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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2016; 4(5): 168-172 Effects of feeding different agro-industrial by-products on carcass composition and sensory attributes of Oreochromis niloticus

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The experiment was conducted to observe the response of O. niloticus in terms of carcass composition and consumer acceptability when fed on diets prepared using different agro-industrial by-products. Four diets were formulated containing: wheat bran; pito mash; rice bran; and groundnut bran and fed to O. niloticus. A biochemical analysis of the carcass of O. niloticus showed that different by-products impacts differently on fish flesh quality. Crude protein was significantly higher in fish fed on pito mash (71.15% ± 0.07) and lowest for fish fed on rice bran (63.86% ± 0.26). Ether extract was significantly higher in fish fed on rice bran (10.58% ± 0.05) and lowest for fish fed on wheat bran (7.74% ± 0.01) crude fibre was significantly higher for fish fed on wheat bran (0.33% ± 0.00) and lowest for fish fed on pito mash (0.21% ± 0.00). Sensory analysis flesh quality of the test fish did not affect consumer acceptance. The results showed no significant differences in colour and odour liking in fish fed on pito mash and groundnut bran; and on wheat bran and rice bran. These by-products could be used to improve growth of fish as well as enhance flesh quality of fish without adversely affecting consumer acceptance.
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2016; 4(5): 168-172
ISSN: 2347-5129
(ICV-Poland) Impact Value: 5.62
(GIF) Impact Factor: 0.549
IJFAS 2016; 4(5): 168-172
© 2016 IJFAS
www.fisheriesjournal.com
Received: 23-07-2016
Accepted: 24-08-2016
Abarike ED
Department of Fisheries &
Aquatic Resources Management,
University for Development
Studies. P.O. Box TL 1882,
Tamale, Ghana
EA Obodai
Department of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences, University of
Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
FYK Attipoe
Aquaculture Research and
Development Centre (ARDEC),
Council for Scientific and
Industrial Research (CSIR),
Akosombo, Ghana.
Correspondence
Abarike ED
Department of Fisheries &
Aquatic Resources Management,
University for Development
Studies. P. O. Box TL 1882,
Tamale, Ghana
Effects of feeding different agro-industrial by-products
on carcass composition and sensory attributes of
Oreochromis niloticus
Abarike ED, EA Obodai and FYK Attipoe
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to observe the response of O. niloticus in terms of carcass composition
and consumer acceptability when fed on diets prepared using different agro-industrial by-products. Four
diets were formulated containing: wheat bran; pito mash; rice bran; and groundnut bran and fed to O.
niloticus. A biochemical analysis of the carcass of O. niloticus showed that different by-products impacts
differently on fish flesh quality. Crude protein was significantly higher in fish fed on pito mash (71.15%
± 0.07) and lowest for fish fed on rice bran (63.86% ± 0.26). Ether extract was significantly higher in fish
fed on rice bran (10.58% ± 0.05) and lowest for fish fed on wheat bran (7.74% ± 0.01) crude fibre was
significantly higher for fish fed on wheat bran (0.33% ± 0.00) and lowest for fish fed on pito mash
(0.21% ± 0.00). Sensory analysis flesh quality of the test fish did not affect consumer acceptance. The
results showed no significant differences in colour and odour liking in fish fed on pito mash and
groundnut bran; and on wheat bran and rice bran. These by-products could be used to improve growth of
fish as well as enhance flesh quality of fish without adversely affecting consumer acceptance.
Keywords: Sensory, biochemical, Oreochromis, pito mash, rice bran, odour
1. Introduction
Although culture based fisheries production in many development countries such as Ghana is
showing very strong growth, the rate is slow. This is because, the industry is bedeviled with
constraints such as; limited availability of good quality fish feed and seeds, limited credit
facilities, undefined or poorly defined land and water rights and lack of legislation specifically
for aquaculture (Agbo, 2008; Hiheglo, 2008; Amisah et al., 2009) [1, 2, 12] Among the above
challenges, inadequate high-quality, affordable and available feed supply is the most worrying.
Feed that is available for used in fish production are mostly made from conventional feed
ingredients like fish meal, wheat bran and maize. The lack of production diets coupled with the
raw materials to produce high quality feeds have been significant factors limiting the
expansion of the industry.
In the quest to boost fish production to argument the protein needs of people, fish culturist,
fish scientist and Aquaculturist have turned their focused on agro-industrial by-products as
feed ingredients that could be used as feed for fish in culture systems (Gabriel et al., 2007) [10].
Agro-industrial by-products as non-conventional feed are available and affordable in many
localities throughout the world. The use of these by-products is becoming widespread due to
the numerous recommendations from various research finding (El-Dakar et al., 2008; Attipoe
et al., 2009) [9, 5]
However, using alternative feed ingredients can compromise flesh quality of the final product.
