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The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice

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Abstract

Despite increasing attention on the topic of empowerment, our under-standing of the construct and its underlying processes remains limited. This article addresses these shortcomings by providing an analytical treatment of the construct and by integrating the diverse approaches to empowerment found in both the management and psychology literatures. In addition, the authors identify certain antecedent conditions of powerlessness and practices that have been hypothesized to empower subordinates.

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... Drawing the understanding of empowerment as a relational construct (Conger & Kanungo, 1988), then one can argue that empowerment is a process of sharing the power to the employees or subordinates (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). In the context of our investigation, the managers or administrators share their power to their employees and authorize them to do things on their own freely (Burke's (1986). ...
... Drawing the understanding of empowerment as a relational construct (Conger & Kanungo, 1988), then one can argue that empowerment is a process of sharing the power to the employees or subordinates (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). In the context of our investigation, the managers or administrators share their power to their employees and authorize them to do things on their own freely (Burke's (1986). ...
... Thus, from management perspectives, empowerment can mean delegation and decentralization of decision-making (Burke, 1986). However, Conger and Kanungo (1988) argued that delegating authority, decentralizing decision making, and participating in decision making do not adequately address the nature of empowerment issues because empowerment is not just simply a management practice but it is the realization of human basic needs. ...
Article
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The study aimed to examine the effect of organizational politics on the individual work performance of employees. To support the study, literature was reviewed and theories were identified and explained. It was carried out following research methodology in terms of research design, population, the locale of the study, research instruments, and statistical treatment of data. The study found that the organizational politics of the institution is at a moderate level and the individual work performance was also at a moderate level. It is further found that there is a significant correlation between organizational politics and individual work performance. Thus, it is concluded that organizational politics is a significant predictor of organizational performance. The study found that a moderate level of organizational politics affects individual work performance positively and therefore it confirms the finding of other studies that organizational politics is not inherently bad or negative.
... It involves a manager's trust in his employee that he would not use the information or power to cause trouble for the organization. In fact, he would help in increasing the organizational effectiveness and growth (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). Based on the above discussion, the following hypothesis is proposed: ...
... Empowering role identity is defined as a procedure of inculcating self-efficacy in organizational members during situations that may cause them to feel hopeless (Conger & Kanungo, 1988;Zhang et al., 2020). It is also further explained as how the employee understands the mutual benefit he and the organization will get if he uses the information and power provided adequately to him to achieve the responsibilities given to him through his job description. ...
... This mission for quality involves forming organizations and administration classifications that service the vision and novelty of these practices. Conger and Kanungo (1988) explain that authority is a must for the employees in the organization to promote their self-image, empower their role identity, and build their commitment. Empowerment role identity is defined as a process of increasing the self-efficacy of employees in such a way that they do not feel powerless. ...
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Strategic performance management and perceived organizational support are two essential elements of business organizations' success across the globe. Therefore, the current study aims to test the outcomes of these two variables through the mediating role of empowering role identity in the relationship between strategic performance management, perceived organizational support, and employee retention. The data for the analysis is collected from 292 telecom employees working in Lahore, Pakistan. Multi-stage sampling, with simple random sampling at the first stage and a convenient sampling technique in the second stage, is used to collect data. Different data analysis techniques like correlation, regression analysis are used to test the hypotheses of the study. Moreover, the study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. According to regression analysis, strategic performance management and perceived organizational support brought positive employee retention increments. Results showed strategic performance management got significant increment in empowering role identity variations, which have higher contributions in employee retention. The results showed the mediation impact of empowering role identity among strategic performance management and perceived organizational support and employee retention.
... L'empowerment a été défini par Rappaport (1987) comme la capacité des individus ou des communautés à exercer un contrôle sur leur vie et sur la définition et la nature des changements qui les concernent (Le Bossé, 2003). Le processus d'empowerment des salariés, en promouvant une plus grande capacité à agir et la possibilité d'avoir de l'influence sur son contexte, favorise la recherche de nouvelles ressources (Rappaport, 1987 (Hackman et Oldham, 1976), mais aussi l'empowerment psychologique (Chen et Chen, 2008), sont conceptuellement proches des conditions sociostructurelles de l'empowerment telles que développées par Kanter (1977) puis Conger et Kanungo (1988 (Tims et Bakker, 2010 ;Tims et al., 2012. Ce concept porte l'idée que les salariés peuvent agir de façon proactive pour tenter de développer leurs ressources (organisationnelles, relationnelles ou liées aux tâches) ou de diminuer les exigences qu'ils perçoivent au travail. ...
... Ce sont les expériences et performances passées et réussies. C'est la source d'information la plus efficace et la plus influence pour développer le SEP d'après la littérature (Palmer, 2006 ;Bandura, 2007 (Conger et Kanungo, 1988 ;Thomas et Velthouse, 1990) et sur les théories propres à la motivation (Bandura, 1997 ;Deci et Ryan, 1985), Spreitzer (1995) a aussi proposé un outil évaluatif de l'empowerment psychologique. ...
... Pour Quinn et , les salariés qui font l'expérience d'un état psychologique d'empowerment sont plus enclins à prendre des initiatives, à faire preuve de créativité à être plus efficace en acceptant de prendre une plus importante responsabilité vis-à-vis des événements et de leurs actions. En conséquence, les salariés seraient plus favorables à s'impliquer de façon active dans leur travail et leur organisation (Conger et Kanungo, 1988 ;Thomas et Velthouse, 1990). Dans cette veine, plusieurs recherches ont tenté de montrer les liens qui pouvaient être tissés entre l'expérience psychologique d'empowerment et l'initiation de comportements proactifs (Chen et al., 2018 ;Huang, 2017). ...
Thesis
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Les mutations et transformations du travail s’accélèrent, impliquant souvent la dégradation des conditions de travail des salariés. Pour y faire face, les entreprises adoptent de plus en plus fréquemment des politiques de Qualité de Vie au Travail qui ont pour principal objectif l’amélioration du bien-être et de la performance des salariés. Depuis quatre ans, un établissement de l’entreprise SNCF cherche à répondre à ses enjeux en développant l’autonomie et la responsabilisation de ses salariés. Dans ce contexte, notre recherche s’est tout d’abord intéressée à identifier les conditions dans lesquelles il est possible de développer l’empowerment psychologique des salariés (Spreitzer, 1995). Dans un deuxième temps, notre objectif ambitionnait de promouvoir l’empowerment psychologique par une intervention. Une première étude utilisant une méthodologie qualitative a cherché à identifier les conditions de travail perçues, en termes d’exigences et de ressources (Bakker et Demerouti, 2007), qui peuvent influencer l’empowerment psychologique des salariés de l’établissement. Par la suite, une autre étude a été réalisée afin de confirmer, par une méthodologie quantitative, les premiers résultats obtenus. Deux échelles de mesure ont été traduites puis validées pour les besoins de cette recherche (leadership d’empowerment et job crafting). Enfin, une dernière étude portait l’objectif d’expérimenter, par l’intervention, une technique d’augmentation des ressources socio-organisationnelles en contexte écologique pour développer l’empowerment psychologique des salariés. Cette recherche met en évidence le rôle central des ressources socio-organisationnelles telles que la reconnaissance, la justice organisationnelle et le leadership d’empowerment, pour favoriser le développement de l’empowerment psychologique des salariés. Mais elle souligne aussi l’effet rétroactif des comportements de job crafting pour développer les ressources des salariés favorables au développement de leur empowerment psychologique. Enfin, les résultats de l’étude quasi expérimentale mettent en lumière l’aspect prometteur des interventions job crafting pour atteindre cet objectif.
... The two perspectives (i.e., social-structural and psychological empowerment) can be distinguished by emphasizing empowering structures, policies, and practices (Blanchard, Carlos, & Randolph, 1999;Randolph, 1995), and employees' corresponding reactions (Eylon & Bamberger, 2000;Spreitzer, 1995;Thomas & Velthouse, 1990). A social-structural perspective is incomplete because empowering managerial practices have little effect on employees when they lack self-efficacy (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). Similarly, it is difficult for employees' perceived psychological empowerment to work without consideration of organizational or work-unit empowerment practices. ...
