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Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data

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... whereas qualitative interviews deal with descriptive texts that can not be easily quantified without losing context (Kvale, 1996;Rubin and Rubin, 1995;Wengraf, 2001). As Strauss and Corbin (1990) asserted, quantitative research can be broadly defined as "seeking causal determination, prediction and statistical generalisation of findings"; whereas qualitative research is "any kind of research that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification". ...
... Standardised interviews (Keats, 2000) would not be appropriate to achieve the specific research objectives of this thesis (Chapter One, section 1.2), as they are too restrictive and thus not allow the breadth of response required. Qualitative interview, however, "will allow the interviewee the scope to answer questions to the level required to give their answers context and depth" (Rubin and Rubin, 1995), while enabling the interviewer the scope to clarify and probe into any areas of interest. ...
... As defined by Rubin and Rubin (1995): a structured interview, "is one where the interviewer will pose detailed questions to retrieve specific information within a topic area. It limits the interviewee's reposes to a pre-assumed set offered by the interview"; a semi-structured interview "is one where the interviewer will pose a question to the interviewee and then lightly guide them by asking specific questions but letting the respondent then shape the rest"; and an unstructured interview "is one where the interviewer will pose the broadest of areas under discussion, but will have few specifics in mind; letting the interviewee answer in any way they wish ". ...
Thesis
p>Stakeholders' perceptions of genetically modified crops: the environmental risks, current regulatory approach and future management goals. Katherine L Johnson Abstract Genetically modified crops have the capacity to bring great benefits to agriculture, but alongside these benefits there are numerous inherent risks. Before being approved for commercial cultivation or even experimental release, genetically modified crops are required to undergo stringent regulatory assessment to evaluate their potential to harm both human health and the environment. In Europe, despite having the most comprehensive regulatory assessment, genetically modified crops have gained significant negative press and public hostility. It seems the regulatory system instils little public confidence and is frequently criticised by a range of stakeholder groups. This study considers the concerns of a range stakeholder groups in relation to the environmental risk associated with genetically modified crops, and the regulatory process governing their use. These groups include: farmers, governments and advisory bodies, industry, non-governmental organisations and scientists. By identifying the concerns held by the stakeholders, the extent to which current systems are addressing these concerns were evaluated. Comparisons were also drawn between groups, allowing areas of similarity and dissimilarities in their concerns to be highlighted. This could help explain the animosity between certain sections involved in the debate but also provide platforms of commonality. The stakeholder groups were also asked to identify management goals , and assessment endpoints which addressed their concerns, and could be used to drive the current regulatory assessment. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methodological approaches were undertaken to achieve the aims of this study. Semi-</p
... Alongside observation, discussion, record reviews and others, interviews are the most common data collection techniques in qualitative research studies. The rationale, principles and the types of interview for different types of research methodology are widely documented in the literature both peripherally and in depth (for example Gillham, 2000;Rubin & Rubin, 2005;Dawson, 2009;Silverman, 2006;Flick, 2006). I explain below those procedures that I went through in the use of interview as one of the data collection techniques in my mixed methods study. ...
... I explain below those procedures that I went through in the use of interview as one of the data collection techniques in my mixed methods study. To the extent that interviews focus on the few selected questions or topics under discussion, they provide depth and detail which constitute the 'thick description' rooted in the interviewees' first-hand experiences that make up the material that researchers gather and synthesise (Rubin & Rubin, 2005). Rubin and Rubin (2005) call 'responsive interviewing', which is what they term an approach to depth interviewing research. ...
... To the extent that interviews focus on the few selected questions or topics under discussion, they provide depth and detail which constitute the 'thick description' rooted in the interviewees' first-hand experiences that make up the material that researchers gather and synthesise (Rubin & Rubin, 2005). Rubin and Rubin (2005) call 'responsive interviewing', which is what they term an approach to depth interviewing research. They have this to say about it: ...
Thesis
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Universities in Zimbabwe have universally adopted a full-year integrated undergraduate student workplace-based learning pedagogy following the precedent set in 1991 by one pioneering university, the National University of Science and Technology. In this explorative study I analyse participants’ views, reflections and understanding of how the full-year model of workplace-based learning enhances quality academic practices and impacts on short, medium and long-term visions and opportunities for students and other stakeholders. I employed the embedded concurrent mixed methods research design (Creswell&Clark, 2007) using interviews with lecturers, university administrators and industry supervisors, as well as open-ended questions in three matched versions of a questionnaire to students, lecturers and industry supervisors respectively. The same questionnaire provided quantitative data that was statistically analysed. Interviews were conducted with 24 participants from the university under study, industry and other universities, while 363 university students, 40 NUST lecturers and 34 industry supervisors responded to the respective questionnaires. Students, lecturers and industry supervisors concurred on the coherence between industry experiences and university learning, the beneficial experiences at the workplace, and the relevance of those experiences to society, confirming the expressed view that industry-based learning promoted quality learning and teaching, and enabled students to become work-ready. However there were perceptions of inadequate student supervision and assessment, unsatisfactory student welfare safeguards, inadequate research enthusiasm among lecturers, and the lack of involvement of the whole spectrum of industry categories. There was an underlying regard for lifelong learning enabling societal transformation into the increasingly dominant industrialised culture. Lecturers indicated an appreciation for a holistic orientation to teaching and learning (Taylor, 2009), and were inclined towards adopting the hermeneutic approach to education (Danner, 2002). It is recommended, among other things, to revitalise effective practices through staff development efforts, increasing student knowledge and empowerment, and strengthening collaborative platforms between the university and its industry partners. Chief among the suggestions for future research is the understanding and promotion of student welfare during their placement in the workplaces.
... Thus, the primacy of the 'main concern' in grounded theory means that the "point of view of the actors involved" (Glaser, 1998, p.115) is of the utmost interest. The interview is a powerful means to access such perspectives (Rubin and Rubin, 2005;Kvale and Brinkmann, 2009) in that interviewees can "describe and portray specific events or processes" and/or elicit "understandings or meanings" (Rubin and Rubin, 2005, p.5) from particular points of view (Holstein and Gubrium, 1995;Gubrium and Holstein, 2003) Over the course of this study, interviews were semi-structured; that is, there was a loose, provisional and flexibly applied guide of questions that semi-structured the interview interaction. As I will discuss, this guide of questions became increasingly focused in both its formulation and application as the study progressed. ...
... Thus, the primacy of the 'main concern' in grounded theory means that the "point of view of the actors involved" (Glaser, 1998, p.115) is of the utmost interest. The interview is a powerful means to access such perspectives (Rubin and Rubin, 2005;Kvale and Brinkmann, 2009) in that interviewees can "describe and portray specific events or processes" and/or elicit "understandings or meanings" (Rubin and Rubin, 2005, p.5) from particular points of view (Holstein and Gubrium, 1995;Gubrium and Holstein, 2003) Over the course of this study, interviews were semi-structured; that is, there was a loose, provisional and flexibly applied guide of questions that semi-structured the interview interaction. As I will discuss, this guide of questions became increasingly focused in both its formulation and application as the study progressed. ...
... Thus, a large part of my approach to interacting with interviewees was influenced by an appreciation for their taking part, without which I would have no study and, additionally, influenced by a view of interviewees as equals of which one should treat like a family member or a friend rather than a stranger. In this way, my approach toward interviewees reflects the notion of 'conversational partners' (Rubin and Rubin, 2005). ...
Thesis
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Reports on the safety of cycling and research investigating factors thought to impinge on cycling risk and safety are often complex, insufficient and, at times, contradictory and inconclusive. Amongst this ambiguous understanding of matters of risk and safety in relation to cycling, the provisional aim of this study was to explore how cyclists themselves deal with matters of risk in the context of Dublin. Classical grounded theory methodology was employed over the course of the study. Data collection involved 28 qualitative interviews which took place simultaneously with data analysis, in which grounded theory procedures were adhered to; namely, open coding, selective coding, memoing, theoretical sampling, and theoretical saturation. Emerging from data collection and analysis, it was conceptualised that dealing with conditions of ‘precarious entitlement’ to public space is a main concern of utility cyclists in Dublin. That is, cyclists in Dublin perceive an entitlement to public space that is precarious to exercise as a cyclist in practice. In order to negotiate such conditions, cyclists in Dublin can engage in ‘privatising vulnerability’. Namely, they can make their vulnerability a matter of personal rather than shared responsibility, prioritising their perceived safety over matters of entitlement, responsibility and fairness through particular modes of action. Furthermore, cyclists in Dublin can engage in practices of ‘provoking responsibility’, in which both subtle and conspicuous actions are taken in order to provoke a sense of responsibility in other public space users to respect a cyclist’s entitlement to public space and vulnerability within conditions of precarious entitlement. This theory reveals a new form of structural vulnerability, a ‘state of nature within a state of civilisation’ and a problem of accessibility to public space. Moreover, it conceptualises modes of action in an urban context that involve social withdrawal, submission, and individualisation in public space, as well as active and ongoing negotiation between citizens of life in common and recognition, alongside efforts to appropriate and produce public space.
