for many nutraceuticals.
... Honey is a natural sweetener produced by honeybees using the nectar or secretion from plants. This highly viscous substance is a miraculous compound that contains essential nutritional elements, and has various therapeutic uses for its antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and other immune boosting properties from prehistoric period [1][2][3][4][5]. Generally, unifloral and multifloral honeys are available in the market. ...
Article
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Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees from the nectar or secretion of flowering plants. Along with the botanical and geographical origin, several environmental factors also play a major role in determining the characteristics of honey. The aim of this study is to determine and compare the elemental concentration of various macro and trace elements in apiary and wild honeys collected from different parts of Indian Sundarbans. The elemental analysis was performed in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy preceded by microwave digestion method. The concentrations of 19 elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) were investigated from thirteen locations of Indian Sundarbans. This comparative study shows in wild honey samples, the concentration of K was highest followed by Ca, Mg and Na and Zn was lowest among all. In contrast, in apiary honey samples, Ca had maximum concentration followed by K, Mg and Na and Ag had minimum among all. The elemental concentration in honey from apiary was either equal or higher than their wild counterpart. The results of the factor analysis of PCA algorithm for wild and apiary honey samples were highly variable which implies that the elements are not coming from the same origin. The concentration of element was found to be highly variable across sites and across sources of honey samples.
... Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are important constituents contributing to honey proximate composition in the context of nutritional values (Ahmad, Hussain, Saeed, Waheed, & Tufail, 2017;EL Sohaimy, Masry, & Shehata, 2015;Kadri, Zaluski, & DE Oliveira Orsi, 2017;Solayman et al., 2016;Tom as, Falcão, Russo-Almeida, & Vilas-Boas, 2017). Honey also contains every essential amino acids and all nonessential amino acids except for glutamine and asparagine (National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, 2015). ...
Article
The aromatic volatile organic compounds present in honey is important since they contribute toward organoleptic characteristics, identity, and quality of honey. A good number of scientific data and information from some literatures corroborate bioactivity with toxicity of volatile organic compounds present in honey. Nevertheless, systematic scientific study of honey aromatic compounds is an overlooked issue unlike investigation on other bioactive compounds of honey. Reports on comprehensive profiling of honey aromatic compound, bioactivity screening, toxicological evaluation, medicinal values for a particular disease condition as well as database development could be some of the future research scope with honey aromatic compounds. In this article, reports on aromatic compound in honey and their implications in terms of physiochemical characteristics, origin tracking, quality, physiological, and toxicological effects are compiled. It is hoped that this article exhort the scientific community to conduct more rational scientific studies on honey aromatic compounds which is not well-explored in depth.
... In a study by [42] Samples of honey were collected directly from honeybees in different geographical areas and analyzed and compared on the basis of physical and chemical properties, nutritional and total characteristics, microbial content and pollen, mineral levels. Wild honey samples extracted by two different methods (centrifugation and pressed processing) were characterized and compared minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Li, Zn) it were higher in pressed honey [43]. In principle, pollutants can be collected in soil and plants [44] and are collected by bees along with nectar and pollen (Roman, 2004 andRoman, 2009). ...
Article
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Honeybees and honey have become important tools for ecotoxicity because of their extraordinary ability to bioaccumulate of mineral element and toxic metals from the environment. The present study aimed to evaluate and detect the mineral element and pollution levels of honeybees and their product, honey, by heavy metals. These minerals include heavy metals; cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, zinc) and elements (calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium). The levels of heavy metal pollution are collected from different regions in Saudi Arabia using foraging bees of Apis mellifera jemenatica. For this purpose, bee and honey samples were collected directly from different geographic regions in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that the highest contamination level among the heavy metals in question was the iron (Fe). In the honey bee samples, the highest Fe concentrations were in Makkah region (8.794) Asir (6.222) Jazan (6.205)Al-Baha(2.088). In the honey samples, the highest Fe concentrations were found in Asir (1.904) Jazan (1.843)Al-Baha(1.340) and Makkah (0.907). In addition, we found that the most concentrated mineral element is potassium (K) in all four agricultural areas from which the samples were collected in this study. The results showed that metal levels are within the limits of international standards in bee and honey in Saudi Arabia.
... However, what is the real effect of catalase on the H 2 O 2 decomposition, still remains to be elucidated, especially considering the effect of low pH on the significantly decreased catalase activity (Alptekin et al., 2008). Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is an antioxidant compound whose concentration in honeys of different botanical origin ranges from zero (Gheldof et al., 2002) up to 4250 mg/kg of honey (Chis et al., 2016;Ciulu et al., 2011;Kadri et al., 2017;Kerkvliet, 1996;León-Ruiz et al., 2011;Perna et al., 2013). While the highest vitamin C concentration was found in thyme honeys (Kerkvliet, 1996;León-Ruiz et al., 2011), black locust honeys were reported to have from 0 to 1.3 ± 0.2 mg/kg (Ciulu et al., 2011;Gheldof et al., 2002), lime honeys less than 0.1 mg/kg (Ciulu et al., 2011), chestnut honeys from 0 up to 200 mg/kg (León-Ruiz et al., 2011;Perna et al., 2013), while honeydew honeys from 0 up to 250 mg/kg (Chis et al., 2016;Kerkvliet, 1996;León-Ruiz et al., 2011). ...
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Ability of black locust (n = 7), chestnut (n = 3), lime (n = 5), mint (n = 3), and honeydew (n = 12) honeys to produce hydrogen peroxide upon dilution, as well as their glucose oxidase activity were investigated in the present study. The glucose oxidase (GOX) activity was determined by the standard horseradish peroxidase/o-dianisidin method, while hydrogen peroxide concentration in honey solutions of five different mass to volume ratios (1:1; 1:2; 1:4; 1:8; 1:16) by semi-quantitative method using MQuant™ peroxide test strips. The obtained results showed that chestnut, lime, honeydew and mint honeys exhibited high GOX activity (341.26 ± 128.78, 350.16 ± 124.91, 376.82 ± 69.02, 402.47 ± 60.99 µg H2O2/h g), while black locust honeys much lower GOX activity of 25.58 ± 21.87 µg H2O2/h g. The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in serially diluted honeys has shown asymmetrical inverted U-shaped curve, where the increase in hydrogen peroxide accumulation with dilution reached a maximum point, after which its concentration rapidly declined. Hydrogen peroxide content in honey solutions of different mass to volume ratio varied from 0 to 294.1 µmol/L h. Lime and chestnut honeys generated the highest hydrogen peroxide content (264.71 ± 65.77, 245.10 ± 84.90 µmol/L h) on average, while black locust, mint and honeydew honeys at least two-fold lower amounts (113.40 ± 50.84, 127.45 ± 33.96, 112.75 ± 98.42 µmol/L h). Lack of correlation between glucose oxidase activity and hydrogen peroxide content indicates that the glucose oxidase activity does not present a reliable parameter for the prediction of hydrogen peroxide content produced in honey solutions.