... Empowerment is a set of structures, policies, and practices designed to decentralize power and authority throughout the organization, enabling employees at lower levels to act appropriately (Bennis & Nanus, 1985;Block, 1987;Kanter, 1977;. Early research in empowerment literature suggested that central to empowerment is delegating decisionmaking autonomy to employees (Burke, 1986;Kanter, 1983), but more recent research recognizes that empowerment is not simply delegation; sharing authority and resources with subordinates does not empower them automatically (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). Empowerment is a broader construct and thus exerts broader motivational influences beyond delegation of autonomy by encouraging employees to set their own goals, sharing information, rewards, and knowledge with employees, and heightening employees' self-efficacy and personal control in their work (Sharma & Kirkman, 2015). ...
... Empowerment is a broader construct and thus exerts broader motivational influences beyond delegation of autonomy by encouraging employees to set their own goals, sharing information, rewards, and knowledge with employees, and heightening employees' self-efficacy and personal control in their work (Sharma & Kirkman, 2015). Delegating is only one set of conditions that enable or empower subordinates (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). For example, suppose a hotel front-desk clerk is delegated to respond to guest's complaints but without sufficient information, knowledge, and other support. ...
Article
h i g h l i g h t s A cascading effect of organizational-, departmental-, and individual-level empowerment to service quality persists. Organizational and departmental empowerment influence employees through distinct intervention mechanism. The effectiveness of employees' psychological empowerment depends on organizational context. a b s t r a c t This study tests relationships among three levels of empowermentdorganizational, departmental, and individualdand simultaneously their cascading effects on frontline employees' service quality. Drawing on data from 1566 employee-supervisor pairs from 123 departments in 53 Chinese hospitality and tourism enterprises, results reveal a cascading mechanism across three levels of empowerment. Organizational empowerment climate influences employees' psychological empowerment through department psychological empowerment, and department psychological empowerment influences employees' service quality through individual psychological empowerment. Cross-level moderation analysis suggests that only within a high degree of organizational empowerment climate and service behavior-based evaluation does employees' psychological empowerment have positive effects on service quality. In response to the debate on the merits of empowerment programs in organizations, this study supports the usefulness of a cascading, contingency model of empowerment, and demonstrates full delineation of how and when empowerment across three levels influence frontline employees' service quality.
... Empowerment is a managerial tool that is intended for an organization's benefits and can be promoted by management to derive the benefits of empowered employees. 14 And according to Conger and Kanungo,15 empowerment is a form of internal drive beneficial to fostering change-oriented behaviour (eg, taking charge). ...
... 14 Employee empowerment, according to Daft 35 implicates offering employees the freedom to work, control over certain activities, and access to information to contribute in decision-making processes and organizational affairs. But, some scholars (eg, Conger and Kanungo; 15 Spreitzer; 36 Thomas and Velthouse 37 ) have altered their attention to employees' psychological traits. They stress the level of empowerment (psychological empowerment) an individual feels within him/herself ie, meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact. ...
... They stress the level of empowerment (psychological empowerment) an individual feels within him/herself ie, meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact. 36 According to Conger and Kanungo, 15 psychological empowerment is a form of internal drive beneficial to fostering change-oriented behaviour (eg, taking charge). Morrison 38 recommended that empowerment stimulates employees, increasing their motivational drive, ambitions, and demonstration of taking charge; furthermore, for sustainable taking charge, employees must have authority and impact in the accomplishing of their occupational responsibilities. ...
Article
Purpose: Based on trait activation theory, this study validates the boundary effect of perceived organizational support (POS) on employee empowerment (EE) to sustain employee’s taking charge behaviour (TCB). It hypothesizes that EE has a strongly significant and positive relationship with TCB when POS is high. Methodology: The authors selected a time-lagged cross-sectional study and collected data from two sources in manufacturing firms in China where 290 team members and 56 supervisors participated in the survey. In a questionnaire, team members self-reported employee empowerment, taking charge behaviour, and perceived organizational support, whereas supervisors rated employees’ taking charge behaviour at individual-level to avoid common method bias. In addition, for meeting the study objectives statistically, we used SPSS-Process Macro for hypotheses testing. Findings: The study findings were significant, in which employee empowerment demonstrated positive relationship with TCB under the boundary condition of POS but under low POS. This empirical result endorses that employee empowerment accelerated by perceptions of low organizational support demonstrates a positive impact on the development of taking charge behaviour. Practical Implications: Receivers’ reactions to organizational support are not constantly positive; sometimes, they might feel vulnerable or incapable, and sometimes “overhelped”. Our study outcomes extend these streams of work by concentrating on support from the organization and authenticating an exclusive outline associating employee empowerment with perceived organizational support on employee’s taking charge behaviour- specifically organizations might, rather counterintuitively, attain greater levels of empowered employee’s taking charge behaviour by delivering less is more-oriented organizational support programs. More specifically, it is not always high, but sometimes low POS performs as a resilient situational factor or contextual moderator that is capable of activating and encouraging employee empowerment on their taking charge behaviour. Originality/Value: This study highlights the importance of taking charge as trait-relevant behaviour by empowered employees (a trait in our case) and organizational support as a trait-relevant cue for sustainable performance in the manufacturing industry of China.
... The multifaceted approaches created confusion and doubt regarding the precise form of the empowerment concept (Qing et al., 2019). Mostly, scholars assumed that empowerment is similar to delegating or sharing power with subordinates (Conger and Kanungo, 1988). But psychological empowerment consists of perceptions formed by the work condition; and it is not considered a stable personality trait (Meng et al., 2016). ...
... Under this notion, power holds its base within an actor's motivational arrangement. Any managerial strategy that intensifies this self-efficacy belief of employees will enhance their feeling of being more powerful (Conger and Kanungo, 1988). Psychological empowerment is an intrinsic motivation for employees that makes them feel "empowered" and prompts them to change their internal beliefs and attitudes (Chen et al., 2019). ...
Article
Abstract Purpose – In times of crisis and volatility, especially in the Covid-19 scenario, project organisations are facing multifaceted threats. Project organisations are inclining towards flatter organisational structures. Employees are demanding more decision-making authority due to the changing working scenario. Despite the advancement in project management, a hard skill side, project organisations are still struggling to achieve successful projects. The project manager’s leadership, employee self-leadership and soft skills are presented as the solution to these aggravated problems. This article attempts to determine whether a transformational leadership style can influence project success, directly and indirectly through employee self-leadership. Design/methodology/approach – The author raises the hypothesis, supported by social cognitive theory, that transformational leadership impacts project success directly and indirectly through self-leadership. Data were collected from 289 project team members in the IT sector, and the proposed relationships were assessed through Partial least squares structural equation modelling PLS-SEM. Findings – Results show that a project manager’s transformational leadership behaviour and employee self-leadership positively impact project success. Additionally, self-leadership mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and project success. Lastly, empowerment demonstrated significant moderation for self-leadership and project success, and for transformational leadership and project success. Research limitations/implications – In this study, one obvious methodological limitation is a cross-sectional design. Future research can be performed while adopting a longitudinal research design. Another conceptual limitation of the model is that the authors did not include all transformational leadership dimensions, which can be considered for future studies while replicating this research model. Another future front can be by examining other leadership styles. Another research limitation may be the single source data collection, a future study may be conducted by several sources for data collection to adequately test both of the leadership styles at different hierarchies and for project success. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the literature by finding that, in crises, a project manager’s transformational leadership style enhances project success. In practice, project managers are needed to adopt transformational behaviour and encourage employee self-leadership and empowerment.
... Psychological empowerment, first proposed by Conger and Kanungo (1988), was defined as the improvement of employees' expectations of their competence, which was similar to selfefficacy proposed by Bandura (1978). Since Conger and Kanungo (1988), many other scholars have proposed their structure model of psychological empowerment. ...
... Psychological empowerment, first proposed by Conger and Kanungo (1988), was defined as the improvement of employees' expectations of their competence, which was similar to selfefficacy proposed by Bandura (1978). Since Conger and Kanungo (1988), many other scholars have proposed their structure model of psychological empowerment. Thomas and Velthouse (1990) held that individual's psychological empowerment could be reflected in his or her evaluation of intrinsic motivation at work. ...
