ArticlePDF Available

The Acute and Chronic Health Benefits of TRX Suspension Training® in Healthy Adults

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Aim: The purposes of this study were (a) to quantify the acute cardiovascular and metabolic responses to TRX Suspension Training, and (b) to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week TRX Suspension Training program at improving cardiorespiratory, muscular, neuromotor, and flexibility fitness and positively modifying cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Sixteen women and men (mean ± SD: age, height, weight, percentage body fat, and VO2max = 40.1 ± 13.5 years, 165.3 ± 8.2 cm, 64.2 ± 11.9 kg, 23.0 ± 5.0 %, and 41.2 ± 7.3 mL/kg/min, respectively) completed both a maximal graded exercise test and a single 60-min TRX Suspension Training class on non-consecutive days. Cardiovascular and metabolic data were collected via a portable calorimetric measurement system. Additionally, participants completed an 8-wk TRX Suspension Training program (60-min sessions performed 3 times/wk). Cardiometabolic risk factors and muscular, neuromotor, and flexibility fitness were measured at baseline and post-program. Results: Overall heart rate for a 60-min TRX Suspension Training class was 131.3 ± 10.8 beats/min, which corresponded to 59.9 ± 10.2% HRR. Exercise intensity in METs was 5.8 ± 1.0, which equated to 45.9 ± 8.6% VO2R. Total energy expenditure for a TRX Suspension Training class was 398.1 ± 114.1 kcal/class. After 8-wk of TRX Suspension Training there were significant (p < 0.05) improvements in the following cardiometabolic risk factors and muscular fitness parameters: waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body fat, one-repetition maximum for leg press and bench press, curl ups, and pushups. Conclusions: Findings from the present study support the activity of TRX Suspension Training as a feasible alternative to traditional exercise modalities for adults that elicits metabolic responses within the accepted moderate-intensity range. Moreover, regular participation in TRX Suspension Training improves muscular fitness and positively modifies several major cardiovascular disease risk factors including reductions in waist circumference, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and body fat. Key Words: Energy Expenditure, Exercise Intensity, Group Exercise,
Content may be subject to copyright.
[Year]
1
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
The Acute and Chronic Health Benefits of TRX Suspension
Training® in Healthy Adults
Leslie E. Smith1, Joanna Snow1, Jennifer S. Fargo1, Christina A. Buchanan1, Lance C. Dalleck1
1High Altitude Exercise Physiology Program, Western State Colorado University, Gunnison, CO, USA
Abstract
Aim: The purposes of this study were (a) to quantify the acute cardiovascular and metabolic responses
to TRX Suspension Training, and (b) to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week TRX Suspension
Training program at improving cardiorespiratory, muscular, neuromotor, and flexibility fitness and
positively modifying cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Sixteen women and men (mean ± SD: age,
height, weight, percentage body fat, and VO2max = 40.1 ± 13.5 years, 165.3 ± 8.2 cm, 64.2 ± 11.9 kg,
23.0 ± 5.0 %, and 41.2 ± 7.3 mL/kg/min, respectively) completed both a maximal graded exercise test
and a single 60-min TRX Suspension Training class on non-consecutive days. Cardiovascular and
metabolic data were collected via a portable calorimetric measurement system. Additionally,
participants completed an 8-wk TRX Suspension Training program (60-min sessions performed 3
times/wk). Cardiometabolic risk factors and muscular, neuromotor, and flexibility fitness were
measured at baseline and post-program. Results: Overall heart rate for a 60-min TRX Suspension
Training class was 131.3 ± 10.8 beats/min, which corresponded to 59.9 ± 10.2% HRR. Exercise intensity
in METs was 5.8 ± 1.0, which equated to 45.9 ± 8.6% VO2R. Total energy expenditure for a TRX
Suspension Training class was 398.1 ± 114.1 kcal/class. After 8-wk of TRX Suspension Training there
were significant (p < 0.05) improvements in the following cardiometabolic risk factors and muscular
fitness parameters: waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body fat, one-repetition
maximum for leg press and bench press, curl ups, and pushups. Conclusions: Findings from the present
study support the activity of TRX Suspension Training as a feasible alternative to traditional exercise
modalities for adults that elicits metabolic responses within the accepted moderate-intensity range.
Moreover, regular participation in TRX Suspension Training improves muscular fitness and positively
modifies several major cardiovascular disease risk factors including reductions in waist circumference,
both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and body fat.
Key Words: Energy Expenditure, Exercise Intensity, Group Exercise, Primary Prevention
[Year]
2
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
Introduction
Regular physical activity confers various
health benefits including the prevention
and management of hypertension, obesity,
Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and
cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical
activity may also contribute to improved
cardiorespiratory fitness provided that
exercise intensity is sufficient.
Cardiorespiratory fitness, typically
determined by maximal oxygen uptake
(VO2max), refers to the highest rate at
which oxygen can be taken up and
consumed by the body during incremental
exercise. Studies have consistently
demonstrated an inverse relationship
between VO2max values and risk of CVD
and all-cause mortality1-2. Given its
relationship to positive health, the
parameters of an exercise program needed
to improve cardiorespiratory fitness have
been studied extensively, and subsequently
well-defined guidelines have been
published by numerous organizations3-4,
including the American Council on Exercise
(ACE) and the American College of Sports
Medicine (ACSM). Current
recommendations5 to improve
cardiorespiratory fitness are 20-60 minutes
of aerobic exercise 3-5 days/week at an
intensity of 64/70-94% of heart rate
maximum (HRmax), 40/50-85% of heart
rate reserve (HRR) or oxygen uptake reserve
(VO2R), and 12-16 rating of perceived
exertion (RPE). Additionally, the ACSM has
recommended a target energy expenditure
of 150 to 400 kilocalories per day
(kcal/day). Traditional forms of aerobic
exercise include walking, jogging, and
cycling. Despite the myriad of health
benefits associated with regular physical
activity, the majority of North American
adults do not fulfill the minimal
requirements of physical activity wherein
the benefits are proposed to accumulate6.
Suspension Training bodyweight exercise is
purported to develop strength, balance,
flexibility and core stability simultaneously7.
It requires the use of the TRX Suspension
Trainer, a highly portable performance
training tool that leverages gravity and the
user’s body weight to complete hundreds of
exercises7. In recent years TRX Suspension
Training has gained in popularity. However,
there is a lack of research on TRX
Suspension Training. To our knowledge
there is no research examining the
physiological responses to TRX Suspension
Training. Understanding the acute
cardiovascular and metabolic responses to
TRX Suspension Training is essential for
designing safe and effective exercise
training programs3-4. Moreover, it would be
beneficial to understand the amassed
health benefits obtained by more long-term
participation in TRX Suspension Training.
For instance, does regular participation in
TRX Suspension Training benefit balance,
muscular fitness and/or cardiometabolic
risk factors (e.g., improved cholesterol
profile)? The lack of research concerning
the physiological responses to TRX
Suspension Training coupled with its
[Year]
3
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
increasing popularity prompted the present
study.
The purpose of this study was (a) to
quantify the acute cardiovascular and
metabolic responses to TRX Suspension
Training, and (b) to determine the
effectiveness of an 8-week TRX Suspension
Training program at improving
cardiorespiratory, muscular, neuromotor,
and flexibility fitness and positively
modifying cardiometabolic risk factors. It
was hypothesized that (a) TRX Suspension
Training would meet the recommended
guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous
intensity exercise as defined by ACE and
ACSM, and (b) TRX Suspension Training
program would elicit improvements in
cardiorespiratory, muscular, neuromotor,
and flexibility fitness and positively modify
cardiometabolic risk factors.