... It is reported that honey possesses a high therapeutic value, particularly in treating ailments like heart and inflammatory diseases (Oryan et al., 2016;Yousuf et al., 2016). It is a naturally sweet food produced by honeybees from the nectar of plants and is mainly composed of sugar, enzymes, organic and phenolic acids, vitamins, minerals, trace elements and pollens (Missio da Silva et al., 2016;Kadri et al., 2017). Determination of pollen helps in identifying the nectar source of honey. ...
Article
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A new methodology based on cyclic voltammetry using a chemically modified electrode has been developed for the discrimination of the floral origin of honey. This method involves an electronic tongue with an electrochemical sensor made from a carbon paste (CPs) electrode where zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are used as an electroactive binder material. The bare CPs electrode is evaluated for comparison. The electrochemical response of the modified electrode in 50 samples of five different floral types of honey has been analysed by the cyclic voltammetric technique. The voltammograms of each floral variety of honey reflect the redox properties of the ZnO nanoparticles present inside the carbon paste matrix and are strongly influenced by the nectar source of honey. Thus, each type of honey provides a characteristic signal which is evaluated by using principal component analysis (PCA) and an artificial neural network (ANN). The result of a PCA score plot of the transient responses obtained from the modified carbon paste electrode clearly shows discrimination among the different floral types of honey. The ANN model for floral classification of honey shows more than 90 % accuracy. These results indicate that the ZnO nanoparticles modified carbon paste (ZnO Nps modified CPs) electrode can be a useful electrode for discrimination of honey samples from different floral origins.
... Honey is a natural sweetening agent produced by bees (Apis mellifera) from flower nectar and this product has been used since ancient times due to its nutritional value and health benefits. Honey is a rich source of readily available sugars (predominantly fructose and glucose) as well as many other substances such as organic acids, proteins, vitamins, enzymes, biologically active compounds, and trace minerals as minor elements [8][9][10]. The quality of honey is determined according to its botanical and geographical origin [11]. ...
Article
Honey is a pure product for which the addition of any other substance is prohibited by international regulations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reliable analytical methods to guarantee its authenticity. Visible-near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) combined with chemometric tools, like hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), has been used for the discrimination of honey adulterated with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Different honey samples from the Granada Protected Designation of Origin (Spain) were adulterated with HFCS at different percentages (10 – 90%). LDA was able to discriminate 100% of the samples. Partial least squares regression (PLS) was used to predict the level of adulteration. The best prediction model used 10 factors with a high coefficient of determination near 1. The developed method showed high precision (coefficient of variation below 4%). Vis-NIRS combined with chemometrics can be used for the rapid and non-destructive detection of honey adulteration. The obtained results demonstrate that the application of this technique as a screening method could be a useful tool for quality monitoring analysis in routine laboratories.
... These factors affect parameters such as mineral content and consequently EC, color or FA among others. Modifications during processing and handling of honey are also other variables that affects parameters such as M content, a w , HMF content or DA (Acquarone et al., 2007;Habib et al., 2014;Moura Kadri et al., 2017). These facts explain that all samples showed significant differences between harvests for some of these parameters. ...
Article
This study consisted of a palynological, microbiological, and physicochemical characterization of fifteen samples of Spanish honey sold under quality brands with different botanical and geographical origins from two consecutive harvest years (2010 and 2011). Eight of the fifteen honey samples were classified as monofloral honey from botanical origins Persea americana, Castanea sativa, Rosmarinus officinalis, Eucalyptus sp., and Thymus sp. With regard to microbiological analyses, mold, and yeast counting, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, sulfite-reducing clostridia, and Escherichia coli were not detected in any of the samples. Aerobic mesophilic microorganisms were detected only in some samples and the counts in these cases were low. Despite the great variability between samples, the results obtained in the physicochemical analysis were consistent with the limits set by the Council Directive 2001/100. Honey samples showed high variability between two consecutive harvests, since, even if they had similar geographical origins they showed different nectar floral origins. Mieles españolas con marca de calidad: un enfoque multivariado de parámetros fisicoquímicos, calidad microbiológica y origen floral Este estudio consistió en la caracterización botánica, microbiológica y fisicoquímica de quince muestras de miel españolas acogidas a marcas de calidad diferenciada de diferentes orígenes botánicos y geográficos y procedentes de dos cosechas consecutivas (años 2010 y 2011). Ocho de las quince muestras de miel estudiadas fueron clasificadas como mieles monoflorales de Persea americana, Castanea sativa, Rosmarinus officinalis, Eucalyptus sp. y Thymus sp. En relación a los análisis microbiológicos los recuentos de mohos y levaduras, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, clostridios sulfito reductores y Escherichia coli no fueron detectados en ninguna de las muestras. Se detectaron microorganismos aerobios mesófilos solo en algunas muestras y en este caso los recuentos fueron bajos. Aunque se detectaron coliformes, estos podrían estar asociados a un origen ambiental. A pesar de la gran variabilidad entre las muestras, los resultados obtenidos en el análisis fisicoquímico se encontraron dentro de los límites establecidos por la Directiva del Consejo 2001/100. Las muestras de miel mostraron una gran variabilidad entre cosechas porque aunque tuvieron un mismo origen geográfico, hubo diferencias en su origen floral.
... The total flavonoid content of honeybee honey and stingless bee honey are shown in However, in comparison with the previous study for honeybee honey in Brazil, the flavonoid content in the current study is higher than the result reported. Kadri et al. (2017) previously reported that the flavonoid contents of Apis mellifera honey in Brazil ranged from 2.82 -3.22 mg QE/kg (centrifuged) and 7.07 -8.65 mg QE/kg (pressed). Their study showed that the extraction process can affect the phenolic content in honey, which might be due to more pollen present in pressed honey. ...
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Honey is one of the best natural foods produced by bees. In the present study, samples of processed honeybee honey and processed stingless bee honey were analysed. The study aimed to compare their phytochemical, antioxidant and physicochemical properties and also to compare their anticancer potential towards HeLa cells. Honey samples were first analysed for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and diastase activity in order to determine their phytochemical, antioxidant and quality characteristics, respectively. They were then analysed to investigate anticancer properties in the sample using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2 -yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results revealed that honeybee honey had significantly (p<0.0001) higher total phenolic content as compared to stingless bee honey at 635.48(29.68) and 368.11(17.75) mg GAE/kg, respectively. The total flavonoid content of honeybee honey was 45.11(5.44) and that of stingless bee honey was 64.25 (7.54) mg CEQ/kg (p>0.05). The HMF of honeybee honey was 83.4 mg/kg and the diastase activity of stingless bee honey was 5.1 DN. On the other hand, the HMF of stingless bee honey and diastase activity of honeybee honey were undetectable in the current study. The 50% cell inhibition activity (IC50) of honeybee honey was reported at 13.75 mg/mL, while a value for stingless bee honey could not be obtained. In conclusion, processed honeybee honey is better than processed stingless bee honey in terms of phytochemicals, antioxidant and anticancer potential. However, processed stingless bee honey shows better honey quality characteristics based on HMF and diastase activity.
