ArticlePDF Available

Lighting Quality and its Effects on Productivity and Human Healts



Measuring the increase in productivity due to the influence of lighting is not a simple task. In a production plant, information about productivity is an important indicator of performance. This paper describes an interdisciplinary approach of experts from the fields of psychology, ergonomics, medicine and lighting technology jointly applying a set of measuring instruments to describe and analyze the effects on well-being and stress, motivation and sleeping quality, the capacity to regenerate after work, as well as the quality of the lighting situation could be useful.
Ružena Králiková
- Miriama Piňosová
- Beata Hricová
Abstract: Measuring the increase in productivity due to the influence of lighting is not a simple task. In a production plant,
information about productivity is an important indicator of performance. This paper describes an interdisciplinary
approach of experts from the fields of psychology, ergonomics, medicine and lighting technology jointly applying a set of
measuring instruments to describe and analyze the effects on well-being and stress, motivation and sleeping quality, the
capacity to regenerate after work, as well as the quality of the lighting situation could be useful.
Lighting quality, illuminance, colour spectrum, energy saving, LED
Lighting can do so much more than illuminate.
It can enhance form and function, improve safety and
security and create flexible spaces that adapt to the task
at hand. Energy-efficient lighting solutions for industry
can reduce environmental impact and save on costs, at
the same as increasing quality and productivity. At
present of soaring energy prices and legislation targets
it can also help companies to achieve the sustainability
goals. Good lighting in the workplace with well-lit
task areas is essential for optimizing visual
performance, visual comfort and ambience, especially
with an ageing workforce. And the beneficial effects of
good lighting extend much further than it was
originally thought. In fact, over the last two decades
medical science has consistently shown that light has a
positive influence on health and wellbeing. With better
lighting using of ecological lighting sources (e.g.
LED), performance can be improved by speeding up
tasks and reducing failure rates and when added to the
energy saving aspects. Sustainable lighting can be a
powerful tool to improve business also [9].
Taking into account both - natural and artificial
light, its intensity and distribution so that visual
comfort is secured as visual comfort is undoubtedly
one of the key productivity drivers and, at the same
time, eyesight problems are widely associated with
poor working conditions - special consideration has to
be given to the subject.In a production plant,
information about productivity is an important
indicator of performance.
Measuring the increase in productivity due to
the influence of lighting is not a simple task. Where an
increase is observed, this may often be due to a variety
of influences. In the sphere of lighting, there are many
possibilities to create good visual conditions, even
though static lighting meeting standard requirements as
a minimum. For dynamic brightness sequences, it is
possible to modify the brightness or color temperature
of the lighting. The effect on the workers may be
assessed through various interviews, questionnaire
surveys and measurements.
A number of different approaches have been
suggested to define lighting quality. The definition that
seems most generally applicable is that lighting quality
is given by the extent to which the installation meets
the objectives and constraints set by the client and the
designer. In this way lighting quality is related to
objectives like enhancing performance of relevant
tasks, creating specific impressions, generating desired
pattern of behaviour and ensuring visual comfort [2, 3].
Lighting quality is depends on several factors. It
depends largely on people’s expectations and past
experiences of electric lighting. Those who experience
elementary electric lighting for the first time, for
example, in remote villages in developing countries,
have different expectations and attitudes towards
lighting from the workers in industrialized countries.
There are also large individual differences in what is
considered comfortable lighting, as well as cultural
differences between different regions. Lighting quality
is much more than just providing an appropriate
quantity of light. Other factors that are potential
contributors to lighting quality include e.g. illuminance
uniformity, luminance distributions, light color
characteristics and glare. There are many physical and
physiological factors that can influence the perception
of lighting quality. Lighting quality cannot be
expressed simply in terms of photometric measures nor
can there be a single universally applicable recipe for
good quality lighting [2]. Light quality can be judged
according to the level of visual comfort and
performance required for our activities. This is the
visual aspect. It can also be assessed on the basis of the
pleasantness of the visual environment and its
adaptation to the type of room and activity. This is the
psychological aspect. There are also long term effects
of light on our health, which are related either to the
ITPB - NR.: 10, YEAR: 2016 – (ISSN 2344 - 2409)
strain on our eyes caused by poor lighting (again, this
is a visual aspect), or to non-visual aspects related to
the effects of light on the human circadian system [12].