Methods
Participants
16 healthy women and men (21 to 71 years
of age) were recruited from the student
population of a local university, as well as
the surrounding community, via
advertisement through the university
website, local community newspaper, and
word-of-mouth. Participants were eligible
for inclusion into the study if they were low-
to-moderate risk and physically active as
defined by the ACSM4. Exclusionary criteria
included evidence of cardiovascular
pulmonary, and/or metabolic disease. This
study was approved by the Human
Research Committee at Western State
Colorado University. Prior to participation,
each participant signed an informed
consent form. The physical and
physiological characteristics of participants
are presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Physical and physiological characteristics of the participants.
Parameter
Women
(N=14)
Men
(N=2)
Combined
(N=16)
Age (years)
42.5 ± 12.7
40.1 ± 13.5
Height (cm)
163.9 ± 7.5
165.3 ± 8.2
Weight (kg)
61.4 ± 9.5
64.2 ± 11.9
Body fat (%)
23.5 ± 5.0
23.0 ± 5.0
Resting heart rate (beats/min)
67.5 ± 10.8
67.7 ± 10.9
Maximal heart rate (beats/min)
176.5 ± 12.3
176.9 ± 11.8
Maximal oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min)
40.4 ± 6.7*
41.2 ± 7.3
Values are mean SD; *denotes sex difference, p < .05.
[Year]
4
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
Experimental Design
Acute responses to TRX Suspension Training
To quantify the acute cardiovascular and
metabolic responses to TRX Suspension
training an Oxycon Mobile portable
calorimetric measurement system and Polar
F1 heart rate monitor were worn by each
participant throughout a single TRX
Suspension Training class session (Figure 1).
Figure 1. The Oxycon Mobile metabolic system attached to a participant before (upper left & lower
right) and during (upper right & lower left) a TRX Suspension Training class.
Chronic responses to TRX Suspension
Training
At baseline and post-program, participants
performed a graded exercise test on a
treadmill to determine maximal heart rate
(HR) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max).
Resting heart rate was also measured at
baseline. Additionally, resting blood
pressure, body composition, fasting blood
lipids and blood glucose, waist
[Year]
5
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
circumference, weight, muscular fitness,
neuromotor fitness, and flexibility fitness
were also assessed at baseline and post-
program. These measures were obtained to
determine the effectiveness of an 8-wk TRX
Suspension Training intervention at
positively modifying cardiometabolic risk
factors. The experimental design for the
chronic responses to TRX Suspension
Training component of the study is
presented in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Experimental design for chronic responses to TRX Suspension Training.
Protocols
Anthropometric measurements
All anthropometric measurements were
obtained using standardized guidelines4.
Participants were weighed to the nearest
0.1 kg on a medical grade scale and
measured for height to the nearest 0.5 cm
using a stadiometer. Percent body fat was
determined via hydrostatic weighing. Waist
circumference measurements were
obtained using a cloth tape measure with a
spring loaded-handle (Creative Health
Products, Ann Arbor, MI). A horizontal
measurement was taken at the narrowest
point of the torso (below the xiphoid
process and above the umbilicus). These
measurements were taken until two were
within 0.5 mm of each other.
Fasting blood lipid and glucose
measurement
All fasting lipid and blood glucose analyses
were collected and performed at room
temperature. Participants’ hands were
washed with soap and rinsed thoroughly
with water, then cleaned with alcohol
swabs and allowed to dry. Skin was
punctured using lancets and a fingerstick
sample was collected into heparin-coated
40 l capillary tube. Blood was allowed to
flow freely from the fingerstick into the
capillary tube without milking of the finger.
[Year]
6
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
Samples were then dispensed immediately
onto commercially available test cassettes
for analysis in a Cholestech LDX System
(Alere Inc., Waltham, MA) according to
strict standardized operating procedures.
The LDX Cholestech measured total
cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)
cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)
cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood glucose
in fingerstick blood. A daily optics check
was performed on the LDX Cholestech
analyzer used for the study.
Resting blood pressure measurements
The procedures for assessment of resting
blood pressure outlined elsewhere were
followed4. Briefly, participants were seated
quietly for 5 minutes in a chair with a back
support with feet on the floor and arm
supported at heart level. The left arm
brachial artery blood pressure was
measured using a sphygmomanometer in
duplicate and separated by 1-minute. The
mean of the two measurements was
reported for baseline and post-program
values.
Maximal exercise test
On a power treadmill (Powerjog GX200,
Maine), a modified Balke protocol was
performed with participants selecting a
comfortable walking or jogging speed that
could be maintained for the duration of the
test. After a 2 min warm up performed at a
walking speed of 2.0-3.0 mph, participants
were gradually brought to the selected
walking or jogging speed for the first minute
of the test, this speed was maintained
throughout the duration of the test. The
warm up portion, and first 1 min of the
protocol, were performed at 0% grade,
thereafter, each minute the treadmill grade
was increased by 1% until volitional fatigue
was attained. The final workload (speed and
grade) achieved was recorded. Individual
VO2max was subsequently estimated from
the final workload using the ACSM
metabolic equations for walking and
running4.
Muscular, neuromotor, and flexibility fitness
Participants performed one-repetition
maximum (1-RM) testing for the bench
press and leg press exercises. The following
protocol was used for 1-RM testing4:
1. 10 repetitions of a weight the
participant felt comfortable lifting
(40-60% 1-RM) were performed to
warm up muscles
2. RPE was recorded followed by 1
minute rest period
3. 5 repetitions of weight 60-80% 1-RM
was performed as a further warm
up, RPE recorded followed by a 2
minute rest period
4. First 1-RM attempt at weight of 2.5-
20kg greater then warm up, weight
was dependent on RPE of warm up
a. If the first 1-RM lift was
deemed successful by the
researcher (appropriate
lifting form), weight was
increased until the maximum
weight the participant could
[Year]
7
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
lift was established with 3
minutes between each
attempt.
b. If the first 1-RM lift was
deemed unsuccessful by the
researcher, the weight was
decreased until the
participant successfully lifted
the heaviest weight possible.
There were 3 minutes rest between 1-RM
attempts and a maximum of 5 1-RM
attempts. There were 5 minutes of rest
between the 1-RM testing of each
resistance exercise. Flexibility was assessed
using a modified sit-and-reach test and the
best of three results was recorded to the
nearest 0.1 cm as the final value8. Muscular
endurance was evaluated using a push up
test and curl up test8. Balance was assessed
using the unipedal stance test with eyes
closed8.
Testing session to quantify acute
cardiovascular and metabolic responses to
TRX Suspension Training
Participants performed a 60-min TRX
Suspension Training class. Participants were
instructed to arrive 20 min prior to the start
of the testing session for attachment of the
heart rate monitor and portable metabolic
analyzer, familiarization with the breathing
apparatus, and an explanation of testing
instructions and precautions. Each TRX
Suspension Training class commenced with
a 5-min warm-up consisting of light
dynamic stretching. The TRX Suspension
Training class concluded with a 5-min cool-
down consisting of upper- and lower-
extremity static stretching.
