ArticlePDF Available

Research by Design: Proposition for a Methodological Approach

Authors:
  • Inholland University of Applied Sciences/Cittaideale

Abstract and Figures

In this article, the many definitions of research by design are used to build a coherent model for a research by design process. Three phases are identified, each with their own characteristics and types of activities: the pre-design, the design and the post-design phase. In combination with several practical examples of design-led research projects and design studios, these phases are adhered to practical activities and outcomes. Using all this information, the article concludes with proposing a renewed definition of research by design.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Article
Research by Design: Proposition for
a Methodological Approach
Rob Roggema
Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo 2007, Australia;
rob@cittaideale.eu
Academic Editor: Marialena Nikolopoulou
Received: 18 July 2016; Accepted: 6 September 2016; Published: 12 September 2016
Abstract:
In this article, the many definitions of research by design are used to build a coherent model
for a research by design process. Three phases are identified, each with their own characteristics and
types of activities: the pre-design, the design and the post-design phase. In combination with several
practical examples of design-led research projects and design studios, these phases are adhered to
practical activities and outcomes. Using all this information, the article concludes with proposing
a renewed definition of research by design.
Keywords: definition; research by design; research through design; design research; design studio
1. Introduction
There are two major arguments why research by design is a suitable yet necessary approach to
plan for the future, especially in projects concerning complex environmental challenges.
Firstly, planning the future can no longer be based on the certainty of programmes and conditions.
Instead, the planner is confronted with changing conditions and shifting programmes. A plan has also
to reflect its own conditions and the effects of the planned interventions. Therefore, the process of
planning has to be transformed into a process of multiple feedback. It needs to become reflexive [1].
Secondly, in the current timeframe many problems are complex. Climate change, migration,
even economics and social processes, can be characterised as problems with no final solution,
which need to be continuously treated and directed to create a better future. These are the so-called
wicked problems [
2
]. There is no single, accepted formulation of these problems. Also, the answers are
often defined in “more-or-less” terms in which planners and managers at best can find reasonable,
but shifting balances among competing interests and values. The correct formulation of the problem
cannot be known until a solution is accepted [
3
]. These persistent problems cannot be approached with
regular thinking. They require counterintuitive thinking, and the development of new knowledge.
Design is a very suitable approach for these types of problems [
4
], because it makes creative jumps
in thinking and solving possible. This way, unprecedented solutions and inventions through design
innovations come into reach. The approach has already led to a large number of new urban plans,
which reflects the uncertainty of urban development [
5
]. These plans not simply delineate future
developments but integrate a large number of partial solutions into a spatial strategy for a city and its
suburbs, linking these up with various activities and interventions [6].
This article sets out a practical methodology for how design could be used in spatial research.
This is necessary because research by design, as it is often called, lacks clear definitions and sound
methodologies. The term design research has become so broadly used in practice without being fully
understood beyond the conjunction of design with research, and, particularly in academic circles,
it has come to mean widely differing things to different people [
7
]. Every research that involves design
seems to automatically be part of research by design.
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2; doi:10.3390/urbansci1010002 www.mdpi.com/journal/urbansci
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 2 of 19
Therefore, this article starts with an exploration of the relationship between research and design,
followed by an elaboration on several existing definitions of research by design, after which a method
is presented, which is a synthesis of selected design approaches and cognitive processes. This method
is based on theoretical observations and not embedded in the practice of design. The case studies in
this article are used as illustrations for this method and not as the empirical resources for constructing
the method. The article ends with an enhanced definition and conclusions.
2. Sketch of the Context
Design and research are two phenomena which some declare to be wide apart. Scientific research
is analytical, searching for objective truth and eternal rules [
8
], aspiring universal application [
9
],
is cumulative [
10
], and can be validated. However, as Nietsche wrote: “A moving army of metaphors,
metonyms, anthropomorphism, in a word a sum of human relations which, increased poetically and
rhetorically, were transferred and ornated and which, after having long been practised by people seem
to be strong, canonic and common: the truths are illusions which we forgot of, they are metaphors
which became shabby and sensually powerless, coins which lost their picture and now are only metal,
no coins” [11], the truth is all but crystal clear.
On the other hand, design is described as explorative and innovative, exceeding the limits of the
body of knowledge both in a methodological and a theoretical way [
6
], it is exploring several truths,
and studies multiple futures [
8
], hence it is “non-cumulative”. Design is a conversation [
12
] usually
held via a medium such as paper and pencil, with another as the conversational partner [
13
]. The value
of doodle, on the back of an envelope, is an instance of creativity firing the doodler’s enthusiasm,
personal research and commitment. This circular process is one in which novelty can be generated.
Design is both an object of study and a means of carrying out that study [
12
]. Wakkary argues
for designing as “a dynamic process that is improvisational and responsive to the changing design
situation” [14].
Design research is both the study of design and the process of knowledge production that occurs
through the act of design [
15
18
]. Design research involves an investigation of strategies, procedures,
methods, routes, tactics, schemes and modes through which people work creatively. Design involves
the testing of ideas, materials and technologies. It involves innovative conceptual development,
product evolution and market modification. It also involves research into cultural, social, economic,
aesthetic and ethical issues [19].
In the work of De Jong, several relations between research and design have been identified,
depending on the context and the object (Table 1). He distinguishes “design research”, “typological
research”, “design study” and “study by design” [
20
]. Design research may concern determined
objects (Table 1) within determined contexts, but designs differ per definition and the context will
always differ and change. So, other kinds of design-related study vary either the object (design study)
or the context (typological research), or even both (study by design, see Table 1):
Table 1. Types of design-related study [21].
CONTEXT
Determined Design Research Design Study
Variable Typological Research Study by Design
Determined Variable
OBJECT
Design research is evaluating the study of completed designs. It describes and analyses existing
designs with a known context, often or implicitly in the form of comparative study.
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 3 of 19
Whenever an identical architectural form, structure, operation, technique, function, performance
or concept is recognised in different contexts the notion of a category or “type” is involved. The study
of such context-independent types, their use in the making of designs, is called typological research.
A specific context contains fields of related problems and aims to be solved in combination. It has
to produce new possibilities bringing together the many desirabilities and probabilities of stakeholders
and specialists into a concept. Designing, decision-making and research are different modesof inquiry
and different kinds of language in the team. Anything probable is possible by definition, but not all
possibilities are also probable. That mode of improbable possibilities is the core of design study.
Characteristic for study by design is generating know-how and understanding by studying the
effects of actively and systematically varying both the design objects and their context.
Research in (art and) design can be organised into the following three categories [2224]:
Research into (or about) design is the most straightforward research practice in art, design and
architecture. This is historical, social, technical, material research, with countless models from which it
derives its rules and procedures. This is similar, but not the same as, science of design [25];
Research through (or by) design is a material-based research, development work and action
research: practical experiments in laboratories resulting in reports and step-by-step diaries, clear about
what is being achieved and communicated through the activity of design process. It has similarities
with design science [25].
Research for design is development work whose end product is an artefact, where the thinking is
embodied in the artefact and the goal is not primarily communicable knowledge in the sense of verbal
communication. Is similar to scientific design [25].
The main question is how research could emerge through design and new knowledge can be
harvested using methodologies and processes of designing. Design is continually weaving between
inquiry and proposal and involves values about aesthetics and beauty, which are hard to be assessed
through general research indicators or criteria.
3. Definition of Research by Design
Research by design is a type of academic investigation through which design is explored as
a method of inquiry, by the development of a project and also exploring the different materials by
which a design is carried out—sketches, mapping, among others [10].
Research by design, Hauberg calls it a strategy [
23
], is used to describe the various ways in which
design and research are interconnected when new knowledge is produced about the world through the
act of designing. The methodology aims to generate desirable, maybe unexpected, urban perspectives
in place of probable, but less desirable, urban developments [26].
Slightly different from research by design, but very similar to, research through design [
22
] is
defined as a designerly inquiry focused on the making of an artefact with the intended goal of societal
change [
27
29
]. It is the process of iteratively designing artefacts as a creative way of investigating
what a potential future might be [
30
]. Both research by and through design differ from research about
(or into) design, e.g., research about the design process, and research for design, focusing on improving
design practice [
31
]. Research through design favours a constant realignment of the construction of
artefacts, based on trial and error, to better tackle complex design problems [
32
]. “Research through
design” projects have two underlying dimensions of “looseness” and “openness” [
33
]. Looseness
refers to the number of outcomes targeted or allowed by the project and the designers/researchers.
Openness, on the other hand, relates to how “secret” the project is. An opened project can allow public
participation, media attention, etc.
In architecture (landscape architecture, urban design), design is an essential feature. Any kind
of inquiry in which design is a substantial part of the research process is referred to as research by
design. In research by design, the architectural design process forms a pathway through which new
insights, knowledge, practices or products come into being. It generates critical inquiry through
design work. Therefore, research results are obtained by, and are consistent with, experience in
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 4 of 19
practice [
34
]. Research by design produces verbal and non-verbal forms of output and discourse
proper to disciplinary practice that make it discussable, accessible and useful to peers and others.
Research by design is validated through peer review by panels of experts who collectively cover the
range of disciplinary competencies addressed by the work [23].
Spatial design is no longer just a plan, but at the same time has become a tool for the exploration
of the potentials of the site and a means of communication and negotiation between parties involved.
The traditional order, first research, then defining a programme and finally making a design is, at least
partially, turned on its head. The process of planning has lost its linear character and has transformed
into a process of multiple feedback [
6
]. Space does not only make intended use possible, but it
is also offering and giving rise to new and unexpected forms of use. Function follows space [
35
].
Here it identifies two major manifestations of research by design [6]:
(1)
It takes place in the search for a suitable site for a given or desired function in which advantages
and disadvantages of different sites are evaluated by means of design.