The illumination have be designed by the available
financial budgets and resources, time terms for
completing the project and according to suitable
practices and design approaches that need to be
followed. Lighting quality means achieving an optimal
balance among human needs, architectural
considerations, and energy efficiency, Figure 1 [13].
Arc hitectur e
and other
Buil ding or
Site -related Issues
Comp ositon
Codes and stan dards
Safety and secu rity
Daylig hting
Hum an Nee ds
Visibil ity
Task p erforma nce
Visual comfor t
Social commu niction
Mood and atm osphere
Health , safety , well be ing
Aesthe ric judg ment
Eco nomics,
Ene rgy Effi ciency
and the Env ironme nt
Install ation
Maint enance
Opera tion
Energ y
Enviro nment
Fig. 1 Lighting quality
The influence of artificial lighting on the
psychophysiological well-being and the productivity of
workers in a production plant depends on kind of
lighting source that with respect to:
Brightness – illuminance.
Light colour – spectrum.
Light distribution luminance distribution in
the room.
The effects of artificial lighting on people are
more pronounced, that natural influence of daylight
inside working hours is very low especially during
winter season. One of the major aspects of the lighting
practice and recommendations is to provide adequate
lighting for people to carry out their visual tasks.
Ensuring adequate and appropriate light levels -
quantity of light is only an elementary step in creating
comfortable and good-quality luminous and visual
environments. Lighting that is adequate for visual tasks
and does not cause visual discomfort is not necessarily
good-quality lighting. Depending on the specific
application and case, either insufficient lighting or too
much light can lead to bad-quality lighting. There are a
number of lighting-related factors that may cause
visual discomfort. The current indoor lighting
recommendations give ranges of illuminance values for
different types of rooms and activities [3].
In addition, guidelines on light distribution in a
space, the limitation of glare, and the light color
characteristics are given. The color characteristics of
light in space are determined by the spectral power
distribution (SPD) of the light source and the
reflectance properties of the surfaces in the room. The
color of light sources is usually described by two
Namely the correlated color temperature
General color rendering index (CRI).
The color appearance of a light source is
evaluated by its correlated color temperature (CCT).
For example, incandescent lamps with CCT of 2700 K
have a yellowish color appearance and their light is
described as warm. Certain type of fluorescent lamps
or white LEDs have CCT of around 6000 K with bluish
appearance and light described as cool.
The CRI of the CIE measures how well a given
light source renders a set of test colors relative to a
reference source of the same correlated color
temperature as the light source in question of
International Commission on Illumination (CIE). The
general CRI is calculated as the average of special
CRIs for eight test colors. The reference light source is
Planckian radiator (incandescent type source) for light
sources with CCT below 5000 K and a form of a
daylight source for light sources with CCT above 5000
K. The higher the general CRI, the better is the color
rendering if a light source, the maximum value being
100. The Light source spectrum, i.e. radiant power
distribution over the visible wavelengths, determines
the light color characteristics. Examples of spectra of
the lamps are shown on Fig. 2 - 5 [12].
Fig. 2 Light source spectrum – example of spectra of
an incandescent lamp (CCT = 2690 K, CRI = 99) [14]
Fig. 3 Light source spectrum – example of spectra of a
compact fluorescent lamp (CCT = 2780 K, CRI = 83)
Fig. 4 Light source spectrum - example of spectra of a
white LED lamp (CCT = 6010 K, CRI = 78) [14]
Fig.5 Emission spectra from daylight and typical
incandescent, fluorescent, and LED builds [14]
A completely uniform space is usually
undesirable whereas too nonuniform lighting may
cause distraction and discomfort. Lighting standards
and codes usually provide recommended illuminance
ratios between the task area and its surroundings
according ETN EN 12 464-1. Most indoor lighting
design is based on providing levels of illuminances
while the visual system deals with light reflected from
surfaces i.e. luminances. For lighting there are
recommended luminance ratios between the task and
its immediate surroundings [7].