... I used the program NVivo to manage the coding process. These data collection and analysis methods were an appropriate way to document and explore educators' goals and reflections on experiences (Rubin & Rubin, 2012). ...
... Therefore, I developed an interview protocol for teachers to maintain focus on the research questions (Creswell, 2014). An interview protocol provides structure to somewhat standardize the interview process (Rubin & Rubin, 2012). ...
... Researchers have articulated various approaches to qualitative data analysis for interviews. Rubin and Rubin (2012) Based on the approach described by Merriam and Tisdell (2016) and Rubin and Rubin (2012), for this study, I initially coded interviews using open coding and analytic coding with an inductive approach. I then examined the excerpts as sorted by codes and sub-codes that I organized using the QDA program NVivo. ...
Thesis
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In the United States, national and state legislative mandates have forced school districts to include student growth measures in teacher evaluation systems. However, statistical models for monitoring student growth on standardized tests have not been found to foster teachers’ reflective practice or pedagogical content knowledge and goal-based models have been found to lack adequate structure for supporting implementation. This basic qualitative inquiry explored how teachers perceive using standards-based rubrics to monitor student growth for teacher evaluation influences their reflective practice and pedagogical content knowledge in mathematics. Nine teachers who have used standards�based rubrics to monitor student growth were recruited through snowball sampling. Through semi structured interviews and inductive and deductive coding, six themes were identified to understand teacher perceptions of the experience monitoring growth with standards-based rubrics: (a) fosters collaborative dialogue and descriptive feedback, (b) promotes standards-based focus, (c) supports evidence-based assessment, (d) supports student-centered instruction, (e) encourages students’ reflective practice, and (f) cultivates a positive teacher evaluation experience. This study may inform standards�based growth monitoring practices for formative and summative teacher evaluation in K–8 education systems. Formative teacher evaluation has been found to promote positive social change by improving both teacher practice and student achievement, thereby supporting teachers and students to continuously grow in knowledge, skill, and understanding. These findings indicate that monitoring student growth on standards�based rubrics may provide the necessary structure other models have been lacking.
... The interpretive approach argues that not everything that is important can be measured with precision and that trying to do so is a distracting and inappropriate task (Rubin and Rubin, 1995). Similarly, searching for universally applicable social laws can distract from learning what people know and how they understand their lives. ...
... Similarly, searching for universally applicable social laws can distract from learning what people know and how they understand their lives. Rubin and Rubin (1995) argue that there is more than one reality out there to be measured; objects and events are understood by different people differently. Therefore, those perceptions are the reality or realities that this research focuses on. ...
... The study also involved actively seeking ideas and themes from the research informants and these themes have been analysed and gradually winnowed down to those that needed to be examined in detail. Doing so involved an iterative process during which information was gathered, analysed, winnowed and tested (Rubin and Rubin, 1995). ...
Thesis
p>This research uses an inductive theoretical development process based upon the 'paradigm model' developed by Strauss and Corbin (1990). Accounting practice, in both organisations, has been observed as a routine process with a limited function in managerial decision making. The grounded theory shows the change in perceptions of organisational members towards their organisational reality, with particular respect to accounting, as the central phenomenon. In Khartoum University, this represented a change in perceptions from a planning system to a poverty/crisis management system. On the other hand, the focal concept found in Sudan University of Science and Technology personifies a change in perceptions from a poverty/crisis management system to a decentralised budget planning system. The conditioning context that influences the central phenomenon relates to three aspects, namely the higher education revolution ( which involved changes in the broader culture and the broader power structure of higher education), the financial crisis and the organisational response. Three interactional strategies, namely changes in accounting practices, changes in the organisational culture and change in the organisational power structure are representative of the major processes involved in managing and responding to the central phenomenon. The outcome of these interactional strategies is represented by a change in organisational processes/activities. Furthermore, the findings of this study lend further support to existing arguments that accounting is both a reflective and a constitutive practice. In addition, this field study represents an extension to previous studies which have explicated a mode of theorising linkages between accounting and culture. This study also offers an extended explanation of the role of accounting in a crisis situation through the use of a more empirically grounded approach.</p
... The purpose of the interview was communicated to the participants to clarify the aims of the study and to emphasise expectations, and agreement to participate in the interviews was obtained . Such an approach implies no deception of participants and being explicit about expected benefits not appropriate to the investigation (Rubin & Rubin, 2005). ...
... Another manner by which participants were encouraged to be more open was to agree to confidentiality (Rubin & Rubin, 2005). This differs from anonymity in the sense that, although the identity of the participants might be revealed during the interview, details about the participant would not be shared with other individuals or agencies . ...
... Usually the first phase of developing the interview protocol is to decide on the main questions to be included. Such questions become the principal reason for participants to deliberate and share their thoughts (Rubin & Rubin, 2005). When conducting the interview, it usually is suggested that researchers begin with general questions before moving to more personal matters. ...
... 2. member checks (Berg & Lune, 2012;Maxwell, 2013;Kohler Riessman, 1993;Willis, 2007;Rubin & Rubin, 2012). ...
... Rather this study aims to access subjects' 40 socially constructed knowledge and understanding of economic development issues facing their local communities (Berg & Lune, 2012;King, et. al. 1994;Maxwell, 2013;Rubin & Rubin, 2012). ...
... To answer the research question, a semi-structured interview protocol was designed and results were analyzed in a narrative manner. The semi-structured interview approach was selected, as it allows for the narrator to elaborate on issues in ways he/she sees fit without being restricted by close-ended questions, lack of ability to elaborate, and helps to minimize potential misinterpretations of terms and concepts (Gary & Jones, 2016;Maxwell, 2013;Rubin & Rubin, 2012). The interviews were conducted through a responsive interviewing style, aimed at building trust and rapport between the researcher and narrator as it allowed for a more conversational, informal, and friendly tone. ...
Research
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This dissertation is a qualitative, exploratory study of economic development in rural Nebraskan communities. This research implements narrative inquiry, structured through the Narrative Policy Framework (NPF), and analyzed thematically. These communities’ main economic challenges were related to affordable housing, workforce development—specifically in the trades, and availability of quality childcare. When discussing these challenges, deeper themes of the holistic nature of economic development and entrepreneurship emerged through inductive analysis. These rural communities understood the importance of thinking about entrepreneurship in areas beyond business, in addition to the importance of self-reliance and community trust when it comes to creating a culture that supports entrepreneurial change. This dissertation fills two gaps in literature: (1) add to contemporary findings of a long-overlooked area of literature on economic development in the rural United States and (2) build on existing Narrative Policy Framework literature by taking a qualitative approach to economic development in the policymaking context. In addition, this research will provide useful insights for economic development practitioners and decision makers for how to foster economic development and address its challenges in rural American communities.
... Conducting observations in both settings provided context and reference points for formulating customer, staff, and owner semi-structured interview protocols (Merriam and Tisdell 2015). Rubin and Rubin (2012) refer to qualitative interviews as "conversations in which a researcher gently guides a conversational partner in an extended discussion," and help the researcher understand and reconstruct events in which they did not participate (Rubin and Rubin 2012). Semi-structured interviews ...
... Conducting observations in both settings provided context and reference points for formulating customer, staff, and owner semi-structured interview protocols (Merriam and Tisdell 2015). Rubin and Rubin (2012) refer to qualitative interviews as "conversations in which a researcher gently guides a conversational partner in an extended discussion," and help the researcher understand and reconstruct events in which they did not participate (Rubin and Rubin 2012). Semi-structured interviews ...
Thesis
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Widespread adoption of plant-rich diets is a key climate change mitigation strategy. Restaurants are one of many environments where diets must shift toward more sustainable directions. Researchers have studied behavior change strategies in these contexts, including information provision and choice architecture. However, few have been tested in the field, and the literature has under-addressed the barriers restaurants face in implementation. Additionally, the designs of these interventions have rarely been informed by the restaurant stakeholders who will be enacting the intervention, nor by the customers affected by the intervention, which may lower the probability of its acceptance and success. Integrative designers are uniquely positioned to address these shortcomings. They examine broader systems at play, identify opportunities to change the system, skillfully create artifacts to support those opportunities, and deeply collaborate with stakeholders throughout research and implementation. This work implemented a series of design interventions in collaboration with El Harissa, an independent restaurant in Ann Arbor, Michigan, to increase the selection of low-carbon, plant-rich dishes as a climate change mitigation measure. The design practitioner engaged with the restaurant’s owners, staff, and customers in a five-phase design process integrating Design for Sustainable Behavior and Co-Design. Three behavior change strategies were integrated into custom menu materials: descriptive environmental messaging, carbon labeling, and taste-forward menu descriptions. Preliminary results from the two-week piloting of these materials indicate that the average emissions per sold dish declined by two percent compared to the control period. In-field observations by the design practitioner and restaurant manager found that the carbon labels prompted positive conversations between customers and staff, highlighting the synergies between quantitative and interpersonal approaches to shift customer behavior. Potential future applications of this design process include additional iterations of carbon labeling visual systems and exploring additional behavior change strategies to support sustainable food choices in restaurant contexts.