Training program to determine chronic
responses to TRX Suspension Training
All participants completed a standard 8-wk
TRX Suspension Training program. The
program consisted of 3 x 60-min TRX
Suspension Training class sessions per week
on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. All TRX
Suspension Training sessions were
instructed by the same qualified instructor.
Only the data from those participants who
completed ≥75% of the training sessions
(i.e., 18 out of 24 sessions) were included in
the final analysis.
Exercise intensity and metabolic
calculations
Individual heart rate reserve (HRR) was
determined as the difference between
resting and HRmax values. Percent HRR was
calculated by subtracting resting HR from
the TRX Suspension Training HR response,
dividing by HRR, and then multiplying the
quotient by 100. Likewise, individual oxygen
uptake reserve (VO2R) was quantified by
taking the difference between resting VO2
(a constant of 3.5 mL/kg/min was used for
all individuals) and maximum VO2 values.
Percent VO2R was calculated by subtracting
resting VO2 from the TRX Suspension
Training VO2 response, dividing by VO2R,
and then multiplying the quotient by 100.
The metabolic equivalent (MET) for TRX
Suspension Training was determined by
dividing the TRX Suspension Training VO2 by
[Year]
8
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
resting VO2. Energy expenditure (kcal/class)
for the TRX Suspension Training class was
calculated by first multiplying the above-
calculated MET equivalent of the TRX
Suspension Training class by individual
resting VO2. This term was then
subsequently multiplied by individual body
mass, divided by 1000, multiplied by the
caloric equivalent for the measured
respiratory exchange ratio or RER (e.g., an
RER of 0.83 equates to an energy cost of
4.838 kcal/L of oxygen), and last multiplied
by 60-min (duration of the TRX Suspension
Training class).
Statistical analyses
All analyses were performed using SPSS
Version 22.0 (Chicago, IL) and GraphPad
Prism 6.0. (San Diego, CA). Measures of
centrality and spread are presented as
mean SD. Primary outcome measures for
the acute cardiovascular and metabolic
responses to TRX Suspension Training
portion of the study were relative exercise
intensity (% HRR and % VO2R), metabolic
equivalents (METs), and energy expenditure
(kcal/min and kcal/class). Primary outcome
measures for the chronic cardiovascular and
metabolic responses to TRX Suspension
Training portion of the study were the
change in cardiometabolic risk factors,
including VO2max, systolic blood pressure,
diastolic blood pressure, weight, waist
circumference, body composition, blood
lipids, blood glucose, muscular fitness,
neuromotor fitness, and flexibility fitness.
Paired t-tests were used to compare the
mean primary outcome measures between
baseline and post-program. The probability
of making a Type I error was set at p < 0.05
for all statistical analyses. In order to make
inferences about the true values
(population values) of the effect of TRX
Suspension Training on all primary
outcomes, the uncertainty in effect was
expressed as 90% confidence limits and the
likelihood the true value of the effect
represents a substantial and clinically
meaningful change (harm or benefit).
Effects were declared unclear if the
confidence interval overlapped thresholds
for substantiveness or the effect could be
substantially positive and negative or
beneficial and detrimental. All probabilistic
magnitude based inferences were
calculated using a published spreadsheet9.
Results
Acute cardiovascular and metabolic
responses to TRX Suspension Training
The acute cardiovascular and metabolic
responses (mean ± SD) to a TRX Suspension
Training class for the sixteen participants
who completed the study are presented in
Table 2. Overall heart rate for a 60-min class
was 131.1 ± 10.8 beats/min, which
corresponded to 59.9 ± 10.2% HRR. Exercise
intensity in METs was 5.81 ± 1.0, which
equated to 45.9 ± 8.6% VO2R. Total energy
expenditure for a TRX Suspension Training
class was 398.1 ± 114.1 kcal/class. Figure 2
illustrates the exercise intensity in terms of
HRR for a representative participant
throughout the duration of the TRX
Suspension Training class session.
[Year]
9
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
Table 2. Acute cardiovascular and metabolic responses to TRX Suspension Training.
Parameter
Women
(N=14)
Men
(N=2)
Combined
(N=16)
HR (beats/min)
130.7 ± 11.4
136 ± 2.83
131.3 ± 10.8
%HRR
59.6 ± 10.4
61.7 ± 12.3
59.9 ± 10.2
%VO2R
45.5 ± 8.7
43.5 ± 10.3
45.9 ± 8.6
METs
5.64 ± 0.66
7.04 ± 2.23
5.81 ± 0.97
kcal/min
6.1 ± 0.89*
10.5 ± 3.2
6.63 ± 1.9
kcal/class
365.1 ± 53.3*
629.0 ± 190.9
398.1 ± 114.1
Values are mean SD. (HR, heart rate; %HRR, percentage heart rate reserve; kcal, kilocalories; METs,
metabolic equivalents; %VO2R, percentage oxygen uptake reserve); *denotes sex difference, p < .05.
Figure 2 Exercise intensity in terms of heart rate reserve (HRR) for a representative participant
throughout the duration of the TRX Suspension Training class. The lower region (denoted by
dashed lines) represents the moderate exercise intensity classification while the upper region
(denoted by the dashed lines) represents the vigorous exercise intensity classification.
[Year]
10
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
Table 3. Baseline (mean SD) and mean change (95% CI) at 8-wk in all primary outcomes after the TRX
Suspension Training program.
Variable
Baseline
mean ± SD
Change at 8-wk
mean (95% CI)
p-value difference
to baseline
Weight (kg)
64.6 ± 12.2
.07 (-.83 to .69)
.839
Waist circumference (cm)
71.2 ± 5.9
-1.48 (.27 to 2.68)
.021
SBP (mmHg)
121.1 ± 9.4
-8.43 (2.32 to 14.5)
.011
DBP (mmHg)
79.1 ± 5.1
-9.00 (6.34 to 11.66)
.000
RHR (bpm)
65.1 ± 9.8
-1.29 (-3.29 to 5.86)
.554
Body fat (%)
22.8 ± 5.1
-1.56 (.95 to 2.18)
.000
TC (mg/dL)
194.9 ± 23.9
-9.73 (-2.46 to 21.93)
.109
HDL (mg/dL)
76.4 ± 19.5
-5.71 (.98 to 10.45)
.022
LDL (mg/dL)
99.4 ± 24.4
-1.58 (-10.56 to 13.72)
.779
TRIG (mg/dL)
79.4 ± 20.9
15.00 (-35.50 to 5.50)
.137
GLU (mg/dL)
83.9 ± 7.5
0.00 (-3.92 to 3.92)
1.00
Flexibility (cm)
52.0 ± 6.8
1.34 (-2.96 to .29)
.099
Balance: eyes closed (sec)
27.9 ± 24
7.90 (-19.64 to 3.84)
.170
VO2max (mL/kg/min)
41.3 ± 7.7
.19 (-1.42 to 1.05)
.750
1-RM Leg Press (lbs)
440.2 ± 148.7
90.64 (-129.99 to -51.30)
.000
1-RM Bench Press (lbs)
90 ± 54.6
4.23 (-8.10 to -36)
.035
Curl ups (reps)
33.9 ± 16.7
16.00 (-28.69 to -3.31)
.017
Push ups (reps)
24.6 ± 8.4
3.08 (-5.16 to -1.01)
.007
Full 30yr CVD risk (%)
10.6 ± 7.9
-.658 (-.35 to 2.5)
.127
Hard 30yr CVD risk (%)
5.3 ± 4.4
-.41 (-.14 to 1.6)
.094
*Note: confidence interval (CI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), resting heart rate
(RHR), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TRIG),
blood glucose (GLU), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), one rep max (1RM), cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Chronic cardiovascular and metabolic responses
to TRX Suspension Training
The chronic cardiovascular and metabolic
responses to the TRX Suspension Training
program are presented in Table 3 for all
individuals who completed the intervention (N
= 15). One individual was unable to complete
post-program testing due to an injury unrelated
to the TRX Suspension Training program. At 8-
wk, paired t-tests revealed a significant
decrease in waist circumference (t (11) = 2.704,
p<0.05), body fat % (t (13) = 5.498, p<0.05),
resting systolic blood pressure (t (13) = 2.978,
p<0.05), and resting diastolic blood pressure (t
(13) = 7.308, p<0.05), indicating a positive effect
on body composition and cardiovascular health.