Room surface reflectances are an important part
of a lighting system and affect both the uniformity and
energy usage of lighting. Compared to a conventional
uniform lighting installation with fluorescent lamps,
LEDs provide opportunities to concentrate light more
on actual working areas and to have light where it is
actually needed. This provides opportunities to increase
the energy efficiency of lighting in the practise.
The luminous environment can be perceived in
many ways e.g. as more or less agreeable, more or less
attractive, and more or less appropriate to the function
of the space, more or less highlighting the company
image. Variations of luminances and colors can
strengthen attractiveness, trigger emotions, and affect
workers mood, the impact of lighting depends much on
the individuals and their state of mind. Unacceptable
lighting conditions may impact on task performance
and thus productivity through motivation. A lighting
installation that does not meet the user’s expectations
can be considered unacceptable even if it provides the
conditions for adequate visual performance. People
perceive their luminous environment through their
eyes. [10]
Light has also effects that are fully or partly
separated from the visual system. Biological effects of
light are called also the non-visual effects of light,
related to the human circadian photoreception. The
biological effects of light and their effects on human
performance are not yet very well known. Research
work is needed to generate an improved understanding
of the interaction of the effects of different aspects of
lighting on behavioral visual tasks and cortical
responses and on how the biological effects of lighting
could be related to these responses. The biological
effects of light and their effects on human performance
are not yet very well known. Lighting should be
designed to provide people with the right visual
conditions that help them to perform visual tasks
efficiently, safely and comfortably. The luminous
environment acts through a chain of mechanisms on
human physiological and psychological factors, which
further influence human performance and productivity,
Figure 6 [4].
Lighting should be designed to provide people
with the right visual conditions that help them to
perform visual tasks efficiently, safely and
comfortably. The luminous environment acts through a
chain of mechanisms on human physiological and
psychological factors, which further influence human
performance and productivity [4].
The effect of lighting on productivity is
ambiguous. The difficulty in finding the relations
between lighting and productivity is that there are
several other factors that simultaneously affect human
performance. These factors include motivation,
relationships between workers and the management
and the degree of having personal control to the
working conditions [2]. With appropriate lighting the
ability to perform visual tasks can be improved and
visual discomfort can be avoided. This can provide
conditions for better visual and task performance and,
ultimately, productivity.
The difficulty of field studies in working
environments is the degree of experimental control
required. Several studies have investigated the effect of
increase in illuminance on task performance. However,
illuminance is only one of the many aspects in the
lighting conditions. In making changes to lighting,
which lighting aspects are changed (e.g. illuminance,
spectrum, and luminance distribution) and whether
there are other factors that are simultaneously changed
in the working conditions (e.g. working arrangements,
people, supervision of work) need to be controlled and
analyzed. Recently, several studies are investigating
the effects of light spectrum on human performance
and the possibilities to use blue-enriched light to
improve human performance through the non-visual
effects of light. Poor lighting conditions can easily
result in losses in productivity of employees and the
resulting production costs of the employer can be much
higher than the annual ownership cost of lighting.
Luminous Environment
Glare Spectral
Distribution Daylight Lighting
Flicker Disability
Glare Discomfort
Glare Veiling
Reflections Spectrum
Human Performance & Productivity
Visual &
Interacion &
Direct /
Spectrum Amount
Fig.6 Luminous environment and human performance [4]
The effects of lighting conditions on
productivity have been published in the several studies.
The earliest studies indicated that lighting conditions
can improve performance by providing adequate
illuminance for the visual tasks. Their results are
sometimes contradictory. For example, a study in
working environment indicated that an increase in
illuminance from 500 lx to 1500 lx could increase the
performance of workers by 9%, while another study
showed that lower illuminance levels (150 lx) tended to
improve performance of a complex work
categorization task as compared to a higher level (1500
lx). A field study in industrial environment measured
direct productivity increases in the range from 0 to 9 %
due to changes in lighting.
The literature shows some examples of null
results than clear-cut effects of illuminance on task
performance, over a wide range of illuminance levels
and for a variety of complex and simple tasks in
working environment [5].
