Article

First Australian record of Aleiodes (Hemigyroneuron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) with the description of a new species from Tasmania

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Abstract

A new species of Aleiodes (Hemigyroneuron) from Tasmania is described and illustrated. This is the first species of the subgenus known from Australia. The type and only known specimen was reared from a mummified caterpillar collected on Coastal Wattle, Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae (Labill.) Court, and appears to belong to the Geometridae in agreement with most previous host records for the subgenus. The new species, A. (H.) ellingsenae, has a color pattern that is typical of many larger Australian braconids, with the head and anterior mesosoma orange red, the rest of the body black except for a bright white tergites 2 + 3.

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... It is interesting that the known hosts of both A. fortipes and of the subgenus Hemigyroneuron are all Geometridae (two species of Hemigyroneuron with examined mummies, India and S. Africa, cited by Butcher & Quicke, 2011 [a label record indicating a pierid host of a 3 rd species is also cited in that paper but is discounted here because no mummy was present]). An Australian species described under Hemigyroneuron with examined mummy reported to be that of a geometrid by Butcher & Quicke (2016) is probably (a) actually not a member of A. (Hemigyroneuron) and (b) may be from a lasiocampid (W. Moore in litt.). ...
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The West Palaearctic species of the Aleiodes apicalis group (Braconidae: Rogadinae) as defined by van Achterberg & Shaw (2016) are revised. Six new species of the genus Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838, are described and illustrated: A. carbonaroides van Achterberg & Shaw, sp. nov. , A. coriaceus van Achterberg & Shaw, sp. nov. , A. improvisus van Achterberg & Shaw, sp. nov. , A. nigrifemur van Achterberg & Shaw, sp. nov. , A. turcicus van Achterberg & Shaw, sp. nov. , and A. zwakhalsi van Achterberg & Shaw, sp. nov. An illustrated key to 42 species is included. Hyperstemma Shestakov, 1940, is retained as subgenus to accommodate A. chloroticus (Shestakov, 1940) and similar species. Fourteen new synonyms are proposed: Rogas bicolor Lucas, 1849 (not Spinola, 1808), Rogas rufo-ater Wollaston, 1858, Rhogas bicolorinus Fahringer, 1932, Rhogas reticulator var. atripes Costa, 1884, and Rhogas similis Szépligeti, 1903, of Aleiodes apicalis (Brullé, 1832); Rogas (Rogas) vicinus Papp, 1977, of Aleiodes aterrimus (Ratzeburg, 1852); Rogas affinis Herrich-Schäffer, 1838, of Aleiodes cruentus (Nees, 1834); Bracon dimidiatus Spinola, 1808, and Rhogas (Rhogas) dimidiatus var. turkestanicus Telenga, 1941, of Aleiodes gasterator (Jurine, 1807); Rogas alpinus Thomson, 1892, of Aleiodes grassator (Thunberg, 1822); Rhogas jaroslawensis Kokujev, 1898, of Aleiodes periscelis (Reinhard, 1863); Rhogas carbonarius var. giraudi Telenga, 1941, of Aleiodes ruficornis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838); Ichneumon ductor Thunberg, 1822, of Aleiodes unipunctator (Thunberg, 1822); Rogas heterostigma Stelfox, 1953, of Aleiodes pallidistigmus (Telenga, 1941). Neotypes are designated for Rogas affinis Herrich-Schäffer, 1838; Rogas nobilis Haliday (in Curtis), 1834; Rogas pallidicornis Herrich-Schäffer, 1838; Rogas ruficornis Herrich-Schäffer, 1838. Lectotypes are designated for Rhogas (Rhogas) dimidiatus var. turkestanicus Telenga, 1941, and Rhogas hemipterus Marshall, 1897.