Paired t-tests revealed a significant increase in
1-RM leg press (t (13) = -4.977, p<0.05), 1-RM
bench press (t (12) = -2.382, p<0.05), curl ups (t
(14) = -2.04, p<0.05), and push ups (t (11) = -
3.276, p<0.05), indicating a positive effect on
muscular strength and muscular endurance.
Paired t-tests revealed no significant difference
in baseline to post-program weight (t (14) = -
[Year]
11
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
.207, p>0.05), resting heart rate (t (13) = .607,
p>0.05), total cholesterol (t (14) = 1.712,
p>0.05), LDL (t (11) = .287, p>0.05), triglycerides
(t (12) = -1.594, p>0.05), blood glucose (t (14) =
.000, p>0.05), flexibility (t (13) = -1.779, p>0.05),
balance eyes-closed (t (13) = -1.453, p>0.05),
and VO2max (t (14) = -.325, p>0.05).
Magnitude based inferences (Table 4) revealed
TRX Suspension Training to be 88.8% clinically
beneficial in improving flexibility, 82.1%
clinically beneficial in improving balance with
eyes-closed, 86% clinically beneficial in
improving Full 30yr CVD risk, and 89.2%
clinically beneficial in improving Hard 30yr CVD
risk.
Table 4. Results of magnitude based inferences for TRX Suspension Training.
Variable
Mean Difference, 90% CI
Qualitative Outcome
Flexibility (cm)
1.8 ± 1.8 (0 to 3.6)
Likely beneficial,
very unlikely harmful, use.
Balance w/ eyes closed (sec)
1.5 ± 1.8 (.3 to 3.2)
Likely beneficial,
very unlikely harmful, use
Full 30yr CVD risk (%)
1.6 ± 1.8 (.1 to 3.4)
Likely beneficial,
very unlikely harmful, use
Hard 30yr CVD risk (%)
1.8 ± 1.8 (0 to 3.6)
Likely beneficial,
very unlikely harmful, use
*Note: cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Discussion
Physical inactivity is an important risk factor
for the development and progression of
CVD10. Nevertheless, according to 2013 data
in adults ≥18 years the age-adjusted
proportion who reported engaging in
moderate or vigorous physical activity that
met current physical activity guidelines for
Americans was 50.0%10. This is perhaps due
in part to a lack of enjoyment experienced
from participation in traditional forms of
physical activity (such as walking, running,
swimming, and cycling). One possible way
to increase the number of individuals
involved in regular physical activity is to
emphasize that the health benefits of
traditional exercise can often be found in
alternative forms of exercise. TRX
Suspension Training is a popular alternative
form of physical activity. Results from the
present study provide two preliminary lines
of evidence supporting TRX Suspension
Training as an ideal alternative exercise
modality:
1. Participation in a TRX Suspension
Training class elicited cardiovascular
and metabolic responses that fulfill
exercise intensity guidelines for
improving and maintaining
cardiorespiratory fitness3-4. Mean
exercise intensity was 59.9% of HRR,
45.9% of VO2R, and 5.8 METs,
respectively. Overall energy
expenditure for a TRX Suspension
Training class was ~400 kcal/class.
2. Participation in an 8-wk TRX
Suspension Training program
[Year]
12
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
improved muscular fitness and
positively modified several major
CVD risk factors including reductions
in waist circumference, body fat,
and both systolic and diastolic blood
pressure.
Acute cardiovascular and metabolic
responses comparison between TRX
Suspension Training and other activities
Exercise intensity is arguably the most
critical component of the exercise
prescription model. Failure to meet minimal
threshold values may result in lack of a
training effect, while too high of an
intensity could lead to over-training and
negatively impact adherence to an exercise
program11. Results from the present study
indicate participation in TRX Suspension
Training exercise can be classified as
“moderate” according to various
organizations definition of physical activity
intensity3-4. For example, moderate exercise
intensity in relative terms has been defined
as 40-59% of HRR/VO2R4. Participants in the
present study exercised at workloads during
the TRX Suspension Training class that
elicited HRR (59.9%) and VO2R (45.9%)
values that fall within the moderate relative
intensity category.
In the 2008 US physical activity guidelines
report12 and elsewhere13, moderate-
intensity physical activity in absolute
metabolic terms has been classified as 3 to
6 METs. In the present study, the MET
response to TRX Suspension Training
exercise averaged 5.8. Thus, participants in
the present investigation exercised at
workloads during the TRX Suspension
Training class that elicited metabolic
responses within the accepted moderate-
intensity range. This is an important finding
given the fact that moderate-intensity
exercise has been widely recommended for
health benefits3-4,12. Additionally, MET
values described in the present study
compare favorably to more traditional land-
based aerobic exercise values and non-
traditional exercise values. For instance,
treadmill and over ground brisk walking at
4.0 miles per hour is an equivalent
moderate-intensity physical activity at 4.9
METs. Likewise, an 80-kg individual cycling
between 50 and 100 Watts will elicit a MET
value ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 METs4. More
recently, Dalleck and colleagues14 reported
that participation in a Zumba Gold exercise
class also elicited an absolute moderate-
intensity metabolic response at 4.3 METs.
For the improvement and maintenance of
cardiorespiratory fitness, the ACSM has
recommended a target energy expenditure
of 150 to 400 kilocalories per day
(kcal/day)4. From a practical perspective,
results from the present study highlight that
participation in a 60-min TRX Suspension
Training class yields a mean energy
expenditure of ~400 kcal that satisfies the
ACSM recommendations for daily energy
expenditure. This volume of energy
expenditure is comparable to other non-
traditional alternative activities. For
[Year]
13
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
instance, Bausch et al.15 reported that
participation in 1-hr session of Nintendo Wii
Sports elicited a mean energy expenditure
of ~250 kcal/session. More recently,
Weatherwax and colleagues16 reported that
participation in a 40-min Ultimate Frisbee
match elicited a total energy expenditure of
~475 kcal/match.
Chronic cardiovascular and metabolic
adaptations to TRX Suspension Training
The results of the current study
demonstrate that TRX Suspension Training
confers similar health benefits when
compared to those achieved from
traditional aerobic training. Indeed,
participation in a 60-min TRX Suspension
Training class, 3 days/wk, for 8-wk resulted
in significant improvements in resting
systolic blood pressure (-8.4 mmHg) and
diastolic blood pressure (-9.0 mmHg), body
fat (-1.6%), and waist circumference (-1.5
cm) over the duration of the study.