(2)
It occurs when designing is used as a means of exploring the spatial possibilities of and developing
a new programmatic infill for a given site.
4. Towards an Integrated Model for Research by Design
As mentioned above, design is extremely suitable for dealing with wicked problems, problems
that require constant adaptation. Design provides adaptation to individual systems, hence changing
existing situations into preferred ones [
36
] or improving the quality of life [
37
]. This “defining
how things will be”, the real, is intrinsic to both the research objectives and the design goals of
research through design [
38
]. Several scholars have expressed this in the 60s in slightly different
ways. Alexander [
39
] emphasises that “Scientists try to identify the components of existing structures,
designers try to shape the components of new structures”. Similarly, Simon [
36
] states “The natural
sciences are concerned with how things are...design on the other hand is concerned with how things
ought to be.” This distinction between existing and new is reformulated, linking science to analytical
and design to the constructive realm in the writings of Gregory [
40
]: “The scientific method is a pattern
of problem-solving behaviour employed in finding out the nature of what exists, whereas the design
method is a pattern of behaviour employed in inventing things...which do not yet exist. Science is
analytic; design is constructive”.
Because many design methods depend on the context [
41
], in this article an abstract method is
presented, in which it is easily possible to include situational aspects in order to distil a context-specific
method for each design question or problem. The abstract method has been inspired by earlier
descriptions of theoretical models of design processes. The method will be constructed in subsequent
distinctive steps.
As the basis for the model, a simple yet fundamental distinction between analysis, projection
and synthesis ([
42
]; Figure 1) is taken. During the analysis the way things currently are (the truth) is
researched, while the projection is concerned with how things could be (the ideal). In the final stage of
the research, the synthesis is concerned with how things will be (the real).
According to Milburn and Brown [
43
], five models explain distinct approaches of incorporating
research into design. These are the artistic, intuitive, adaptive, analytical and systematic models.
They all have a pre-design research phase (Figure 2) that educates the designer about similar
sites or potential solutions, a phase that resembles the analytical stage. Fitting with the phase in
which potential design solutions are projected, research needs to be drawn into the design process,
as is consciously undertaken in the adaptive, analytical and systemic models. In the final parts of the
same phase, research is used to assess, prioritise, judge and modify their design solutions. Most of the
literature-based research lacks this function. In each of the three phases there is an interactive approach
to problem solving, e.g., exchange between both research and design and researchers/designers and
the wider audience.
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 5 of 19
Urban Sci. 2016, 1, doi:10.3390/urbansci1010002 5 of 20
Figure 1. Analysis, Projection and Synthesis.
Figure 2. Predesign, Research into design, Research to assess and modify, Interactive approach.
When these three phases are further “filled” with a typical focus of the research to be
undertaken, in the analytical phase, research by design should demonstrate, according to Lima et al.
[44], a question to be addressed (Figure 3). What is the question and how/why does the author
intend to address it. The projection is then the phase when adequate answers to the formulated
question are sought, using non-textual artefacts to reach the adequate answer to the formulated
question. The final stage, synthesis, brings forward the outcomes of the research, but also delivers a
knowledge transfer and has a wider impact. The use of non-textual artefacts reach outcomes that
would not be reached by other means of research, the knowledge generated by the non-textual
artefacts is reportable and transferable and the use of non-textual artefacts achieves goals that are of
interest of a wider community.
Figure 1. Analysis, Projection and Synthesis.
Urban Sci. 2016, 1, doi:10.3390/urbansci1010002 5 of 20
Figure 1. Analysis, Projection and Synthesis.
Figure 2. Predesign, Research into design, Research to assess and modify, Interactive approach.
When these three phases are further “filled” with a typical focus of the research to be
undertaken, in the analytical phase, research by design should demonstrate, according to Lima et al.
[44], a question to be addressed (Figure 3). What is the question and how/why does the author
intend to address it. The projection is then the phase when adequate answers to the formulated
question are sought, using non-textual artefacts to reach the adequate answer to the formulated
question. The final stage, synthesis, brings forward the outcomes of the research, but also delivers a
knowledge transfer and has a wider impact. The use of non-textual artefacts reach outcomes that
would not be reached by other means of research, the knowledge generated by the non-textual
artefacts is reportable and transferable and the use of non-textual artefacts achieves goals that are of
interest of a wider community.
Figure 2. Predesign, Research into design, Research to assess and modify, Interactive approach.
When these three phases are further “filled” with a typical focus of the research to be undertaken,
in the analytical phase, research by design should demonstrate, according to Lima et al. [
44
], a question
to be addressed (Figure 3). What is the question and how/why does the author intend to address it.
The projection is then the phase when adequate answers to the formulated question are sought,
using non-textual artefacts to reach the adequate answer to the formulated question. The final stage,
synthesis, brings forward the outcomes of the research, but also delivers a knowledge transfer and has
a wider impact. The use of non-textual artefacts reach outcomes that would not be reached by other
means of research, the knowledge generated by the non-textual artefacts is reportable and transferable
and the use of non-textual artefacts achieves goals that are of interest of a wider community.
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 6 of 19
Urban Sci. 2016, 1, doi:10.3390/urbansci1010002 6 of 20
Figure 3. Question, Answer, Outcome, Knowledge transfer and Wider impact of research by design.
Elaborating on this, the first stage of research by design focuses on the basic perceptions and
the investigation (Figure 4). These are the first two of six elements of research by design [23]. The
basic perceptions are philosophical, ethical and theoretical perceptions, norms and values regarding
the surrounding world, the role of (landscape) architecture and the object itself (landscape
architecture). These are a prerequisite (paradigm) for the research process and may be discussed
and, in part, advocated, possibly as basic research. Under the investigation, the regular elements at
the start of the research by design project, i.e., analysis, criticism, selection and problem
formulation, are counted.
Programme, proposals and rationalisation belong to the second phase of projection. The
programme consists of the actual problem, the definition of partial assignments and the goals
within an overall programme (rules and norms). This can take the form of strategic research. Out of
this programme, proposals are to be developed in the form of a concrete, spatial proposal as a
possible response to the programme. This is an experimental and partially independent aspect. The
last element of this phase is the rationalisation, which provides the argumentation, the theoretical
explanation of the proposal and subsequent testing in practice, if applicable. The results of the
rationalisation may be led back to the programme, which then can be adjusted to follow the cycle
again, leading eventually to new proposals and rationalisation.
In the last phase communication takes place. The material is presented in a synthesised form in
a text, a drawing, a model or an example that explains the correlation between the components of
the methodology in a manner that is consistent, reasoned, made probable and cannot be
contradicted.
Figure 3. Question, Answer, Outcome, Knowledge transfer and Wider impact of research by design.
Elaborating on this, the first stage of research by design focuses on the basic perceptions and the
investigation (Figure 4). These are the first two of six elements of research by design [
23
]. The basic
perceptions are philosophical, ethical and theoretical perceptions, norms and values regarding the
surrounding world, the role of (landscape) architecture and the object itself (landscape architecture).
These are a prerequisite (paradigm) for the research process and may be discussed and, in part,
advocated, possibly as basic research. Under the investigation, the regular elements at the start of the
research by design project, i.e., analysis, criticism, selection and problem formulation, are counted.
Urban Sci. 2016, 1, doi:10.3390/urbansci1010002 7 of 20
Figure 4 Perceptions, Investigation, Programme, Proposals, Rationalisation and Communication.
Each of the three phases is characterised by its own dynamics (Figure 5). Following Basballe
and Halskov [45], in the first stage coupling determines a research trough design project. Coupling
is the initial step that “unites research and design interests” [45]. During coupling, the basic frame
and constraints of the project to serve both levels of interests are established. The second stage of a
research through design project can be characterised by a dynamic of interweaving, when research
and design interests influence each other and the project, as processes, methods and validation are
established. Decoupling appears at later points of the project when the designer/researcher must
focus on one of the interest sets (design or research). For example, decoupling appears during the
production phase since it focuses on the design process, but is also appears during the final
evaluation and inquiry when the research interests become the focus of the work.
With the background of these five theoretical models, and after combining and integrating
these diverse aspects, an interrelated method for research by design arises (Figure 6). This method
divides the process in the three phases, within each of these phases the typical characteristics are as
presented in their parts above.
Figure 4. Perceptions, Investigation, Programme, Proposals, Rationalisation and Communication.
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 7 of 19
Programme, proposals and rationalisation belong to the second phase of projection. The programme
consists of the actual problem, the definition of partial assignments and the goals within an overall
programme (rules and norms). This can take the form of strategic research. Out of this programme,
proposals are to be developed in the form of a concrete, spatial proposal as a possible response to the
programme. This is an experimental and partially independent aspect. The last element of this phase
is the rationalisation, which provides the argumentation, the theoretical explanation of the proposal
and subsequent testing in practice, if applicable. The results of the rationalisation may be led back
to the programme, which then can be adjusted to follow the cycle again, leading eventually to new
proposals and rationalisation.
In the last phase communication takes place. The material is presented in a synthesised form in
a text, a drawing, a model or an example that explains the correlation between the components of the
methodology in a manner that is consistent, reasoned, made probable and cannot be contradicted.
Each of the three phases is characterised by its own dynamics (Figure 5). Following Basballe
and Halskov [
45
], in the first stage coupling determines a research trough design project. Coupling is
the initial step that “unites research and design interests” [
45
]. During coupling, the basic frame and
constraints of the project to serve both levels of interests are established. The second stage of a research
through design project can be characterised by a dynamic of interweaving, when research and design
interests influence each other and the project, as processes, methods and validation are established.
Decoupling appears at later points of the project when the designer/researcher must focus on one of
the interest sets (design or research). For example, decoupling appears during the production phase
since it focuses on the design process, but is also appears during the final evaluation and inquiry when
the research interests become the focus of the work.