... Interviews create the space for in-depth, and complex responses from participants (Rubin & Rubin, 2012). Interviews allow the researcher to probe and follow up on important stories, concepts, and explanations and function more like guided conversations (Fontana & Frey, 1994;Rubin & Rubin, 2012). ...
... Interviews create the space for in-depth, and complex responses from participants (Rubin & Rubin, 2012). Interviews allow the researcher to probe and follow up on important stories, concepts, and explanations and function more like guided conversations (Fontana & Frey, 1994;Rubin & Rubin, 2012). Interviews were between 1 hr 15 min and 3 hr 35 min. ...
Article
It has been well established that survivors of sexual assault are revictimized as they navigate the civilian criminal justice system. Significantly less is known, however, about how sexual violence is navigated within the military justice system. In this study, we use qualitative interviews with military lawyers about sexual assault cases to explore their constructions of victim legitimacy. Lawyers create a distinction between perceived and actual harm done to a victim and perpetuate the notion that victims falsely accuse men of sexual violence. Through these discursive strategies, lawyers suggest that the issue of military sexual violence is inflated. Finally, lawyers blame the institutional structure of the military for teaching victimization to young women. This helps them explain why victims who they do not perceive as legitimate report sexual violence. These findings emphasize the need for further inquiry into how those working in the military justice system perceive and interact with victims.
... Allowing participants to tell their stories is a primary way of understanding events and discovering the meaning of their experience (Rubin & Rubin 1995, Ely et al. 2000. ...
... Interviewing is a learned skill. It is important that the interviewer learns to see the experience from the perspective of the participants, to understand the meaning of the words by probing and clarification, yet not to lead (Ely et al. 2000, Rubin & Rubin 1995, Morse 1991. ...
Thesis
p>Relatively few studies investigate mothers’ experiences when their babies are transferred from their local neonatal unit to a Level 3 neonatal unit (Steeper 2002). This qualitative study was designed to describe and interpret the meaning mothers attributed to their experience of having their newborn babies transferred from a local neonatal unit to a regional unit. The approach used was influenced by hermeneutics phenomenology and van Manen’s human science approach (1990). A purposively selected sample of 15 English-speaking mothers in one designated regional unit in the south east United Kingdom (UK) were interviewed face to face about their experience of their babies’ transfer. Interviews took place over a seven month period in 2004. Data analysis was guided by the works of van Manen (1990) and Moustakas (1994). The concept of ‘distance mothering’ is suggested to conceptualise how the mothers’ emotional responses, information issues and adjustment were interrelated to the perceived geographical distance and their maternal role to their transferred baby and other siblings or other family members at home. The findings indicated that ideologies of motherhood or the discourses that contribute to their (re)production need to take into account the variety of different circumstances mothers faced. Rather than concentrating only on the ill transferred baby, the focus of professional care should be extended to understanding and addressing women’s individual emotional responses, and need for information and adjustment in ways that would help them to meet their perceived obligations to function in other roles, including their role as mothers of their other children. Quality of information, information provision and relationships with staff were seen as playing a crucial role in helping them as they fulfilled their maternal and caring obligations.</p
... Though Rubin and Rubin (2012) and Kvale and Brinkman (2009) argue that interviewing should be a series of logical steps in a sequence of stages, every effort was made to ensure that the interview process was flexible but semi-structured. I aimed to ensure that if a participant introduced anything that did not relate to the question, they would have the opportunity to discuss this freely, rather than just answering the question posed. ...
Thesis
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Although a wealth of research examines varying facets of mentorship within nursing, to date, the voices and perspectives of newly qualified nurses working as mentors without formal preparation have largely been excluded from the literature. This research stems from three exploratory studies undertaken as part-fulfilment for this EdD. These preliminary studies identified the questions that, to date, have not been answered in the literature. This initial work provided impetus for the focus of this dissertation and ultimately led to the conceptual framework laying the foundation for the aims and research questions. The research questions asked were how newly qualified nurses are prepared for mentorship; how they acquire knowledge and skills for mentorship in the reality of practice; how they transition into the mentor role whilst still novice staff nurses; and, finally, how they identify as mentors. This study presents a qualitative, constructivist interpretation of newly qualified nurses’ early experiences of working as unqualified mentors. Using the principles of Smith et al.’s (2013) Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) framework, a qualitative hermeneutic approach guided the research process and the analysis of transcribed interview-texts. Four superordinate themes emerged from the data. These were: 1) Proactive Strategies in Becoming Prepared, where participants took a pragmatic, hands-on approach to mentoring, took an active personal involvement with reflection on past experiences of being mentored, and sought ways to find emotional support; 2) Experiential Learning, where participants engaged in active learning and learnt from their peers and through trial and error and the use of intuition; 3) Development of Resilience in Transition, where participants learnt to cope with transitional shock, but experienced being in a liminal phase during their transition; and 4) Attaining Professional Identity, where participants sought the approval of others as professional mentors to attain professional identity. Having a sense of belongingness to a professional group provided participants with the professional identity they strived for to be valued as part of the mentorship team. This study challenges and contributes to the existing body of knowledge and professional practice in four ways. Firstly, the findings narrow an existing gap in the mentorship literature and advances understanding of the experiences of newly qualified nurses who support students in everyday practice. Secondly, the findings contribute to the existing concepts of preparedness, professional identity, transition, and ways of learning in the context of mentorship. Thirdly, although there is a plethora of studies around mentorship, this is the first study to explore newly qualified nurses’ experiences of working as unqualified mentors before undergoing formal preparation. Finally, this study will help inform educators and policy makers and enable them to enhance further the preparation of nurses for the new role of practice supervisor.
... Coffey and Atkinson (1996) and Robson (1993) note the usefulness of interviewing to the practicalities of conducting various types of interview and the analysis of interview data. Whilst the contributions of Rubin and Rubin (1995) and Silverman (1993) refer to the task of analysing interview data. In-depth interviewing was also useful in making sense of experience (Chase, 1995), acting as an evaluative tool capable of exploring meaning (Chase, 1996) and conveying time and space relationships of life events (Gubrium & Holstein, 1998). ...
Thesis
p>Afrikan-Originated people are challenging the appropriateness of the prioritisation of Eurocentric models of social work practice that keep Afrikan-Originated people locked into Eurocentric definitions of distress and wellbeing, whilst neglecting the importance of engaging with the ‘race’, culture, identity, context and histories of Afrikan-Originated people as fundamental aspects of Afrikan wellbeing. My research challenges Eurocentric models of social work, suggesting that Afrikan-Centredness is the relevant contextual paradigm for responding to the fundamental aspects of wellbeing that better inform appropriate models of helping and healing for Afrikan-Origined people and, from where appropriate models of success should emerge. My use of Afrikan-Centredness as a paradigm of analysis is supported by my development of the Agwamba model, developed specifically for researching the life stories of seven Afrikan-Origined social work practitioners from their childhood experiences which informed their choice of social work as a career. Key features of the Agwamba model were specifically designed to support the research. The Centring Group is a group of Afrikan-Centred professionals who act as a support and validation mechanism aimed at keeping researchers focused on Afrikan-Centred priorities throughout the research. The principle of ‘consequential-affectiveness’ relates to the long-term responsibilities researchers must have for their research consequences, participants and communities in which their research is situated. ‘Consequential-affectiveness’ ensures that researchers adopt a live stance in their research. My research revealed that my research participants shared a range of helping experiences and responses to racism informed by their encounters with racist and oppressive environments, people, and practices. However, significantly, my research findings also revealed that the need for the research participants to cope with constant racism in their lives inferred on their development of key coping strategies against unremitting racist experiences. The principles of the Agwamba model encourage all people to examine their own histories in order to adapt my model or create models which better represent their past, present and potential stories. I end by arguing for the positive benefits of all human potential existing in environments that prioritise pluralistically informed expressions of all human potential as a representation of parallel developments of difference.</p
... Interviews are generally considered to be one of the most effective ways of exploring people's opinions and ideas, because they allow speech interaction between the interviewer and the interviewee (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009), by means of which the interviewer can probe more deeply into a response given by an interviewee (Mackey & Gass, 2005). Rubin and Rubin (2005) explain that an interview is a conversation between partners that may be extended in order to seek in-depth information about a certain topic or subject; it also gives people the opportunity to express their feelings (Weiss, 1994). In other words, interviews are used to gather participants' perspectives on what is happening in relation to a particular phenomenon (McNiff & Whitehead, 2005). ...