Studies with fish such as Oreochromis niloticus have shown that, the source of nutritional such
as dietary protein sources and fat sources (Ali and Al-Asgall, 2001) [2] can influence the
physical and organoleptic flesh quality.
In Solomon et al. (2007) [18], knowledge of the body composition of fish and factors affecting
it allow the assessment of fish health and the determination of efficiency of transfer of
nutrients from the food to the fish. This makes it possible to predict and modify carcass
composition. Using alternative feed sources to replace the costly but widespread usage of
dietary fishmeal protein by vegetable proteins on flesh characteristics of harvest-size O.
niloticus has not received much attention.
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the carcass
composition and to examine effects on flesh characteristics
and consumer acceptability of O. niloticus fed diets
containing agro-industrial by-product.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Site description
The study was conducted at the Aquaculture Research and
Development Centre (ARDEC) which lie between latitude 6 o
13 ' North and the longitude 0 o 4' East at Akosombo in the
Eastern Region of Ghana between October 2010 and March
2011.
2.2 Experimental set-up and fish
Twelve (12) fine mesh hapas each of capacity 10 m3 (5 m x 2
m x 1 m) were installed in a 0.2ha pond such that three
quarters (¾) of the height of the hapas were submerged and
one quarter (1/4) above the water surface to prevent the fish
from escaping. The hapas were suspended by means of nylon
ropes tied to bamboo poles, inserted into the bed of the pond.
Sex reversed fingerlings of O. niloticus of average weight 7 ±
0.23 g were obtained from ARDEC and stocked at 20 fish per
meter cube in the hapas. Four isonitrogenous (30% CP) and
isoenergetic (PFV 18 MJ/kg) diets were formulated to contain
different agro-industrial by-products including: wheat bran
(diet 1), pito mash (diet 2), rice bran (diet 3) and groundnut
bran (diet 4) and fed to fish by hand-casting twice daily
between 0830 - 0930 GMT and between 0300 - 0400 GMT at
10% for 6 weeks, 7% following another 6 weeks, 4% for
another 6 weeks and 2% for the last 6 weeks making 24
weeks in all. The fishes were fed for 6-7 days a week for 24
weeks. Feed adjustments were made fortnightly by sampling
25% of the fishes from each replicate of the various
treatments and weighed to provide a good significant estimate
of the average weight.
2.3 Biochemical Analysis
In assessing the efficiency of transfer of nutrients from feed to
the fish, it is possible to predict the effect of different
diets/feed on the flesh composition of fish. Upon termination
of the experiment five (5) fishes from each treatment were
randomly selected to determine the final flesh quality.
Proximate analyses of the feed items, the prepared feed and
carcass composition of fish were carried out at the Animal
Nutrition Laboratory of the School of Agriculture of the
University of Cape Coast following the procedures that
broadly adhere to Association of Official Analytical Chemists
[AOAC] (1990) [4]. The protocol was used in determining the
percentage (%) dry matter (DM), Crude protein (CP), % Ash,
% Crude lipids (CL) also known as the Ether Extract (EE) of
fat, % Crude fibre (CF) and % moisture. Nitrogen-free extract
was computed using the formula: % NFE = (100 - % CP + %
CF + % EE + % Ash).
2.4 Sensory evaluation of cooked O. niloticus
Seven (7) member panelists (regular fish eaters) were selected
from the Water Research Institute, Akosombo for their
interest and availability as well as sensorial capabilities of
discriminating likeness for sensory attributes such as colour
(appearance) of the flesh, odour (smell), flavour (taste),
texture (tenderness) and overall acceptability of fish from
various dietary treatments. The panelists were orientated on
how to fill a sensory evaluation form designed following the
description of Omolara & Olaleye (2010) [16] prior to serving
of the fish. Fish from each treatment were processed and
cooked separately in pots containing about 3 g of salt
dissolved in 300 ml of pipe water at 100 °C for 5 - 10
minutes. The fish from each treatment was assigned codes
(i.e. 01, 02, 03 and 04 representing the four dietary
treatments) and served in individual plates and given to the
panelists to describe and rate the attributes based on a 9-point
hedonic scale of 1 (dislike extremely) and 9 (like extremely).
Drinking water was provided to rinse their mouths after
tasting each sample.
2.5 Statistical analysis of experimental data
Carcass and sensory data were subjected to one-way analysis
of variance (ANOVA) using the SPSS version 16 at 5%
(P<0.05) significant level. Variance of data was presented as
standard error of means. Where significant differences
occurred, treatment means were compared using Duncan
Multiple Range Test (DMRT).