Figure 5. Coupling, Interweaving, Decoupling.
With the background of these five theoretical models, and after combining and integrating these
diverse aspects, an interrelated method for research by design arises (Figure 6). This method divides
the process in the three phases, within each of these phases the typical characteristics are as presented
in their parts above.
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 8 of 19
Urban Sci. 2016, 1, doi:10.3390/urbansci1010002 8 of 20
Figure 5. Coupling, Interweaving, Decoupling.
Figure 6. Combined approaches of research by design.
In this figure three overlapping phases of research by design can be distinguished. A pre-
design phase is followed by design and post-design phases. In each phase both research and design
are important components. Each phase connects conventional design stages with cognitive
processes, derived from the different theoretical descriptions mentioned before. It leads to a three-
staged method which can be used in design practices, design studio practice and design-led
Figure 6. Combined approaches of research by design.
In this figure three overlapping phases of research by design can be distinguished. A pre-design
phase is followed by design and post-design phases. In each phase both research and design are
important components. Each phase connects conventional design stages with cognitive processes,
derived from the different theoretical descriptions mentioned before. It leads to a three-staged method
which can be used in design practices, design studio practice and design-led research. Every new
design project can rely on the three-staged method and use the characteristics that are part of each
phase in order to construct a fitting process or project design.
This method will now be further described and illustrated with existing research and design
projects. The case studies are used only to deepen the understanding of the distinguished phases,
and were not used to construct the method.
5. Pre-Design Phase
The first stage of a research by design process is characterised by understanding. Research is
carried out prior to the actual designing. This pre-design research aims to bring a basic perception
about the question in play and starts the analysis and investigation of task, context and potential
avenues for research and design. In this phase interactivity already starts with connecting to
end-users, stakeholders and experts. Research and design are coupled, meaning the explorations
on the actual design question are undertaken through analytics, but also in a designerly way.
When research is brought into the pre-design phase it provides insights into potential answers and
future design directions.
One of the first challenges for a researcher/designer will be to verify that the problematic situation
is indeed a wicked problem that requires a design inquiry approach, and not a simple problem that
can more effectively be addressed through scientific or engineering methods of inquiry [30].
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 9 of 19
The inquiry carried out in the Floodable Eemsdelta case [
46
48
] illustrates this. At first it has been
investigated whether the design problem is actually a wicked problem. Given the rising sea level and
the uncertain threats to the landscape, such as the potential of an unprecedented storm surge, it was
concluded the problem is of a complexity that justifies a wicked problem approach. In this phase the
ambition for this area was set to create a resilient landscape able to deal with unexpected flooding.
The second step was to collect information regarding the qualities and (historic) characteristics
of the area, but also about the programmes, policies and expectations. In the Eemsdelta case study
most of this information was mapped. Besides the regular mapping on elevation, topography, water,
land-use and urbanisation, amongst others, maps were produced to give (spatial) insights into the
existing policies, the status of coastal protection, climate data & risk, existing qualities of the landscape
and an historic understanding of the genesis of the landscape.
6. Design Phase
The design phase forms the heart of the research by design process. The interactive approach
is continued and intensified, with exchange with end-users, stakeholders and experts. Also, in this
stage research is continuously brought into the design process and deliberations. Research and design
are closely interwoven. Design is a reflective practice in which critical assessment, comparability
and evaluation takes place through sketching, through the continual weaving between problem
and solution in an iterative movement between inquiry and proposal [
49
]. Here the designer is
a researcher in a practice context. In Schön’s “reflection-in-action” the designer/researcher is not
dependent on structures such as established research theory requiring verifiable/proven techniques
like representative case studies, but is able to construct a new research theory about a unique case
through the design work. Instead of separating thinking from doing, the designer/researcher integrates
implementation into the nature of inquiry. It is the way this process occurs in the design studio that
can provide research potential. Unlike most research paradigms, it is useful in situations of uncertainty
or uniqueness because it is not constrained by the dichotomies of technical rationality [50].
In the design process the potentials of how the future could be are projected and answers are
sought for the design problem. Based on the programmatic demands, a suite of proposals are developed
and rationalised. The design options are assessed and modified in an iterative and reflective process.
Towards the end of this stage syntheses are being explored and critically reviewed.
Three different design research projects illustrate this phase: the Floodable Eemsdelta in the
Netherlands, the SWELL and KINDLE design studios, carried out in Victoria, Australia and the
design-led research project, also conducted in Victoria, Australia.
6.1. Floodable Eemsdelta
In this case study [
46
48
] the Swarm Planning methodology [
48
,
51
,
52
] has been applied. In this
process, the largest uncertainties have been identified first and are subsequently used as the point
of departure for the design process. At this stage it is essential to create the freedom of thought to
be able to identify a counterintuitive invention which could accommodate the paces of change and
uncertainties. An exploration in all directions, developing typologies and a range of potential scenarios
in a creative process, supports this. In the case of Floodable Eemsdelta the invention was to create
a small gap in the dike, which allows seawater to enter the hinterland. This intervention anticipates
an eventual storm surge or flooding, because it literally let the water intrude, not by surprise but in
a well-controlled and predictable manner. Doing so, the design makes use of the powers of nature,
by which the resilience of the system can be enhanced. In the design propositions the impacts of these
interventions, i.e., required spaces could be anticipated.
The next step has been to confront, in a first assessment and review, the design propositions with
the context. They were tested on their impact on the landscape, whether they contain new opportunities
and if the propositions solve more than one problem. The objections against the initial proposition
were, for instance, that it is impossible to flood the landscape, it is unsafe, it is unclear where the
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 10 of 19
people need to move, there will be a loss of economic value, the present coastal protection is sufficient
and that farmers in the area do not want this. The design propositions could then be improved.
The slow process of seawater brings also sediment, hence the ground level rises. The designs could
emphasise the spatial quality of living in a natural, water-rich environment, adding economic value to
the area. Moreover, the area becomes safer, as the potential sudden flooding is already occurring in
a controlled way. The impact and change it can bring in the current landscape is visualised and critically
reviewed. After this divergent phase in the process, the propositions were again redesigned and the
urban environment level was shaped accordingly. The way people could live and build houses in the
landscape (floating and on higher, artificial hills), has further been detailed. Again, these propositions
were critically reflected upon. The main concerns in this step were how people could reach their
houses and how facilities such as sewage and electricity could be arranged.
In the final convergent step only a few proposals remained, as a first step in the synthesis process.
Based on the case study results, some new insights could be concluded. It is possible to slowly
transform the landscape and stay safe, to add new qualities for living (in a further shrinking area)
and the proposals have “multiple solving power”: they bring safety, deal with shrinkage, add spatial
quality, additional housing and an alternative for agriculture in the form of aquaculture.
The research in the Eemsdelta case brought new knowledge on design options to the table.
Instead of progressing identical solutions to protect the land against storm surges, the design
alternatives sparked counterintuitivity and through this insight into how the anticipated flood could
be accommodated and “welcomed” in the hinterland. It lead to new propositions for the landscape,
in which water played an important role and the landscape can be formed by the powers the water
brings. The threat of the storm surges and sea level rise informs the design and building with
nature principles [
53
] strengthens the resilience of the area. During the design process a continuous
interchange of knowledge and understanding between the research and the design process took place.
The benefit of this was that the design options could pose new questions to research and research
outcomes could be valuated through the spatial impacts and benefits they would bring.
6.2. The Design Studio
The design studio is, besides a teaching environment, also seen as a platform for research,
for instance, to use for education research or as a creative work in itself. When design studios are
used as part of a larger research programme students and tutors may engage in a research partnership
of mutual problem investigation, in which the studio provides a forum for speculative ideas taken
through to a degree of resolution. In this way, the design studio provides a particular space where,
through a range of design processes, propositions about place, culture and the environment can be
explored using a range of media to render the propositions into abstract form. Design studios could be
the space in which speculative ideas about contemporary urban issues could be explored as designs,
creating an unusual but valuable contribution to the wider body of knowledge [54].
Considerable planning is needed to design the studio as a research project, paying special attention
to both the broader research issues and the detail of the studio brief. In a refereed studio [
55
] the
findings are to be academically appraised and presented in a rigorous way.
The studio is a process of inquiry, an intensive journey with a high level of production,
but where none of the design propositions are intended as an end-result, nor a conclusion, but rather
a continuously evolving instrument to interrogate the issues and opportunities at stake. It is a process
in which the acts of analysis and design are turned around, mixed and blurred into a situation where
at times it might even be hard to distinguish between both. However unconventional it may appear,
it is the experience that the more “personalised”, interpreted way of mapping does not only give
clearer focus in research but also functions to bridge the gap between research and design as separate
disciplines. This approach does require a close monitoring from the design tutor of the work to
avoid loss in efficiency and a random, pointless sprouting of ideas. The process as such has a rather
more iterative nature where design and analysis are constantly interrogated and reframed. The mere
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 11 of 19
ability to “drift” in a parcours of trial and error opens up the possibility for surprise, discovery and
potentially innovative thought, but at the same time the uncertainty of production in terms of quality
and quantity. The studio aims to welcome, enable and enhance this process by constantly readjusting
its course itself. The exact structure of the studio, as well as the deliverables, are only roughly set out
on beforehand, with enough flexibility to anticipate and accommodate new ideas. Being intrinsically
non-linear, and not necessarily converging towards “solution”, the end-result is more a documentation
of a process than a conclusive report. Its aim is primarily to feed and contribute to the debate rather
than to offer a master plan or blueprint. It is an exploration and testing of ideas by means of design.
Design is both method and outcome. It is the instrument to generate ideas, and to test and communicate
them. Design might precede analysis. It may start as a gut-feeling and can be “post-rationalised”
by research [10].