Observing the effect of light on human beings
and health is a topic that is addressed by various
sciences such as psychology, medicine, ergonomics
and lighting technology. The interdisciplinary
application of methods shows that measuring the effect
of lighting on human beings is complex. If no results
are obtained, that does not mean that there is no effect,
but that the instruments of observation and
measurement have not been optimally used. Further
efforts are required to improve the measuring methods,
instruments and evaluations.
Acknowledgement: This paper was written in frame of
the work on the projects VEGA 1/0537/15 “Research
of influence of chosen parameters of working
environment on working power and productivity”. This
work was supported by the Slovak Research and
Development Agency under the contract No. APVV-
[1] Frumkin, H.: Healthy places: exploring the
evidence. In: American journal of public health
93.9 (2003): 1451-1456.
[2] Boyce, P.R.: Lighting research for interiors: the
beginning of the end or the end of the beginning.
In: Lighting Research and Technology 36.4
(2004): 283-293.
[3] Gligor, A.; Grif, H.; Oltean, S.: Considerations on
an intelligent buildings management system for
an optimized energy consumption. In:
Automation, Quality and Testing, Robotics, IEEE
International Conference on. IEEE, (2006). p.
[4] Gligor, V.: Luminous Environment and
Productivity at Workplaces. Thesis (2004).
Espoo:Helsinki University of Technology.
[5] Hughes, P.C., Mcnelis, J.F.: Lighting,
productivity, and the work environment. Lighting
Design and Application, 1978, 8 (12), 32–38.
[6] Varga, G.; Szigeti, F. ; Deszo, G.: Examination of
surface roughness of burnished workpieces In:
Scientific Bulletin: Mechanics, Tribology,
Machine Manufacturing Technology. Vol. 29
(2015), 94-98 ISSN: 1224-3264
[7] STN EN 12464-1, Light and lighting – Lighting at
work places Part I: Indoor Work Places,
European Standard.
[8] European Directive 2006/25/EC, 2006. On the
minimum health and safety requirements
regarding the exposure of workers to risks arising
from physical agents (artificial optical radiation).
Official Journal of the European Union, L 114,
[9] Králiková, R., Andrejiová, M., Wesselý, E.:
Energy saving techniques and strategies for
illumination in industry, In: Energy Procedia,
(2015) 100 (C), pp. 187-195.
[10] Veitch, J.A.: Psychological processes influencing
lighting quality. In: Journal of the Illuminating
Engineering Society (2001), 30 (1), p.124-140.
[12] The Lighting Handbook, avalable:
doc. Ing. Ružena Králiková, PhD.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of
Processing and Environmental Engineering, Technical
University of Kosice, Slovak Republic
Ing. Miriama Piňosová, PhD.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of
Processing and Environmental Engineering, Technical
University of Kosice, Slovak Republic
Ing. Beata Hricová, PhD.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of
Processing and Environmental Engineering, Technical
University of Kosice, Slovak Republic
... Traditionally, either high or low CCT products were specified for light installations based on designer specification, so the colour temperature emitted would be fixed in traditional installations [9]. However, fixed CCT lighting is the fundamental problem with modern lighting, as it delivers poor colour rendering for users [10] and thus influences their mood and productivity [11]. Fixed CCT light installations are the most common type of installation throughout the United Kingdom (UK), where only a small proportion of commercial buildings have explored alternatives. ...