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The braconid subfamily Rogadinae is a large, cosmopolitan group of endoparasitoid wasps characterised by 'mummifying' their lepidopteran host larvae, from which the adult subsequently emerges. Rogadines attack a variety of both macro- and microlepidopteran taxa, although the speciose genus Aleiodes almost exclusively attacks macrolepidopterans. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic history of the Rogadinae, revise their higher-level classification and assess the evolution of their host ranges and mummy types. We also assess the divergence times within the subfamily and discuss the reasons for the extraordinary evolutionary diversification of Aleiodes. Our Bayesian analyses weakly support the monophyly of the subfamily. A clade comprising all Aleiodes species and some other taxa is not nested within the tribe Rogadini as previously supposed, but instead is recovered as sister to the Yeliconini, with the remaining Rogadini genera being recovered as sister to the Stiropiini. The Rogadinae is estimated to have originated during the mid to late Eocene, 36.1-51.62 MYA. Molecular dating gives a more recent origin for the Aleiodes clade (17.98-41.76 MYA) compared to the origins proposed for two of its principal lepidopteran host groups (Noctuidae: 60.7-113.4 MYA; Geometridae 48-62 MYA). The Bayesian ancestral reconstruction of the emergence habits from the mummified hosts weakly recovered an anterior emergence as the ancestral condition for the subfamily. Producing a hard mummy has evolved at various times independently, though most of the species with this biology belong to the Aleiodes clade. Based on our results, we erect the tribe Aleiodini nov. to include Aleiodes and Heterogamus stat. rev. Cordylorhogas, Pholichora and Hemigyroneuron are synonymised with Aleiodes. The molecular dating of clades and the ancestral reconstruction of host ranges support the hypothesis that radiation within Aleiodes s. s. was due to host recruitment leading to host range expansion followed by speciation, and not to parasitoid-host coevolution. Within the Rogadinae, variation in the site of emergence from the mummified host probably evolved as a consequence of the mummy's site and mode of formation, and the extent of mummy tanning/hardness to the degree of protection needed in relation to the cost of providing it.
Article
The Aleiodes (Aleiodes) and Aleiodes (Arcaleiodes) species of Thailand are revised based on extensive recent collecting as well as existing museum material, and combining evidence from DNA barcoding (5 end of mitochondral cytochrome oxidase 1) for sequenced material with species known from morphological data alone. The approach taken (here termed 'turbo-taxonomy') has been to rely heavily on colour light microscopy photographic illustration, with brief descriptions contributing principally to characters that are not apparent from the micrographs. All new species are attributed to Quicke & Butcher. Although the very high level of diversity of the Thai fauna means this is necessarily preliminary, in the sense that there are undoubtedly many more species awaiting to be described, it is the first reasonably comprehensive study of a tropical Aleiodes fauna. One hundred and seventy six new species of the subgenus Aleiodes (viz. Aleiodes achingae sp. nov., Aleiodes aciculodeum sp. nov., Aleiodes adorabelleae sp. nov., Aleiodes agagg sp. nov., Aleiodes alboluteus sp. nov., Aleiodes anguaae sp. nov., Aleiodes angulodeum sp. nov., Aleiodes antescutum sp. nov., Aleiodes apiconigrus sp. nov., Aleiodes archicolorus sp. nov., Aleiodes areelucki sp. nov., Aleiodes ascrobi sp. nov., Aleiodes asperum sp. nov., Aleiodes atuin sp. nov., Aleiodes bachmaduplus sp. nov., Aleiodes bachmatriplus sp. nov., Aleiodes basipunctatus sp. nov., Aleiodes basistriatus sp. nov., Aleioides binkyi sp. nov., Aleiodes biscutus sp. nov., Aleiodes bobwhartoni sp. nov., Aleiodes brevimedius sp. nov., Aleiodes brunniguttatus sp. nov., Aleiodes butcheri sp. nov., Aleiodes buzuriduplus sp. nov., Aleiodes buzuriquadruplus sp. nov., Aleiodes buzuritriplus sp. nov., Aleiodes calicis sp. nov., Aleiodes calvus sp. nov., Aleiodes canus sp. nov., Aleiodes caprinus sp. nov., Aleiodes castaneus sp. nov., Aleiodes centralis sp. nov., Aleiodes chamba sp. nov., Aleiodes chenduplus sp. nov., Aleiodes cheni sp. nov., Aleiodes codon sp. nov., Aleiodes complexus sp. nov., Aleiodes concoronarius sp. nov., Aleiodes conina sp. nov., Aleiodes connudatum sp. nov., Aleiodes conpectenus sp. nov., Aleiodes constriatum sp. nov., Aleiodes contemptus sp. nov., Aleiodes coronopus sp. nov., Aleiodes corrusciput sp. nov., Aleiodes