Article
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Relevant research shows teachers’ “psychological power” plays a more essential role in promoting their professional development compared with the powers provided by various external factors, and it is therefore held that exploring college English teachers’ individual psychological power is of great significance. To this end, this study investigated college English teachers’ psychological empowerment (CETPE) via the development and validation of CETPE’s scale. Based on our literature review on psychological empowerment and analysis of teachers professional development’s status quo, we made a working definition of CETPE as a system involving perception of their occupation, sense of competence, experiencing of autonomy, judgment of their impact and understanding of their status. In our study, firstly the literature review and the interview with 17 college English teachers were adopted to conceptualize the dimensions of CETPE, and an exploratory factor analysis of data was conducted from 227 college English teachers and then the subsequent confirmatory factor analysis of data collected from another sample of 1030 generated 15 items belonging to five factors. The findings reveal that CETPE is systematically composed of teachers’ positive perception and experience of work meaningfulness, teaching autonomy, occupational competence, professional impact and social status. This study provides a new path for teachers’ professional development via strengthening their intrinsic driving force and thus helps improve the college English teaching effects.
... Empowering leadership is a leadership process where power-sharing occurs between leaders and followers allocated more autonomy and responsibilities (Cheong et al., 2016). In the empowerment theory proposed by Conger and Kanungo (1988), empowerment is perceived as a motivation process. Thus, in this type of leadership approach, leaders allow followers to have their own decision making power while following a set of leader behaviours to increase work meaningfulness and employees' confidence (Kim & Beehr, 2017). ...
... Meanwhile, some scholars pointed out that empowering leadership helps increase followers" self-efficacy, which will improve their work performance (Kim & Beehr, 2017;Lee et al., 2017;Conger & Kanungo, 1988). ...
Thesis
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In today's rapidly developing economy and society, the challenging economic situation and ever-changing business environment bring new challenges and requirements to leadership. As a result, innovation has been an important research topic of organisational behaviour, and organisational innovation fundamentally relies on employees to actualise. This research studies the relationship between empowering leadership and employee innovation behaviour in Chinese SOEs. In particular, it integrates the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory into the relationship to determine whether followers' perceptions of LMX mediate the relationship between empowering leadership and employees' innovation. In addition, 229 employees working in Chinese SOEs participated in the online questionnaire research in this current study. As a result, this research found that empowering leadership has a positive relationship with employees' innovation behaviour. Furthermore, this research found a mediating role of intrinsic motivation in the relationship between empowering leadership and employees' innovation behaviour. This research provides important managerial implications for Chinese SOEs by revealing the relationship and influencing mechanism between empowering leadership and innovation behaviour. Keywords: empowering leadership, innovation, intrinsic motivation; 授权型领导,管理赋能,创新行为,内在激励
... One possible conceptualization of JI is the degree to which the employee perceives that his job performance is central to his self-concept (Saleh & Hosek, 1976). Self-efficacy beliefs are also one of the cognitions of PE (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). Perceived competence, the second subscale of PE, is another feeling, which refers to self-efficacy (Thomas & Velthouse, 1990;Menon, 2001). ...
... Perceived competence is an underlying theme of the majority of research into empowerment. Enhancing self-efficacy beliefs is the cornerstone of Conger and Kanungo's empowerment strategy (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). Employees with high JI have already higher self-efficacy beliefs and, therefore, JI has a decreasing effect on some JC activities. ...
... It also looked into the psychological process by which TL influences organizational commitment. Compared with other leadership styles, TL has been regarded as distinctively effective in fostering the intrinsic motivation of employees owing to its facilitation of empowerment and changes in employees' work attitudes (Conger, 1999;Conger & Kanungo, 1988). In particular, employee empowerment is important in achieving certain tasks and goals. ...
... As empowered employees are committed to their work responsibilities and perform well, they contribute to increased meaningful organizational outcomes, organizational creativity, and sustainable organizational success (Carless, 2004;Ergeneli et al., 2007;Joo & Shim, 2010;Liden et al., 2000). Employee empowerment is initiated by TL (Conger, 1999;Conger & Kanungo, 1988;Thomas & Velthouse, 1990). Specifically, TL behaviors, such as articulating and sharing a company's vision, being optimistic about the company's future, challenging employees intellectually, and demonstrating personalized care and concern for them, change employees' perceptions about their work (Bass, 1999;Yukl & Van Fleet, 1992). ...
Article
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Effectively implementing leadership is critical for organizational success. In consideration of this issue, this study investigated effective leadership in US- and Germany-based multinational companies (MNCs) operating in South Korea. Drawing on transformational leadership (TL) theory and leadership contingency theory, the study clarified the contextual dependency of TL effectiveness. A survey was administered to 258 employees of the target MNCs, during which the participants were asked to rate their supervisors’ transformational leadership behaviors. The responses were empirically analyzed on the basis of the research framework. The findings showed that a leader’s group-focused TL behaviors indirectly influenced organizational commitment and that this relationship was mediated by psychological empowerment in the US-based MNCs. Conversely, a leader’s individual-focused TL behaviors demonstrated a pronounced effect on organizational commitment and that this association was also mediated by psychological empowerment in the Germany-based MNCs. The leadership behaviors that effectively empowered employees and increased their organizational commitment differed depending on the cultures prevalent in the organizations’ countries of origin. Adopting the two-dimensional model of TL, this study confirmed the contextual dependency of TL behaviors and suggested the need to incorporate an organization’s cultural context into predictions regarding the effects of certain leadership behaviors.
... Bilgiyi işleme, iletişim teknolojilerinde görülen değişim ve yenilikler, rekabetin globalleşmesi, insan kaynağının öneminin artması örgütlerin yapısında ve yönetim düşüncesinde değişime gidilmesi gerekliliğini savunan post modern yönetim anlayışının sonucu ortaya çıkan kavramlardan biri personel güçlendirme kavramıdır (Koçel, 2013).Personel güçlendirme, yönetsel ve örgütsel etkinliğin temel bileşeni olarak kabul edilmesi, örgüt içindeki iktidar ve kontrolün artmasına yardımcı olması, örgüt içinde grup geliştirme ve gruplar arası uyumun sürdürülmesinde önemli rol oynaması gibi nedenlerle, yönetim araştırmacılarının ilgisini çekmektedir (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). Personel güçlendirme kavramının, örgütsel davranış alanında kullanımı yaygın olmasına rağmen, güçlendirme faaliyetlerinin taraflarına, örgütün sahip olduğu mevcut kültürüne ve güçlendirme faaliyetlerinin geneline bağlı olarak farklı şekillerde yorumlanıp uygulanabilen ve sürekli gelişen bir kavram olması nedenleriyle tek bir tanımı bulunmamaktadır (Thomas & Velthouse, 1990). ...
... Personel güçlendirme; çalışanlar ile örgütün performansına yönelik bilgi paylaşımı, örgüt performansına bağlı ödüller ile ilgili bilgi paylaşımı, çalışanların örgütsel performansı anlama ve bu performansa katkıda bulunmalarını sağlamaya dair bilgi paylaşımı ve örgütsel performansı etkileyen karar verme gücü ile ilgili bilgi paylaşımından oluşan dört organizasyonel içeriğin paylaşılmasıdır (Bowen & Lawler, 1992). Personel güçlendirme, bir yönetim pratiği olarak çalışan katılımı ile eşdeğer görülerek, yetki ve kaynak paylaşımı olarak tanımlanmasının aksine, çalışanın öz-yeterlilik duygularını geliştirmeyi hedefleyen motivasyonel bir kavramdır (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). Güç, belirlenen hedeflere ulaşmak için başkalarının davranışlarını etkileme becerisidir (Nye, 2017). ...
... The relationship between the concepts of empowerment and motivation is as stated by Conger and Kanungo (1988). Empowerment should not be limited to sociostructural perspectives but should also be seen as a process of enhancing feelings of self-efficacy among members of the organization and further as a construct of motivation meant to enable and not just represent. ...