Collectively, the improvements in
cardiometabolic risk factors resulted in a
clinically beneficial reduction in 30 year CVD
risk. Moreover, various metrics of muscular
fitness (i.e., bench and leg press 1-RM, curl
up, pushups) were also improved in the
present study. It has been reported that
increased muscular fitness is associated
with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality17.
Furthermore, in a previous meta-analysis18
it was reported that aerobic exercise
training will elicit average reductions in
resting systolic blood pressure and diastolic
blood pressure of 3 to 4 mmHg and 2 to 3
mmHg, respectively. The decreased resting
systolic blood pressure (-8.4 mmHg) and
diastolic blood pressure (-9.0 mmHg)
measurements observed in the present
study are consistent in magnitude with
those previously reported in the literature.
Next to low cardiorespiratory fitness,
hypertension has been implicated in the
second highest number of overall deaths
amongst American adults, according to one
study19. As such, the reductions in systolic
and diastolic blood pressure in the present
study represent a positive impact on overall
cardiovascular health, as it has been
demonstrated that blood pressure
decreases of as little as 2 mmHg are
associated with a 6% decrease in stroke
mortality and a 4% decrease in coronary
artery disease20. Overall, results from the
chronic intervention are encouraging and
support the potential for regular
participation in TRX Suspension Training to
prevent CVD, CVD mortality, and mortality
from all-causes.
Methodological Considerations
Possible limitations to the present study
merit discussion. The present study
investigated the acute and chronic
cardiovascular and metabolic responses to
a representative sample of healthy men and
women participating in a TRX Suspension
Training class led by a single TRX Suspension
Training instructor. The cardiovascular and
metabolic responses to TRX Suspension
Training would likely vary to a certain
extent across classes with different
structures and instructors. Additionally, the
chronic cardiovascular and metabolic
[Year]
14
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
responses to TRX Suspension Training may
be more pronounced with a longer training
period beyond the 8-wk duration of the
present study. Future research might also
examine other possible TRX Suspension
Training adaptations including enhanced
psychological health (e.g., reduced stress).
Conclusion and Practical Application
To our knowledge, this is the first study to
investigate the acute and chronic
cardiovascular and metabolic responses to
TRX Suspension Training. Findings from the
present study support the activity of TRX
Suspension Training as a feasible alternative
to traditional exercise modalities for adults
that elicits metabolic responses within the
accepted moderate-intensity range.
Moreover, regular participation in TRX
Suspension Training improves muscular
fitness and positively modifies several major
CVD risk factors including reductions in
body fat, systolic and diastolic blood
pressure, and waist circumference. Overall,
these findings are important for exercise
physiologists, health and fitness
professionals, and others who design
exercise programs and promote physical
activity in the adult population.
Competing interests
This investigation was supported financially by
the American Council on Exercise (ACE). The
American Council on Exercise (ACE) was not
involved in development of the study design,
data collection and analysis, or preparation of
the manuscript. There are no other potential
conflicts of interest related to this article.
References
1. Blair SN, Kampert JB, Kohl HW, Barlow CE,
Macera CA, Paffenbarger RS, et al. (1996).
Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other
precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-
cause mortality in men and women. JAMA, 276,
205-210.
2. Blair SN, Kohl HW III, Barlow CE, Paffenbarger RS
Jr, Gibbons LW, Macera CA. (1995). Changes in
physical fitness and all-cause mortality. JAMA,
273, 1093-1098.
3. Bryant CX, Green DJ. (2010). ACE personal
trainer manual. San Diego, CA: American Council
on Exercise.
4. Pescatello LS (Ed). (2014). ACSM's Guidelines for
Exercise Testing and Prescription (9th ed).
Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
5. Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin
BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee I, Nieman DC. (2011).
Quantity and quality of exercise for developing
and maintaining cardiorespiratory,
musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in
apparently healthy adults: guidance for
prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 43,
1334-1359.
6. Warburton DER, Nicol CW, Bredin SSD. (2006).
Health benefits of physical activity: the
evidence. CMAJ, 174, 801-809.
7. TRX training
(https://www.trxtraining.com/suspension-
training). Accessed 20, 2015.
8. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (2003).
The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness &
Lifestyle Approach: CSEP-Health and Fitness
Program’s Health-Related Appraisal and
Counseling Strategy, 3rd ed. Canadian Society
for Exercise Physiology, Ottawa, Ontario,
Canada.
9. Batterham AM, Hopkins WG. (2006). Making
meaningful inferences about magnitudes. Int J
Sports Physiol Perform, 1, 50-57.
10. Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK,
Blaha MJ, Cushman M, de Ferranti S, Després JP,
Fullerton HJ, Howard VJ, Huffman MD, Judd SE,
Kissela BM, Lackland DT, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth
LD, Liu S, Mackey RH, Matchar DB, McGuire DK,
Mohler ER 3rd, Moy CS, Muntner P, Mussolino
ME, Nasir K, Neumar RW, Nichol G, Palaniappan
L, Pandey DK, Reeves MJ, Rodriguez CJ, Sorlie
PD, Stein J, Towfighi A, Turan TN, Virani SS,
Willey JZ, Woo D, Yeh RW, Turner MB; American
[Year]
15
Smith et al. (2016) Int J Res Ex Phys. 11(2):1-15.
Sponsored by:
Exercise and Sport Science Program
Western State Colorado University
Heart Association Statistics Committee and
Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. (2015). Heart
disease and stroke statistics--2015 update: a
report from the American Heart Association.
Circulation, 131, e29-322.
11. Franklin BA. (2007). Fitness: the ultimate marker
for risk stratification and health outcomes? Prev
Cardiol, 10, 42-46.
12. Department of Health and Human Services.
2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans
[Internet]. [cited 2016 June 6]. Available from:
http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/pagui
de.pdf.
13. Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD,
Meckes N, Bassett DR Jr, Tudor-Locke C, Greer
JL, Vezina J, Whitt-Glover MC, Leon AS. (2011).
2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a
second update of codes and MET values. Med
Sci Sports Exerc, 43, 1575-1581.
14. Dalleck LC, Roos KA, Byrd BR, Weatherwax RM.
(2015). The cardiovascular and metabolic
responses to Zumba Gold in middle age and
older adults. J Sports Sci Med, 14, 689-90.
15. Bausch LM, Beran JN, Cahanes SJ, Krug LD.
(2008). Physiological responses while playing
Nintendo Wii Sports. J Undergrad Kinesiol Res, 3,
19-25.
16. Weatherwax RM, Byrd B, Van De Velde S,
Dalleck LC. (2015). The cardiovascular and
metabolic responses to Ultimate Frisbee in
healthy adults. J Fit Res, 4, 36-44.
17. Ruiz JR, Sui X, Lobelo F, Morrow JR Jr, Jackson
AW, Sjöström M, Blair SN. (2008). Association
between muscular strength and mortality in
men: prospective cohort study. BMJ, 337, a439.
18. Fagard RH. (2006). Exercise is good for your
blood pressure: effects of endurance training
and resistance training. Clin Exp Pharmacol
Physiol, 33,853-856.
19. Blair SN. Physical inactivity: the biggest public
health problem of the 21st century. (2009). Br J
Sports Med, 43, 1-2.
20. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman
WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, et al. (2003). The Seventh
Report of the Joint National Committee on
Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and
Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7
report. JAMA, 289, 2560-2572.