Thesis
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Although many researchers have explored the use of Peer Feedback (PF) in writing (e.g., Hu & Lam, 2010), several have reported concerns with this technique, such as a tendency to shift most of the attention to micro features (e.g., mechanics, vocabulary) while giving little attention to macro features such as organisation and coherence (e.g., Van Steendam et al., 2010), even though macro features can be argued to be a highly important aspect of good writing (Truscott, 1996). This is one of the factors that have led researchers (e.g., Gielen et al., 2010b) to propose forms of this technique in which emphasis is placed on particular aspects of the PF process. This study introduces one such form of PF technique which requires learners to focus on macro features in writing and the teacher to focus on micro features, in order to give learners more time to critique essays at a macro level while receiving micro level FB from a reliable source. The study investigates the impact of the introduced form on: learners’ motivation to use PF and to learn writing; learners’ attitudes towards PF and towards writing; learners’ linguistic progress, and learners’ preference for giving and receiving macro and/or micro level feedback when practising PF technique. The research was conducted on 41 Saudi Arabian undergraduate students in their final year of an English degree course. An action research approach was adopted using a one-group design, with the PF activities divided into two consecutive phases. During the first phase, subjects practised the conventional use (i.e, providing PF on macro and micro features) of this technique (T1), while during the second phase they practised the new form of the technique (T2). The data were gathered over 15 weeks from pre-, mid- and post-tests; pre-, mid- and post-questionnaires; mid- and post-interviews; field notes; documentary evidence, and recording of several verbal protocol sessions. The findings suggest that both treatments can have a significant impact on the overall quality of learners’ writing, with the second treatment resulting in significantly better quality. Despite these findings, the learners showed a strong preference for conventional PF, suggesting they have difficulty in accepting the prohibition from providing PF on micro features owing to a negative transfer effect from their previous experience of approaches to teaching writing, which placed a great emphasis on the importance of micro features. It is likely that this transfer effect may be found in other contexts with a similar approach to teaching writing; further research is needed in order to test this hypothesis. In addition, in this study, the participants did not have the chance to see how much better they performed in their post-test, which raises the question of whether or not their views would have changed if they had.
... This is the point at which diminishing returns have set in and very little new is coming up (Schutt, 1999;Richards, 2005). Of course saturation alone is a poor test of when to stop interviewing and Rubin and Rubin (1995) suggest that it should be accompanied by a decision about 'completeness' and that the researcher should continue until, 'What you hear provides an overall sense of the meaning of a concept, theme, or process' (p72). ...
Thesis
p>This research focuses on the establishment of partnerships between higher education, further education and employers to develop new undergraduate programmes. The partnerships are a response to government policy which, since 1997, has encouraged institutions to work with employers to develop new programmes which promote workforce development and social inclusion. The research was a collective case study of collaborative curriculum development. Two undergraduate programmes in each of three HEIs provided the context, with each partnership including further education and employer organisations. Evidence was drawn from documentary analysis, interviews and a questionnaire survey. This research focuses on three key aspects of partnerships for curriculum development. Firstly, the analysis considers the reasons for partners becoming involved. The evidence suggests that each partner seeks to achieve a mixture of mission-related, developmental and business benefits, but their willingness to be explicit about these aims varies with the perceived sensitivity of each aim. From this a model is developed which shows the similarities and differences between partners in terms of their perception of benefits and thus their motivation for being involved. Secondly, analysis of the barriers which beset partnership and curriculum development suggests a three dimensional typology (based on prevalence, response, and significance) which can be used to understand why some partnerships get into difficulties and why some fail. Thirdly, the experiences of partners in overcoming the barriers they face are used to identify critical success factors in partnership for curriculum development. The study concludes by developing a unifying model of the processes at work in collaborative curriculum development. This shows how, as collaboration proceeds and those involved tackle difficulties, the individual players become part of a functioning partnership.</p
... Qualitative data collection and analysis Enrolled participants will be asked to complete a one-on-one, semistructured qualitative interview with a member of the research team by Zoom or telephone [66]. A semi-structured interview guide consisting of 5-7 key, open-ended questions will guide data collection and are informed by the research objectives for phase 1. ...
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Background Health and social service providers receive limited education on recognizing and responding to family violence. With adequate education, providers could be prepared to identify individuals subjected to family violence and help reduce the risk of associated impairment. Informed by the Active Implementation Frameworks, our research will determine the scope of strategies needed for the uptake and sustainability of educational interventions focused on family violence for providers. It will also determine the acceptability, feasibility, and proof-of-concept for a new educational intervention, called VEGA (Violence, Evidence, Guidance, Action), for developing and improving primary care provider knowledge and skills in family violence. Methods This paper details the protocol for the R esearching the I mpact of S ervice provider E ducation (RISE) Project. The RISE Project follows a sequential multiphase mixed method research design; qualitative and quantitative data are being collected and integrated over three conceptually and methodologically linked research phases. Activities primarily occur in Ontario, Alberta, and Quebec. Phase 1 uses a sequential exploratory mixed method research design to characterize the scope and salience of learning and implementation needs and preferences for family violence education. Phase 2 will use an embedded mixed method research design to determine whether VEGA technology supports providers to achieve their family violence learning goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. Phase 3 will use a concurrent mixed method research design to determine acceptability, feasibility, and proof-of-concept for evaluating whether VEGA improves primary care providers’ knowledge and skills in family violence. This final phase will provide information on implementation strategies for family violence education in the “real world.” It will also generate data on provider recruitment, retention, and data completeness, as well as exploratory estimates of the effect for provider outcome measures proposed for a randomized controlled trial. Discussion The RISE Project comprehensively integrates an implementation approach to improve family violence education for the health and social service professions. It will provide important information about factors that could influence the uptake and effectiveness of a health profession’s educational intervention into the real world, as well as provide foundational evidence concerning the tenability of using a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of VEGA in primary care settings.
... The researcher then became fully immersed in the raw data. Following Rubin and Rubin's (1995) ...
Thesis
p>A qualitative study (N = 21) was conducted to examine health professionals’ views regarding the implementation of the NICE guidelines for heart failure management and the communication of the management plan. Health professionals felt that they had insufficient time to deliver adequate information to patients and were uncertain about what information patients wanted or could cope with. The findings from this study indicated that a written patient intervention might be a suitable way of implementing these guidelines within the context of current service provision. A theory-based booklet intervention, entitled ‘Improving Heart Function’ (IHF) was developed. This booklet provided patients with information about their illness and its management. A qualitative study (N = 14) was conducted to elicit patients’ salient beliefs about key self-management behaviours, and to pilot the booklet on intended users. Patients’ feedback was then used to improve the booklet and patients’ beliefs were targeted to promote a more positive attitude and to increase perceived behavioural control (PBC). Strategies selected from other leading theories of behaviour and behaviour change were also incorporated into the booklet. A pilot randomised controlled trial (N = 94) assessed the effectiveness of the IHF booklet in increasing heart failure patients’ knowledge and self-management. This theory-based booklet was found to be more effective in improving knowledge, and initiating change in the mediators of behaviour compared to an atheoretical booklet and no-booklet control. Results showed that the IHF booklet promoted more favourable attitudes and increased PBC for regular physical activity, and produced greater improvements in attitude and intention for regular weighing. Future research should continue to explore and evaluate the utility of social cognitive theories in the development of patient education materials. Written health information that is rigorously developed and evaluated has the potential to be a valuable resource in helping heart failure patients to understand and cope with their illness, and its self-management.</p
... Sometimes some questions were omitted because the respondents had already illuminated a subject, and others were used which emerged from the conversation. Rapport, intimacy, self-disclosure and the attitude of a good listener were qualities that characterised the interviews (Rubin and Rubin, 1995;Cotterill, 1992). ...