The process of two design studios, KINDLE and SWELL, part of the Landscape Architecture
programme at RMIT in 2011 and 2102, are used here to illustrate how the design phase of research by
design is made operational. The subject of the Kindle studio was how to create a resilient landscape
for a bushfire-prone area, in this case the Bendigo region in north-western Victoria that is resilient.
The Swell studio asks the same question for an area prone to storm surges, Hobsons Bay, situated
along Port Philip Bay, close to Melbourne.
KINDLE and SWELL
In both studios the pre-design phase consisted of making a suite of information regarding the
landscape, socio-economic factors, the water and ecological systems, climate change and risks and
policies and assessments available to the students. Moreover, in the first stages of the design studio,
the design objective was made crystal clear: the students needed to respond to an unprecedented and
unpredicted swell in their landscape and urban designs for the coastline and hinterland of Hobsons
Bay. The objective in the Kindle studio was similarly challenging: the students needed to design
an urban landscape capable of adapting to and even welcoming severe bushfires in a way people could
live in a safe and enjoyable environment.
In the design phase the students were given freedom to explore design propositions in any
direction they deemed interesting, fruitful or promising. Literally, they were let out to swarm and
circle around the information available, the site, and expectations of themselves, their peers and the
supervisors. This led to a suite of dynamic landscapes in which the natural forces of water or fire
drove the landscape interventions and urban designs. Many of the students came up with a proposal,
which included time as a serious factor, creating environments that have the capability to change.
Subsequently, the students were critically questioned on the meaning and impacts of their design
propositions for the problem, as well as the consequences of their ideas for the potential qualities and
opportunities for the area.
After this, a process of continuous redesign, review and questioning and redesign took place,
during which new questions and objections were placed and the design propositions were enriched.
In the SWELL studio this has led to concepts that connect the underwater topography with
the urban landscape [
56
]. This way the coastal zone as a whole starts to act as a protective zone,
capable of dealing with storm surges, improving the underwater ecology and creating interesting
urban environments on land (Figure 7).
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 12 of 19
Urban Sci. 2016, 1, doi:10.3390/urbansci1010002 12 of 20
proposal, which included time as a serious factor, creating environments that have the capability to
change.
Subsequently, the students were critically questioned on the meaning and impacts of their
design propositions for the problem, as well as the consequences of their ideas for the potential
qualities and opportunities for the area.
After this, a process of continuous redesign, review and questioning and redesign took place,
during which new questions and objections were placed and the design propositions were
enriched.
In the SWELL studio this has led to concepts that connect the underwater topography with the
urban landscape [56]. This way the coastal zone as a whole starts to act as a protective zone, capable
of dealing with storm surges, improving the underwater ecology and creating interesting urban
environments on land (Figure 7).
Figure 7. Connected topographies of Hobsons and Port Phillip bays [56].
Another approach in dealing with storm surges is to strategically retreat [57]. Taking the
underlying landscape as a point of departure, the configuration of a retreated town appears.
Intrinsically this determines the safe and risky areas, and the urban form (Figure 8).
Figure 7. Connected topographies of Hobsons and Port Phillip bays [56].
Another approach in dealing with storm surges is to strategically retreat [
57
]. Taking the underlying
landscape as a point of departure, the configuration of a retreated town appears. Intrinsically this
determines the safe and risky areas, and the urban form (Figure 8).
In the KINDLE studio, the urban fringe of Bendigo is transformed into a protective fireproof
edge [
58
]. By replacing houses that eventually burn with concrete pillars, a shield emerges, which holds
back new bushfires. As a result of this, new housing is planned at the lay-side of town, de facto moving
Bendigo slowly eastward.
As a final step in the studios the design propositions have been critically reviewed and appraised.
Criteria used to assess the designs were focused on research quality, such as the documentation of the
research process in visuals and findings, and a reflection of independent questioning by the students
themselves, and also on the design quality through assessing the materialisation, the used tools and
techniques, presentation and contextualisation.
On the basis of the studio process and the improvements of the propositions it can be concluded
that the students showed a vast increase in learning and performance. Besides, there could be novel
findings distinguished about the site and its broader context through unsuspected views and new
knowledge. Moreover, the qualities of the designs, in terms of counterintuitivity, rigour, innovation,
spatial dimensions, applicability in similar cases and how (not if) the objective is met, have been up to
standard and in many cases better than that.
Both design studios started off with an open question, which the students transformed into
a design problem and question. The students explored new information with new research methods,
such as modelling the flooding in a landscape and meanwhile adjusting the design parameters and
mapping uncharted territories, such as the connecting between sea and land and “cross-sectioning” the
area, linking the analyses of each cross section back to one whole. The research into resilience phases
(according to [
59
]) and combining this with swarm planning principles, led to new spatial typologies
of the landscape, which guide land uses and future developments. Additionally, counterintuitivity
and working with nature in both the KINDLE and SWELL studio, led to new design options for
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 13 of 19
developing the urban layout, shielding the town and retreating the city. The research, undertaken
to discover the vulnerabilities and resilience of landscape and urban systems, led in these cases to
unprecedented propositions.
Urban Sci. 2016, 1, doi:10.3390/urbansci1010002 13 of 20
Figure 8. Retreat of Hobsons Bay [57].
In the KINDLE studio, the urban fringe of Bendigo is transformed into a protective fireproof
edge [58]. By replacing houses that eventually burn with concrete pillars, a shield emerges, which
holds back new bushfires. As a result of this, new housing is planned at the lay-side of town, de
facto moving Bendigo slowly eastward.
Figure 8. Retreat of Hobsons Bay [57].
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 14 of 19
6.3. The Design-Led Research Project
In the project design-led decision support for climate adaptation in regional Victoria [
60
],
two regional towns in Victoria were taken as case studies for a design process, together with local
communities to support their spatial adaptation to climate impacts. In this research project the case
studies were taken as the object of research, looking at both the process and the content of the design
proposals. Two consecutive design charrettes [
61
64
] were carried out in two towns, Bendigo [
65
] and
Sea Lake [66].
Before the first charrette, a design brief [
67
,
68
] was put together in which basic information
and mapped analyses about the context, the existing landscape, the design task, programme and
participants was collected.
The first, three-day charrette aimed to identify a broad pallet of design solutions that are capable
of dealing with future climate change and uncertainties. Teams worked in a creative and reflective
process via brainstorming sessions, sketching, presenting intermediate proposals, further sketching,
plasticine modelling and presenting final designs and on preliminary spatial propositions, which are
both developed and supported by the participants. At the end of the first charrette a first quick
appraisal was carried out. Participants could support or decline elements of the different propositions
using pro- or con- post-its [69].
The outcomes were then refined. The proposals were designed in more detail, omissions were
taken out and details were added. Together with the quick appraisal these results were then assessed
on social, ecological and economic metrics [69].
The results of the appraisal then informed the second, two-day charrette, which aimed to converge
the material into one or two integrated designs. In this charrette the teams worked collaboratively
towards what they commonly believe to be an ambitious and realistic spatial pathway for the future.
The final output of this second charrette is an integrated design and a spatial strategy with catalyst
projects, ready to realize.
The criteria for refereeing a studio would be consistent with any assessment of research findings
or, in fact, any design critique. Criteria used could, for example, be the clarity of objectives, relevance
and insight, a creative and innovative process and presentation and coherent, original and fruitful
outcomes [55].
In the design-led project new knowledge came to the fore through the intensive interaction with
local communities in the design process. The academic information was made available to the local
communities through sensitive mapping and visualisation of climate data in order to permanently
make this information understandable and applicable in the design process. This information was
brought to the communities in verbal forms and visualisations on maps and charts. Moreover,
the communities were supported in their design capabilities through the use of tactile working methods
and means, such as interactive sketching in groups and collective 3D modelling with plasticine.
7. Post-Design Phase
In the post-design phase the results are the final syntheses of the work, which need to be coherently
presented. The results show how the future is seen, and what that future will be. The impact for
a wider community, both academic and social, needs to be made manifest and the new knowledge,
developed during the design process, becomes available for a wider audience. This requires a strategic
and conscious communication. The interactive process ends here, as the people and partners involved
in the design process are jointly responsible for the end products, but will split up at the same time.
This does not mean there is no interaction anymore. Only this will take place with new groups and
consists of communication and discussion with the broader “outside world”. In this phase, research
and design are decoupled. On the one hand, the design results are presented in reports, panels,
drawings and schemes, while on the other hand, the research outputs follow the route of academic
publishing and debate.
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 15 of 19
Whilst the designs of the design studio have their own merits and are judged accordingly,
the design studio as a whole is taken as an academic product, and reviewed on the basis of its
methodology, research question and findings. Some of the results may be used as illustrations in
publications, such as designs from the KINDLE studio, as an underpinning of a research theory [70].
The outcomes of the design-led project find also their twofold ways. On the one hand, the propositions
are presented to the community as designs: how the future could look like. On the other hand, in several
academic outputs, observations and descriptions of research methodology and findings [
63
,
71
,
72
]
are harvested.
The results of the Floodable Eemsdelta case study also have two types of impact. First, it has, partly,
been taken up in regular policies, such as the regional plan for the province of Groningen, in which
the so-called broad dike concept was introduced [
73
], and the national Deltaprogram [
74
]. This will
eventually lead to realisation of (parts of) the design. Secondly the swarm planning methodology
used in the Floodable Eemsdelta design, is subject of a suite of academic publications, conference
presentations, academic lectures and additional workshops (amongst others: [46,48,75,76]).