3. Results
3.1 Chemical composition of feedstuff
Results of the proximate analysis of the feed ingredients
expressed on a dry matter basis (i.e. to help standardize
information on the ingredients) are shown in Table 1. Among
the test by-products, pito mash (PM) recorded the highest
crude protein (CP) (28.77%) and rice bran (RB) recorded the
lowest CP (6.68%). In terms of ether extract (EE), groundnut
bran (GB) had the highest (9.00%) and wheat bran (WB) had
the least (4.59%). The crude fibre (CF) content of RB was the
highest with 31.47% and lowest in WB with 10.48%. The
calculated nitrogen-free extract (NFE) was and highest in WB
(64.29%) and lowest in RB (36.25%).
Table 1: Chemical composition of feed ingredients
Type of Analysis
Fish meal
Pito mash
Rice bran
Groundnut bran
% Dry matter
94.09
92.93
91.78
93.96
% Crude protein
48.95
28.77
6.68
21.69
% Ether extract
12.54
7.81
8.76
9.00
% Crude fibre
0.88
12.77
31.47
17.51
% Ash
27.93
4.42
16.89
4.78
% Nitrogen-free extract
9.70
46.23
36.25
47.02
*PFV (MJ/kg)
18.19
17.82
11.26
16.75
*Physiological fuel value (PFV) was calculated using the biological fuel values of 23.64, 39.54 and 17.15 MJ/kg for protein,
fat and carbohydrate, respectively according to Ali & Al-Asgah (2001).
3.2 Inclusive levels and chemical composition of diets for
fingerlings of O. niloticus
Table 2 shows the composition and chemical analysis of diets
for fingerlings of O. niloticus. Among the test agro-industrial
by-products, diet 3 had the highest amount of fish meal (56%)
and palm oil (2.58%) and diet 2 had the lowest amount of fish
meal (16%) and palm oil recorded the least (1.14%). The
amount of fish meal in diet 1 (45.5%) was higher than in diet
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
4 (34%). Methionine, lysine and broiler premix were the same
for all the diets, because specific quantities were needed in all
diets to supplement those naturally occurring in the diets.
The proximate analysis of the test diets showed that, dry
matter contents of the test diets were similar among all diets.
The calculated crude proteins were similar to the actual crude
protein for each of the diets. All the four prepared diets had
similar (χ2 < 0.35, P>0.05) crude protein levels. Diet 4 had the
highest amount of Ether Extract (EE) (18.74%) and diet 2 had
the lowest EE (8.68%). Crude fibre (CF) levels in the diets
was in the following descending order diet 2 > diet 3 > diet 1 >
diet 4. Ash content was highest in diet 3 (22.32%) and lowest
in diet 2 (13.94%). Diet 2 (41.05%) had the highest Nitrogen-
Free Extract (NFE) and diet 3 (28.64%) had the lowest.
Although the gross energy (GE) was highest in diet 4 (19.98
MJ/kg) and lowest in diet 3 (17.11 MJ/kg), there was no
significant differences (χ2 < 0.35, P>0.05) among all the diets
Table 2: Inclusion levels and proximate analysis of diets for
fingerlings O. niloticus
Ingredients
Diets
Diet 1
Diet 2
Diet 3
Diet 4
Fish meal
45.5
16
56
34
Pito mash
-
80.27
-
-
Rice bran
-
-
39
-
Groundnut bran
-
-
-
62
Wheat bran
50.4
-
-
-
Methionine
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Lysine
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1Broiler premix
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
Palm oil
Total
1.5
100
1.14
100
2.58
100
1.45
100
Proximate analysis
% Dry matter
88.54
91.22
91.52
91.45
% Calculated crude
protein 30.06 30.22 30.02 30.24
% Actual. crude protein
30.42
30.36
30.14
30.25
% Ether extract
8.68
9.98
12.84
18.74
% Crude fibre
5.86
8.07
6.06
3.54
% Ash
14.95
13.94
22.32
16.76
% Nitrogen-free extract
40.09
41.05
28.64
30.71
2PFV (MJ/kg)
17.67
18.15
17.11
19.98
1. Two thousand five hundred grams (2500 g) of the broiler
premix contains; Vit A, D3, E, B1, B2, B6, B12,
pantothenic acid, calcium, selenium, ash, nitotinu acid,
folic acid, biotin, choline, manganese, zinc, cobalt, iron,
iodine, molybdenum and copper.
2. Physiological fuel value (PFV) was calculated using the
biological fuel values of 23.64, 39.54 and 17.15 MJ/kg
for protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively according
to Ali & Al-Asgah (2001).