Conference Paper
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Kajian ini bertujuan mengukur hubungan kesediaan pengetahuan mengajar guru pendidikan khas dengan kesediaan guru dalam mengajar kemahiran hidup (masakan) kepada murid-murid pendidikan khas bermasalah pembelajaran di Pahang. Reka bentuk kajian ini ialah kajian korelasi dengan menggunakan Model Pengetahuan Guru Shulman dan Model Pengetahuan Guru Grossman. Kajian ini adalah bersifat kuantitatif. Pengkaji memilih seramai 200 orang guru pendidikan khas sebagai sampel kajian secara rawak. Instrumen soal-selidik digunakan dalam bentuk skala Likert 5 poin bagi memperoleh data empirikal tentang kesediaan pengetahuan mengajar guru pendidikan khas. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan inferens yang melibatkan ujian-t, ANOVA dan korelasi Pearson yang menerangkan perbezaan serta hubungan antara pemboleh ubah kajian. Analisis deskriptif menunjukkan guru-guru bersetuju mempunyai kesediaan pengetahuan guru dalam tujuh dimensi dengan nilai purata (M= 4.32, S.P= 0.240). Sementara itu, dalam analisis inferens sebanyak empat hipotesis nul telah diuji dan keempat-empat hipotesis nul tersebut telah ditolak. Hasilnya, dapat dirumuskan bahawa terdapat perbezaan kesediaan pengetahuan mengajar guru pendidikan khas dalam mengajar mata pelajaran kemahiran hidup (masakan) kepada murid-murid pendidikan khas bermasalah pembelajaran berdasarkan jantina guru, kelayakan akademik dan pengalaman guru mengajar. Analisis korelasi menunjukkan wujud hubungan yang kuat dan signifikan (r = 0.707 ; p < 0.05) antara pengetahuan guru dengan kesediaan pengetahuan mengajar guru pendidikan khas dalam mengajar mata pelajaran kemahiran hidup masakan di sekolah rendah. Kesimpulannya, dapat disimpulkan bahawa guru-guru pendidikan khas yang mengajar kemahiran hidup percaya bahawa mereka mempunyai kesediaan pengetahuan mengajar subjek masakan. Implikasi daripada kajian ini pihak kementerian dan juga jabatan dapat mengetahui kesediaan pengetahuan mengajar guru serta kesediaan guru.
... Psychological empowerment is the internal belief of an individual to have a control on his/her future, the ability to make his/her choices and to explore when and where his/her preferences can be used (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). Psychological empowerment is the important psychological state required for the individuals to feel about the work they are doing in an organization (Spreitzer, 1997). ...
Article
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This study intended to find out the role of attitude and empowerment of residents in development of archeological tourism in the three archaeological destinations in Mardan district. It covered all the destination of Buddhist remains in Mardan including Takht Bhai, Shehbaz Garhi and Jamal Garhi. Attitude was measured in terms of emotional solidarity and empowerment was evaluated in terms of psychological empowerment; social empowerment and political empowerment. Data were collected from a sample of 197 local residents including students and shopkeepers through questionnaire. The data were analyzed applying multiple regression analysis. All the three independent variables including emotional solidarity, psychological empowerment; social empowerment and political empowerment, were found having had a significant positive relationship with tourism development.
... Power was found to be essential for fisheries policy implementation. Conger and Kanungo (1988), identified power forms, such as legal, coercive, remunerative, normative and expert power. The definition of expert control, described as the ability to influence others by having knowledge or skills that are useful to others, is of interest to this study (Kubsch, 1996). ...
Article
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The Uganda National Fisheries Policy was introduced in 2004 to guide fisheries development. Essentially, the policy was designed to achieve sustainability and ensure economic and social development within fishery communities. However, since its inception, there has been increasing concern over the declining fish stocks and poverty within fishery communities. These lingering problems continue to raise concerns about the implementation of the National Fisheries Policy in Uganda since these are what, among others, the policy is meant to address. Indeed, the Uganda Peoples Defense Forces (UPDF), continue to employ coercion, dominance and authoritarianism in their enforcement of this policy, with marginal and mixed results. In this regard, the inability to tackle these challenges continues to threaten the sustainability of fisheries as a major economic activity upon which entire communities depend. This study addresses these concerns by answering the question: what is the role of empowerment in fisheries policy implementation? The study was qualitative. It utilized 14 interviews and five focus group discussions as its data sources. Findings suggest that “Kantian” power, support, and information can facilitate fisheries policy implementation and should therefore be engaged.
... In the research literature, tackling the disempowerment of practioners is explored from the individual perspective by Thomas and Velthouse (1990), Conger and Kanungo (1988) Kanter (1977), and Backer (1994 and from the group setting perspective by Reason (1996). ...
Thesis
p>As a practitioner in the field, I felt that a greater understanding of how practitioners worked interprofessionally was needed, and this desire was to be the starting point for my research. This thesis records my journey in a research study which explores the interprofessional practice experience of learning disability practitioners. Starting from my original broad research question ‘How do professionals in the field of learning disability view interprofessional practice?”, the thesis explores the context of learning disability practice and the impact of history on present day services. Set within a general grounded theory methodology it documents my relationship and interactions with the research participants. Choices in relation to methodological decisions made are charted, whilst the dialogue with participants is presented from two analytical perspectives. Firstly, a descriptive analysis of the individuals experience of interprofessional practice. This introduces key roles of the practitioner and identifies significant practice based knowledge. The impact of these roles and knowledge are explored in relation to professional and interprofessional confidence, teamwork strategy and subsequent use of power of the participants. Secondly, an analysis of critical elements of participants personal knowledge, is used to construct, through concept analysis, a preliminary theoretical framework. Thus presenting the components of a model for interprofessional practice in the field of learning disabilities. Towards the end of the journey, the framework’s application in practice and its contribution to the field are presented, highlighting the knowledge gained and affirming the contribution of practitioners. The framework’s effectiveness is considered in relation to operationalisation, congruence in a changing practice context, standards of professional practice and empowerment. Finally, the framework’s contribution of knowledge is assessed and future research suggested: as this journey ends and another begins.</p
... Empowerment is also an important concept in discussing the antecedent strategies for increasing target behaviors in employees. Some researchers consider empowerment as a set of behaviors of managers that give control and authority to subordinates (Bennis, 1984;Bennis & Nanus, 1985;Conger, 1989;Conger & Kanungo, 1988;DuBrin, 1998;Ford & Fottler, 1995). Other empowerment behaviors could include providing a positive emotional atmosphere, rewarding and encouraging in visible and personal ways, expressing confidence, fostering initiative and responsibility and building on success (Conger, 1989;DuBrin, 1998). ...
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This article addresses ways in which some strategies from Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) approach contribute to the understanding and increasing of workplace performance and motivation. In this study, we provide the conceptual background, meta-analyze available studies about behavioral approaches, applied in organizational settings, and we describe various factors that influence motivation, including individual learning histories, motivating operations and keys for delivering positive reinforcement effectively. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for the practice of entrepreneurial leadership and for further research, offering practical suggestions for improving motivation and productivity in organizational settings.
... Dans le cadre du travail, l'empowerment est souvent traduit par des termes tels que « autonomisation », « responsabilisation » ou encore « habilitation ». Ainsi l'empowerment se caractérise par le partage du pouvoir et des responsabilités entre un leader et les membres de son équipe (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). Selon Boudrias et Bérard (2016), il fait référence « au fait qu'un transfert de pouvoirs et de responsabilités est effectué par les supérieurs hiérarchiques au profit de leurs subalternes. ...