Full-text available
COVID-19 has caused a considerable proportion of the public to work from home, either part-or full-time, in unregulated domestic conditions, which have not been designed for commercial activities. This study determined what existing lighting conditions were present in a selection of work-from-home (WFH) environments (Objective One) through quantitative lux level and equivalent melanopic lux (EML) readings by evaluating them against regulatory standards, where further study is required to validate the results with a larger dataset. This study also investigated the social demand for human-centric lighting (HCL) installations within WFH environments (Objective Two) through qualitative questionnaires by considering key parameters: sustainability, practicality, and cost. The results of Objective One showed that compliance with general safety lighting requirements was achieved by 80% of the installations. The mean lux level recorded was 452.4 lux and 0.729 uniformity , which fell below commercial requirements defined for commonly performed WFH activities ; 34.3% of recorded EML dropped below the regulatory requirements under daylight conditions. When isolated to artificial lighting, only 7.5% of the required EML was achieved. The results of Objective Two showed that generally participants did not feel that their WFH installations were unsuitably lit, however, 46.2% of participants identified noticeable headaches or eye strain when working from home. A total of 80% of participants highlighted that HCL task lighting would be preferable. It was also found that participants were willing to invest in circadian lighting for health, where 63.2% of them would not accept a reduction in efficiency of over 10% compared to non HCL. Wellbeing was found to be participants' key preference for their lighting systems, followed by efficiency , home impact, and cost.
... The increase, can be done in many ways. It can be stimulation using music (Lesiuk, 2005;Haake, 2011), light intensity (Karlikova et al., 2016), environmental quality and employee satisfaction (Vischer, 1989;Staw, Barsade, 1993;Garris, Monroe, 2005). Moreover Street et al. (2019) indicates that stress is also a crucial factor of productivity and labour cost reduction. ...
Purpose: The aim of the study was to rate the employee’s productivity on different work day organization and to indicate the most optimal work schedule. Design/methodology/approach: For the research presented in this paper, strong literature review was done. We showed why human workforce is so important in tissue culture laboratory and why proper work organization is essential for increasing competitiveness of companies. Literature in the field of overtime work and short, elastic hours of work was also presented. Our research design checked effectiveness of work of ten employees of tissue culture laboratory in five different workday schedules. First combination was control and four other investigated influence of six hour work on main task in different arrangements on productivity. Data was statistically analysed with Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. Productivity Index and Labour Productivity Index were also used for better results processing. Findings: The highest employees productivity is concentrated in the middle of work day. In conventional eight hour workday, the highest productivity is just after fifteen minute break. Six hour workday has big potential in increasing work, especially when main task is not interrupted by other activities and when work starts at the beginning of workday. Research limitations/implications: In future, research should be expanded on employees efficiency in work with bioreactor and costs analysis of plant production in such system. Practical implications: Our results are directed to plant tissue culture companies and others where employees are essential and their work requires concentration during repetitive activities. We suggest solutions increasing work efficiency. Originality/value: Our work presents hour after hour analysis of work efficiency in different workday organization in plant tissue culture company. Keywords: day schedule, productivity, work organization, work effectiveness. Category of the paper: Research paper.
... Various approaches have been suggested so far, to provide insights relevant to how lighting quality in a space can go beyond providing an appropriate quantity of light (Boyce, 2004;Gentile et al., 2016). Research has revealed that besides delivering visibility, good-quality lighting is able to enhance performance and maintain health and wellbeing in indoor spaces via two routes that are visual and non-visual (Králiková et al., 2016). The level of visual comfort and visual performance required for a range of typical office works strongly affect the judgement of lighting quality inside a space. ...
Full-text available
This dissertation proposes a holistic, multi-dimensional approach for analysing task performance by understanding the psychological, physiological and cognitive performance-based changes with respect to various lighting quality factors. The main objective was to observe and integrate these three categories of potential affecting variables into the evaluation of overall task performance of video display terminal (VDT) users. In the existing literature, specifically in daylit offices, human behaviour and physiology are not sufficiently considered while evaluating task performance, or vice versa, performance changes in VDT users are not often taken into consideration while behavioural and psychological processes are analysed. This PhD dissertation describes different stages of conception of this holistic method that includes objective performance measures coupled with ocular and behavioural responses, in order to overcome the limitations associated with the subjectivity and individuality aspects of lighting effects for analysing occupants’ task performance. The assessments were done in a series of experiments in a mock-up office setting under different (day)lighting conditions where participants’ ocular behaviour as well as their subjective assessments were recorded while monitoring photometric quantities including vertical illuminance at the eye and luminance data. In the first experimental phase, an initial study was made for proper integration of the adopted methods and techniques regarding ocular behaviour into visual comfort assessments. Development of several algorithms and tools to identify and translate the ocular behaviour in order to derive the actual luminous distribution perceived by the participants were needed to achieve this goal. In the next comprehensive experimental phase, the impact of daylight illuminance and luminance on various physiological, performance and psychological measures during visual display terminal work was explored. Additionally, the results from the relationships between photometric variables and physiological and subjective responses as well as performance measures are presented. The developed approach demonstrates the need to integrate ocular patterns and human behaviour into task performance assessments, which move us beyond the existing rigid and rough design approaches towards a holistic, human-centric lighting design in computerized offices.