8. Definition
Discussing the broad spectrum of definitions of research by, through, into, about and for design,
and the concrete experiences in design studios and research projects, a renewed definition of research
by (or through) design can be given:
“Research by design is a method, which uses design to research spatial solutions for a certain area,
accommodating a design process, consisting of a pre-design phase, a design phase and a post-design
phase, herewith providing a philosophical and normative basis for the design process, allowing to
investigate the qualities and problems of a location and test its (spatial) potentials, meanwhile creating
the freedom to move with the proposals in uncharted territory, and producing new insights and
knowledge interesting and useful for a wide audience.”
This definition aims to unify perspectives from research by design theories and scholars, but given
the ambiguous nature of the subject, it is hard to formulate a definition that meets the broad spectrum
of perspectives taken by the many scholars and practitioners around. However, this definition marks
some crucial aspects of a design process:
It should be embedded in the local, cultural and political context
It should allow for unexpected explorations in order to identify best fitting solutions for
a design problem
It should emphasise the development of new knowledge and be beneficial for a broad public.
These key elements of a design process are embedded in the method proposed in this article, in its
abstract brought down to three phases from pre-design, design, to post-design.
9. Conclusions
In this article, a range of definitions and theoretical reflections have been discussed and integrated
into an abstract method for research by design processes. This model consists of three overlapping
phases: pre-design, design and post-design. In each phase research components and design activities
mingle. However, in the pre-phase research and design are coupled, during the design phase they are
interwoven and in the post-design phase they are decoupled.
The core elements of a research by design approach are a continuously interactive setting, in which
participants in the design process are placed in the position to creatively exchange, collaborate and
develop new knowledge together. In each stage research is brought into the design process, in the
beginning with a focus on what is there, analytical. The second stage is characterised by what could be
there, and is of an explorative nature. The final stage is reflective on what will be there.
The method is abstract yet detailed with characteristics, as shown in Figure 7. This combination
of abstract and concrete elements makes it possible for future design research projects to detail and
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 16 of 19
specify a design process fit for the purpose. Because the examples given for the different phases must
be seen as illustrations, the “proof-of-the-pudding” of the method still remains. This could be a new
avenue for future research. The question of how to apply, and which diversity of application of this
method is possible, is an interesting question for future research.
Several conditions for a successful research by design process can be given:
(1)
To start with a challenging, even “impossible” and complex design task, whilst at the same time
without formulating criteria for “good” solutions beforehand.
(2)
Create an atmosphere where the freedom is felt in the design process to go anywhere with design,
and allow participants to swarm with their thoughts in any direction.
(3) Encourage participants to think counterintuitively.
(4) Appraise innovations and the learning curve of participants, not the solutions per se.
(5) Do not follow the three phases in a sequential order. Allow for jumping back and forth through
the identified stages of the process.
Through research by design new pathways are explored, people come up with innovative ideas
and concepts that they would not encounter in a regular research or design process. The process is
thought-provoking and binding. The results are not final spatial solutions, but merely conceptual
innovations that could help to understand and deal with wicked problems. The proposed method
should be refined, altered and revisited in practice. The different aspects of the method, be it concrete
design tasks or more superficial elements of design processes, and interactivity or the way research
and design are coupled or interwoven during the process, needs to be tested in practice-based design
environments. The abstract three-staged method presented in this article can then be enriched, become
more evidence-based in practical design projects and be more detailed and concretised. At the same
time these practical applications of the method could inform the method in a way it becomes more
universally used. However, it is difficult to predict a “final version” of the method, it seems logical
that it will stay an abstract method, which needs to be adjusted depending the design task and the
context, but at the same time the elaboration of the method will also lead to a more uniform approach,
including more specified steps in the design process.
Conflicts of Interest: The author declares no conflict of interest.
References
1.
Beck, U. The Reinvention of Polities: Towards a theory of reflexive modernization. In Reflexive Modernization:
Polities, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order; Beck, U., Giddens, A., Lash, S., Eds.; Stanford
University Press: Palo Alto, CA, USA, 1994.
2. Rittel, H.; Webber, M. Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning. Policy Sci. 1973,4, 155–169. [CrossRef]
3.
Norton, B.G. Building Demand Models to Improve Environmental Policy Process. In Model-based Reasoning
in Scientific Discovery; Magnani, L., Nersessian, N.J., Thagard, P., Eds.; Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers:
New York, NY, USA, 1999.
4.
De Jonge, J.M. Landscape Architecture between Politics and Science, an Integrative Perspective on Landscape
Planning and Design in the Network Society. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Amsterdam,
The Netherlands, 2009.
5.
Becker, H.; Jessen, J.; Sander, R. (Eds.) Ohne Leitbild? Städtebau in Deutscland und Europa; Krämer Verlag:
Stuttgart/Zürich, Germany, 1998. (In German)
6.
Rosemann, J. The Conditions of Research by Design in Practice. In Research by Design, Proceedings of
the International Conference Proceedings A. Faculty of Architecture Delft University of Technology in
Co-Operation with the EAAE/AEEA, Delft, The Netherlands, 1–3 November 2000; Van Ouwerkerk, M.,
Rosemann, J., Eds.; Delft University Press: Delft, The Netherlands, 2001; pp. 63–68.
7.
Faste, T.; Faste, H. Demystifying “design research”: Design is not research, research is design. In Proceedings
of the Education Symposium (IDSA), Boston, MA, USA, 15–18 August 2012.
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 17 of 19
8.
Frieling, D. The Architectural Intervention. In Research by Design, Proeedings of the International
Conference Proceedings A. Faculty of Architecture Delft University of Technology in Co-Operation with
the EAAE/AEEA, Delft, The Netherlands, 1–3 November 2000; Van Ouwerkerk, M., Rosemann, J., Eds.;
Delft University Press: Delft, The Netherlands, 2001; pp. 3–8.
9.
Graafland, A. Contemporary Design Research. A material practice. In Research by Design, Proceedings
of the International Conference Proceedings A. Faculty of Architecture Delft University of Technology in
co-Operation with the EAAE/AEEA, Delft, The Netherlands, 1–3 November 2000; Van Ouwerkerk, M.,
Rosemann, J., Eds.; Delft University Press: Delft, The Netherlands, 2001; pp. 17–23.
10.
De Queiroz Barbosa, E.R.; DeMeulder, B.; Gerrits, Y. Design Studio as a Process of Inquiry: The case of Studio
Sao Paulo. Rev. Lusófona Arquit. Educ./Archit. Educ. J. 2014,11, 241–254.
11.
Nietzsche, F. Ueber Wahrheit und Lüge im Aussermoralischen Sinne. 1873. Available online: http://
gutenberg.spiegel.de/buch/-3243/1 (accessed on 18 May 2016).
12. Glanville, R. Research Design and Designing research. Des. Issues 1999,15, 80–91. [CrossRef]
13. Pask, G. The architectural relevance of cybernetics. Archit. Des. 1969,9, 494–496.
14.
Wakkary, R. Framing Complexity, Design and Experience: A Reflective Analysis. Digit. Creativity
2005
,
16, 65–78. [CrossRef]
15. Biggs, M. The Role of the Artefact in Art and Design Research. Int. J. Des. Sci. Technol. 2002,10, 19–24.
16. Laurel, B. (Ed.) Design Research: Methods and Perspectives; MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2003.
17.
Fallman, D. Why Research-Oriented Design Isn’t Design-Oriented Research: On the Tensions between
Design and Research in an Implicit Design Discipline. Knowl. Technol. Policy 2007,20, 193–200. [CrossRef]
18.
Koskinen, I.; Zimmerman, J.; Binder, T.; Redstrom, J.; Wensveen, S. Design Research through Practice; J. Morgan
Kaufmann: Burlington, MA, USA, 2001.
19.
Strand, D. Research in the Creative Arts; Report prepared by Canberra School of Arts for DEETYA; Department
of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs: Canberra, Australia, 1997.
20.
De Jong, T.M. Study and Research Ubanism 2008; Department of Urbanism, Faculty of Architecture,
Delft University of Technology: Delft, The Netherlands, 2008. Available online: http://taekemdejong.
nl/Publications/Publicaties%20Prof.%20dr.%20ir%20T.M.%20de%20Jong.htm (accessed on 30 June 2016).
21.
De Jong, T.M.; Van der Voordt, D.J.M. (Eds.) Ways to Study and Research Urban, Architectural and Technical
Design; IOP Press BV: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2005.
22. Frayling, C. Research in art and design. R. Coll. Art Res. Pap. 1993,1, 1–5.
23.
Hauberg, J. Research by Design—A research strategy. Rev. Lusófona Arquit. Educ./Archit. Educ. J.
2011
,5,
46–56.
24.
Schreurs, J.; Maartens, M. Research by Design as Quality Enhancement; Dublin, U.C., Ed.; AESOP 5 The dream
of a GREATER Europe; Vienna University of Technology/Osterreich. Kunst-und Kulturverlag: Vienna,
Austria, 2005.
25.
Cross, N. Designerly Ways of Knowing: Design Discipline versus Design Science. Des. Issues
2001
,17, 49–55.
[CrossRef]
26.
De Jong, T.M. Kleine Methodologie voor Ontwerpend Onderzoek; BOOM Uitgevers: Amsterdam,
The Netherlands, 1992.
27.
Binder, T.; Redström, J. Exemplary Design Research. In Proceedings of the Wonderground, Design Research
Society International Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, 1–4 November 2006.
28. Swann, C. Action Research and the Practice of Design. Des. Issues 2002,18, 49–61. [CrossRef]
29.
Zimmerman, J.; Forlizzi, J.; Evenson, S. Research through Design as a Method for Interaction Design Research in
HCI; ACM Press: New York, NY, USA, 2007; pp. 493–502.
30.
Zimmerman, J.; Stolterman, E.; Forlizzi, J. An Analysis and Critique of Research through Design: Towards
a Formalization of a Research Approach; ACM: New York, NY, USA, 2010; pp. 310–319.