cramum sp. nov., Aleiodes curtivena sp. nov., Aleiodes curvicauda sp. nov., Aleiodes damus sp. nov., Aleiodes darlingtonia sp. nov., Aleiodes deathi sp. nov., Aleiodes definus sp. nov., Aleiodes deyoyoi sp. nov., Aleiodes dimorphus sp. nov., Aleiodes divergerus sp. nov., Aleiodes downeyi sp. nov., Aleiodes eadyi sp. nov., Aleiodes elongatus sp. nov., Aleiodes etvalinus sp. nov., Aleiodes faciei sp. nov., Aleiodes flannelfooti sp. nov., Aleiodes flavostriatus sp. nov., Aleiodes fovodeum sp. nov., Aleiodes fuscomedius sp. nov., Aleiodes gaga sp. nov., Aleiodes gaspodei sp. nov., Aleiodes georgiae sp. nov., Aleiodes glabribasalis sp. nov., Aleiodes globofemurus sp. nov., Aleiodes glutinum sp. nov., Aleiodes griseimaculatus sp. nov., Aleiodes guidaae sp. nov., Aleiodes hei sp. nov., Aleiodes helenhippersonsae sp. nov., Aleiodes herrena sp. nov., Aleiodes hircus sp. nov., Aleiodes incisus sp. nov., Aleiodes jimwhitfieldi sp. nov., Aleiodes kitchingi sp. nov., Aleiodes klopfsteinae sp. nov., Aleiodes lavaeolous sp. nov., Aleiodes lemniscus sp. nov., Aleiodes liessa sp. nov., Aleiodes lipwigduplicitus sp. nov., Aleiodes lipwigi sp. nov., Aleiodes lobocarinus sp. nov., Aleiodes longivena sp. nov., Aleiodes macroophthalmus sp. nov., Aleiodes maculiput sp. nov., Aleiodes magratae sp. nov., Aleiodes malarius sp. nov., Aleiodes malichi sp. nov., Aleiodes mediofuscus sp. nov., Aleiodes mediomaculatus sp. nov., Aleiodes megaophthalmos sp. nov., Aleiodes mellificus sp. nov., Aleiodes mericeti sp. nov., Aleiodes microophthalmos sp. nov., Aleiodes molecryptus sp. nov., Aleiodes morti sp. nov., Aleiodes mutilus sp. nov., Aleiodes nathismus sp. nov., Aleiodes necsubson sp. nov., Aleiodes niveni sp. nov., Aleiodes nivori sp. nov., Aleiodes nonicones sp. nov., Aleiodes occimaculatus sp. nov., Aleiodes opus sp. nov., Aleiodes orion sp. nov., Aleiodes paenicarinus sp. nov., Aleiodes pallimedius sp. nov., Aleiodes palmae sp. nov., Aleiodes palmatipes sp. nov., Aleiodes parabuzurae sp. nov., Aleiodes parasongsi sp. nov., Aleiodes parisaae sp. nov., Aleiodes paulmarshi sp. nov., Aleiodes pectopulicis sp. nov., Aleiodes pectunguis sp. nov., Aleiodes pectunguisella sp. nov., Aleiodes penultimoluteus sp. nov., Aleiodes phantasmatis sp. nov., Aleiodes pinnulae sp. nov., Aleiodes placidus sp. nov., Aleiodes polititergus sp. nov., Aleiodes ponderi sp. nov., Aleiodes postmaculus sp. nov., Aleiodes prillae sp. nov., Aleiodes probuzurae sp. nov., Aleiodes procarinatus sp. nov., Aleiodes procoronarius sp. nov., Aleiodes pronopus sp. nov., Aleiodes propodealis sp. nov., Aleiodes propodocarinus sp. nov., Aleiodes protocastaneus sp. nov., Aleiodes pseudicones sp. nov., Aleiodes pteppicymoni sp. nov., Aleiodes ptraci sp. nov., Aleiodes rectanguliguttatus sp. nov., Aleiodes reticulisoma sp. nov., Aleiodes reus sp. nov., Aleiodes ridcullyi sp. nov., Aleiodes rincewindi sp. nov., Aleiodes risaae sp. nov., Aleiodes rivulus sp. nov., Aleiodes rufomedius sp. nov., Aleiodes rugoscutus sp. nov., Aleiodes sacharissa sp. nov., Aleiodes scottshawi sp. nov., Aleiodes selachiii sp. nov., Aleiodes sesquipunctatus sp. nov., Aleiodes similicodon sp. nov., Aleiodes songsi sp. nov., Aleiodes sophieae sp. nov., Aleiodes stibbonsi sp. nov., Aleiodes stohelit sp. nov., Aleiodes subemarginatus sp. nov., Aleiodes subfuscomedius sp. nov., Aleiodes submediofuscus sp. nov., Aleiodes subson sp. nov., Aleiodes sutthisani sp. nov., Aleiodes synorion sp. nov., Aleiodes teatimei sp. nov., Aleiodes tetrarugulosus sp. nov., Aleiodes thirakupti sp. nov., Aleiodes tmaliaae sp. nov., Aleiodes tobiasi sp. nov., Aleiodes transvena sp. nov., Aleiodes tricoloripes sp. nov., Aleiodes trisphaeropyx sp. nov., Aleiodes tulipus sp. nov., Aleiodes turgidipalpus sp. nov., Aleiodes valinus sp. nov., Aleiodes variifemurus sp. nov., Aleiodes vetinarii sp. nov., Aleiodes vietuput sp. nov., Aleiodes yalaensis sp. nov. and Aleiodes zuburae sp. nov., and three of the subgenus Arcaleiodes (viz. Aleiodes dresdeni sp. nov., Aleiodes (Arcaleiodes) vanachterbergi sp. nov. and Aleiodes (Arcaleiodes) siamensis sp. nov.) are described as new. An illustrated identification key provided, and some novel and hardly used characters are discussed and illustrated. Morphological and molecular comparison of these species with the better-known Holarctic fauna shows that several previously unrecognised species groups may be distinguished. Based on the Chao 1 diversity estimator, which additionally takes into account the number of specimens represented by precisely one, and the number represented by precisely two individuals, it is estimated that when fully known, the Thai fauna includes at least 438 species of Aleiodes.