... Honey is a valuable source of metals in a daily diet , in different honey types have detected macro and microelements such as potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, sodium, manganese iodine, zinc, lithium, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, copper, barium, chromium, selenium, arsenic, and silver (Kadri et al., 2017). In honeys from Malaysia, it have been reported that the principal mineral is potassium followed by sodium, calcium, iron, and magnesium (Chua et al., 2012). ...
... Azerbaijan is an important region for the beekeeping and honey industry, producing almost 2,500 tonnes of honey in 2014 (Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2015). Many studies on investigating the biochemical characteristics of honey samples from different countries have been published (Adgaba et al., 2017;Alekperov, Karimov, Xalilzad, & Hobbi, 2014;Kadri, Zaluski, & de Oliveira Orsi, 2017;Manzanares, Garc ıa, Gald on, Rodr ıguez-Rodr ıguez, & Romero, 2017). Alekperov et al. (2014) have been evaluating the quality of Azerbaijan honeys to verify their compliance with international standards. ...
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Azerbaijan is an important region for the beekeeping and honey industry. Biochemical characteristics of eleven honey samples from different regions of Azerbaijan were analyzed through measuring electrical conductivity, optical activity, moisture content, proline and diastase number. Phenolic components are analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with UV–Vis double beam detector. Sugars profiles of samples were carried out using HPLC with a refractive index detector (RID). Total phenolic content (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured with the aim of gathering information on the antioxidant power of samples. Biochemical and antioxidant characteristics are also supported with melissopalynological data. Conductivity ranged between 0.32 and 0.82 mS cm⁻¹, moisture 14.52 and 20.78%, proline 314.34 and 1077.21 mg kg⁻¹, diastase 13.05 and 22.19. Azerbaijan honeys exhibited levorotatory properties. Total phenolic content varied from 18.82 to 154.75 mg gallic acid equivalent per 100 g honey. The results confirm that physico-chemical and biologically active properties of Azerbaijan honeys are affected by the flora and geographical variations.
... Essential mineral elements are important to human health, because they are indispensably involved in human biological systems, including physiological responses, overall metabolism, circulatory system, reproductive system, and biochemical reactions. 27 However, at least half of the population in the world may suffer from a mineral diet deficiency. 28 Previous studies revealed that legumes are rich in nutritional minerals. ...
... Therefore, it recorded lower values in light honeys (0.04%) than in the dark ones (0.2%) (Da Silva et al., 2016). Among the minerals described in honey, potassium is the most abundant one (Terrab et al., 2004;Da Silva et al., 2016;Kadri et al., 2017), followed by calcium, sodium or magnesium, depending on the honey type (González-Paramás et al., 2000;Atanassova et al., 2012;Mondragón-Cortez et al., 2013). Other macroelements and microelements identified in honey were iron, phosphorus, manganese, iodine, zinc, lithium, cobalt (Da Silva et al., 2016). ...
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Honey, the sweet natural substance produced by honeybees is currently considered one of the nature’s most powerful products. Natural honey can be regarded as a nutraceutical product due to its nutritional benefits and therapeutic promises. In addition to this, the use of honey as food and medicine has been embraced by different civilizations, from ancient times to the present, transcending the barriers of cultural and religious beliefs. The aim of the present review was to highlight and summarize some of the numerous medicinal attributes of honey, apart from its nutritional profile, that can contribute to its framing as nutraceutical agent. In this regard, it was proved that honey can promote metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, oral and bone health, haematological beneficial effects, anticancer activity. Moreover, evidence has been found for the use of honey as an alternative cure in several skin disorders.
... For instance, honeybees and their products like honey, wax and pollen have been widely used in literature to mirror contamination in their surroundings (Malhat et al., 2015;Panseri et al., 2014;Valdovinos-Flores et al., 2017;Villalba et al., 2020). Honey is a highly nutritious food with a complex mixture of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, phenolic acids, vitamins, enzymes, volatile chemicals, flavonoids, amino acids, and the minerals (Avni et al., 2014;Kadri et al., 2017). Well-known therapeutic effects of honey, such as inhibiting the bacterial growth, controlling parasites, exhibiting the antimutagenic and antitumor activities and reducing cardiovascular risks due to its nitric oxide content, have skyrocketed its consumption as medicine in ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome and India (El-Nahhal, 2020). ...
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Honey has multifaceted nutritional and medicinal values; however, its quality is hinged on the floral origin of the nectar. Taking advantage of the large areas that they cover; honeybees are often used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. The focus of the present paper was to examine the quality of honey from within the vicinity of an abandoned pesticide store in Masindi District in western Uganda. Surficial soils (< 20 cm depths) and honey samples were collected from within the vicinity of the abandoned pesticide store and analysed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues using gas chromatograph coupled to an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The mean level of ∑ DDTs in all the soil samples was 503.6 µg/kg dry weight (d.w). ∑ DDTs contributed 92.2% to the ∑ OCPs contamination loads in the soil samples, and others (lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, and endo-sulfans) contributed only 7.8%. Ratio (p, p ′-DDE + p, p ′-DDD)/p, p ′-DDT of 1.54 suggested historical DDT input in the area. In all the honey samples, the mean level of ∑ DDTs was 20.9 µg/kg. ∑ DDTs contributed 43.3% to ∑ OCPs contamination loads in the honey samples, followed by lindane (29.8%), endosulfans (23.6%) and dieldrin (3.2%), with corresponding mean levels of 14.4, 11.4 and 1.55 µg/kg, respectively. Reproductive risk assessment was done based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) procedure. In our study, the calculated HIs for adults (102.38), and children (90.33) suggested high potential health risks to the honey consumers. Lindane, endosulfan and p, p ′-DDD detected in the honey samples at levels exceeding the acute reference dose (ARfD) are known risk factors for spontaneous abortion, reduced implantation, menstrual cycle shortening, impaired semen quality, and prostate cancer in exposed individuals and experimental animal models.