Thesis
p>This study explores classroom teacher-student interaction in a secondary, urban, working-class school in Greece and throws light on the connections between teachers' behaviour and their ideas about gender. It is a qualitative ethnographic study. For the collection of data the following methods were used: oral history interviews, classroom observations, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and documents. Five teachers participated in this study, four female and only one male. They taught different subjects: modern Greek, physics religious education, English and mathematics. They were all observed teaching one group (B3) which consisted of eleven students, eleven female and eleven male. Although the sample was small and there were many variations, the findings of this study suggest that overall teachers behaved differently towards girls and boys. Teachers' general lack of awareness or low level of awareness of gender as an organising and categorising factor in students' behaviour and generally in schooling as well as the teachers' tacit assumptions about gender influenced the way that teachers related to girls and boys in the classroom. Other issues such as a lack of teachers' training on equal opportunities, the low status of the school, and the principal's lack of involvement in the promotion of gender equality in the school might have had an impact on teacher-student interaction. Further research on these issues and on a wider scale is advocated.</p
... Our qualitative, iterative analysis (Rubin & Rubin, 2011) occurred in three phases. In Phase One, we focused on our first research question: What role can peer coaching play in PTs' development of adaptiveness? ...
Article
The purpose of this qualitative design-based study was to use peer coaching as an intervention to encourage preservice teachers (PTs) to enact adaptive teaching. Twenty PTs were instructed in the use of a reflective model for peer coaching. Then, co-teaching in pairs, PTs taught using a curricular model requiring adaptiveness, and they provided one another with feedback. Data sources included field observations, assignments, and the PTs' coauthored teaching plans and reflections. Analysis revealed both successes and tensions. Findings show that in the case of two PT pairs (20% of participants) evaluative feedback between peer coaches and imbalances in content knowledge strained their relationships. However, peer coaching was successful for most PT pairs. Implications suggest that appropriately structured peer coaching has curricular, professional, and student affordances.
... In this multiple case study, 8 the researchers used several data collection methods as a means of triangulation in order to reduce the risk of chance associations and systemic biases that can be the result of using only one data collection method. 9,10 First, a semi-structured interview guide 11,12 was used to lead an initial interview with each coach (n ¼ 4). The purpose of this interview was to gather information about the number of coaching hours per week, the number of practice and competition hours per week, the LTAD stage of the team, the NCCP level of each coach, the time devoted to the LTAD in NCCP training, and a self-evaluation of the coach about his LTAD knowledge. ...
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Volleyball Canada and Volleyball Quebec developed long-term athlete development models in order to guide volleyball coaches concerned with athlete development. These models propose guidelines about the development of skills. However, it has yet to be determined whether coaches apply long-term athlete development guidelines in their coaching practice. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to describe the amount of time devoted to the various skills trained by four volleyball coaches of different levels and to compare these training skills with the long-term athlete development guidelines. The results of this multiple case study (n ¼ 4) indicated that based on long-term athlete development guidelines , (a) college and university coaches over-trained technical skills; (b) high school coaches and university coaches undertrained individual tactical skills; and (c) high school coaches over-trained team tactical skills. Corrective measures that might help coaches apply the long-term athlete development guidelines are changes in the access to training facilities, competition schedules, and coach education programs.
... Data for this article were collected through three qualitative, semi-structured focus groups (Rubin & Rubin, 2012), with a purposive sample involved with IPS. Such an approach was appropriate as it allowed the research team to ask questions related to IPS implementation, specifically experiences, challenges, barriers, opportunities, and enablers, while also allowing participants the opportunity to direct the conversations onto what they viewed as pertinent topics. ...
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Purpose Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is a recovery-based approach to support people with mental health difficulties back into employment. Embedding of IPS within the mental health Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) is a key component of IPS fidelity; however, few studies have examined how those involved with IPS implementation navigate this process. This article explores how IPS Employment Specialists (ES) and Occupational Therapist (OT) Managers integrated and embedded IPS within traditionally-oriented MDTs as part of a national reform program in the Republic of Ireland. Methods The study design was qualitative, descriptive with data collected through three focus groups with 17 IPS ESs and 11 OT Managers. Data were analyzed using thematic synthesis. Results Three key themes emerged from analysis. The first characterizes the context into which IPS landed, described as one marked by clinical resistance, doubt, and fear of risk. The second explores the strategies and factors that helped with the introduction of IPS into Irish mental health services. These included strategies, such as providing education and information about IPS and reassuring the MDT about IPS governance and IPS ES’ competencies. The evidenced-based nature of IPS and its attached accountabilities through IPS fidelity measures were perceived to be an important factor in its acceptance. The final theme encapsulates perceptions of how IPS impacted on the MDTs’ views of people with mental health difficulties. Findings suggest a shift in the ways in which MDTs view their clients. Initial fears about work capacity and risk shifted towards seeing people beyond the label of ‘service user’ and their diagnosis. Conclusions It is contended that IPS is an approach that allows practitioners to engage with real recovery-practice and may be one key to unlocking how a recovery approach can truly trickle down and embed itself within mental health service provision and support mental health system reform.
... The interviews followed a semi-structured interview protocol, with a combination of focused and open-ended questions (Leech, 2002;Rubin & Rubin, 2011). The open-ended questions were aimed at gaining an indepth understanding of the dynamic managerial capabilities and organizational capacities required to drive smart city transformation. ...
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This study focuses on the dynamic managerial capabilities of smart city managers and the organizational readiness of a city administration required to drive smart city transformation. After reviewing the literature, we conducted semi-structured interviews with smart city managers in 40 smart cities. We identified five dynamic capabilities that effectively contribute to smart city transformation: seizing, sensing, innovation, integrative, and empowering capability. Our analysis also reveals that a city administration's organizational readiness plays a critical role in these transformative processes and relies on four factors: innovation readiness, resource readiness, a participatory and collective mindset, and strategic readiness. Based on our findings, we suggest a theoretical framework composed of 10 propositions that describe the mutual influences of these dynamic managerial capabilities and organizational readiness factors, together with their contributions to smart city transformation. We conclude with a discussion of the limitations and the implications for future research and practice.
... Beyond establishing mutually engaging conversation and provoking insights into the study questions (Rubin & Rubin, 2011), interviewers used an interview guide (please contact the corresponding author for the interview guide) to standardize the questions asked across interviewers. Additionally, interviewers asked clarification and follow-up questions as needed. ...
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Exploring the context of a coughing customer for frontline workers during the Covid-19 pandemic, we utilized the semi-structured interviews of 38 participants to enhance understanding of cognitive, emotional, and vocational challenges present when a frontline worker perceives a health risk (coughing) while working. Using qualitative content analysis to analyze the interviews, we found both contexts of the actual cough and the environment in which the cough occurs to encourage the cognitive process to trigger the behavio-ral immune system of frontline workers. Furthermore, the findings suggest the behavioral immune system may be similar to the existing biological immune system in its adaptability. Finally, we suggest implications and directions for future research along with propositions.
... The interview guide had open, non-leading as well as probing questions that would encourage participants to generate descriptions of their social world, by exploring their experiences and opinions (Ritchie et al., 2014;Rubin & Rubin, 2012). The first author conducted all interviews. ...
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Informal carers play a vital role in the care and well-being of older people with dementia. This article examines the psychological and economic impacts caregiving has on carers of people with suspected dementia and the mechanisms by which they cope with challenges. A mixed-method design was adopted. A baseline survey of 123 older people was undertaken in a resource-poor setting in Kerala, India, using Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination – Malayalam Version (ACE-m) to identify those with probable dementia. This was followed by in-depth interviews with ten carers of those identified as having cognitive impairment. The data were later transcribed and thematically analysed using N-Vivo to identify main concepts and themes. Analysis of the in-depth interviews with carers revealed that dementia was often interpreted as a ‘second childhood’, but that this conceptualisation aided carers to cope better. Anger and irritation were the commonly expressed psychological reactions which got accentuated by lack of reciprocation of emotion on the part of care recipient. Government support through social security measures and medical care, along with traditional social practises, helped carers to tide over care expenses. These support systems lessened the psychological and economic impacts of caring. Misconstruction of the disease nature, for example by considering it a normal part of ageing, also seem inadvertently to have helped in coping with care requirements, although this comes at a cost of lower than optimal healthcare access for older people with cognitive impairment.
... Qualitative interviews are a common qualitative research method that is excellent for gathering data (Myers & Newman, 2007). According to DiMaggio (1995) theory strives for "enlightenment," and qualitative interviews may serve as "night goggles" (Rubin & Rubin, 2011) to wander around in the dark. Therefore, this thesis and its embedded research papers aim to shed light on the theoretical and practical aspects of digital transformation of pre-digital organizations. ...