Article
A new species of Aleiodes (Hemigyroneuron) from Saudi Arabia is described and illustrated. It represents the first species known from outside of sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, South East Asia and the East Palaearctic. It belongs to a species group comprising A. (H.) plurivena, glandularis and sharkeyi, but displays even more derived wing venation which is remarkably convergent with that of two distantly related rogadine genera, Gyroneuron and Gyroneuronella.
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Townes described an early fossil ichneumonid, Tanychora petiolata, from early Cretaceous amber of Russia, which is still the earliest known probable member of the Ichneumonidae dating to 121–125 Mya. This chapter talks about the phylogeny and systematics of the Ichneumonidae. Tanychora shows several plesiomorphic features and has been important in interpreting various characters in modern taxa. The Brachycyrtiformes was an almost completely unsuspected clade until molecular data became available. It includes four small subfamilies, the cosmopolitan Brachycyrtinae, together with two small groups occurring in Chile (Clasinae and Pedunculinae) and Australia (Pedunculinae), and was named the brachycyrtiformes by Quicke et al. A close relationship between many of the subfamilies of the Ophioniformes was suspected back in the 19th century, based largely on the laterally compressed metasomas with the spiracle of the first metasomal tergite being placed well behind the middle as in Ophioninae, Anomaloninae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae and Tersilochinae.
Article
The need to estimate the magnitude of undescribed species richness arises from the limited resources available to the description and conservation of biodiversity, the continuous loss of diversity that we are currently experiencing, and the sheer scale of the task of accurate measurement. Several estimation methods have previously been described and discussed in some detail, but the reliability of these methods is difficult to assess. In this study, we use two independent methods to predict the global species richness of the subfamilies of the parasitic wasp family Braconidae. The first is to extrapolate from the decreasing rate of species descriptions to the point at which this rate reaches zero. The second method uses the geographical distribution of species in two well-studied taxa (butterflies and mammals) to extrapolate from our knowledge of braconid diversity in the Palaearctic. For the subfamilies which currently contain at least 50 species, there is a significant correlation between the proportions of undescribed species predicted by each method. Each method predicts an average increase of between 100% and 200% for the Braconidae as a whole. Applying the figures we obtain to the class Insecta yields an estimate of 2.05–3.4 million global insect species.
Article
The genera and species of the subfamily Rogadinae Foerster, 1862 sensu stricto from China are revised. A key to the Chinese genera is given and all genera, including three genera new to science and four new to China, are described and illustrated. Keys to the Chinese species of Rogadinae are provided. Of all 116 species, 46 species are described as new to science and 11 species as newly recorded from China, while in addition four new combinations (Arcaleiodes aglaurus (Chen & He, 1991), A. nitidus (Chen & He, 1991), A. pulchricorpus (Chen & He, 1991), and A. unifasciatus (Chen & He, 1991)) and one synonym (Spinaria bicolor Szépligeti, 1902, of S. armator (Fabricius, 1804)) are proposed.
Article
The need to estimate the magnitude of undescribed species richness arises from the limited resources available to the description and conservation of biodiversity, the continuous loss of diversity that we are currently experiencing, and the sheer scale of the task of accurate measurement. Several estimation methods have previously been described and discussed in some detail, but the reliability of these methods is difficult to assess. In this study, we use two independent methods to predict the global species richness of the subfamilies of the parasitic wasp family Braconidae. The first is to extrapolate from the decreasing rate of species descriptions to the point at which this rate reaches zero. The second method uses the geographical distribution of species in two well-studied taxa (butterflies and mammals) to extrapolate from our knowledge of braconid diversity in the Palaearctic. For the subfamilies which currently contain at least 50 species, there is a significant correlation between the proportions of undescribed species predicted by each method. Each method predicts an average increase of between 100% and 200% for the Braconidae as a whole. Applying the figures we obtain to the class Insecta yields an estimate of 2.05–3.4 million global insect species.