... This may be relevant for middle-aged and older women with T2D, as musculoskeletal discomfort and physical limitations are important barriers leading to high adherence to conventional RT programs in this population [13,14]. Previous studies have shown the positive effects of TRX training on cardiometabolic and fitness parameters in non-diabetic populations, including body fatness [15], waist circumference [15], blood pressure [15], HDL [16] and liver enzyme concentrations [17], as well as muscle mass and strength [18][19][20]. Although studies evaluating TRX in individuals with T2D are lacking, recent research showed that this training modality improved fasting blood sugar (FBS) and insulin concentrations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) [21]. ...
... This may be relevant for middle-aged and older women with T2D, as musculoskeletal discomfort and physical limitations are important barriers leading to high adherence to conventional RT programs in this population [13,14]. Previous studies have shown the positive effects of TRX training on cardiometabolic and fitness parameters in non-diabetic populations, including body fatness [15], waist circumference [15], blood pressure [15], HDL [16] and liver enzyme concentrations [17], as well as muscle mass and strength [18][19][20]. Although studies evaluating TRX in individuals with T2D are lacking, recent research showed that this training modality improved fasting blood sugar (FBS) and insulin concentrations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) [21]. ...
... This may be relevant for middle-aged and older women with T2D, as musculoskeletal discomfort and physical limitations are important barriers leading to high adherence to conventional RT programs in this population [13,14]. Previous studies have shown the positive effects of TRX training on cardiometabolic and fitness parameters in non-diabetic populations, including body fatness [15], waist circumference [15], blood pressure [15], HDL [16] and liver enzyme concentrations [17], as well as muscle mass and strength [18][19][20]. Although studies evaluating TRX in individuals with T2D are lacking, recent research showed that this training modality improved fasting blood sugar (FBS) and insulin concentrations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We aimed to investigate the effects of an 8-week total-body resistance exercise (TRX) suspension training intervention combined with taurine supplementation on body composition, blood glucose, and lipid markers in T2D females. Methods: Forty T2D middle-aged females (age: 53 ± 5 years, body mass = 84.3 ± 5.1 kg) were randomly assigned to four groups, TRX suspension training + placebo (TP; n = 10), TRX suspension training + taurine supplementation (TT; n = 10), taurine supplementation (T; n = 10), or control (C; n = 10). Body composition (body mass, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP)), blood glucose (fasting blood sugar (FBS)), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), Insulin, and Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid markers (low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC)) were evaluated prior to and after interventions. Results: All three interventions significantly decreased body mass, BMI, and BFP with no changes between them for body mass and BMI; however, BFP changes in the TT group were significantly greater than all other groups. FBS was significantly reduced in TP and TT. Insulin concentrations' decrement were significantly greater in all experimental groups compared to C; however, no between group differences were observed between TT, TP, and T. In regards to HOMA-IR, decreases in TT were significantly greater than all other groups TG, HbA1c, and LDL were reduced following all interventions. HDL values significantly increased only in the TT group, while TC significantly decreased in TP and TT groups. Changes in HbA1c, TG, HDL, and TC were significantly greater in the TT compared to all other groups. Conclusions: TRX training improved glycemic and lipid profiles, while taurine supplementation alone failed to show hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Notably, the synergic effects of TRX training and taurine supplementation were shown in HbA1c, HOMA-IR, TG, TC, HDL, and BFP changes. Our outcomes suggest that TRX training + taurine supplementation may be an effective adjuvant therapy in individuals with T2D.
... Among recent evidence using this type of training, this instrument has been used for the purpose of athletic performance (Tinto et al., 2017), for therapeutic purposes for the care and improvement of patients with chronic diseases (Park & Hwangbo, 2014), in the rehabilitation of acute and chronic injuries (Fong et al., 2015), for the prevention of sports injuries (Ma et al., 2017), also, improvements in levels of body composition, muscle strength and respiratory capacity have been evidenced through suspension training programs with healthy people (Campa et al., 2018;Gaedtke & Morat, 2015;Smith et al., 2016). ...
... An adequate prescription of training through devices that uses suspension, is essential for success in the design of effective training programs and therefore to have guides to direct this type of training. Although there is evidence of improvement in physical fitness variables through suspension training (Campa et al., 2018;Gaedtke & Morat, 2015;Smith et al., 2016); there are different studies that have shown how variations in attack angles can generate different stimuli in the same exercise. Gülmez (2016) found differences in the percentage of body weight mobilized during the exercise of push-ups in suspension to different angles, demonstrating the importance of considering this aspect when designing work conditioning programs. ...
Article
Full-text available
The strap suspension training is a well-known and practiced resistance training methods. Despite its frequent use, there is lack of methods of control and prescription of the loads (e.g. intensity and volume) during exercising with this device and method. The aim of the present study was to propose a new practical approach in the control and prescription of physical load during resistance suspension strap training considering basic terminology. In suspension training with straps, setting the exercise using different subjection point height, rope length, distance from subjection point and attack angle could change both the intensity and the volume of the load. Considering the above, this information should be addressed by human science professionals, athletes and coaches in the designing and execution of conditioning and training programs using this method of suspension training, in order to make an optimal approach to a more individualized prescription. Likewise, the calculation and the use of attack angles and their variations together with the Suspension Training Total Resistance Load values give the possibility of making a more objective approach for the determination of an adequate training load, which based on the client's perception, could allow practitioners to generate a beneficial overload and obtain greater physical and physiological improvements.
... Pastucha et al. stated that the functional 3D training is an effective method to strengthen the postural muscles of the human body, to increase joint stability, to strengthen ligament groups, and to improve the stability and lung capacity of muscle groups, especially the back muscles (13). In another study, it was concluded that TRX suspension exercises are very effective in increasing the core region muscle strength and endurance as well as in improving static and dynamic balance, explosive force, and flexibility in healthy individuals (14). Curițianu and Balint found in their study with those suffering idiopathic scoliosis that avoiding a more aggressive treatment even if only for six months of doing with people with idiopathic scoliosis TRX Suspension Training Exercises is clinically meaningful (15). ...
... Numerous studies have revealed that regular physical activity and exercise provide positive improvements in anthropometric measurements. Smith et al. that regular participation in TRX Suspension Training could positively alter the risk factors for many major cardiovascular diseases, including muscle fitness, body fat, and decreased waist circumference (14). Notarnicola et al. stated that CrossFit and TRX training methods led to improvements in terms of both anthropometric and aerobic resistance (16). ...
Article
Full-text available
Study Objectives: This study was conducted to measure the effect of eight-week TRX exercises on mild and moderate posture disorders. Methods: 40 people (f: 24; m: 16), with exercise and control groups having 20 each, participated in the study. It was ensured that the exercise group performed various exercises with TRX instruments, three days a week for eight weeks. Before and after the exercise, measurements were taken from both groups with the "Scoliometer", and only the degree of curvature, shoulder, and chest circumference measurements were taken without applying any exercise program to the control group. Statistical data were obtained using frequency and percentage values in SPSS 22; the independent sample t test was applied to compare descriptive statistics, and the repeated measures ANOVA was used, whereby the level of significance was taken as 0.001 and 0.005. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test scores of the male exercise-control, female exercise-control, and total study groups based on the variable of shoulder, chest, and posture degree of curvature. Compared with the Bonferroni family-wise-error control method, a significant difference was found between the male exercise group participants and the control group in shoulder measurements (p <.0001), and no difference was found between female groups. In comparison of female exercise and control groups based on the chest variable, the difference was found to be significant (p <.0001), but no statistically significant difference was observed between the male exercise and control groups and a significant difference was observed between the pre-test and post-test in the degrees of curvature of women and men (exercise-control), and the pre-test predicted the post-test in the same degree of curvature and group (p <.0001). Conclusion: Besides, TRX exercises provide positive changes in the anthropometric structure and reduce posture curvature, especially those with high degrees of curvature were found to decrease significantly.