Thesis
The widespread adoption of digital technologies continues to drive the changing environment of pre-digital organizations. Social, mobile, analytics, cloud, IoT technologies, and blockchain platforms increase the amount of available data and enable new business models. Against this background, incumbents must deal with several challenges and respond to emerging opportunities. While customers' expectations of digital offerings are rising, digital technologies are lowering market-entry barriers, leading to intensified competition. This poses a major challenge for incumbent organizations with a traditional, pre-digital business model. However, these organizations are mostly not designed for digital technologies and their implications because of their inherent structures. Therefore, pre-digital organizations striving for new value creation paths must develop the capabilities required to successfully adopt digital technologies. Furthermore, pre-digital organizations must often change existing routines and established structures to drive digital transformation. This study investigates three areas from a generalized view of the digital transformation of pre-digital organizations. First, how can pre-digital organizations adopt digital technologies? Second, how do they implement structures for digital transformation? Third, how do they organize themselves for new value creation paths? This study includes six research papers, two of which can be assigned to each of these three areas. The first paper examined how pre-digital organizations may approach digital platforms and develop a platform strategy. The second paper investigated the adoption of AI-enabled systems and the effects of the techno-organizational context during the experimentation phase. The third paper introduced various approaches to developing digital capabilities regarding speed and applicability. The fourth paper investigated how pre-digital organizations manage multiple concurrent digital transformation initiatives, demonstrating how beneficial interplay management leads to complementary duality in organizational ambidexterity. The fifth and sixth research papers explored the relationship between organizational agility and organizational reliability. Therefore, the papers elaborate on the decoupling strategy and how organizations should manage their digital debt. In summary, this study examined the complexities of managing digital transformation from the perspective of pre-digital organizations, contributing to a better understanding of digital transformation.
... Semi-structured interviews follow a systematic and consistent overall structure of questions but give the interviewer more latitude in the interview to follow-up on topics raised by the interviewee that may have been unexpected by the researcher. There are a variety of respected texts on interviewing that may be useful to a researcher working in this space, including (Brinkmann & Kvale, 2018;Rubin & Rubin, 2005;Spradley & Spradley, 1979). Interviews are used widely by food systems and food networks researchers to elucidate motivations, connections, ideologies, ontologies, and more. ...
Chapter
Food systems and food networks have gained increased attention among agricultural and applied economists in recent years. This chapter presents a new topic that has not been included in previous Handbook chapters, aiming to provide a broad review of the research related to food systems and food networks to guide and motivate agricultural and applied economists new to this space in conducting research on these topics. Many of our examples come from local and regional food systems and food networks as they are both of wide interest globally, and because they represent a growing volume of expertise among researchers. It would be a daunting task attempting to include all literature in this domain given the complexity of research subjects by agricultural and applied economists and scholars from other fields. However, the frameworks and approaches we discuss can be applied to food systems and food networks at a variety of scales and in a variety of contexts. Unsurprisingly, definitions of food systems and food networks are not fully agreed upon by scholars. In this chapter, we begin with discussing various definitions of food systems and food networks; the types of research questions one might want to answer related to food systems and food networks; and the theories, frameworks, data, and methods used to study and answer these questions. This chapter provides examples of the interdisciplinary nature of this work including: (1) examinations of components of food systems versus food networks, (2) characteristics and interactions of actors in building and maintaining food systems and food networks, and (3) integrated systematic approaches to understanding and enhancing food systems and food networks to address societal problems. Our chapter concludes with a discussion of the opportunities and challenges we see for agricultural and applied economists in this field moving forward. Through this work, we hope to stimulate innovative approaches among agricultural and applied economists, working with other disciplines, to explore and analyze relationships, influences, and impacts of food systems and food networks to enhance social, economic, and environmental sustainability and equity.
... The researcher listened to the audio-recorded interviews and transcribed each into typed Excel sheet text. The researcher read the transcripts in conjunction with written field notes to acquaint himself or herself with the data (Rubin & Rubin 2012). Various codes were allocated to participants and themes to which each of the participants was associated. ...
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Background: The deinstitutionalisation of children suffering from intellectual disability (ID) is a global phenomenon. Most families raising such children experience a range of difficulties and require supportive systems to cope with physical, social and mental demands in a home environment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore and describe the support needs provided to families raising children with ID in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo province, South Africa. Method: In-depth individual interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 26 families directly affected by the experience of caring for and raising children with ID in Capricorn District of the Limpopo province. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify, categorise and organise the responses of the participants converted into intelligible statements with the assistance of Atlas. Ti version 8. Results: Participants identified support needs on information regarding care and management of the children with intellectual disabilities, professional collaboration on safety of the children, community involvement on the rearing of the children and improvement of their living conditions as most of the families and households were female-headed, of low income and needed further monetary support. Overall, the totality of challenges, demands and inadequate support services coalesced in marginalisation of children with ID and their families. Conclusion: Families raising children with ID are diverse and complex with unique support needs. Therefore, a multilayered approach should be taken to address the concerns and improve the families’ quality of life. A foreseen challenge would be to secure the involvement of the stakeholders representing a variety of sectors, organisations and services.
... This study was conducted with the use of semi-structured interviews in order to yield open-ended answers as Stuckey (2013) averred that participants are presented with the prospect of replying in their own words instead of compelling them to choose answers from fixed responses. It can be regarded as a much flexible form of a structured interview because 'it allows depth to be achieved by providing the opportunity on the part of the interviewer to probe and expand the responses of the respondent' (Rubin & Rubin 2011). Stuckey added that in a semi-structured interview, responses by the respondent guide the direction of the interview, but the outline for the discussions covered is set out by the researcher. ...
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Background: District municipalities are faced with numerous challenges that hinder their ability to execute the legal mandate of assisting local municipalities to deliver services to their communities. Aim: This article explored two critical issues: political challenges faced by districts in the recruitment of personnel in key positions and the financial status of districts in relation to their role in local government. Setting: The study is based in the Ehlanzeni District Municipality, Mpumalanga Province. The study also included local municipalities within Ehlanzeni District (City of Mbombela, Nkomazi and Bushbuckridge local municipalities); South African Local Government Association; and the Mpumalanga Department of Co-operative Governance and Traditional Affairs. Methods: The study adopted a qualitative research method, and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Results: Literature and the study findings revealed that cadre deployment in key positions has contributed to the shortage of skilled personnel in municipalities. The findings also showed that Ehlanzeni District Municipality is not adequately financed to be able to execute its legal mandate. Conclusion: The study recommended that cadre deployment in key municipal positions should be aligned with legislated recruitment policies. Moreover, communities need to start paying for services that they receive so that municipalities may have more revenue to maintain infrastructure, to ensure continued service delivery.
... The five key informants, all women, had diverse educational backgrounds, with some holding a diploma (corrections, addictions counselling and child and youth care) and others' graduate degrees (Masters in Social Work), and from 3 to 25 years of experience working in the field. The interviews were responsive (Rubin & Rubin, 2011), inviting workers to reflect on their experience and share their practice-based knowledge. A major focus of the interview was on how they have adapted their practice to accommodate the support and learning needs of women with intellectual disability (the full interview guide is available from the first author). ...
Article
Women with intellectual disability experience intimate partner violence at higher rates and tend to remain in abusive relationships longer than non‐disabled women. The purpose of this inquiry was to generate a preliminary set of principles and delineate domains of support as a general guide for social service workers supporting women with intellectual disability through the difficult, often stop‐start process of ending an abusive relationship and creating a desired future. Taking a pragmatic inquiry approach, guiding principles and domains of support were generated through a triangulated engagement with relational theory, relevant published research, and original data gathered through interviews with five experienced social service workers. The results comprise a relational framework for inclusive, trauma‐informed services aimed at fostering the relational autonomy of women with intellectual disability. Enacting relational principles of reflexivity, recognition, solidarity and safety, social service workers can support women with intellectual disability with safety planning, securing basic life needs, strengthening social relationships, acquiring new skills and nurturing self‐affective attitudes of self‐respect, self‐efficacy and self‐esteem.
... Bien qu'ils puissent permettre d'identifier des informateurs clés, favoriser la réflexion et l'émergence de la connaissance collective (Fontana et Frey, 2005), les entretiens de groupe possèdent des inconvénients largement discutés par la littérature académique. Par exemple, la présence de rapports de force entre les différents participants pourrait limiter l'expression et influencer les réponses proposées (Rubin et Rubin, 1995;. ...
Thesis
L’expérience étudiante non-académique est devenue un levier incontournable au sein des écoles de commerce françaises pour faire face aux transformations de leur marché, comme en témoigne l’évolution des comportements des étudiants. Ces derniers, appartenant à la génération Z, possèdent des usages digitaux qui impactent directement leurs attentes vis-à-vis des établissements. Dans ce cadre, proposer des services non-académiques numériques de bonne qualité devient central pour influencer la satisfaction étudiante.Ce travail est réalisé dans le cadre d’un dispositif CIFRE au sein d’un cabinet de conseil en stratégie et s’appuie sur une méthodologie mixte au travers d’une recherche-intervention et d’une étude quantitative. Les résultats mettent en avant l’impact positif de la qualité perçue des services numériques non-académiques sur la satisfaction étudiante, les services associés à la vie quotidienne ayant la plus grande d’influence. Un biais de surconfiance est également démontré : les étudiants de la génération Z surestiment leurs compétences numériques. Enfin, la méconnaissance de l’offre de services disponible nuit à la satisfaction.