... It is crucial to have good lighting in an office to encourage productivity and provide comfort for workers [8]. The Meeting Room and the Board Room are the two rooms the author uses as the focus of this research. ...
... In recent years, scholars have increasingly studied the spatial environment and the influencing factors in the spatial environment that contribute to human stress recovery [16][17][18]. Some research has indicated that there is a diversity of factors that affect human stress in indoor and outdoor spaces such as lighting, outdoor landscaping, noise, temperature, and humidity [19][20][21][22][23]. Moreover, some researchers have investigated the impact of geometric forms in the environment on human perception, for example, linear and curved factors. ...
Full-text available
As people’s levels of stress increase with the complexity of contemporary urban life, the stress healing agenda in built environments has become more critical than ever. Previous research has demonstrated that linear and nonlinear shapes in the environment have an impact on human stress recovery. However, to date, most studies have focused on indoor and outdoor spaces, while research on transitional spaces is still limited. Transitional spaces connect the interior with the exterior and are ubiquitous in the city, such as plazas, open cafes, and urban corridors. We hypothesize that curved and linear environments affect human stress recovery differently in transitional spaces. To test this hypothesis, virtual reality (VR) technology and experiments were conducted with 40 participants. At the end of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), participants were randomly assigned to four VR environments to test which environment is more effective in stress recovery for humans. Participants’ physiological data, including heart rate and blood pressure, were measured by bio-monitoring sensors. The psychological data were tested by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In general, the resulting data indicate that the curved environment is more effective than the linear environment for the recovery of human stress in transitional spaces.
... In addition to the contribution of lighting to human health and well-being, adequate lighting conditions can help reduce the operational costs of buildings and increase occupant satisfaction and productivity [27] because occupants' dissatisfaction with lighting conditions could cause an increase in the operational costs of the building [3] [28]. ...
Full-text available
Millions of people migrate every year, aiming to settle either permanently or temporarily in new places. People from countries with different intensities of daylight might have various perceptions and expectations towards the climatic and indoor conditions. It might result from a previously accustomed lighting environment and other associated factors, namely individual cultural background. It is important because study outcomes may be utilised by architects and lighting professionals on how to design buildings and interior spaces depending on occupants’ perceptions and expectations to increase occupants’ satisfaction. This knowledge also can be used to save energy because the efficient use of daylight can reduce the energy consumption of both HVAC and illumination systems. To date, few studies have explored the relationship between cultural background and daylight perception; however, they mostly focused on glare sensitivity rather than daylight intensity. Cross-cultural studies aiming to investigate lighting preferences in interior environments are also rare. What is not yet known is the importance of cultural background and its impact on daylight perception, expectation, and satisfaction. Therefore, the development of a methodology for assessing daylight perception and its application in the context of cultural background are the main objectives of this research project, in order to investigate the impact of cultural background on daylight perception. In this thesis, three subjective evaluation methods were used to assess participants' daylight perceptions: subjective ratings, seat preference, and daylight boundary line drawings, and the perceived daylight availability obtained through these methods were compared to measured daylight availability. It was demonstrated that perceived daylight availability obtained through seat preference and subjective statement methods corresponds to some extent with actual daylight availability (p<0.01 and p =0.002, respectively). The findings obtained from both students’ seat selections and occupancy data from motion sensors in the library also highlighted the importance of daylight availability in the seat selection of students in the libraries. However, the lit area drawn by participants representing the perceived daylight conditions as part of the daylight boundary line method varied extensively from person to person regardless of actual daylight measurements. In other respects, a systematic review was conducted to create a conceptual framework of cultural background in the lit environment, and factors thought to be influencing daylight perception in the cultural context had been defined in four ways. These were ethnicity and/or physiological properties of individual eyes, the residential area, the previous luminance environment and sociocultural background. Finally, the developed methodology based on the previous findings was applied to understand if individuals perceive daylight conditions differently due to their cultural backgrounds. Although some findings proved that culture might be an important factor in daylight perception, the study results did not provide strong evidence of a cultural background influence on daylight perception. However, the number of participants in this study (N=193) was limited, and this unique topic requires additional research with larger sample size.