Article
The wasp genus Pholichora is recorded as parasitic on geometrid moth larvae on the basis of a new species, P. subscleroma Quicke and Shaw from South Africa (Natal), reared from Ascotis reciprocaria (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). The discovery of this new species necessitates a reassessment of the characters separating Pholichora from Hemigyroneuron. An association between wing venation features (ovoid cells and scleromes) and nocturnality is discussed.
Article
The parasitic rogadine braconid wasp subgenus Hemigyroneuron, previously and inappropriately synonymized with Aleiodes (Chelonorhogas) as a result of misidentification, is here synonymized with Aleiodes (Pholichora). A key to the 26 species of Aleiodes (Hemigyroneuron) is presented, including 16 which are described and illustrated as new: A. (H.) amoretae Butcher and Quicke, A. (H.) faddenae Butcher and Quicke, A. (H.) glandularis Butcher and Quicke and A. (H.) plurivena Butcher and Quicke from South Africa; A. (H.) bakeri Butcher and Quicke from Indonesia; A. (H.) bengalensis Butcher and Quicke from India; A. (H.) cusackae Butcher and Quicke from Uganda; A. (H.) elgon Butcher and Quicke, A. (H.) meruensis Butcher and Quicke and A. (H.) pappi Butcher and Quicke from Kenya; A. (H.) fenwickae Butcher and Quicke from Congo; A. (H.) pseudospeciosus Butcher and Quicke from Brunei; A. (H.) roberti Butcher and Quicke from Thailand; A. (H.) sharkeyi Butcher and Quicke from Madagascar; A. (H.) trianguliscleroma Butcher and Quicke from Malawi and Kenya; and A. (H.) ugandaensis Butcher and Quicke from Uganda. A. (H.) apicale (Brues) comb. nov., A. (H.) dubiosus (Fullaway) comb. nov., A. (H.) speciosus (Baker) comb. nov. and A. (H.) suffusus (Baker) comb. nov. are redescribed and illustrated. Males of most species of A. (Hemigyroneuron) are shown to possess a glandular pore opening near the mid-posterior margins of metasomal tergites 4–6, though the situation in A. (H.) dubiosus is different. Results of morphological phylogenetic analysis are presented and indicate clear separation between African and Asian species groups. Two of the new species have been reared from Geometridae and one apparently from Pieridae.
Article
1. Knowledge of global diversity patterns is important for research into the factors that shape them, and for systematic conservation planning. However, most species inventories are incomplete and biased towards conspicuous, charismatic, geographically widespread, and temperate species. These biases hamper attempts to gain a clear view of underlying diversity patterns, and compromise conservation plans that are based upon what is known. 2. Here we investigate this problem using two methods to estimate species diversity in the parasitic wasp family Braconidae. The first quantifies the effect of taxonomic revisions on species numbers within genera to estimate the present level of underdescription. The second additionally considers the numbers of specimens referred to in descriptions and revisions. 3. Modelling underdescription as a function of region and body size shows that research carried out thus far displays significant geographical and taxonomic biases. 4. Correcting for these biases affects the distribution of inferred undiscovered diversity among braconid subfamilies and among regions, as well as the total diversity estimates for the family. 5. The geographic distribution of levels of underdescription also has implications for latitudinal diversity gradients. Weak or non-existent gradients in some taxa may be caused simply by differences in the number of undescribed species between tropical and temperate regions. 6. Such analyses can enlighten researchers as to where, taxonomically and geographically, research should be directed to economically improve species richness estimates. In the case of braconid wasps the greatest gains are to be made in Africa and southern America, and for the Braconinae and Microgastrinae.
Distribution of species and species-groups of Aleiodes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Mexico
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Delfín-González, H., Wharton, R.A., 2002. Distribution of species and species-groups of Aleiodes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Mexico. Folia Entomol. Mex. 41, 215-227.
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Host ranges of Aleiodes species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and an evolutionary hypothesis
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Shaw, M.R., 2003. Host ranges of Aleiodes species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and an evolutionary hypothesis. In: Melika, G., Thuróczy, C. (Eds.), Parasitic Wasps: Evolution, Systematics, Biodiversity and Biological Control. Agroinform Kiadó, Budapest, pp. 321-327 (2002).