31.
Findeli, A. La Recherche-Projet: Une Méthode Pour la Recherche en Design. Available online: http://projekt.
unimes.fr/files/2014/04/Findeli.2005.Recherche-projet.pdf (accessed on 8 September 2016). (In French)
32.
Toeters, M.; Ten Bhömer, M.; Bottenberg, E.; Tomico, O.; Brinks, G. Research through Design: A way to drive
innovative solutions in the field of smart textiles. Adv. Sci. Technol. 2013,80, 112–117. [CrossRef]
33.
Wilkie, A.; Gaver, W.; Hemment, D.; Giannachi, G. Creative assemblages: organisation and outputs of
practice-led research. Leonardo 2010,43, 98–99. [CrossRef]
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 18 of 19
34.
EAAE/AEEA Research Centre. Framework for Architectural Research. 2016. Available online: http:
//reseaaerch.wikidot.com/framework-for-architectural-research (accessed on 30 June 2016).
35.
Maiki, F. Research by Design in Practice. In Proceedings of the International Conference Proceedings A, Delft,
The Netherlands, 1–3 November 2000; Van Ouwerkerk, M., Rosemann, J., Eds.; Delft University Press: Delft,
The Netherlands, 2001; pp. 63–68.
36. Simon, H.A. The Sciences of the Artificial; MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 1969.
37.
Jonas, W. Research through DESIGN through Research—A Problem Statement and a Conceptual Sketch.
In Proceedings of the Design Research Society International Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, 1–4 November 2006.
38.
Godin, D.; Zahedi, M. Aspects of Research through Design: A Literature Review. In Proceedings of the
Design Research Society Conference 2014, Umeå, Sweden, 16–19 June 2014.
39. Alexander, C. Notes on the Synthesis of Form; Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 1964.
40. Gregory, S.A. Design Science. In The Design Method; Gregory, S.A., Ed.; Butterworth: London, UK, 1966.
41.
Simonsen, J.; Svabo, C.; Strandvad, S.M.; Samson, K.; Hertzum, M.; Hansen, O.E. (Eds.) Situated Design
Methods; MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2014.
42.
Jonas, W. Research through DESIGN through research: A cybernetic model of designing design foundations.
Kybernetes 2007,36, 1362–1380.
43.
Milburn, L.-A.S.; Brown, R.D. The relationship between research and design in landscape architecture.
Lands. Urban Plan. 2003,64, 47–66. [CrossRef]
44.
Lima, A.G.G.; Buchler, D.M.; Biggs, M.A.R.; Perrone, R.A.C.; Zein, R.V.; De Santos, C.H.R.; Villac, M.I.;
Bastos, M.A.J. Indicadores de Pesquisa Acadêmica Em Áreas de Prática Projetual. In V Projetar—Processos de
Projeto: Teorias e Práticas; Escola de Engenharia—Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais: Belo Horizonte,
Brazil, 2011; pp. 1–12. (In Portugese)
45.
Basballe, D.A.; Halskov, K. Dynamics of Research through Design. In Proceedings of the Designing
Interactive Systems, Newcastle, UK, 11–15 June 2012.
46.
Roggema, R. Swarming landscapes, new pathways for resilient cities. In Proceedings of the 4th International
Urban Design Conference “Resilience in Urban Design”, Surfers Paradise, Australia, 21–23 September 2011.
47.
Roggema, R. (Ed.) Swarming Landscapes: The Art of Designing for Climate Adaptation; Springer: Dordrecht,
The Netherlands; Heidelberg, Germany; London, UK, 2012; p. 260.
48.
Roggema, R. Swarm Planning: The Development of a Methodology to Deal with Climate Adaptation.
Ph.D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology and Wageningen University and Research Centre Delft,
Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2012.
49.
Thomsen, M.R.; Tamke, M. Narratives of Making: Thinking practice led research in architecture.
In Proceedings of the Conference Communicating (by) Design, Brussels, Belgium, 14–17 April 2009.
50. Schön, D. The Reflective Practitioner; Basic Books: New York, NY, USA, 1983.
51.
Roggema, R.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A. Swarm Planning for Climate Change: An alternative pathway for
resilience. J. Build. Res. Inf. 2012,40, 606–624. [CrossRef]
52.
Roggema, R.; Kabat, P.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A. Climate adaptation and spatial planning: Towards a new
planning framework. SASBE 2012,1, 29–58.
53.
Waterman, R.E. Integrated Coastal Policy via Building with Nature. Ph.D. Thesis, Delft University of
Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 2010.
54.
Armstrong, H. Design studios as research: An emerging paradigm in landscape architecture. Landsc. Rev.
1999,5, 5–25.
55. Bowring, J. Research by design: the refereed studio. Landsc. Rev. 1997,3, 54–55.
56.
Finn, N.; Saputra, N.; Monaghan, T. Swell, the Design of Surge-Resilient Landscapes; RMIT University:
Melbourne, Australia, 2012.
57. Powles Taig, W. Hobsons Bay Retreat; RMIT University: Melbourne, Australia, 2012.
58. Newman, J.; Al-Bazo, S.; Kendall, W.; Newton, J. Re-Burn; RMIT University: Melbourne, Australia, 2011.
59.
Gunderson, L.H.; Holling, C.S. (Eds.) Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems;
Island Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2002.
60.
Roggema, R.; Martin, J.; Arcari, P.; Clune, S.; Horne, R. Design-Led Decision Support: Process and Engagement;
VCCCAR: Melbourne, Australia, 2013.
61.
Lennertz, B.; Lutzenhiser, A. The Charrette Handbook. The Essential Guide for Accelerated, Collaborative
Community Planning; APA: Chicago, IL, USA, 2006.
Urban Sci. 2016,1, 2 19 of 19
62. Condon, P.M. Design Charrettes for Sustainable Communities; Island Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2008.
63.
Roggema, R. (Ed.) The Design Charrette: Ways to Envision Sustainable Futures; Springer: Dordrecht,
The Netherlands; Heidelberg, Germany; London, UK, 2013; p. 335.
64.
Roggema, R.; Martin, J.; Horne, R. Sharing the Climate Adaptive Dream: The Benefits of the Charrette
Approach. In Proceedings of the ANZRSAI Conference, Canberra, Australia, 6–9 December 2011.
65.
Roggema, R.; Jones, R.; Soh, A.; Clune, S.; Hunter, S.; Barilla, A.; Cai, Z.; Tian, J.; Walsh, J. City of Greater
Bendigo Design Charrette I, the Report; RMIT University, La Trobe University, Victoria University and VCCCAR:
Melbourne, Australia, 2011.
66.
Roggema, R.; Jones, R.; Clune, S.; Lindenbergh, D. Sea Lake Charrette, Dancing under the Stars; RMIT University,
La Trobe University, Victoria University and VCCCAR: Melbourne, Australia, 2012.
67.
Roggema, R.; Martin, J.; Horne, R.; Jones, R.; Hunter, S.; Soh, A.; Werner, J.; Clune, S. Design Brief Design
Charrette I, City of Greater Bendigo; RMIT University, La Trobe University, Victoria University and VCCCAR:
Melbourne, Australia, 2011.
68.
Roggema, R.; Martin, J.; Horne, R.; Jones, R.; Soh, A.; Lindenbergh, D.; Clune, S. The Design Brief, Sea Lake
Design Charrette I; RMIT University, La Trobe University, Victoria University and VCCCAR: Melbourne,
Australia, 2012.
69.
Clune, S.; Horne, R.; Roggema, R.; Martin, J.; Arcari, P. Sustainability Appraisals of Design-Led Responses to
Climate Adaptation, Policy Brief ; VCCCAR: Melbourne, Australia, 2013.
70.
Roggema, R. Developing a Planning Theory for Wicked Problems: Swarm Planning. In Sustainable Energy
Landscapes: Designing, Planning and Development; Stremke, S., van den Dobbelsteen, A., Eds.; Taylor and
Francis: London, UK, 2012; pp. 161–185.
71.
Roggema, R.; Vos, L.; Martin, J. Resourcing Local Communities for Climate Adaptive Designs in Victoria,
Australia. Chin. J. Popul. Resour. Manag. 2014,12, 210–226. [CrossRef]
72.
Roggema, R.; Martin, J.; Vos, L. Governance of Climate Adaptation in Australia: Design Charrettes as
Creative Tool for Participatory Action Research. In Action Research for Climate Change Adaptation: Developing
and Applying Knowledge for Governance; Van Buuren, A., Eshuis, J., Van Vliet, M., Eds.; Routledge: London,
UK, 2014; pp. 92–108.
73.
Provincie Groningen. Omgevingsvisie Provincie Groningen 2016–2020; Provincie Groningen: Groningen,
The Netherlands, 2016. (In Dutch)
74.
Programmadirectie Hoogwaterbescherming. Projectenboek 2016, de Waterschappen en Rijkswaterstaat Zetten
Door; Unie van Waterschappen en Rijkswaterstaat: Den Haag, The Netherlands, 2015. (In Dutch)
75.
Roggema, R. City in Advance: Climate as Trigger for Adaptive Planning. In Proceedings of the International
Conference for Urban Planning and Environment, Sydney, Australia, 24–27 July 2012.
76.
Roggema, R. Thank God, the City is Complex. In Urban Regions under Change: Towards Social-Ecological
Resilience; Hafencity University: Hamburg, Germany, 2014.
©
2016 by the author; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
(CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
... A wicked problem does not feature a comprehensive problem formulation and cannot be solved with one ultimate solution. Thus, wicked problems cannot be tackled by regular thinking and conventional scientific research approaches, but rather require counterintuitive thinking [23][24][25]. Therefore, the research questions are addressed through a research by design approach. ...