... A good lighting level can support learning activities, provide enthusiasm, and liven up a cheerful atmosphere [3]. The quality of lighting is related to the appropriate amount of light and light layout, such as lighting uniformity and lighting distribution [4]. The distribution of this lighting also needs to be considered so that its use is appropriate in every room with different functions in a building so that the energy generated from the use of lighting can be efficient because the energy used for lighting is one of large enough energies in a building [5]. ...
Lighting point calculation plays an important feature in developing a new residential house. This enables people inside the house will have enough of light to perform tasks efficiently. Currently, consulting electrical engineers use rules of thumb to forecast the quantity of lighting points, however these rules are inaccurate. It does not take into account the lux required based on Malaysian Standard MS1525. Furthermore, good lighting can save money and provide visual comfort to the occupants. However, numerous parameters such as room index, utilisation factor and illuminance used for each space or room inside the house must be considered when determining the quantity of lighting point for a residential property. Three types of residential houses are considered which are: single storey house, double storey house and condominium house. This paper presents the development of lighting point calculator system for residential houses using Microsoft Visual Basic and comparison of quantity of lighting point using manual calculation using Microsoft Excel and simulation calculation using Microsoft Visual Basic.
People concern about their living conditions in recent years. There are different factors that could be applicable to improve public living conditions. One of these essential factors is daylighting. Therefore, daylighting is implemented in modern buildings to use natural light into the spaces more efficiently while improving comfort and living conditions, including acoustic comfort, thermal comfort, and as well as luminous comfort. Satisfaction with daylight should be the prime concern in luminous comfort studies. In the past and recent, many studies have been conducted about daylighting in buildings. However, in a few studies, satisfaction with daylighting has been considered as a main impressive element in luminous conditions of buildings. One of the most critical places where daylight issue should be concerned is the libraries. The proper luminous conditions in the library could lead to boosting users’ productivity and psychological health. Therefore, this paper investigates the factors that influence levels of satisfaction with daylighting in libraries. According to the importance of daylight satisfaction in the level of luminous environment, these factors also cause to improve luminous comfort. The study reviews the factors including physical environment, feelings towards daylight, and interior design with the aid of figures.
Full-text available
Lighting conditions in industrial operations are currently at a level, which in many cases does not satisfy the requirements set out by legislation and standards. Slovakia has highly energy-intensive industrial structure, where dominates the engineering industry. The proportion of electricity attributable to lighting is significant and not negligible. Installation and operation of energy efficient lighting systems is in most cases not yet considered a major priority, because the available funds are primarily used for the operation, modernization of production process, and other related activities, that are directly related to the production, and the existence of industrial enterprises and institutions. This paper presents new trends and progressive strategies to reduce energy consumption of lighting systems. In new installations energy efficient lighting costs are little more to provide than the older less efficient kind, but consumption of energy are lower, economical and environmental friendly.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A significant role in obtaining a comfortable environment in a residential, office, factory or other public interest buildings is conferred in a large measure to the lighting and the heating. These two components through their efficiency can assure important benefits to the users of that environment. Estimating the lighting and heating efficiency can be achieved through attending the qualitative and quantitative indicators specific to the goal for which the lighting and heating system was designed. Based on these indicators one can design a system with the basic function of assuring and if necessary of adapting the lighting and heating hence of maintaining the indicated indicators to an optimal value. When the expected qualitative and quantitative values of the indicators cannot be obtained, the system must inform the executive of the system about the decrease of the building environment quality, with the object of making a decision to determine the rehabilitation acts of the components or the whole system. Beside the basic functions, the system aims to attach an optimizer module, which will supply the necessary information to make an optimal decision about lighting and heating system, taking other parameters into consideration, as well, different from the previous ones, such as energetic and economic parameters to obtain both energetic and also economic efficiency in buildings. The present paper presents the structure of a system based on intelligent technology and the benefits that can be achieved
In a recent office study, clerical workers had an average gain in productivity of 5 percent and 9 percent, respectively, when lighting was increased from 50 to 100 and from 50 to 150 footcandles. The higher lighting levels were evaluated as being more desirable by both younger and older workers. Older workers gave lower ratings to the acceptability of the two lower lighting levels than did the younger group. The findings strongly document the cost-effectiveness of properly lighting the working environment.