... Also, the determination of elements in environmental samples including honey bees and their products is an important part of environmental pollution studies [13][14][15][16]. One of the most commonly examined honey bee products, due to its potential risk to human health, is honey (which can be floral-specific, e.g., acacia, linden, blossom) [17][18][19][20][21]. On the other hand, previous [10,22] showed that honey bees can be better indicators of environmental element deposition than honey. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate element (sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead) deposition in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) (worker bees, drone bees, and bee broods) and their products (wax and multifloral honey) in the central and north parts of Serbia using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The study was carried out during the spring and summer seasons when the honeybees were active (2019). Fifty-four colonies of honey bees from different apiaries (located in Rudnik, Lazarevac, and Ležimir) were used in this study. Significant differences in element concentrations were found among locations (P < 0.05). The highest deposition of elements (sodium, calcium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, arsenic, and cadmium) was found in worker bees. The most commonly detected elements in wax were chromium and lead. Mg had a significant (P < 0.01) correlation with K, Fe, Cu, and As. This study shows that honey bees (worker bees, drone bees, and bee broods) could be more useful as bioindicators of environmental element deposition (toxic and non-toxic) than multifloral honey. Also, this study shows that Serbian multifloral honey meets safety criteria concerning the concentrations of toxic elements.
... Balların bileşimi ve özellikleri, öncelikle nektarın veya bal özünün botanik kökenine, iklime, coğrafik bölgelere, bal arısı türlerine bağlı olarak değişiklik göstermektedir. Bununla beraber, hasat işlemi, ambalajlama ve depolama da balın nitelikleri üzerinde etkili faktörler arasında yer almaktadır [5,6]. Ballardaki metal konsantrasyonlarının ise, büyük ölçüde botanik ve coğrafi kökenleri bakımından çiçeklerin temel bileşimine bağlı olduğu rapor edilmektedir [7]. ...
Article
Honey is the sweet natural substance produced by honeybees. It may be contaminated with pesticide residues due to its intensive use. Almost no reviews have addressed pesticide residues in honey, calculated a hazard index or discussed their potential reproductive toxicity. The focus of this article is primarily to summarize advances in research related to pesticide residues, estimate daily intake of pesticide residues from consuming honey only and discuss the potential reproductive toxicity associated with those residues. The results showed that 92 pesticide residues were found in honey samples from 27 countries. Six residues belong to class IA toxicity, eight residues belong to class IB toxicity, 42 residues belong to class II, 35 residues belong to class III and one residue belong to class IV toxicity. The calculated hazard indices (HIs) suggest high potential health risk by consuming honey. In addition, residues found in honey are known to impair semen quality among exposed individuals and experimental animal models. In conclusion, consumption of honey as one of many food items contaminated with pesticide residues may induce male and female reproductive toxicity in consumers.
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The present work was assumed to evaluate the physicochemical and microbial characteristics of honey containing heat-resistant Bacillus coagulans T11 (HBC) samples. The HBC sample exhibited a Newtonian behavior with higher viscosity rate than the control honey (without B. coagulans T11) sample. The results from chemical analysis revealed that ash, proline, acidity, insoluble solid, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of HBC sample were more than control honey sample (p < 0.05). Results showed B. coagulans T11 in honey was resistant to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The viable counts of bacteria in HBC decreased after 120 days at the environmental temperature (24 ± 2 °C), but were not lower than 6 logs CFU/g. The present findings suggest that honey containing B. coagulans T11 can be used as a beneficial and functional product in the food industry.
Article
The usefulness of voltammetric electronic tongue (Ag/AgCl reference electrode, glassy counter electrode and Au, Ag, Pt or glassy working electrode) honey botanical authentication (acacia, sunflower, tilia, honeydew, and polyfloral) was evaluated. The electrochemical data were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in order to assess the usefulness of the working electrode when determining honey’s botanical origin. The silver and gold electrodes have classified honey much better according to its botanical origin than the glass electrode and the platinum electrode. According to partial least square (PLS) analysis, the electrochemical data were strongly correlated with the pH (R² = 0.98), free acidity (R² = 0.97) and electrical conductivity (R² = 0.91).
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Honeydew honey has differentiated chemical and physicochemical characteristics besides potential functional properties such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. In this sense, the interest and consumption of this honey as a functional product by the food industry and consumers have increased. Honeydew honeys usually present dark color, a lower content of monosaccharides and higher values of pH, acidity, electric conductivity, proteins, minerals, phenolic compounds, and oligosaccharides compared to blossom honeys, which contribute to its outstanding biological activities. Consequently, contaminations and adulterations of this honey can occur and compromise the quality, safety and authenticity of honeydew honey. Thus, detailed knowledge of the composition and properties of honeydew honeys is of great importance, especially considering that honeydew honeys are still few studied and therefore underestimated. Therefore, in this review, the physicochemical characteristics, chemical and bioactive composition, functional and health-promoting properties of honeydew honey as well as contamination, adulteration and authenticity of this honey are summarized.
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of honey botanical origins on rheological parameters. In order to achieve the correlation, fifty-one honey samples, of different botanical origins (acacia, polyfloral, sunflower, honeydew, and tilia), were investigated. The honey samples were analysed from physicochemical (moisture content, fructose, glucose and sucrose content) and rheological point of view (dynamic viscosity—loss modulus G″, elastic modulus G′, complex viscosity η*, shear storage compliance—J′ and shear loss compliance J″). The rheological properties were predicted using the Artificial Neural Networks based on moisture content, glucose, fructose and sucrose. The models which predict better the rheological parameters in function of fructose, glucose, sucrose and moisture content are: MLP-1 hidden layer is predicting the G″, η* and J″, respectively, MLP-2 hidden layers the J′, while MLP-3 hidden layers the G′, respectively. The physicochemical and rheological parameters were submitted to statistical analysis as follows: Principal component analysis (PCA), Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and Artificial neural network (ANN) in order to evaluate the usefulness of the parameters studied for honey authentication. The LDA was found the suitable method for honey botanical authentication, reaching a correct cross validation of 94.12% of the samples.
Poster
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This poster is about physicochemical analysis of imported honey into the Maldives. The research revealed that HMF value of some honey exceeded the recommended level, indicating that some imported honey were of low quality.
Article
Background Different factors are known to affect the different physiochemical properties of bee's honey including the floral origin and climate. Objective The aim of this article was to investigate the effect of floral origin and altitude on the concentration of vitamin C and A. Methods Ten Ziziphus honey samples were collected from two altitudes; 113 and 511 meters. Twenty-five Acacia honey samples were included in this study from five altitudes; 14, 113, 317, 576 and 2247 meters above sea level. Vitamin C was measured by redox titration and vitamin A was estimated using the Carr-price reaction and spectrophotometer. Results The mean± SD of vitamin C in the Ziziphus and Acacia honey samples were 239.2± 91.5 and 260.4± 81.1 mg\100g, respectively. Vitamin A mean value± SD in the Ziziphus and Acacia honey were 0.088± 0.126 and 0.062± 0.126 mg\ 100g, respectively. Concerning the effect of altitude, there was significant increase in vitamin C concentration in ziziphus honey with the increase of the altitude (p- value= 0.027), while an insignificant decrease was obtained in the case of vitamin A. Regarding the effect of altitude on the concentration of vitamin C in the Acacia honey, there was significant increase in the honey from the altitude of 2247 compared to the honey from all the other altitudes. Vitamin A concentration in the Acacia honey from the altitude 2247 was insignificantly decreased compared to the honey from all the other altitudes (p- value > 0.05). Conclusion The floral origin insignificantly affected the concentration of vitamin C and A. The altitude significantly affected the concentration of vitamin C irrespective of the floral origin.