... Scientific Software Development GmbH), which is a qualitative software analysis program. Qualitative data analysis is a multistep process that requires reading fieldnotes and transcripts, developing a preliminary codebook from themes and patterns that emerge, and coding written text to begin organising, grouping, and identifying important findings in the data (Rubin & Rubin, 2005). For this research, we created an initial codebook organised by the main themes from our interview protocols and initial codes that we knew were likely to emerge from the data after reviewing our field notes and the literature. ...
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In addition to academic curricula, schools offer regular drills to train young people and adult staff on what to do in an emergency or disaster. Earthquake drills in the United States currently recommend the protective action “drop, cover, and hold on” in the event of shaking. Yet, little is known about whether this guidance is followed in schools and homes by children and adults. To fill this gap, this research examined protective actions taken by children and adults during the 2018 Anchorage, Alaska earthquake and the 2019 Ridgecrest, California earthquake sequence. Our research team conducted in-depth interviews with kindergarten to secondary school administrators, teachers, and students, as well with parents, emergency managers, building officials, and engineers (N=118) in earthquake-affected communities. Our findings indicate that the most common action among children across the study locations was to drop, cover, and hold on. Adults, however, did not always follow current recommended guidance and exhibited more variability in the actions they took in response to shaking, such as trying to protect others, getting in doorways, freezing in place, or rapidly exiting buildings. This research suggests that a generational gap exists that could compromise the safety of young people as well as the adults who care for them. We recommend that earthquake training in schools be strengthened to better prepare both child and adult populations for the threat of earthquakes. Moreover, the emergence of new technologies, like ShakeAlert—the earthquake early warning system for the West Coast of the United States—can create new opportunities for disseminating alert and warning information and preparing populations for impending hazards. Recognising how children and adults may react in an earthquake can improve drills and messaging, refine risk communication strategies, and reduce injury and loss of life.
... To determine if the 8407 written comments could be aligned with the five work system elements in the SEIPS model, qualitative thematic analysis was conducted in an inductive and interpretive manner [38][39][40]. The comments were read several times by five investigators (N.A., C.G., S.L., J.S., and A.S.) independently, and the main themes were extracted [40]. ...
Article
This study applied a human factors and ergonomics approach to describe community-based pharmacy personnel perspectives regarding how work environment characteristics affect the ability to perform the duties necessary for optimal patient care and how contributors to stress affect the ability to ensure patient safety. Data were obtained from the 2021 APhA/NASPA National State-Based Pharmacy Workplace Survey, launched in the United States in April 2021. Promotion of the online survey to pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was accomplished through social media, email, and online periodicals. Responses continued to be received through the end of 2021. A data file containing 6973 responses was downloaded on 7 January 2022 for analysis. Qualitative thematic analysis was applied for developing operational definitions and coding guidelines for content analysis of the data. The patterns of responses for the dependent variables were compared among community-based practice setting types (chain, supermarket/mass merchandiser, and independent) and work positions (manager, staff pharmacist, technician/clerk, and owner). Chi-square analysis was used for determining statistically significant differences. The findings showed that personnel working in community-based pharmacies reported undesirable work environments and work stress that affected their ability to perform assigned duties for optimal patient care and ensure patient safety. Four work system elements were identified that were both facilitators and barriers to the ability to perform duties and ensure patient safety: (1) people, (2) tasks, (3) technology/tools, and (4) organizational context. Acknowledging local contexts of workplaces, giving adequate control, applying adaptive thinking, enhancing connectivity, building on existing mechanisms, and dynamic continuous learning are key elements for applying the HFE (human factors ergonomics) approach to improving the experience of providing care in community-based pharmacies.
... Interviews are often utilized in case study research and can be helpful in explaining the "how" or "why" (Yin, 2018, p. 118) of specific phenomena, which was appropriate for the structure of the guiding research question mentioned above. Rubin and Rubin (2011) discussed the more fluid nature of questions in case study research, as opposed to other research designs where questions are more structured. Such interviews are also known as "in-depth interviews", "unstructured interviews", or "intensive interviews" (Weiss, 1994, pp. ...
Thesis
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Abrams, Chaya M. Partners in story: Connecting to sacred stories in Historical Trauma Response within psychotherapy. Published Doctor of Counselor Education and Supervision dissertation, Adams State University, 2019. Current findings in counseling literature suggest that persons having experienced trauma suffer disruption in multiple areas of functioning, and may benefit from psychotherapeutic intervention and connection. Despite these findings, it has been found that counselors and researchers lack understanding of posttraumtic response and experience ambivalence associated with immersion into the deeper narratives of survivors in post-trauma. One manner in which to connect with persons having experienced historical trauma response is through sacred stories, and therefore, a qualitative multiple case study depicting use of sacred stories within psychotherapy with persons having experienced HTR was conducted. Results of the multiple case study indicated that a sacred component is attached to stories based on multiple experiences of individuals having experienced HTR, and that the self disclosure of psychotherapists treating clients in HTR is an aspect of a therapeutic pact, which in itself is a sacred story. Results also showed that "a coming home" is a metaphor used to describe safety of sacred stories and is extended to therapeutic connection, and that personal associations with stories of clients and clinicians blend to create a deeper therapeutic connection. A final result showed that clinicians' act of witnessing sacred stories allows clients to "regain authorship" of their own stories. Future recommendations for researchers and psychotherapists are discussed.
... Initial probes have been extracted from existing literature to set the scene for data generation and the creation of new themes. Such themes and subthemes become codes that are traced back to the literature to establish links between participant "vocabulary" and academic research (Rubin & Rubin, 2012). ...
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During Covid-19 lockdown, individuals experienced depression, anxiety, and demotivation symptoms tremendously. Therefore, people had to develop coping mechanisms to improve their physical and mental health. Some learned new skills, some re-evaluated their lives and some took the time to relax. This research adopts a qualitative approach by which narratives were collected from 16 participants, who voluntarily responded to the request of the researcher, via social media platforms. The findings reveal the effect of nostalgia on the consumption of fashion-related goods, hidden benefits of COVID-19, transition points among individuals, nostalgia as a coping mechanism, and the choice of acquiring fashion-related goods. Individuals had the chance to reminisce over the past with their family and friends, which led them to consume certain fashion pieces that they feel connected to, to relive the past. Therefore, fashion brands are encouraged to shift to digital channels to draw, encourage, and connect with their consumers. Moreover, brands should focus on promoting content that focuses on the well-being of individuals to relate to their current state of mind. Furthermore, given the context of the research, fashion brands may discover opportunities to seize in "social group oriented" individuals, who have discovered their 'true fashion sense,' during a pandemic. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Smith (2006) contended that, sport, exercise, and physical activity settings may afford opportunities for pupils with and without autism to interact and develop friendships. Rubin (2005) posited that, friendship formation and maintenance is a crucial experience in pupils' lives from age three through adolescence. Finally, 98% of the respondents agreed to the statement "the use of Picture Exchange Communication System has positively increased autistic pupils' communication skills and social skills". ...
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The study assessed strategies teachers used to enhance social interaction skills of autistic pupils in some selected special schools for the intellectually disabled in the Northern part of Ghana. Descriptive research design was adopted and a total sample of 50 respondents were involved. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the schools and the respondents for the study. Questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection. Data was analysed using tables, frequencies and percentages. The findings showed that the teachers used modeling, physical prompts, visual cues, reinforcement, social stories, direct instruction skills and social skills training in groups and peer support as strategies to enhance social interaction skills of autistic pupils in the school. The strategies used by the teachers were also proven to be effective in enhancing social interaction skills of autistic pupils in the school. It was established that even though some support services were available to help enhance the social interaction skills of the autistic pupils, professionals like occupational therapists, physical therapists and the multidisciplinary team were absent in the three special schools selected for the study. It was recommended that the requisite support services should be provided in the selected special schools which have autistic pupils in order to help enhance the social interaction skills. In addition, periodic workshops, symposia as well as refresher courses should be i Correspondence: organized for special teachers and their aides to update their knowledge and skills in the strategies used to enhance social interaction skills of these pupils with autism.
... Except for 11 interviewees who declined to be recorded, all our conversations were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with Nvivo, a software for qualitative data analysis. We followed the "responsive interviewing" approach (Rubin and Rubin, 2005) by first coding our data in line with themes found in previous studies on nurse migration. We focused specifically on the factors that either compelled them to seek overseas opportunities or convinced them to continue working within Philippine hospitals. ...