Thesis
Depuis une vingtaine d’années, les organismes publics de recherche et d’enseignement supérieur continuent à intégrer, dans leurs objectifs stratégiques, une démarche qualité dont les principes et outils sont déployés depuis longtemps dans les entreprises privées. Des laboratoires de recherche ont promptement pris en main cette démarche de différentes manières et se sont contentés pour la plupart des ressources qu’ils avaient. L’objectif premier attendu de la démarche qualité est de valoriser les activités de recherche, de démontrer la traçabilité des données obtenues et la fiabilité des résultats publiés. Mais les laboratoires de recherche, ont-ils été suffisamment préparés et se servent-ils de la démarche qualité pour piloter leur organisation afin d’atteindre les objectifs et satisfaire les critères qualité des organismes d’évaluation ? Dans ce contexte, la fonction de responsable qualité a été créée dans les laboratoires de recherche et dans l’enseignement supérieur. Cependant cette fonction se heurte à la question suivante : « Comment impliquer les personnes à tous les niveaux hiérarchiques dans la démarche qualité ? ». Cette recherche-action s’appuie d’une part sur l’expérience professionnelle de l’auteur et d’autre part sur l’étude du lien entre la démarche qualité, le bien-être au travail et le leadership habilitant. Les données obtenues suite à une enquête menée auprès de 235 participants membres de laboratoires de recherche, ont été analysées grâce à deux méthodes d’analyse complémentaires, quantitatives et qualitatives. Les résultats confirment que la démarche qualité améliore la performance d’un laboratoire de recherche et le bien-être au travail. Le leadership habilitant a un rôle de médiateur entre la démarche qualité et la performance ainsi qu’entre la démarche qualité et le bien-être au travail. Des leviers organisationnels et individuels sont proposés pour faciliter l’implication des personnes dans le déploiement et l’animation de la démarche qualité.
... Leaders at the team level can embrace the transformational approach by developing innovative ideas for change, influencing higher level leaders to generate support for new ideas, and inspiring subordinates to make change happen within their sphere of influence. 53 These elements have been found to positively increase follower's feelings of empowerment and perceptions of their influence and level of inspiration. 54 Within transformational leadership, intellectual stimulation specifically supports innovative behaviours by creating the conditions to encourage new approaches to problems facing the organization. ...
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Leaders shape organizational culture via its responsible and deliberate perpetuation, the navigation of cultural ambiguity and flawed basic underlying assumptions, and enhancing members’ ability to successfully navigate culture change. These are focal areas where both empowerment and fit are particularly useful in shaping organizational culture in desirable ways as both a team-level and organizational-level leader. Shaping the structures that create or reinforce psychological characteristics of empowerment do not just reflect transformational leadership, they drive a healthier culture through healthier teams. Similarly, paying attention to and promoting person-group fit within the team has a direct impact at the level of espoused beliefs and values, and an indirect impact on the other levels, which research suggests will yield both higher commitment and better performance. To the degree that these initiatives represent organizational culture change, the theories also predict individuals will find these changes deeply unsettling. Psychological safety is a primary dimension of empowerment where team leaders can be particularly effective at leading this change for their members. Finally, at the top of the hierarchy, an organizational-level leader has tremendous responsibility and opportunity. They can deliberately reinforce the above, while also attending to person-organization fit and reinforcing empowerment concepts and goal alignment throughout the organizational hierarchy in a way uniquely suited to leaders at the organizational level.
... Psychological empowerment is normally viewed as intrinsic motivation, which is an individual cognitive state acquired while an individual perceives self-determination and efficacy (Spreitzer, 1995(Spreitzer, , 1996(Spreitzer, , 2008Seibert et al., 2004;Thomas & Velthouse, 1990). Employee psychological empowerment has been first defined as the motivational concept of self-efficacy (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). While after related literature review, Thomas and Velthouse (1990), Spreitzer (1995) argue that the essence of empowerment cannot be captured by a single concept, and defined empowerment more broadly as increased intrinsic task motivation manifested in a set of four cognitions: competence (which is synonymous with Conger and Kanungo's self-efficacy), meaning, impact, and self-determination. ...
Article
This study differentiates the influences of role overload and role ambiguity on employee service quality from challenge-hindrance stressors, and explores the underlying mechanism regarding how and when such effects occur. Collecting data from 1645 employee-supervisor pairs in 49 tourism firms in China, hierarchical linear modeling results support the challenge-hindrance stressors theory by demonstrating that role overload has no effect and role ambiguity a negative effect on service quality. Analysis suggests that employee psychological empowerment fully mediates the negative effect of role ambiguity on service quality, though no similar mediating was found with role overload. Cross-level moderation analysis suggests that a supportive leadership climate triggers a positive effect of role overload on employee psychological empowerment, but does not buffer the negative effect of role ambiguity on the same.
... Although there are several variations, many have significant overlap with transformational leadership and, as such, offer that the reader refers to the previous discussion for these related frameworks. One framework that, from a conceptual standpoint, is unique enough to warrant discussion is the attribution model of charismatic leadership (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). The theory holds that leaders who offer a novel and engaging vision, emotionally appeal to core values, engage in unconventional behavior, appear confident, and are willing to engage in self-sacrifice are viewed as charismatic. ...
Book
Abstract: The charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic (CIP) theory of leadership has emerged as a novel framework for thinking about the varying ways leaders can influence followers. The theory is based on the principle of equifinality or the notion that there are multiple pathways to the same outcome. Researchers of the CIP theory have proposed that leaders are effective by engaging in one, or a mix, of the three leader pathways: the charismatic approach focused on an emotionally evocative vision, an ideological approach focused on core beliefs and values, or a pragmatic approach focused on an appeal of rationality and problem-solving. Formation of pathways and unique follower responses are described. The more than fifteen years of empirical work investigating the theory are summarized, and the theory is compared and contrasted to other commonly studied and popular frameworks of leadership. Strengths, weaknesses, and avenues for future investigation of the CIP theory are discussed
... In a service industry, organisation has a unique advantage compared to its competitors when employees are empowered. Thus the role of empowerment is huge within an organisation (Conger and Kanungo, 1988;Bowen and Lawler, 1995;Quinn and Spreitzer, 1997;Tschohl, 1997). In the Indian IT industry the role of EC and employees attrition is treated as business problem and a serious cause of concern (Messner, 2013). ...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of physical environment on employee commitment with a moderating role of work autonomy. The questionnaire was formed on the basis of previously validated methods. 269 employees from various information technology (IT) companies were interviewed. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is used to establish the reliability and validity measurements and a moderated structural equation modelling (MSEM) is used to test the hypothesis. The result of the study showed an optimistic influence of work autonomy on physical environment and employee commitment. Since the study was undertaken in IT firms, the generalisation of the same across other sectors is not possible and therefore a scope for further studies. The research tries to bring a three dimensional model highlighting the importance of work autonomy combining physical environment and employee commitment. Keywords: physical environment; PE; work autonomy; WA; employee commitment; EC; confirmatory factor analysis; CFA; moderated structural equation modelling; MSEM. DOI: 10.1504/IJBIR.2022.122490 International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 2022 Vol.27 No.4, pp.446 - 461
... En outre, notre propos est de proposer une théorie systémique du corpus, inspirée de la théorie systémique du discours (Wagener, 2019), afin de remettre le corpus au coeur des enjeux sociaux. Ce faisant, nous proposons l'hypothèse d'un corpus comme outil d'action sociale, qui rejoint les problématiques liées à l'empowerment (Conger & Kanungo, 1988), dans le sens où l'analyse de corpus peut permettre l'émergence du design discursif (Ledin & Machin, 2016), soit la réappropriation des résultats d'étude de corpus dans une dynamique éthique, transformatrice et connectée aux enjeux politiques de nos sociétés. ...
... Disempowerment. Disempowerment occurs when a protagonist employs tactics that are designed to prevent targeted individuals from engaging in behaviours that constitute a threat to the protagonist's safety and security needs (Conger & Kanungo, 1988;Eylon & Bamberger, 2000). With respect to grooming, such tactics have been found to take four broad forms: information withholding, negative incentives, isolation, and denigration. ...
... Psychological empowerment, social empowerment and political empowerment of the residents are measured in heritage tourism context. Psychological empowerment is the internal belief of an individual to have control on his future, ability and making preferences of the routine life (Conger and Kanungo, 1988). Within heritage tourism connection, psychological empowerment happens when an individual feels self-pride because of the uniqueness of the destination (Scheyvens. ...