Article
Purpose Recent societal interest in healthful foods has led to the development of functional dairy products that basically provide health benefits in addition to their fundamental nutrients. Yoghurt being most popular fermented milk product due to its healthy image can be an excellent carrier for probiotics. Functional properties of yoghurt can be enhanced with the inclusion of functional ingredients such as probiotics and its conjugate application with prebiotics may be advantageous as it favors probiotic growth. Nutritional and medicinal value of honey coupled with presence of oligosaccharides has projected honey as a functional additive in yoghurt. Design/methodology/approach Attempt has been made to review the literature on the biochemical activities of yoghurt cultures and probiotics in presence of honey. Both review and research papers related to biochemical activities and functional properties of yoghurt cultures and probiotics in presence of honey and their health benefits published in diverse journals under Pub Med and Science Direct have been considered. Keywords used for data search included functional foods, yoghurt, probiotic, health benefits, honey, etc. Findings Functional properties of yoghurt can be further enhanced with the inclusion of probiotic cultures and honey. Honey can be safely used in association with different probiotic cultures during yoghurt manufacture for augmenting functional properties of yoghurt to extend health benefits. Honey may not be equally a suitable matrix for all yoghurt cultures or probiotic cultures. Research limitations/implications Reviewed literature indicated that limited research on animal or human feeding trials with honey containing yoghurt has been done. Clinical trials with honey containing yoghurt are emerging prior to its marketing as functional food. Originality/value Application of honey as a functional additive during the manufacture of probiotic yoghurt is suggested to extend the functional properties of normal yoghurt.
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O presente trabalho teve como objetivo de avaliar o perfil sensorial e a aceitabilidade de amostras de méis de Abelhas sem ferrão da região de rios e eixo forte de Santarém, Pará. Para tanto foram selecionados aleatoriamente 96 avaliadores não treinados, de ambos os sexos, com faixa etária entre 18 e 50 anos, dentre os quais: estudantes, funcionários e professores da Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, campus Santarém, PA. As amostras foram servidas à temperatura ambiente e refrigeradas em recipientes descartáveis, previamente codificados, sendo avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: fluidez, cor, aroma, cristalização, sabor e aceitabilidade. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, pelo teste F, e posteriormente os resultados foram submetidos ao teste de comparação de médias (tukey, p < 0,05), empregando o software Agroestat. A análise sensorial de meis revelou maior aceitabilidade para o mel das abelhas da espécie Jandaira ( aff. xanthotricha) submetidos aos dois tratamentos (refrigeração e pasteurização), seguido do mel da Canudo (Scaptotrigona) pasteurizado, indicando que as espécies e o processo influenciam na preferência do provador. A aceitabilidade dos méis tem uma correlação positiva com o aroma, os demais parâmetros são independentes.
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A non‐thermal technology using magnetic field (MF) can improve flowability of honey while maintaining its physicochemical quality. Effects of MF treatment on rheological and physicochemical properties of longan honey exposed to MF for 2 h at 15 °C and 28 °C were investigated and compared with those of non‐MF samples. Increasing MF strength at 28 °C caused a reduction in firmness (P ≤ 0.05), but not in consistency, index of viscosity and cohesiveness. The effects at 15 °C were greater. Newtonian behaviour was observed for all samples. Shear stress and viscosity were significantly reduced with increasing MF strength at 15 °C (P ≤ 0.05), but less at 28 °C. pH was also decreased. Total soluble solids content was increased at both temperatures (P ≤ 0.05). Colour index was not significantly affected by MF, whereas optical density was slightly increased at high MF strengths (P > 0.05). L* values for the MF treated samples were increased (P ≤ 0.05), giving lighter and more pleasant colour to the honey. MF treatment improved overall qualities of honey.
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In this study, the Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy technique combined with chemometrics methods was used to monitor adulteration of honey with sugar syrup. Spectral data were recorded from a wavenumber region of 4000-600 cm −1 , with a spectral resolution of 4 cm −1. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used for qualitative analysis to discriminate between adulterated and nonadulterated honey. For quantitative analysis, we used partial least-squares regression (PLS-R) and the support vector machine (SVM) to develop optimal calibration models. e use of PCA shows that the first two principal components account for 96% of the total variability. PCA and HCA allow classifying the dataset into two groups: adulterated and unadulterated honey. e use of the PLS-R and SVM-R calibration models for the quantification of adulteration shows high-performance capabilities represented by a high value of correlation coefficients R 2 greater than 98% and 95% with lower values of root mean square error (RMSE) less than 1.12 and 1.85 using PLS-R and SVM-R, respectively. Our results indicate that FT-MIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques can be used successfully as a simple, rapid, and nondestructive method for the quantification and discrimination of adulterated honey.
Preprint
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Over the centuries, honey is known for its superior usage in culinary, and for its rich nutrition and therapeutic values which are scientifically proven in the medical field. The chemical composition of honey varies depending on its botanical sources and environment. Therefore, the nutrition content in honey is highly likely to be affected by contaminants, such as heavy metals and pesticides. To ensure the quality of honey, parameters such as the heavy metal content should be within the safe range of total standard mineral and trace elements as defined by the International Food Standard (Codex Alimentarius), and pesticides should not be present at all. The high concentration of heavy metal and pesticides not only deteriorates the quality and quantity of honey, but also causes harm to the bee colony itself. In the agriculture sector, the excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizer negatively impacts the overall honey production process. Bees, a pollinating agent, bring the polluted nectar back to their beehives, eventually contaminating the honey and depreciating its value. Hence, this article will comprehensively review the activities that contribute to heavy metal and pesticide contamination, the interactions of bees as a pollinating agent, the impact of the pollutant to the colonies, and subsequently to the honey production.
Chapter
Honey is one of the most popular natural sweet substances. From a chemical point of view, it could be defined as a natural food mainly composed of sugars and water together with minor constituent such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids, organic acids, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds and aromatic substances. Its composition is particularly variable, depending on its botanical and geographical origins. The aim of this chapter is to describe the principal families of compounds present in honey and the analytical methods employed for their analysis, as well as to review the utility of those chemical components to discriminate honeys according to their origin.