Article
The writers’ workshop approach was used in this study to examine the relationship between preschool children’s literacy growth and traditional writing instruction. As well, the student group looked at the students’ conception of learning before and after the two (2) groups’ executions. The research employed a simultaneous three-way approach to collect quantitative and qualitative evidence in order to cross-validate and confirm the findings. The t-test was used to evaluate individual literacy ratings. Interviews were also used to collect and analyze data. In this analysis, the literacy rates of the two (2) studied classes did not differ significantly. Students in both classes considered themselves to be “good” writers, according to interviews. Through the challenge educators face to find new and creative ways to reach students, this study has the potential to generate social change. As a result of this study, educators will be able to differentiate between children and scaffold their learning so that everyone can learn at their own rate.
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Thesis
p>This thesis examines the role of teachers' initiative in building a culture of innovation in one Portuguese vocational high school in Fine Arts and the relationship between the culture of innovation, teacher's leadership, school culture and the educational community. It also presents the impact of teachers' initiative on: (i) the changing curriculum; (ii) educational practices; (iii) professional development. The research took place in a context of Portuguese educational reform, which stressed change in educational practices and schools. The study was also located in a selected review of literature about change and culture. The study took the form of an ethnographic case study, which characterised the culture of a group of teachers, involved in one mathematics educational project, eliciting their beliefs, values, norms and patterns of behaviour. It also examined the relationship between the culture of the project and the school culture as a dynamic process identifying values, beliefs and ideologies shared by people in the school. Three main findings emerged from this cultural analysis. First, teachers did have the ability to generate an alternative curriculum to the dominant state model for teaching mathematics for Fine Arts students. This was underpinned by democratic values and focused on the process of students' learning rather than teacher-directed instruction. Secondly, this group of teachers formed a distinctive subculture in schools and took an active role in researching their own experience of changing classroom practice. Thirdly, the research demonstrated that it was not possible for this subculture to have major impact on the culture of the whole school. However, the educational community (mathematics educators and state department) acknowledged the innovation, the state department subsequently including it in the national mathematics curriculum.</p
Thesis
p>This ethnography is an account of the journey through clinical placements that undergraduate student nurses take as part of a three year programme. It describes how they attempt to manage their own learning, and analyses the factors that appear to facilitate or impede their ability to be self-directed in learning to nurse. Conclusions are drawn from their experiences, suggesting how curricula could be developed to further enable self-directness to be achieved. Action learning strategies, introduced to the undergraduate programme as a result of findings from the study, are described. The research was planned in two stages, an initial stage using focus groups a preparation for entering the culture, and a second stage involving participant observation and reflective interviews. Data was analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. The nature of support provided for participant in practice was found to be the most significant factor in enabling students to manage their own learning. This led to the conclusion that - students are best able to manage their own learning in clinical practice when they are actively involved and facilitated to learn by 'mentors' who allow them the freedom to take risks, and provide a 'safety net' to protect them in taking such an approach.</p
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This paper explores how schoolteachers in Kazakhstan engaged with the Renewed Content of Education (RCE) that has been introduced by the Government, and how changes in their beliefs and understandings influenced classroom practice. The study draws on the ecological model of teacher agency and elaborates on factors that contribute to the formation of teacher agency. The study used a mixed methods research design and is based on data collected over two years in rural and urban schools across three regions of Kazakhstan. Altogether, 227 teachers having different levels of experience with the new curriculum were involved in focus group discussions. The findings demonstrate that the majority of teachers acknowledged the value of the RCE, its short- and long-term benefits for students, and the broader aim of boosting the economic competitiveness of the country. At the same time, the findings suggest that, while a surface change occurred in teachers’ beliefs, their pedagogical practices, and the learning context, there is limited evidence that the teachers moved fully to new ways of teaching and embedded the principles of the RCE in practice. Through our findings, we verified the centrality of socially dynamic relationships in educational change. Teachers shared agency in developing their own rules and routines for collaboration. This paper adds to research on educational change in an international context by showing that the scope for teacher agency in reform implementation increases when teachers are able to develop deep reform-oriented beliefs, discourses, and pedagogical understanding.
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This article examines the details and limitations of the semi-structured interviews as one of the important methodological tools in civil society and qualitative studies. Through the semi-structured interview method, researchers have access to data that provides in-depth explanations about various aspects of the experiences, opinions, emotions, and motivations of the individuals who are the research subjects, which may be challenging to obtain with other methods. The study details different types of semi-structured interviews and presents examples from civil society studies in Turkey. Based on the analysis of the existing literature and the author's field study experiences, the article discusses fundamental issues such as positionality and reflexivity, establishing rapport and access to participants, ethical issues and interaction, and the difficulties in each stage of the knowledge production process. The study emphasizes that semi-structured interviews are an important methodology, and presents theoretical and practical recommendations for researchers.
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This study evaluates the perceptions of preparedness and willingness to work during disasters and public health emergencies among 213 healthcare workers at hospitals in the southern region of Saudi Arabia by using a quantitative survey (Fight or Flight). The results showed that participants’ willingness to work unconditionally during disasters and emergencies varied based on the type of condition: natural disasters (61.97%), seasonal influenza pandemic (52.58%), smallpox pandemic (47.89%), SARS/COVID-19 pandemic (43.56%), special flu pandemic (36.15%), mass shooting (37.56%), chemical incident and bombing threats (31.92%), biological events (28.17%), Ebola outbreaks (27.7%), and nuclear incident (24.88%). A lack of confidence and the absence of safety assurance for healthcare workers and their family members were the most important reasons cited. The co-variation between age and education versus risk and danger by Spearman’s rho confirmed a small negative correlation between education and danger at a 95% level of significance, meaning that educated healthcare workers have less fear to work under dangerous events. Although the causes of unsuccessful management of disasters and emergencies may vary, individuals’ characteristics, such as lack of confidence and emotional distractions because of uncertainty about the safety issues, may also play a significant role. Besides educational initiatives, other measures, which guarantee the safety of healthcare providers and their family members, should be established and implemented.
Thesis
Storyline: This thesis’ explorations brings forward nuanced understandings of the concept of Othering through the analysis of different materials. The research is particularly important not only because it relates to the researcher’s life history and interests in researching inequalities, but also relevant in the current refugee crisis and the resurgence of xenophobia. Data: The thesis draws on my reflexive turn and on empirical materials that includes; in-depth ethnographic interviews with five participants, my own autoethnographic and theoretical explorations. The autoethnographic writings include creative nonfiction and stand-up comedy materials. I label these autoethnographic writings as creative nonfiction for its overall literary style of writing. The study as a whole therefore is interdisciplinary, interpretative, qualitative inquiry that is grounded in my life history and ethnographic work to draw a comprehensible jigsaw of the constructions and the workings of Othering. The variety of data sources allows for an eclectic vision to understand the different levels that Othering operates on. Presentation: Because of the complex nature of this research process, this work does not take on the “conventional” thesis structure. It moves between my own explorations of theoretical work and fieldwork with what may seem a personal style of writing. The diverse materials that I collected reflect my own reflexive turn during the research process. It also adds to the richness of the thick description of the ethnographic work that I carried as a mean of dissemination. Theory: At its start, the research emerged in the light of three main theoretical fields: the intercultural, the postcolonial and the feminist. However, as it grew, the research held firmer grounds in the later waves of feminism; Intersectionality. Using intersectional feminist thought was befitting particularly as I embarked on unpacking colonial, societal and genderal discriminations that my participants and I stood in the intersect of it. Originality: The contributions of my thesis and originality lays in the use of stand-up comedy materials as a source of data and as a research tool. I regard the use of this kind of material as an opportunity for a fresh acuity to the study of Othering; where reflections on the Self and the Other is discussed. It is through it that I introduce what I call platform shift; where the discussion about circles of exclusion is introduced. Platform shift is a reflection of one’s fluid movements between essentialist and non-essentialist paradigm depending on what is convenient for the centre causing the inclusion or the exclusion of different Others. In this doctoral project, I found that there are two recurrent images of the Other that I refer to as the savage and the ravish ends”. In both constructions, the Other is not considered in positive light. This builds up further to use dehumanising discourse to push the Other further towards the margin. I also found that the Other is constructed through visual and linguistics traits, and their image is strongly affected by the power shift. The visual traits may include inherited sources; such as racial features, or acquired sources such as the Muslim headscarf or fashion choices. The Other’s linguistic performance is also put to scrutiny and held in comparison to their identity. Such explorations also highlight how we negotiate our space, and how we move between different worlds and through conflicting narratives.
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