... 1,2,[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Moreover, there are studies planned for different sport branches, and different age groups in which, the resistance are investigated, the physiological and metabolical effects have been researched, prevention of injury and rehabilitation program have been studied on body composition and some other biomotor skills for different training angles. 3,[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] When the conducted studies are reviewed, it has been seen that there are articles published on international journals planned with different purposes on suspension trainings in adults and elderly, there is a scarcity of studies that reveals the suspension trainings and its outcomes in puberty group. Moreover, the training duration of conducted studies is found to be insufficient to enhance the biomotor and support biomotor skills. ...
Article
Full-text available
ABS TRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week basketball training combined with suspension (TRX) training on balance, agility and vertical jump performance of developmental group basketball players. Material and Methods: Dynamic balance of the athletes were evaluated with star excursion balance test. Vertical jump test was done using contact mat (Newtest Powertime, Finland). In the T-test agility test, photocell and digital screen were used to determine the times. TRX Pro 4 suspension trainer equipment was used for suspension strength training applications. Twenty six male basketball players, with the age average of 12.89±0.28 volunteered in our study. The participants were randomly divided into 2 groups; one of which is control group (BASK) (n=13) and another as the experimental group (SUSP_BASK) (n=13). In addition to routine basketball training performed three times weekly, the players in SUSP_BASK group performed suspension strength training three times a week for 8 weeks. BASK group only performed the routine basketball training without any additional training. Vertical jump, balance and agility parameters were measured in the beginning and at the end of the study as initial test (T1) and final test (T2) along with anthropometric measurements. Results: SPSS version 18.00 was used in analysis and assessment of the collected data. Statistical significance level was set at p<0.01 and p<0.05. After 8 weeks, increases of (p<0.01), (p<0.05) significance level were respectively detected on the balance and vertical jump parameters of SUSP_BASK Group players. The difference on agility parameter was found to be insignificant (p>0.05). Conclusion: As a result, although 8-week basketball training combined with suspension training made significant differences on balance and vertical jump skill, the effect on agility was insignificant.
... The training objectives when exercising with suspension devices are varied and can include strength development, balance, flexibility, abdominal and postural stability [13]. Additionally, the results obtained through their use either independently or in comparison with other types of exercise have proven to be similar [6,10,[14][15][16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This study describes the theoretical foundations of the development of an equation that allows for the estimation of the mobilized load when training with suspension devices (type TRX®) and presents a mobile application as a means for its use. Methods: Systems of equations are proposed of which the terms depend on the angulation of the device with respect to the vertical (angle α), the relationship between the height of grip, the height of the center of mass and the weight of the subject, which are recorded from a photo. Results: Based on the photo and the subject’s standing height, the application allows the user to measure the angle α, providing the values of applied force (in N) and mobilized load in relation to the percentage of body mass, applying the calculations described in our equations. The equation also provides the estimated value of the load mobilized during a push up on the floor (68% of the subject’s body mass) and the equation for the calculation of the mobilized load when the suspension device is fixed to the feet. Conclusions: It is possible to use equations to estimate the load mobilized in each repetition during training using suspension devices and to implement this algorithm in a mobile application.
... Moreover, there were observed significant differences in leg-press, bench-press, curl-up, and push up exercises as a result of related practices (p< .05). It can be said in the light of data that there can be provided significant improvement in flexibility and force parameters at the end of the practices [26]. This result in literature can be accepted as compatible with our study in terms of the exercises program of our study. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to determine the effects of 8-weeks TRX exercises toward upper extremity area of male swimmers in 10-12 age group on 25 meter and 50 meter freestyle swimming degrees and the number of 50 m strokes. 14 licensed and 7 amateur male athletes who are from Kocaeli Province Gölcük Municipality Swimming Club voluntarily participated in this study. Participators were divided into three groups as experiment1 (n=7, age average= 11.14±0.69 years, height average= 1.53±0.06 m, bodyweight average= 39.16±6.11 kg stroke length average= 1.54±0.07 m), experiment2 (n=7, age average= 11±0.82 years, height average = 1.52±0.05 m, bodyweight average = 40.26±5.09 kg stroke length average= 1.53±0.05 m) and control (n=7, age average = 11.14±0.9 years, height average= 1.52±0.05 m, body weight average = 43.31±7.35 kg and stroke length average= 1.50±0.05 m) groups. Athletes of experiment1 group performed 60° TRX exercises such as Push Up, Chest Press, Chest Fly, Low Row, Biceps Curl, Triceps Extension, Reaching Row toward upper extremity area in addition to 8-weeks swimming practices. TRX practices were performed for 3 days a week before swimming exercises. Experiment2 group performed routine club swimming exercises only; the control group has not applied any exercises. Obtained data were analyzed by Paired-Samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA test in SPSS 24.0 packaged software. Results were evaluated at p< .05 significance level. It is determined in in-group comparisons that there are significant differences between 25 m and 50 m freestyle pretest and posttest swimming degrees (p< .05). Concerning between-groups comparisons, there are significant differences between posttest values of control and experiment2 group in terms of both the number of 50 m stroke and 25 m and 50 m swimming degrees (p< .05). Regarding posttest values of control and experiment1 group, there also are significant differences in both the number of 50 m strokes and 25 m freestyle swimming degrees (p< .05). We can say as the result of this study that TRX exercises toward upper extremity area of swimmers in 10-12 age group have a positive effect on the number of 50 m strokes and 25 m and 50 m freestyle degrees.
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose We aimed to compare the effects of warm-up exercises with dynamic stretching and total-resistance exercise (TRX) suspension for enhancing core body temperature and the metabolic equivalents of task of body extremities on Crawl stroke speed in young athlete swimmers with different body mass index (BMI) classifications. Methods The sample comprised 32 young athlete swimmers (age 13.74 ± 1.03 years, BMI 19.91 ± 3.34 kg/m²) who had been involved in organized competitive swimming. BMI was divided into 3 classifications. After a conventional warm-up and 10-mins rested, the intervention group were received the TRX warm-up protocol, while the control group performed with dynamic stretching. They then performed a 50-meters and a 100-meters crawl-stroke for speed. Before completing the testing, swimmers had a one-day rest period for their own activities. Results Warm-ups with dynamic stretching affect the core body temperature, heart rate, and metabolic equivalent of task (METs rate), and enhance crawl-stroke speed performance in young athlete swimmers. While swimmers in BMI class 2 have shown the best crawl-stroke speed, warm-ups with TRX suspension required lower energy expenditures (METs rate) than warm-ups with dynamic stretching (P<0.01). Male swimmers were found to have faster crawl-stroke speed performances than female swimmers in warm-ups with TRX suspension and dynamic stretching. Conclusion Energy expenditure, body temperature, and heart rate in the warm-up protocol have correlations with swimming performance.