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This paper explores the influence of residents’ attitude and empowerment on heritage tourism development in UNESCO declared destinations in Mardan; Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. The three destinations of Jamal Garhi, Shahbaz Garhi and Takht Bhai are studied using statistical approaches. To measure the perception of local people, 384 self-administered questionnaires were filled from the local people. 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree was used to collect data. In order to conduct this research; KMO and Chronbach alpha tests were used to measure validity and internal consistency of questionnaire respectively. Correlation and regression statistical tools were used to measure the relationship. Moreover, ANOVA is used to measure the significance of relationship. The residents’ attitude is measured in terms of emotional solidarity. On other hand residents’ empowerment is evaluated using; psychological empowerment, social empowerment and political empowerment. The results show that residents attitude and empowerment have overall positive significant relationship with heritage tourism development.This paper aims to raise the voice of the local people to the higher authorities. Artificial intelligence and neural networks can be applied as decision making tool.For policy consideration, attention from the provincial and federal government is required to involve the local people in decision making.
... The past two decades have experienced a complex paradigm shift in management theory and practice which involves a shift from predictable outcomes to uncertainty, from command and control to trust and empowerment, from "simplicity to complex situations," from "transactional leadership to transformational leadership" and from "closed to complex systems" (Gleick, 1987, Conger and Kanungo, 1988, Lewin, 1992, House and Shamir, 1993, Dooley, 1997. These movements have shifted our focus from purely economic orientation to "balance of profits, quality of life, spirituality and social responsibility concerns" (Walsh, Weber, and Margolis, 2003;DeFoore and Renesch, 1995). ...
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The importance of business ethics as a subject in management schools has been highlighted since decades. Time and again the importance of value-based education has been emphasized and perceived to be necessary for conducting ethical business practices. This paper discovers While there is general sensitivity towards the importance of values and ethics in personal and professional life there is a gap in relating their significance to the common understanding and perception of 'success' and 'failure'. Even though a section of the students show interest in such 'soft' courses as values, ethics and sustainability the interest gets diluted over time primarily because of the hackneyed and stereotyped manner in which such courses are offered with a preponderance of antiquated theories of ethics and case studies that have increasingly lost their relevance. There is an element of skepticism bordering on cynicism towards initiatives around bringing spirituality and values into the fold of mainstream management education stemming primarily from lack of knowledge and conviction of spirituality among the faculty and students. There is also a major confusion in the minds of students between enlivening spiritual wisdom and dogmatic, institutionalized religion infused in their minds by instrumentally rational and secular orientation of thinkers, researchers and academics posing as opinion leaders for future generations
... It is not anything that can be implemented on any person or organization rather than it is a way of idea that how the individuals feel and experience their work (Raquib et al., 2010). Conger and Kanungo (1988) at first time introduced a psychological perspective of empowerment. The psychological empowerment "as intrinsic task motivation reflecting a sense of control in relation to one's work and an active orientation to one's work role that is manifest in four cognitions: meaning, selfdetermination, competence, and impact" (Thomas & Velthouse, 1990;Seibert et al., 2011). ...
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Teacher’s motivation and Job satisfaction plays a vital role in their effective teaching which circuitously affects the students’ learning. In addition, literature documents that if teachers are psychological empowered, they possess positive attitude towards their job. Therefore, the study was aimed to examine the mediating role of motivation in the relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of the school teachers. Where, psychological empowerment along with four sub variables described by Spreitzer (1995) was taken as the independent variable and job satisfaction is dependent variable.A quantitative survey research design was used to collect the data. Total 317 secondary school teachers were selected through multi stage sampling technique from the three tehsils of Sargodha. Proposed model was test by using structural equation modeling in AMOS v.20. The fit indices depicted that data fit the model well (Fit indices (χ2(normed) = 1.766; CFI = .991; RMSEA = 0.04). Moreover, the path estimates showed that motivation is significantly mediated in the relationship between psychological empowerment, particularly its two sub variables ‘Meaning’ and ‘competence’, and job satisfaction. Thus, the findings showed that when teachers feel psychologically empowered, they become loyal and committed towards their organization and ready to put their best efforts for the betterment of their organization.
... PsyEmp allows individuals to feel more self-efficacy and job autonomy in performing their tasks, thereby developing a positive change within the organizational environment . PsyEmp is often measured through four components: (i) meaning offers an individual the concept of alignment between his/her values, standards, and beliefs toward work role Renn & Vandenberg, 1995); (ii) self-determination is the autonomy that helps individuals select a work or job for themselves (Conger & Kanungo, 1988); (iii) competence is an individual emotion of self-efficiency and motivation regarding the achievement of assigned work (Bandura, 1986); (iv) impact can be defined as the level to which individuals recognize that their task or efforts create a difference in accomplishing the motive of a work (Spreitzer, 1995). In a psychologically safe climate, team members feel open to discussing issues, do not hesitate to share concerns, and are willing to learn on the job (Jha, 2019). ...
Article
This research examines the impact of authentic leadership style on project success through mediation effects of psychological empowerment and job engagement in the software industry of Pakistan. Data were collected from 343 self-reports of employees working on different software projects in Pakistan. As per results, authentic leadership enhanced project success directly and indirectly through the serial-mediation effects of psychological empowerment and job engagement. The current findings contribute to prior literature in many ways: (i) social exchange theory—by identifying new antecedents and outcomes of job engagement; (ii) leadership literature—by offering an integrated framework with psychological empowerment and job engagement as two explanatory mechanisms (mediators) linking the under researched authentic leadership to project success; (iii) project management literature—by unwrapping new antecedents (i.e., authentic leadership, psychological empowerment, and job engagement) to project success; offers an empirical case for the potential applications of the undermined leadership style, authentic leadership, in the software sector.
... The notion of empowerment thus implies motivation for action, support in taking responsibility, initiative for individual action (Kar, Pascual and Chickering 1999), and replication. For Conger and Kanungo (1988), the increase in the sense of self-efficacy is an integral part of the empowerment experience ...
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Chapter in the book "Questions d'éducation familiale" (Palacio-Quentin, Bouchard and Terrisse, Quebec 2004) In adolescence, the subject is in a transitional phase, during which he/she is led to manage new skills (cognitive, affective, social) which imply a readjustment of his/her behaviors in the face of new situations (training, social commitments, emotional life...), with a view to a successful psychosocial adaptation He must therefore redefine his place within the family, as a person endowed with a new power of action and decision. This acquisition of power would respond to a desire for self-assertion and the conquest of autonomy. This requires the adolescent to control and master past, present and future actions, to assert choices and preferences through the development of a value system, but also to actualize potentialities, to take responsibility and to be effective in the face of social pressure and the expectations of those around him. But how important are the dynamics of family relationships in this acquisition of personal power by the adolescent? In what way does it contribute to their empowerment and responsibility? We assume that this empowerment of the adolescent is built progressively through the implementation, during the parent-adolescent interaction, of educational and psychological procedures and processes that contribute to the development of the subject's skills. After briefly resituating the problematic of parent-adolescent relationships and the nature of personalization strategies in adolescence, we will emphasize the 1 Tap, Pierre Professor Emeritus at the University of Toulouse Le Mirail.
... For this reason, empowering leadership can be seen as an approach that provides prescriptions to leaders to regulate the distribution and use of power. According to Conger and Kanungo (1988), empowerment weakens the individual's beliefs about powerlessness and instead increases his belief in his capacity and performance. ...
... While servant leadership enhances employees' psychological empowerment, authoritarian leadership does the opposite. Employees who are exposed to servant leaders perceive a higher level of psychological empowerment, which further enhances their organizational commitment (Liden et al., 2000;Sunarsi et al., 2020), self-efficacy (Conger and Kanungo, 1988;Wang et al., 2020), and work efficiency (Li et al., 2006). According to social exchange theory, when employees perceive a higher level of psychological empowerment, their self-worth is affirmed and their need for respect is satisfied. ...