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Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) honey, one of the most valuable honey varieties from China with unique characteristics, is vulnerable to being the target of adulteration and deliberate mislabeling of botanical origin. This study investigated the typical protein component of jujube honey to authenticate the floral source by SDS-PAGE analysis combined with LC-MS/MS identification, and its stability to heating was also evaluated. One band and two adjacent but independent bands, both with molecular weights of ~19 kDa, were notably observed in Coomassie brilliant blue- and silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels, respectively, for jujube honey from different geographic origins, whereas that was not present for other five botanical honey varieties, suggesting this protein component was suitable as marker for jujube honey. LC-MS/MS identification revealed that it was constituted by one Z. jujuba-derived protein (gene number:Zj.jz016003045) and two A. mellifera-derived proteins (an uncharacterized protein with accession number tr|A0A088AC16 and a cleavage fragment from major royal jelly protein-1), and the existence of plant-derived protein was attributed to the special neutral pH of jujube honey. Additionally, these protein markers exhibited good stability to heating below 85°C/30 min. This study provided a simple method to characterize jujube honey, and firstly identified protein indicator to determine the botanical origin of honey.
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Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process.
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This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys' phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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In addition to color, ash and electrical conductivity (EC), the levels of 14 minerals were investigated in 23 varieties of honey from Saudi Arabia and six other countries. The quantities of the macrominerals obtained were as follows (in ppm): K (298.60-491.40), Mg (80.70-199.30), Ca (60.75-99.95), P (21.10-33.29), and Na (15.69-26.93). The quantities of trace minerals were as follows (in ppm): Fe (67.18-98.13), 1(12.61-94.68), Mn (4.15-6.04), Zn (3.44-5.72), Li (1.15-4.26), Co (1.00-1.32), and Ni (0.15-0.67). The quantities of the heavy metals Pb and Cd were found to be 0.06-0.23 and 0.00-0.16, respectively. The values of-the tested elements-color, ash and EC-varied among the tested honeys according to their botanical origin. Dark honeys, especially acacia honeys, had higher elemental content and EC values than lighter ones. Saudi and Yemeni seder honeys exhibited no distinctive characteristics in their tested parameters. The levels of heavy metals indicated that the tested honeys were safe for human consumption. (C) 2012 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
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Twenty‐four samples of Apis mellifera honey and twenty‐four samples of Melipona subnitida (Jandaira) honey were collected in the northeast of Brazil. Moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural, free acidity, insoluble solids in water, diastase activity, ashes, electrical conductivity, proteins, lipids, total carbohydrates, energy and sugars were the parameters analysed. The efficiency of the qualitative tests (Fiehe's test, Lugol's reaction, Lund's reaction) was tested. Pollen types and the corresponding plant species were identified in all samples (3 in Apis and 1 in Melipona). Apis mellifera honey samples demonstrated parameters in accordance with the Brazilian Legislation, while the Melipona subnitida honey samples displayed moisture (24.80%) and diastase activity (null) in discordance with the established by the regulation for Apis mellifera honeys. Apis honey samples presented higher values of electric conductivity (284.00 μS cm−1) than the obtained from the Jandaira honey samples (102.77 μS cm−1) as well as a darker colour (26.67 mmPfund) when compared with Jandaira honey (7.00 mmPfund). The concentration of the glucose, fructose and sucrose was higher in the Apis honeys than in the Jandaira honey. The characteristics of the two types of honey were very different, highlighting the need of developing specific legislation for stingless bees' honey.
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Honey is a rich conventional natural resource of sweetness and energy for human beings. A protocol for the determination of two important monosaccharide sugars (fructose and glucose) in honey was established in the current study by using normal phase partition liquid chromatography and 1-5% combined working standard of glucose, fructose and sucrose.
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Forty-eight honey samples from different regions in Morocco were collected from beekeepers between 2005 and 2008. The levels of trace elements Mn, Cu, Ba, Ni, Cr, Co, Se, As, Ag and Be; major elements K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe and Zn; and toxic elements Cd and Pb were determined. Mg, K, Ca and Na were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and the other mineral elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following acid digestion. Potassium was the most abundant element (71.22% of the total minerals), followed by sodium and calcium (15.64% and 7.24%, respectively). Ten honey types, Euphorbia echinus, Euphorbia resinifera, Ziziphus lotus, Citrus, Eucalyptus, rosemary, thyme, carob, lavender and honeydew were studied, and a statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis test, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) to classify them. PCA showed that the cumulative variance was 76.57%, and the DA analysis indicated that 73.3% of samples were correctly classified. Carob, rosemary and lavender honey were 100% classified. The mineral content of Euphorbia echinus, Ziziphus lotus, rosemary, carob and lavender Moroccan honey types has been determined for the first time.
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Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.
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Honey bee pollen is considered to be a food, and national pollen standards exist in different countries such as Brazil, Bulgaria, Poland and Switzerland. It is the aim of the present work to review pollen composition and the analytical methods used for the evaluation of high quality bee pollen. Based on the experience of different countries and on the results of published research, we propose quality criteria for bee pollen, hoping that in the future they will be used as world wide bee pollen standards.
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Vitamin C is required for collagen synthesis and biosynthesis of certain hormones and recommended dietary intake levels are largely based these requirements. However, to function effectively as an antioxidant (or a pro-oxidant), relatively high levels of this vitamin must be maintained in the body. The instability of vitamin C combined with its relatively poor intestinal absorption and ready excretion from the body reduce physiological availability of this vitamin. This inability to maintain high serum levels of vitamin C may have serious health implications and is particularly relevant in the onset and progression of degenerative disease, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which have a strong contributing oxidative damage factor. In this review, we examine recent studies on the regulation of transport mechanisms for vitamin C, related clinical ramifications, and potential implications in high-dose vitamin C therapy. We also evaluate recent clinical and scientific evidence on the effects of this vitamin on cancer and CVD, with focus on the key mechanisms of action that may contribute to the therapeutic potential of this vitamin in these diseases. Several animal models that could be utilized to address unresolved questions regarding the feasibility of vitamin C therapy are also discussed.
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Honey bee pollen is considered to be a food, and national pollen standards exist in different countries such as Brazil, Bulgaria, Poland and Switzerland. It is the aim of the present work to review pollen composition and the analytical methods used for the evaluation of high quality bee pollen. Based on the experience of different countries and on the results of published research, we propose quality criteria for bee pollen, hoping that in the future they will be used as world wide bee pollen standards.