For many years, lighting research for interiors has been focused on the twin topics of visibility and visual comfort. The result of this effort has been the development of a validated model that allows the prediction of the effect of lighting and task conditions on visual performance, and an understanding of the conditions that cause visual discomfort. This paper considers whether any more research on lighting conditions for interiors is needed. The answer given is that more research is necessary if we are to fully understand all the impacts of lighting on the health, wealth and safety of people, but not more of the same. Rather, the future of lighting research in interiors lies in a move beyond visibility and visual discomfort to areas where lighting operates on mood and behaviour through the ‘message’ it sends and on health and task performance through the circadian system.
Veitch and Newsham proposed a behaviorally-based model for lighting quality research, in which individually-based processes mediate the relationships between luminous conditions and such behavioral outcomes as task performance, mood, social behavior, aesthetic judgements and satisfaction. This review paper summarizes the state of knowledge concerning mediating psychological processes: perceived control, attention, environmental appraisal, and affect. These processes were selected because of their relevance to the explanations often given for lighting design choices. More explicit use of theoretically-driven predictions to guide lighting research would result in greater precision in our comprehension of lighting-behavior relationships to form the foundation of empirically-based lighting recommended practice. Veitch et Newsham ont proposé un modèle axé sur le comportement, aux fins de la recherche dans le domaine de la qualité de l'éclairage, dans lequel les processus individuels agissent comme médiateurs dans les relations entre les conditions lumineuses et des résultats comportementaux tels que la performance des tâches, l'humeur, les comportements sociaux, les jugements esthétiques et la satisfaction. Cet article de synthèse résume l'état des connaissances rattachées aux processus psychologiques de médiation : le contrôle perçu, l'attention, l'évaluation environnementale et l'affect. Ces processus ont été sélectionnés en raison de leur pertinence face aux explications fréquemment fournies des choix en matière de conceptions d'éclairage. Un emploi plus explicite des prédictions axées sur la théorie en vue de guider la recherche sur l'éclairage affinerait davantage notre compréhension des liens entre éclairage et comportement et permettrait de jeter les fondements empiriques d'une pratique recommandée en matière d'éclairage. RES
“Sense of place” is a widely discussed concept in fields as diverse as geography, environmental psychology, and art, but it has little traction in the field of public health. The health impact of place includes physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and aesthetic outcomes. In this article, the author introduces sense of place as a public health construct. While many recommendations for “good places” are available, few are based on empirical evidence, and thus they are incompatible with current public health practice. Evidence-based recommendations for healthy place making could have important public health implications. Four aspects of the built environment, at different spatial scales—nature contact, buildings, public spaces, and urban form—are identified as offering promising opportunities for public health research, and potential research agendas for each are discussed.
Examination of surface roughness of burnished workpieces
  • G Varga
  • F Szigeti
  • G Deszo
Varga, G.; Szigeti, F. ; Deszo, G.: Examination of surface roughness of burnished workpieces In: Scientific Bulletin: Mechanics, Tribology, Machine Manufacturing Technology. Vol. 29 (2015), 94-98 ISSN: 1224-3264
On the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to risks arising from physical agents
  • European Directive
European Directive 2006/25/EC, 2006. On the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to risks arising from physical agents (artificial optical radiation).
Ružena Králiková, PhD
  • Doc
  • Ing
doc. Ing. Ružena Králiková, PhD.