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The complexity of today’s organizational environment increasingly requires leaders to think in a dynamic and flexible way to resolve contradictory issues. This study explored and compared the effects of servant leadership and authoritarian leadership on employees’ work behavior from the perspectives of ambidextrous leadership theory and social exchange theory, and further examined the mediating role of psychological empowerment. In this study, 315 employees from state-owned communication companies in Shandong and Zhejiang Provinces in China were selected as subjects, and path analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The results showed that servant leadership positively predicted organizational citizenship behavior and task performance. While authoritarian leadership negatively predicted organizational citizenship behavior and positively predicted task performance, psychological empowerment mediated the relationship between the two leadership styles and organizational citizenship behavior and task performance. Moreover, psychological empowerment and organizational citizenship behavior played a multiple mediating role between the two leadership styles and task performance. The theoretical implications of these findings for advancing the ambidextrous leadership theory in Chinese organizational contexts and practical approaches for corporate managers to effectively use ambidextrous leadership style were discussed.
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Online communities are rapidly growing as an outlet for social support and community building. However, very few succeeded in inspiring members to share their knowledge. The problem of under contribution in online settings has triggered researchers to investigate the role of personal attributes in promoting knowledge sharing. Using social cognitive theories, this study examines the role of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy towards knowledge sharing in online programming communities. In addition, this study examines the moderating effect of anonymity on outcome expectancy. Data were collected from 20 online programming communities and used to empirically test the proposed model. The result from the structural equation modelling suggests that anonymity significantly moderate the effect of outcome expectancy towards members' knowledge sharing behavior in the online programming community. A perceiveness of hidden identity after posting and commenting unsure contents can motivate members to contribute more to online programming community and help promote sustainability in this platform.
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Objective: This research aims to study the connection betweenthe use of cell phones and sex, body mass index and level of PApractice in adolescent schoolchildren.Method: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conductedwith a total sample of 103 students in compulsory secondaryeducation (ESO), aged between 14 and 17 years. TheQuestionnaire on the Usability of ICT with Internet Connection(CUTIC) was used, specifically the questions related to the use ofcell phones (Jiménez, Alvarado, & Llopis, 2017). BMI was obtainedself-reported and applying the kg/m2 formula (Baile & González-Calderón, 2014), classifying the schoolchildren with the Orbegozofoundation tables (Sobradillo et al., 2004). The level of PhysicalActivity of the sample was assessed with the WHO Global PhysicalActivity Questionnaire (GPAQ) (2014). Informed consent of theparents or legal guardians was provided throughout the procedureand adjusted everything to the Helsinki Declaration of 2013.Descriptive and ANOVA analyses were performed with SPSSStatistics software version 27.0.Results: For the schoolchildren in this study, cell phones are themost commonly used screen devices, with boys being the oneswho use them the most. There seems to be more consensus on thefact that the main reason for the use of these screen devices isrelated to the consultation of social networks. In relation to BMI,the group of schoolchildren with obesity spends too much time onsocial networks, compared to those with normal weight andoverweight.Conclusions: The main conclusion is that cell phones are widelyused by the adolescents studied, especially to consult socialnetworks. Excess weight is related to prolonged periods of use ofthese devices. Boys report a greater use of these mobile devicesfor educational purposes.
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In the complex and dynamic condition of economic, social, policy and etc can be said that one of factor organizational survive is productivity of human resource in organization. Therefore, the present study tried to identify the main factor of human resource productivity and how to increase it by cognitive empowerment. In present research the sample size consists of 183 employees (69 women and 114 men) that were selected at random from Tabriz 3 zone education in East Azerbaijan-Iran. Data analysis was carried out by using the statistical program packages SPSS 17.0, Amos 16.0.1 and Lisrel 8.5. Findings of the present study were illustrated that there is significant relationship between empowerment and its dimensions and human resource productivity in the present organization (p<0/01). The results of Enter regression showed that predictor variables significantly (choice, competency, meaningful and impact) have determined 71.0 % of the variance of HRP together. Also the result of Lisrel statistical software was illustrated that the data of present study involve significant goodness of fit. Also the interesting results were obtained from Regression analysis to predict cognitive empowerment and its dimensions on the HRP that will watch in the present study. KEY WORDS: Empowerment, Choice, Competence, Meaningful, Impact and human resource productivity and its dimensions.
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The main purpose of this study which concentrates on the common context of empowerment levels and determines the content is to find out the relationship between levels of perceived empowerment. Besides, the subgoal of this article is to define the differences for the empowerment levels according to some demographic distinctive of the participants. The research has been obtained from 203 people working in foreign trade organizations placed in Istanbul. A scale was used to define the personnel empowerment levels with a question form for demographic characteristics. The data were analyzed by Mann Whitney-U and Kruskal Wallis tests. As a result of the research; there are positive relationships between some levels, but in others there are not. In addition to this, as a subgoal of the study, it has reached the result that the perceived levels of empowerment did not differ according to gender and education variables however they indicate differences according to age, experience, number of organizations worked, department and position.
Research
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zet Sosyal kaytarma davranışı, özellikle grup çalışması olan örgütlerde araştırılması, önlem alınması ve üzerinde durulması gereken önemli bir konudur. Günümüz örgütlerinde küreselleşmenin de etkisiyle çeşitli işleri gerçekleştirmek için gruplar halinde çalışmak adeta bir zorunluluk haline gelmiştir. Ringelmann etkisi olarak da bilinen sosyal kaytarma, temelde bireylerin işe sunduğu katkının, gruptaki insan sayına bağlı olarak etkilendiğini savunmaktadır. Sosyal kaytarmayla davranışları, örgütlere zarar verdiği ve çalışanların verimliliğinin azalması sebebiyle örgütler açısından istenmeyen bir durumdur. Bu çalışmada öncelikle sosyal kaytarma kavramı açıklanmış, sosyal kaytarmaya sebep olan kişisel ve bir takım örgütsel sebeplere yer verilmiş, sosyal kaytarma kavramı kaynakları koruma teorisi perspektifinden incelenerek genel bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sosyal Kaytarma, Ringelmann Etkisi, Kaynakları Koruma Teorisi RESOURCE CONSERVATION THEORY APPROACH TO SOCIAL LOAFING BEHAVIOR Abstract Social loafing behavior is an important issue that needs to be investigated, taken precautions and focused on, especially in organizations with group work. In today's organizations, it has become almost a necessity to work in groups in order to carry out various works with the effect of globalization. Social loafing, also known as the Ringelmann effect, basically argues that the contribution of individuals to work is affected by the number of people in the group. Social loafing is an undesirable situation for organizations as it harms organizations and decreases employee productivity. In this study, first of all, the concept of social loafing is explained, personal and some organizational reasons that cause social loafing are included, and a general evaluation is made by examining the concept of social loafing from the perspective of the theory of conservation of resources.
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En la actualidad la crisis ocasionada por el SARS-COV-2 ha generado información sobre el comportamiento de las empresas de Tecnologías de la Información y comunicación (TIC). Que durante esta crisis han aumentado sus ventas e impulsado su capitalización en el mercado bursátil, debido al impulso al trabajo remoto y la educación a distancia. Bajo estas circunstancias el objetivo a investigar es determinar ¿cuáles son los precursores del potencial de resiliencia organizacional en las empresas de TIC en Monterrey Nuevo León y su área metropolitana? Mediante el análisis de las relaciones entre la planeación estratégica, el aprendizaje organizacional y el potencial de resiliencia organizacional. Para lo cual se aplicó un instrumento de elaboración a 126 empresas como muestra, lo que permitió obtener como resultado que: la planeación estratégica si influye positivamente en el potencial de resiliencia organizacional, al igual que en la cultura de empoderamiento y el aprendizaje organizacional.
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Purpose: This article provides practical rationalization for a framework that recognizes important elements of SCM practices and HRM practices, and explaining their association leading towards satisfaction of customers, which is ultimate goal of every organization. It evaluates following four questions based on this research: (1) Do organizations have high levels of customer satisfaction, which are excelling in HRM practices (2) Do organizations have high levels of SCM practices, which are excelling in HRM practices (3) Do organizations have high levels of customer satisfaction, which are excelling in SCM practices (4) Do organizations have high levels of customer satisfaction, which are excelling in HRM practices; even though when the effects of effective SCM practices are controlled. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered from 6 different organizations and the relationships projected in the hypothesis model were tested by employing structural equation modeling. In order to investigate these relations an already extensive, valid, and consistent developed instrument has been used. Convenience sampling technique from non-probability sampling method has been implemented and survey method was used to gather information from the employees for this study. Findings: Outcomes exhibited positive correlations for the variables tested; representing that increase in HRM practices and SCM practice can direct towards enhanced satisfaction of customers in an organization and SCM also mediates the association between HR management practices and customer satisfaction.