Article
Aims The study determines the effect of 8 weeks of calcium and vitamin D supplementation with TRX on body composition and lipid profile of overweight women. Some studies show that calcium and vitamin D consumption and TRX exercise effect on weight loss and in contrast, some do not effects. Methods Forty overweight women with vitamin D and calcium deficiency were selected and then randomly divided into four groups; exercise and supplement (SUP&TRX=10), exercise (TRX=10), supplement (SUP=10) and control (C=10). The TRX exercise administered 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week. The supplement group consumed 1000 mg of calcium and 1000 IU of vitamin D. The blood samples and anthropometric measurements collected in pretest and posttest. Repeated Analysis of Covariance used to measure within and between group changes, and Bonferroni post hoc test determined to differences between groups. Results After 8 weeks, HDL levels and BMI were significantly changed in the SUP&TRX compared to the other groups (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in LDL, TG, CL and Percent body fat among groups (p>0.05). Conclusion Eight weeks TRX training with supplementation improved BMI and HDL serum level. The intensity and duration of training and supplementation probably have positive effects on lipids profiles.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Physical activity has been linked to a plethora of associated health outcomes; however, the majority of Americans are not engaging in enough activity to meet the minimum guidelines. Ultimate Frisbee may serve as an alternate to more traditional physical activity modalities. The purpose of this study was (a) to assess the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to Ultimate Frisbee and (b) to determine if Ultimate Frisbee meets current guidelines for improving and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness.
Article
Full-text available
A study of a sample provides only an estimate of the true (population) value of an outcome statistic. A report of the study therefore usually includes an inference about the true value. Traditionally, a researcher makes an inference by declaring the value of the statistic statistically significant or nonsignificant on the basis of a P value derived from a null-hypothesis test. This approach is confusing and can be misleading, depending on the magnitude of the statistic, error of measurement, and sample size. The authors use a more intuitive and practical approach based directly on uncertainty in the true value of the statistic. First they express the uncertainty as confidence limits, which define the likely range of the true value. They then deal with the real-world relevance of this uncertainty by taking into account values of the statistic that are substantial in some positive and negative sense, such as beneficial or harmful. If the likely range overlaps substantially positive and negative values, they infer that the outcome is unclear; otherwise, they infer that the true value has the magnitude of the observed value: substantially positive, trivial, or substantially negative. They refine this crude inference by stating qualitatively the likelihood that the true value will have the observed magnitude (eg, very likely beneficial). Quantitative or qualitative probabilities that the true value has the other 2 magnitudes or more finely graded magnitudes (such as trivial, small, moderate, and large) can also be estimated to guide a decision about the utility of the outcome.
Article
Bausch LM, Beran JN, Cahanes SJ, Krug LD. Physiological Responses While Playing Nintendo Wii Sports. Journal of Undergraduate Kinesiology Research 2008;3(2):19-25. Active gaming has become a popular trend in today's society due to technological advances. The Wii may be a useful addition to the range of opportunities for physical activities that are available. Purpose: The objective of our study was to examine the physiological responses while playing the Nintendo Wii and compare these results to other common daily activities. Methods: 12 subjects participated in our study, 8 women and 4 men with a mean age of 22.1 + 2.0 years. The mean height and weight of test subjects were 166.5 + 9.1 cm and 69.5 + 15.8 kg, respectively. The mean resting heart rate was 72.7 + 11.6 bpm, and the mean resting blood pressure was 119.5 + 10.7 mmHg systolic over 76.0 + 8.2 mmHg diastolic. The mean HRmax and VO2max were 194.9 + 7.8 bpm and 51.9 + 7.2 mL/kg/min, respectively. Relative intensity levels were established for two Nintendo Wii games by comparing oxygen uptake levels attained while playing Nintendo Wii to subjects' peak oxygen uptake reached during a maximal effort graded treadmill test. Results: We found relative intensities for Wii Boxing and Tennis at %VO2R (41.7 vs. 23.9 %, t(11)=6.879); at %HRR (48.1 vs. 28.1 %, t(11)=3.944), and an absolute intensity for Wii Boxing and Tennis in METs (5.2 vs. 3.2, t(11)=6.692). The total energy expenditure for playing Nintendo Wii was 128.8 ± 46.3 Kcal/session. Conclusion: Playing Wii Boxing achieves an adequate intensity that provides cardiovascular benefits, and both games elicit energy expenditure levels that could contribute towards the ACSM minimal recommendation for weekly EE. By meeting energy expenditure guidelines, one could reduce their risk for chronic diseases and all-cause mortality.
Article
Objective. —To quantify the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and to all-cause mortality within strata of other personal characteristics that predispose to early mortality.
Article
The Compendium of Physical Activities was developed to enhance the comparability of results across studies using self-report physical activity (PA) and is used to quantify the energy cost of a wide variety of PA. We provide the second update of the Compendium, called the 2011 Compendium. The 2011 Compendium retains the previous coding scheme to identify the major category headings and specific PA by their rate of energy expenditure in MET. Modifications in the 2011 Compendium include cataloging measured MET values and their source references, when available; addition of new codes and specific activities; an update of the Compendium tracking guide that links information in the 1993, 2000, and 2011 compendia versions; and the creation of a Web site to facilitate easy access and downloading of Compendium documents. Measured MET values were obtained from a systematic search of databases using defined key words. The 2011 Compendium contains 821 codes for specific activities. Two hundred seventeen new codes were added, 68% (561/821) of which have measured MET values. Approximately half (317/604) of the codes from the 2000 Compendium were modified to improve the definitions and/or to consolidate specific activities and to update estimated MET values where measured values did not exist. Updated MET values accounted for 73% of all code changes. The Compendium is used globally to quantify the energy cost of PA in adults for surveillance activities, research studies, and, in clinical settings, to write PA recommendations and to assess energy expenditure in individuals. The 2011 Compendium is an update of a system for quantifying the energy cost of adult human PA and is a living document that is moving in the direction of being 100% evidence based.
Article
To quantify the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and to all-cause mortality within strata of other personal characteristics that predispose to early mortality. DESIGN--Observational cohort study. We calculated CVD and all-cause death rates for low (least fit 20%), moderate (next 40%), and high (most fit 40%) fitness categories by strata of smoking habit, cholesterol level, blood pressure, and health status. Preventive medicine clinic. Participants were 25341 men and 7080 women who completed preventive medical examinations, including a maximal exercise test. Cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. There were 601 deaths during 211996 man-years of follow-up, and 89 deaths during 52982 woman-years of follow-up. Independent predictors of mortality among men, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were low fitness (RR, 1.52;95% CI, 1.28-1.82), smoking (RR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.39-1.97), abnormal electrocardiogram (RR, 1.64;95% CI, 1.34-2.01), chronic illness (RR, 1.63;95% CI, 1.37-1.95), increased cholesterol level (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13-1.59), and elevated systolic blood pressure (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13-1.59). The only statistically significant independent predictors of mortality in women were low fitness (RR, 2.10; 95% Cl, 1.36-3.21) and smoking (RR, 1.99; 95% Cl, 1.25-3.17). Inverse gradients were seen for mortality across fitness categories within strata of other mortality predictors for both sexes. Fit persons with any combination of smoking, elevated blood pressure, or elevated cholesterol level had lower adjusted death rates than low-fit persons with none of these characteristics. Low fitness is an important precursor of mortality. The protective effect of fitness held for smokers and nonsmokers, those with and without elevated cholesterol levels or elevated blood pressure, and unhealthy and healthy persons. Moderate fitness seems to protect against the influence of these other predictors on mortality. Physicians should encourage sedentary patients to become physically active and thereby reduce the risk of premature mortality.