Article
In this study, samples of coffee honey produced in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, were characterized based on their melissopalynology, physicochemical and nutritional properties, and mineral and caffeine contents. The caffeine content in the nectar from coffee flowers was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Blends of honey were obtained from three Coffea arabica crops, each with 10 colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera. All honey samples contained monofloral (75–78%) pollen belonging to C. arabica. Physicochemical parameters (total acidity, pH, moisture, dry matter, ash, and qualitative hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the approved limits established by EU legislation. Coffee honey contains high levels of ascorbic acid (294.68 mg kg-1) and low amounts of total flavonoids (3.51 ± 0.18 mg QE kg-1). The most abundant minerals were potassium and calcium (962.59 ± 154.3 and 343.75 ± 25.56 mg kg-1, respectively). The caffeine content in coffee nectar (1.64 mg kg-1) was approximately 8-fold lower than that in honey (12.02 ± 0.81 mg kg-1).
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An earlier edition of Methods of melissopalynology was published in Bee World 51(3): 125–138 (1970), and has been widely used. It is now republished with minor corrections and updating, and with two significant additions. The acetolysis method is included, which has not previously been commonly used in melissopalynology; also the literature list is enlarged so that it provides an introduction to the extensive literature on palynology, which is scattered over many journals.
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The aim of this review is to describe the chemical characteristics of compounds present in honey, their stability when heated or stored for long periods of time and the parameters of identity and quality. Therefore, the chemical characteristics of these compounds were examined, such as sugars, proteins, amino acids, enzymes, organic acids, vitamins, minerals, phenolic and volatile compounds present in honey. The stability of these compounds in relation to the chemical reactions that occur by heating or prolonged storage were also discussed, with increased understanding of the behavior regarding the common processing of honey that may compromise its quality. In addition, the identity and quality standards were described, such as sugars, moisture, acidity, ash and electrical conductivity, color, 5-HMF and dias-tase activity, along with the minimum and maximum limits established by the Codex Alimentarius.
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Greek thyme honeys (Thymus capitatus L.) were characterized and classified according to geographical origin based on the determination of volatile compounds and physicochemical parameters using MANOVA and Linear Discriminant Analysis. Forty two thyme honey samples were collected during the harvesting period in 2011 from 5 different regions in Greece known to produce thyme honey of good quality. The analysis of volatile compounds was performed by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction coupled to Gas chromatography/Mass spectroscopy. Forty seven volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified. Physicochemical analysis included the determination of pH, free, lactonic and total acidity, electrical conductivity, moisture, ash, lactonic/free acidity ratio and color parameters: L*, a*, b*. Using 9 volatile compounds and 11 physicochemical parameters the honey samples were satisfactorily classified according to geographical origin using volatile compounds (64.3% correct prediction), physicochemical parameters (92.7% correct prediction), and the combination of both (92.9% correct prediction).
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The study was intended to characterise the honeys from Hatay region in Turkey according to their physicochemical properties. Physicochemical characterisation was carried out on 45 honey samples collected from different regions of Hatay, Turkey. Parameters such as the pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity, ash content, insoluble matter, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, moisture content, viscosity, glucose, fructose and protein were analysed for each honey sample. The physicochemical values were in the range of approved limits for all parameters except for electrical conductivity, diastase activity and invert sugar. Chemometric methods such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis techniques were applied on the physicochemical data in order to differentiate Hatay honeys. PCA explained 79.54% of the variance with the first four PC variables. The results showed that the use of chemometric methods on physicochemical parameters can be a useful tool to characterise different types of honeys.
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The study was intended to characterise the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of some commercial brands of Indian honeys. All the samples showed considerable variations with reference to their level of total phenolics, protein, radical scavenging activity, ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant content (AEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP). Comparative studies of Indian honeys indicated the strong correlation between proline content and AEAC as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity whereas phenol content was strongly correlated with FRAP values. Thus, overall antioxidant activity seems to be contributed by proline and phenol contents. Besides these major factors, colour pigments (ABS460) were also found to contribute significantly to the overall observed antioxidant activity.
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Physicochemical parameters of 98 samples of Moroccan honeys were analysed; nine parameters were measured, including water content, pH, acidity (free, lactonic, total and lactonic acidity/free acidity ratio), hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase activity and proline. In addition, characterisation of the five unifloral honeys (Eucalyptus sp., Citrus sp., Lythrum sp., Apiaceae and honeydew) by principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) was carried out. PCA showed that the cumulative variance was approximately 62%, and about 82% of the samples were correctly classified by using the stepwise discriminant analysis, with the best results being obtained for the eucalyptus and honeydew honeys (100% correct).
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One hundred eighty-seven honey samples from an Atlantic European area were studied to determine their nutritional compositions and antioxidant capacities, as well as the relationships between them. The results showed that heather, polyfloral, blackberry, and eucalyptus honeys had the highest carbohydrate contents, whereas honeydew and chestnut honeys had the lowest. There were some important differences among the honey types, which were related to the presence of minor components. The protein contents were significantly higher in honeydew and chestnut honeys, and the same results were obtained for mineral contents. Related to the presence of several antioxidant compounds, heather honey had the highest phenolic content, whereas honeydew and chestnut honeys had the highest flavonoid contents. Multivariate analysis showed that some variables, such as the amounts of flavonoids, minerals, proteins, and phenols, were significantly correlated with antioxidant activity. The regression analysis produced a significant model (R(2)=0.716; F=154.680; P<0.001) that related the antioxidant activity and the flavonoids, K, and P contents.
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Almost all honey are derived from nectar. They are about 83 degrees Brix and has very low moisture content. A honey's carbodyfrates is mostly monosaccharides with more fructose than glucose. It is also composed of sucrose, other disacchardies and maltose, isomaltose, nigerose, turanose and maltulose. Honey is acidic but is not obvious since the high sugar content tends to mask the acidity in the taste. Average pH is 3.9, has a 50-fold range of values and has trace elements including chromium, lithium, nickel, lead, tin and zinc. There are also enzymes found in honey, including catalase and an acid phosphatase, also a small quantity of protein in finished honey. There are also vitamins found in honey albeit small quantities. Honey features a high refractive index and viscosity while is specific gravity is 1.4 while specific heat is 40% less than that of pure water.
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Honey attributes such as geographical origin or specified botanical sources often command a premium price due to their organoleptic or pharmacoactive properties. "Miel de Granada" is a highly quality product with protected designation of origin (PDO) which includes six monofloral honeys and two multifloral honeys. Our objective was the characterization of "Miel de Granada" according to their metal content. Metal content was specific enough and allowed discrimination from honeys of different botanical and geographical origins and confirmed the authenticity of PDO labelling as Granada product with the determination of only five elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg and Zn). Chemometric techniques as cluster analysis and ANOVA were used to classify honeys according to their botanical and geographical origin in the metal data. Metal content marks the differences in honey samples and can be used as a tool to assess the quality of honeys. ANOVA showed significant differences among rosemary honeys from different geographical areas despite the botanical factor weight. Our research contributes to the groundwork studies to determine the geographical origin of Spanish honeys.