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This study aims to examine the impact of People related TQM which consist of (management commitment, employee empowerment, involvement, training, and teamwork) and Corporate Social Responsibility CSR (economical, ethical, legal, and philanthropic) on employee job satisfaction. In conducting this study data is collected through primary source using a random survey questionnaire employee in the construction companies located in Sulaymaniyah City/ Kurdistan Region- Iraq. At the time of conducting this study, there were (40) construction companies registered with the Board of Investment of Kurdistan-Iraq and had permission to operate in Sulaymaniyah City. 200 questionnaires were distributed among 25 companies out of which a total of 130 were usable. The data obtained was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS program. The result of this study reveals that there is a positive significant impact of TQM and CSR individually and simultaneously on employee job satisfaction. The proposed model showed an acceptable fit.
Conference Paper
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مؤتمر "نحو مجتمع إيجابي،، وفق رؤية المملكة 2030"، جامعة القصيم، كرسي الشيخ عبدالعزيز بن صالح السعوي لتنمية الإيجابية، في الفترة من4-5 فبراير، 2019.
Thesis
Cette thèse a pour objectif de présenter une recherche concernant le comportement d’innovation d’un échantillon d’hygiénistes opérant dans des services d’hygiène hospitalière en France. La recherche vise à comprendre le rôle de certains facteurs susceptibles d’être des leviers (ressources individuelles et organisationnelles) et/ou des freins (individuels et organisationnels) à l’innovation des pratiques professionnelles des services d’hygiène hospitalière. Dans un premier temps, il a été fait une revue des travaux sur le comportement d’innovation organisationnelle, la satisfaction au travail, les caractéristiques du travail motivationnel et les comportements proactifs, en particulier la prise en charge. Deux études ont été réalisées pour le recueil des données : une étude qualitative menée auprès des hygiénistes de quatre Hôpitaux de la Nouvelle Aquitaine, et une étude transversale à partir d’un questionnaire auto-rapporté, envoyé à tous les hygiénistes de la France - Métropolitaine et dans les territoires d’Outre-Mer – adhérents à la Société Française d’Hygiène Hospitalière (SF2H), et ce, en un seul temps de mesure. Pour l’étude quantitative, des échelles de mesure traduites en français ont été utilisées, en l’occurrence pour les caractéristiques du travail, le comportement d’innovation. Pour les besoins de l’étude, d’autres échelles de mesure ont également été créées pour mesurer les contraintes liées au travail, les opportunités liées au travail et les échanges entre les services de soins et les services de d’hygiène.Pour tester les hypothèses de médiation, des modèles d’équations structurelles (SEM) ont été utilisés, ainsi que la Macros Process de Hayes pour tester les hypothèses de modération et de médiation modérée. Ces résultats mettent en évidence les leviers dont disposent les hygiénistes pour innover dans leurs pratiques professionnelles ; à savoir que : (1) la variété au travail et l’interdépendance au travail ont une relation positive avec le comportement d’innovation, à travers le comportement proactif de prise en charge, (2) l’autonomie a une relation directe et positive d’une part avec le comportement d’innovation, et d’autre part une relation positive avec le comportement d’innovation, à travers le comportement proactif de prise en charge. En outre, le comportement proactif de prise en charge a une relation positive avec le comportement d’innovation.De plus, ces résultats permettent également d’identifier que les échanges entre les cadres de santé et les hygiénistes sont un levier organisationnel au comportement d’innovation dans leurs pratiques professionnelles, et les contraintes liées au travail sont quant à eux des défis organisationnels à relever. Ces deux facteurs organisationnels contribuent à accélérer le comportement proactif de prise en charge et renforcent davantage le comportement d’innovation.
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Purpose: This article provides practical rationalization for a framework that recognizes important elements of SCM practices and HRM practices, and explaining their association leading towards satisfaction of customers, which is ultimate goal of every organization. It evaluates following four questions based on this research: (1) Do organizations have high levels of customer satisfaction, which are excelling in HRM practices (2) Do organizations have high levels of SCM practices, which are excelling in HRM practices (3) Do organizations have high levels of customer satisfaction, which are excelling in SCM practices (4) Do organizations have high levels of customer satisfaction, which are excelling in HRM practices; even though when the effects of effective SCM practices are controlled. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered from 6 different organizations and the relationships projected in the hypothesis model were tested by employing structural equation modeling. In order to investigate these relations an already extensive, valid, and consistent developed instrument has been used. Convenience sampling technique from non-probability sampling method has been implemented and survey method was used to gather information from the employees for this study. Findings: Outcomes exhibited positive correlations for the variables tested; representing that increase in HRM practices and SCM practice can direct towards enhanced satisfaction of customers in an organization and SCM also mediates the association between HR management practices and customer satisfaction.
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لكلّ مجتمع ثقافته الخاصة، التي تنمو وتتطوّر عبر العصور، نتيجة مجموعة من العوامل المتداخلة. وهو ما يؤدي إلى إيجاد قيم تؤثر على الأفراد وسلوكاتهم وتصرفاتهم في مختلف المجالات الاجتماعية والمهنية. وهكذا نجد الشعوب المتقدمة تتميز بثقافة إيجابية تساعد على فعالية تصرفات تلك المجتمعات وتدخلاتهم في نشاطاتهم المختلفة، مما يؤدي بهم إلى التطوّر والتقدم. في حين نجد مجتمعات أخرى تتميز بثقافة تطغى عليها الجوانب السلبية، مما يؤدي إلى تبنيهم لسلوكات تتسم بالتكاسل والتهاون في العمل، مما يؤدي إلى تخلف تلك الشعوب. وهو ما يؤكد أثر القيم الثقافية السائدة في المجتمع، على نجاح أفراده في تعاملهم مع مختلف القضايا أو فشلهم فيها، ومدى تحكمهم في واقعهم وفي مستقبلهم. نتطرق من خلال هذه الدراسة إلى مفهوم القيم الثقافية وإلى العوامل التي تساهم في تشكيلها. كما نتطرق إلى نماذج من القيم الإيجابية وآثارها على أفراد المجتمعات المتقدمة، وإلى بعض القيم السائدة في المجتمعات العربية والإسلامية وتداعياتها السلبية على أفرادها، وأثر ذلك على واقعها الاجتماعي والاقتصادي.
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Organisations and leaders seek to have engaged employees and spend considerable time and resources to improve engagement which has enormous influence on employee productivity and organisational performance. Although there have been previous studies in Malaysia, little research has been done on leadership’s influence on employee engagement across industries. Transformational and transactional leadership is stated to be positively correlated with employee motivation and employee satisfaction, and indirectly employee engagement. This study examines the leadership style practised by leaders in five organisations in Malaysia, its influence on employee motivation and satisfaction which lead to an increase or decrease in employee engagement. Data on leadership style, employee motivation, satisfaction and engagement, and organisational culture was gathered through a web based questionnaire from employees. Quantitative data from leaders on their leadership style, motivation, satisfaction, engagement whereas those on organisational culture was gathered qualitatively. Responses from the web based employee questionnaire were processed using IBM’s Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 22. The qualitative data gathered from leaders were processed via the in vivo technique, clustered and classified into patterns according to the emerging common themes using Microsoft Excel, together with quantitative data. The findings of the study show that transformational and transactional leadership style influences employee satisfaction more than employee motivation, which impacts employee engagement. Employees led by transformational leaders have the highest satisfaction levels with their job, leadership style and organisation whereas teamwork outshines while working with a transactional leader. Finally, in project-related industries, the laissez-faire leadership style is prominent as in encouraging employee empowerment and autonomy in decision making which ultimately results in higher employee engagement. Sub-unit culture rather than organisational culture has a moderating influence on the relationship between leadership style and employee engagement. Keywords: employee engagement, transformational leadership style, transactional leadership style, laissez-faire leadership style, employee motivation
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