... This broad definition underlines the wide range of applications for a method that is under constant development and aspires to become scientifically accepted, but which remains ambiguous. Thus, Roggema [23] concretised the research by design process by structuring it into a threefold approach: The pre-design phase (providing the basis for the design process), the design phase (testing spatial potential and developing design concepts), and the post-design phase (producing new insights and knowledge helpful for a wider audience). The first and second phases of the research by design process, according to Roggema [23], have been applied within the framework of a master-level design studio; there are 12 students involved, supervised in an interdisciplinary way by three professorships of Building Technology and Climate Responsive Design, Architectural Design, Rebuilding, and Conservation and Green Technologies in Landscape Architecture at the Technical University of Munich. ...
... Thus, Roggema [23] concretised the research by design process by structuring it into a threefold approach: The pre-design phase (providing the basis for the design process), the design phase (testing spatial potential and developing design concepts), and the post-design phase (producing new insights and knowledge helpful for a wider audience). The first and second phases of the research by design process, according to Roggema [23], have been applied within the framework of a master-level design studio; there are 12 students involved, supervised in an interdisciplinary way by three professorships of Building Technology and Climate Responsive Design, Architectural Design, Rebuilding, and Conservation and Green Technologies in Landscape Architecture at the Technical University of Munich. The students worked in groups of three, and each group dealt with one part of the Augustenstrasse. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current need to redevelop post-war residential settlements opens up the opportunity to exploit the potential for densification and for the climatic and energetic activation of building envelopes through greenery and photovoltaics. The question arises as to which design strategies help to identify and balance relevant solar, green, and densification interventions that would lead to new qualities in the built environment. This work relies on a threefold research by design approach to acquire this knowledge base. Within a research-based design studio, four teams of master’s students in architecture faced the design task in a case study of an inner-city perimeter block development in Munich, thus covering the first two phases of the research by design process: Phase 1—pre-design, comprises a shared knowledge literature research, among other things, and concludes with specific research questions for the subsequent phase; Phase 2—design. Here, design concepts answer the research questions and are iteratively adapted and evaluated in an interdisciplinary expert discourse. Phase 3—post-design, synthesises the design proposals into design strategies. By gaining insights into the benefits and disadvantages of solar and green interventions, the research provides designers and urban planners with strategies to design the practical transformation and upgrading of urban residential structures.
... The growth model involves the co-participation of the government, social investors, and community. Herein, design is also used as a research method [7] to realize sustainable metabolism in similar quickly urbanizing regions of the world. ...
... The research is largely qualitative, instead of quantitative. Finally, the research employs architectural design as the research method [22] of inquiry "by the development of a project and also exploring the different materials by which a design is carried out" [7] (p. 3). ...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have linked urban metabolism with sustainable development goals, but few studies have addressed how architectural design could contribute to the linkage. Japanese Architectural Metabolism promotes the empowering of individuals and encourages spontaneous growth through urban metabolism. However, Architectural Metabolism has lacked (1) links with sustainable urban development goals, (2) realistic and powerful strategies, and (3) the ability to keep up with information technology. Whether and how architectural design can contribute to sustainable and spontaneous urban growth remains unclear. This paper presents case studies of the growth and renewal of formal and informal urban organisms in East Asia. The cases reveal that sustainable spontaneous urban growth should be linked with a strong governance system as well as adaptive architectural and construction technology that is easy to master by users. This paper argues that the conditional basis of contemporary Chinese urban development can support the spontaneous growth of architecture. Finally, a design strategy is proposed that reconstructs participatory co-construction among the government, social investors, and users with information and adaptive construction technology. Its purpose is to realize the orderly metabolism and spontaneous growth of buildings and achieve economically, socially, and ecologically sustainable development.
... The research process is considered a key aspect of studio pedagogy. By engaging in regular weekly research, young interior architects can gain new insights regarding innovative practices and products and interpret them within their design proposals [122]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Evidently, the global population is increasing. A decline in the stock of agricultural land per capita is becoming a global issue. The future agriculture output may need to grow in order to satisfy the future growing demands. Feeding the global population of 9.1 billion by the year 2050 requires growth in global agriculture output by approximately 60% to 110%. Urban agriculture as an alternative solution can reduce the future burden on agriculture sector. As a response to this issue, the interior architecture design studio-V (INT 401) proposes a futuristic vision which is based on the notion of urban agriculture. This vision requires a pedagogical framework to be defined for the interior design studio-V. The proposed pedagogy consists of the following three notions: (1) residential urban agriculture, (2) context-based and culture-based design approach, and (3) social sustainability. The proposed pedagogy follows a futuristic vision that advocates that future interior spaces and adjacent spaces should be capable of cultivating food. The proposed pedagogy tries to integrate the concept of residential urban agriculture within its core. The context-based and culture-based design approach highlights the importance of considering the local context during the design process. The interior design studio pedagogy should be valued, studied, and reflected in local traditions, practices, and values. The proposed pedagogy is based on the threefold schema of social sustainability that comprises development sustainability, bridge sustainability, and maintenance sustainability. The proposed design studio pedagogy highlights the following three points: (1) defining a vision for the interior design studio; (2) the interior design studio should be responsive to the contemporary and future social, environmental, and economic issues; and (3) the importance of considering the local context and reflecting it within the interior design studio pedagogy.
... Given the high number of composing plates, it has been questioned how to design the connections so that they do not excessively affect the weight of the whole structure and the visual rhythm of the panels. All phases follow the research by design method, as described in [4] with regards to architecture, and such, alternative strategies have been considered and tested, the first concerning the best visualization of the structural and architectural behaviour, which led to the decision to hang the roof from a central mast that shares the brief's objectives of being lightweight, demountable and resources conscious. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the process of realising a lightweight foldable-plate-roof applied in a full-scale pavilion format to be deployed at the IASS Annual Symposium 2020/2021 exhibition. Under the aim to increase the applicability range of the foldable plate typology, the single-degree-of-freedom mechanism imposed by the plate-linkage system, controlled by actuators, can retract and fold towards its centre causing only minor movement in the perimeter and thus it can rest on a fixed support. The roof design is implemented through a novel platelayer composition that integrates dry rubber joinery and thereby allows for disassembly and reuse of elements. The investigation followed a tectonic approach and included computational form-finding and physical testing of the joinery. The message of the pavilion is Future & Precedent. The substructure designed to carry the roof is intentionally low-tech in terms of materials and techniques, which creates a contrast to the high-tech components in the roof, thereby allowing distinction between elements and their associated functions. Structurally, the roof made of MDF plate and rubber hinges is suspended from a mast made from bamboo and sisal.
... The following propositions prove to be outcomes satisfying various axioms Aziz & Lee (2019), whereas Roggema (2017) stated that it can be concluded on the basis of the studio process and the improvements of the propositions, thus, Ukavwe (2018) describes explanation as a logically valid deductive argument, how the phenomenon to be explained follows logically from initial conditions and general laws. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper seeks to create a theory that highlights the role of Mother Tongue Instruction (MTI) as an effective method towards the empowerment of home tutors to increase their involvement in the teaching-learning process for the learners to maintain academic achievement amidst pandemic. The potential for improved learning outcomes increases when the school curriculum is delivered in a language that pupils are familiar with and in which they can receive support from their parents as home tutors in the absence of face-to-face classes. In order to achieve this goal, the researchers use the deductive axiomatic approach to generate theories, following the steps outlined by Padua (2012). The following five axioms have been developed: (1) Empowerment is interconnected with achievement.; (2) Mother Tongue Instruction (MTI) is a predictor of academic achievement; (3) Involvement is a way to excellence; (4) Parental involvement plays a vital role towards learners' commitment; and (5) Mother Tongue Instruction encourages parents' involvement and commitment and puts them in charge of their children's education especially during pandemic. From these five axioms, 8 propositions were formulated; These are the propositions: (1) Greater Mother Tongue Instruction (MTI) engagement increases academic achievement; (2) Perceived academic achievement motivates parental involvement; (3) MTI should contextualize the needed resources/materials; (4) MTI should innovate learning materials adoptive in this time of pandemic; (5) MTI should enhance activities with a language easy to understand; (6) Mother Tongue Instruction (MTI) should stimulate higher order thinking skills; (7) Mother Tongue Instruction "MTI" should incorporate cultural literacy; and (8) Parents involvement and commitment must be strengthened by MTI in this time of pandemic. With these propositions, the Empowerment-Involvement-Achievement Theory Amidst Pandemic for Mother Tongue Instruction (MTI) in Education was generated.