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The antioxidant activity of Portuguese honeys was evaluated considering the different contribution of entire samples and phenolic extracts. Several chemical and biochemical assays were used to screen the antioxidant properties of entire honeys with different colour intensity and phenolic extracts: reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using the β-carotene linoleate model system and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The amounts of phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene and sugars present in the samples were also determined. The highest antioxidant contents and the lowest EC50 values for antioxidant activity were obtained in the dark honey. An analysis of variance was carried out to evaluate the influence of the colour intensity and extraction method in the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents. A discriminant analysis was also performed, giving satisfactory results once the six samples were clustered in six individual groups obtained through the definition of two discriminant analysis dimensions.
Article
The protein contents in honey samples of different floral origins, commercialized in several states of Brazil, were determined using the method of Bradford. The spectra of pollen of the honeys collected in those areas were studied, in order to establish the correlation between the different botanical species and the protein contents. The physicochemical properties of the honeys (colour, moisture, pH and acidity, lund test, lugol test, diastase index, reducing and non-reducing sugars and hydroxymethylfurfural contents) were also determined. The colorimetric determination of the protein content of honey samples, using the method of Bradford, was shown to be efficient and it allowed the detection of elevated protein in honey samples of Borreria verticillata, known in Brazil as “vassourinha”, from Piauı́ State.
Article
Botanical and biographical origins of honey are an important issue in food quality and safety. This chapter focuses on use of chemical components to determine botanical and geographical origins of honey. The botanical and geographical origins of the nectar are related with the chemical composition of honey. Honey can originate from single and multiplant species. In general, the prices of honey from single plant species are much higher than those of common polyfloral honey because of consumer preferences. Single and multiple chemicals and components can well indicate the botanical and geographical origins of the honey. Marker chemicals and components include flavonoids, pollen, aroma compounds, oligosaccharides, trace elements, amino acids, and proteins. If multiple chemicals are used as markers, patterns of the chemicals are often used to detect the botanical and geographical origins of honey. Modern statistical software in combination with advanced analytical instrumentation provides high potential for the differentiation of the botanical and geographical origins of the honey.
Article
The assessment and validation of reliable analytical methods for the determination of vitamins in sugar-based matrices (e.g. honey) are still scarcely explored fields of research. This study proposes and fully validates a simple and fast RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of five water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B(2), riboflavin; vitamin B(3), nicotinic acid; vitamin B(5), pantothenic acid; vitamin B(9), folic acid; and vitamin C, ascorbic acid) in honey. The method provides low detection and quantification limits, very good linearity in a large concentration interval, very good precision, and the absence of any bias. It has been successfully applied to 28 honey samples (mainly from Sardinia, Italy) of 12 different botanical origins. While the overall amount of the analytes in the samples is quite low (always below 40 mg kg(-1)), we have observed a marked dependence of some of their concentrations (i.e. vitamin B(3) and vitamin B(5)) and the botanical origin of the honey. This insight might lead to important characterization features for this food item.
Article
A total number of 40 honey samples were collected from Apis melifera colonies forged on the five flora i.e., Ziziphu s spp., Acacia modesta, Trifolium spp., Citrus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. These samples were analyzed for fifteen standard physico-chemical parameters of honey quality control i.e., free acidity, lactone, total acidity, refractive index, specific gravity, reducing sugars, sucrose, total sugars, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content, diastase value, ash contents, water insoluble solids and total soluble solids. The biochemical variation in the composition of honey due to floral type shows Ziziphus honey with high pH, ash and diastase value along with low acids and sucrose contents whereas Trifolium honey contained high moisture content, acids and sucrose along with low quantity of reducing sugars. Highest HMF was detected in Acacia honey along with lowest diastase and ash contents.
Article
The present study aimed to characterize five commercial honeys available in the Portuguese market in respect to their floral origins, physicochemical parameters and microbial safety and commercial quality assessment. Pollen profile, colour, moisture content, ash, acidity, electrical conductivity, pH, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose and HMF were the parameters analysed in each honey sample. Aerobic mesophiles, moulds and yeasts, fecal coliforms and sulphite-reducing clostridia were the microbial contaminants of interest studied. The antimicrobial effect against four fermentative yeasts was determined. Concerning the physicochemical parameters, all honey samples were found to meet European Legislation (EC Directive 2001/110) for all parameters, except for HMF and apparent sucrose. Microbiologically, the commercial quality was considered good and all samples showed to be negative in respect to safety parameters. We also verified that the presence of honey differentially affected the growth of fermentative yeasts under study, depending on the type of yeast, but this growth was not significantly influenced by the type of honey used.
Article
Free radicals and related species have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. They are mainly derived from oxygen (reactive oxygen species/ROS) and nitrogen (reactive nitrogen species/RNS), and are generated in our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physicochemical conditions or pathophysiological states. Free radicals can adversely alter lipids, proteins and DNA and have been implicated in aging and a number of human diseases. Lipids are highly prone to free radical damage resulting in lipid peroxidation that can lead to adverse alterations. Free radical damage to protein can result in loss of enzyme activity. Damage caused to DNA, can result in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Redox signaling is a major area of free radical research that is attracting attention. Nature has endowed us with protective antioxidant mechanisms- superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidases and reductase, vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), vitamin C etc., apart from many dietary components. There are epidemiological evidences correlating higher intake of components/ foods with antioxidant abilities to lower incidence of various human morbidities or mortalities. Current research reveals the different potential applications of antioxidant/free radical manipulations in prevention or control of disease. Natural products from dietary components such as Indian spices and medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant activity. Newer and future approaches include gene therapy to produce more antioxidants in the body, genetically engineered plant products with higher level of antioxidants, synthetic antioxidant enzymes (SOD mimics), novel biomolecules and the use of functional foods enriched with antioxidants.
Revised codex standard for honey
Codex Alimentarius Commission. (2001). Revised codex standard for honey. Codex STAN 12-1981 (Rev. 1) (1987), Rev. 2 (2001).
Recommended international code of practice -general principles of food hygiene. CAC/RCP 1-1969
Codex Alimentarius Commission. (2003). Recommended international code of practice -general principles of food hygiene. CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4 (2003).
Council directive 2001/110/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to honey
  • European Union
European Union (2002). Council directive 2001/110/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to honey. Official Journal of the European Communities, L10, 47-52.
Comparative effects of screw press for honey extraction for small scale honey processing
  • U M Maradun
  • U M Sanusi
Maradun, U. M., & Sanusi, U. M. (2013). Comparative effects of screw press for honey extraction for small scale honey processing. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 32, 144-147.