... The research design adopted for this study was descriptive research. The use of a descriptive research design rests on the fact that the populations for the study are known, theories are not newly explored or determined, and the research study attempts to describe the relationships among the research variables (Lenzholzer & Brown, 2016;Roggema, 2017). The sample size for this research included all 42 customer service centers of the four GSM firms operating in Nigeria's Lagos State and FCT (Onuzuruike, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated efficiency in the utilization of the individual-explicit knowledge of a firm. The sample included 42 customer service centers (CSCs) of the four most active Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) organisations in Lagos State and FCT, Nigeria. The research adopted the input-oriented data envelopment analysis model to determine the extent to which individual-explicit knowledge, as a vital input resource to telecommunications firms, is efficiently utilized by the CSCs to improve the firms’ values. The study revealed that 10 CSCs, representing 23.8 percen of those studied, were technically efficient using the constant returns to scale model. In contrast, the variable returns to scale model showed that 22 CSCs, or 52 percent of them, were technically inefficient. The results suggest that, with less than 50 percent of the total number of CSCs in Nigeria’s telecommunications industry being inefficient, there is a large volume of operational inefficiency, especially concerning the utilization of individual-explicit knowledge. As such, the telecommunications industry could benefit from managerial intervention, especially in building the capacity of the customer desk officers in the CSCs to attend promptly and accurately to customers’ queries. Also, the study established that a viable strategic direction would be that organizations in the telecommunications industry renew their focus on a balanced mix of supervisor-subordinates in each CSC. This study contributes to operations management and the organizational knowledge management literature by showcasing the data envelopment analysis methodology as a legitimate tool for improving understanding of the investigations into the efficiency of individual-explicit knowledge. This study offers practical implications for firm managers about specific activities and units of their firm that contribute the most to the organization, and other specific units/activities that are less productive. The study also provides directions for future studies.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The P21 Framework for 21st Century Learning identifies collaboration as a key educational outcome as it prepares students for the real world problem solving and enhance their prospects for employment. Therefore, group assessments are becoming a commonplace in higher education, mainly to promote collaborative working environment and peer learning amongst students. In addition, group assessments are considered as an effective assessment strategy to manage large classes as it reduces the marking burden on academics. Despite the benefits, students resent group work particularly when a common group mark is awarded when there is a varying level of inputs from the members of the group. Especially, non- engaging students could possibly attain good grades without contributing to the group work or with minimal contribution. This problem of “free riders” disadvantages and discourages engaging students. There is a plethora of peer assessment methods used by academics to assess group works. However, there is a dearth of studies which explores why a particular method is preferred and the difference it makes on the final grades of students. Therefore, this paper explores different methods of peer assessments by reviewing recent literature and expands into comparing the final grades derived from two different methods of peer assessments adopted in the same module to study the end results. Finally, the correlation between the final individual grades and the peer marks given was unpacked which allows academics to make an informed decision.
Chapter
The International Shanghai Joint Design Studio was a work-in-progress platform that started in August 2019 before the COVID-19 pandemic and ended in July 2020 with the publication of the initiative’s outcomes. It combined the studios of 5 Schools of Design located in 4 different countries with the aim of sharing ideas and reflections about the development of projects located in a common area in Shanghai. Thanks to its adaptive, collaborative, and flexible structure, the joint studio could overcome the difficulties caused by the outbreak through the integration of innovative and hybrid teaching & learning methods while developing both a virtual and a physical space of co-creation and engagement for students, scholars, designers, and citizens. Through the involvement of cohorts of various grades and majors, the students were constantly exposed to very diverse design approaches and planning practices. In this way, it became a place to enhance cross-cultural encounter among different design disciplines and backgrounds while encouraging both the learners and the tutors to develop innovative and multidisciplinary points of view about the city and the built environment. In this paper, the authors draw a general reflection about how cross-cultural practices have been implemented through the activities of the initiative and concretely address shortcomings and suggest possible recommendations for future similar pedagogical experiments.
Article
La acción cognitiva que realiza el estudiante al hacer uso de conceptos matemáticos en contextos distintos al aprendido implica la reconstrucción de ellos. Esta acción representa una dificultad importante que enfrentan los estudiantes. Se trabajaron los conceptos de razón y proporción, mediante una secuencia de enseñanza, con una muestra de 35 estudiantes de primer semestre de bachillerato en la Ciudad de México, lo que permitió observar la reconstrucción de sus esquemas, apoyados en el marco teórico de la Abstracción Reflexiva propuesta por Piaget. Los estudiantes lograron argumentar las estrategias de solución empleadas en la resolución de problemas, lo que dio como resultado la modificación de sus acciones.
Chapter
Full-text available
Life in contemporary society is saturated by design. We live in designed environments, we are surrounded by design objects, and in many situations our attention, capacity, and movement are affected by design. Today design penetrates areas far beyond the traditional craftsmanship-based design professions. It takes place in domains as different as health, culture, education, business, transportation, and planning and involves “ shaping and changing society ”through processes that are at the same time “ intentional, situated and emerging ”( Simonsen et al. 2010 , 203). In addition, design is spreading to universities, which engage in design research and initiate new designoriented study programs worldwide. The act of designing involves many participants. As such a participatory endeavor, design can be defined as “ a process of investigating, understanding, reflecting upon, establishing, developing, and supporting mutual learning between multiple participants ”( Simonsen and Robertson 2012 , 2). In this book, we employ the notion of situated design because design processes take place in particular situations and are carried out from embedded positions ( Haraway 1988 ; Suchman 1987 , 2007 ). To say that design is situated is to highlight the interactions and interdependencies between designers, designs, design methods, and the use situation with its actors, activities, structures, particulars, and broader context. Situated design acknowledges the tinkering and negotiation involved in designing things — tangible as well as intangible — and making them happen as intended. Phrased in a slightly different manner, a situated design deals with all the “ thinging ”that goes into the making of things. Bj ö gvinsson, Ehn, and Hillgren (2012 , 102) emphasize that “ things ”being designed are not merely objects: “ A fundamental challenge for designers and the design community is to move from designing ‘ things ’(objects) to designing Things (socio-material assemblies). ” How to cite this work: Simonsen, J., Svabo, C., Strandvad, S. M., Samson, K., Hertzum, M., & Hansen, O. E. (2014). Situated Methods in Design. I J. Simonsen, C. Svabo, S. M. Strandvad, K. Samson, M. Hertzum, & O. E. Hansen (red.), Situated Design Methods (s. 1-21). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Design thinking, design theory, Nr. [6]
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Practice led research methods investigate their line of inquiries from within a knowledge of doing. The practice is an incorporated skill set, a working method in which the practitioner is trained. The recent focus on practice led research method acknowledges practice as a means of gaining new knowledge. Efforts across the field of practice based research seek to develop means for engaging with issues such as critical assessment, comparability and evaluation. This paper presents research undertaken within the field of architecture. Through the presentation of two practice led research projects: Knitted Skins and Parawood our aim is to discuss the methodology by which these projects are developed and its particular referencing of architectural design practice.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The design-led decision support for regional climate adaptation project builds on the participating regional councils for their support and willingness to be part of the project. Climate change and its impacts are to a certain extent uncertain and this is valid for this project also. The approach to organise design charrettes represents this, because in the format of design charrettes there is room to experiment, adjust the process when circumstances change and apply new information whenever available. However, dealing with these uncertainties implies dealing with a certain risk the outcomes will not be as expected
Technical Report
Full-text available
The design-led decision support for regional climate adaptation project builds on the participating regional councils for their support and willingness to be part of the project. Climate change and its impacts are to a certain extent uncertain and this is valid for this project also. The approach to organise design charrettes represents this, because in the format of design charrettes there is room to experiment, adjust the process when circumstances change and apply new information whenever available. However, dealing with these uncertainties implies dealing with a certain risk the outcomes will not be as expected.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the scholarship in creative works and design studios. It examines the particular research methods associated with scholarship in creative works, including reflective practice and hermeneutics. The methodological considerations include comparisons between triangulation and crystallisation as tests for rigour, and the essential role of peer review and publication. The paper concludes with a suite of new landscape design studios with research potential. They include studios as part of larger research projects, and studios which are creative works in their own right where metaphor, trope and a form of avant-gardism are deployed to bring about a form of new knowledge.
Article
Full-text available
This thesis examines the typical nature of design thinking, which is compared and contrasted with scientific and political thinking. A theretical framework is formulated and applied to landscape planning and design. During the 20th century the established operational orientation in landscape architecture was accompanied by an emerging strategic design approach, referred to as 'research by design'. Two cases of large scale landscape planning and design in the netherlands are given in this publication: the restructuring of sandy soil areas programme and the Stork Plan for Rhine-Meuse floodplain in the central belt of the Netherlands
Chapter
Integrated assessment modeling is gaining favor in several countries as a way of informing policy processes. Examining modeling styles and assumptions from the viewpoint of policy making, this paper, following Rotmans (1998), distinguishes between “supply” models and “demand” models, treating supply models as “curiosity motivated” and demand models as examples of “missionoriented” science (Funtowicz and Ravetz, 1997). Models can be understood as communicative devices, similar to languages. A case study, based on research on the management of Lake Lanier in Northeastern Georgia, illustrates how failures of communication inhibit policy development. Competing interest groups employ differing mental models. A demand model might improve communication and cooperation by creating a shared model that clarifies these differences.
Article
Businesses and the HCI and Interaction Design communities have embraced design and design research. Design research as a field blends methodologies from several disciplines - sociology, engineering, software, philosophy, industrial design, HCI/interaction design -- so designers can learn from past successes and failure and don't have to reinvent the wheel for each new design (whether it's a digital product, a building, an airplane or furniture). They take into account form, function, and, ultimately, users. Many books exist in the research and academic realm for this field, but none create a usable bridge to design practice. Although business people are embracing design, they are not going to become designers. Design researchers need tools to apply their research in the real world. Design Research through Practice takes advanced design practice as its starting point, but enriches it to build a design process than can respond to both academic and practical problems. The aims of the book are to study three design research traditions that cover methodological directions in current leading research community. Taking you from the Lab, Field and to the Showroom, Ilpo Koskinen and his group of researchers show you successful traditions in design research that have been integrated into processes and products. Bridging the gap from design research to design practice, this is a must have for any designer. *Brings together design research experts from traditional lab science, social science, industrial design, UX and HCI to lend tried and tested practices and how they can be used in a variety of design projects *Provides a multidisciplinary story of the whole design process, including proven and teachable techniques grounded in theory than can respond to both academic and practical problems *Presents key examples that illustrate how research is applied and vignettes that summarize the key how-to details of specific projects (timelines, resources needed, skills needed, etc.).
Article
The aim of this chapter is to promote the concept of design science. This is introduced by a brief definition which is orientated towards the practical values of the subject. The principal contributing sources are then briefly mentioned. The characteristics of a science are detailed, and the scope of design is reviewed in a general manner for the purpose of revealing what appear to be fundamental concepts. The design process is then considered in terms of some of the possible models. The scope of research in design science is outlined in the Appendix to this chapter.