3.3 Biochemical analysis
Biochemical composition (shown in Table 3) of fingerlings of
O. niloticus fed on the different dietary treatments indicates
that, fish fed on diet 1 (75.94 ± 0.03) had the highest moisture
content and those fish fed on diet 3 (74.39 ± 0.30). The
proximate compositional analysis showed significant
differences (P<0.05) in the moisture contents among fish fed
on diets 3 and 4. However, no significant (P>0.05) difference
was found among fish fed on diets 1 and 2. Dry matter (DM)
contents were highest for fish fed on diet 4 (24.87 ± 0.05) and
lowest for fish fed on diet 1 (24.07 ± 0.33). There were no
significant (P>0.05) differences in dry matter (DM) among
fish fed on diets 1, 2 and 4. Fish fed on diets 3 and 4 were
similar (P>0.05). Crude protein (CP) was highest for fish fed
on diet 2 (71.15 ± 0.07) and lowest for fish fed on diet 3
(63.86 ± 0.26). Whiles fish fed on diets 2 and 3 were
significantly (P<0.05) different from all the other treatments.
Fish fed on diet 1 and 4 were not.
Ether extract (EE) was highest for fish fed on diet 3 (10.58 ±
0.05) and lowest for fish fed on diet 1 (7.74 ± 0.01). The EE
were not significantly (P<0.05) different among fish fed on
diets 2, 3 and 4. However, fish fed on diet 1 differed (P<0.05)
from all the other treatments.
Crude fibre (CF) was highest for fish fed on diet 1 (0.33 ±
0.00) and lowest for fish fed on diet 2 (0.21 ± 0.00). Crude
fibre was not significant (P>0.05) for fish fed on diets 1 and
4. There were significant (P>0.05) differences among fish fed
on diets 2 and 3. Ash content was highest for fish fed on diet
4 (3.44 ± 0.28) and lowest for fish fed on diet 2 (2.13 ± 0.04).
However, fish fed on diet 4 differed (P<0.05) from all the
others, whiles no significant (P>0.05) difference were found
among fish fed on diets 1, 2 and 3. The nitrogen-free extract
(NFE) was highest for fish fed on diet 1 (28.26 ± 1.06) and
lowest for fish fed on diet 3 (15.85 ± 0.53). The NFE were
similar (P>0.05) for fish fed on diets 1 and 4, for fish fed on
diets 2 and 3.
Table 3: Biochemical composition of fingerling of O. niloticus at the of the experiment period (24 weeks)
Components
(%)
Final composition in diets (mean ± *S.E.)
Diet 1
Diet 2
Diet 3
Diet 4
Moisture
75.94b ± 0.03
75.89b ± 0.08
74.39c ± 0.30
75.1de ± 0.05
DM
24.07b ± 0.03
24.12b ± 0.75
24.61a ± 0.30
24.87ab ± 0.05
CP
69.99b ± 0.03
71.15a ± 0.07
63.86d ± 0.26
70.31b ± 0.05
EE
7.74b ± 0.01
10.06a ± 0.01
10.58a ± 0.05
10.31a ± 0.01
CF
0.33a ± 0.00
0.21c ± 0.00
0.25bc ± 0.00
0.32a ± 0.00
Ash
2.28b ± 0.09
2.13b ± 0.04
2.60b ± 0.09
3.44a ± 0.28
NFE
28.26a ± 1.06
19.28b ± 0.36
15.85bc ± 0.53
24.62a ± 1.97
Note: Similar superscript alphabets in the rows denote homogenous means (DMRT, P>0.05)
Crude protein = CP, Ether extract = EE, Crude fibre = CF,
Nitrogen-free Extract = NFE, Dry matter = DM and
*Standard error = S.E.
3.4 Results of sensory analysis of O. niloticus
Results of the quality of flesh (fish meat) of O. niloticus fed
on different dietary treatments (Table 4) indicate that, in terms
of colour liking, fish fed on diet 2 (8.14 ± 0.14) had the
highest score and fish fed on diet 1 (71.6 ± 0.47) had the
lowest score. However there were no significant (P>0.05)
differences in colour liking for fish fed on all diets 2.
In terms of odour liking, fish fed on diet 3 (8.00 ± 0.34) had
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
the highest score, whiles, fish fed on diet 4 (7.00 ± 0.49) had
the lowest score. However, there were no significant (P>0.05)
differences among all the treatments for odour liking. Fish fed
on diet 2 (7.71 ± 0.29) had the highest score, while fish fed on
diet 1 (6.43 ± 1.01) had the lowest score for flavour (taste)
liking by the panelists. Test fish fed on all diets were similar
(P>0.05). Concerning texture (tenderness), fish fed on diet 4
(7.86 ± 0.40) had the highest score and fish fed on diet 1 (7.29
± 0.18) had the lowest score. However, there were no
significant (P<0.05) differences for fish fed on all diets. With
regard to overall acceptability, fish fed on diet 2 (8.14 ± 0.36)
had the highest score but did not differ from all the other
diets.
Table 4: Sensory properties of O. niloticus fed on different diets for 24 weeks in out-door hapas
Attributes
Diets (mean ± *S.E)
1
2
3
4
Colour liking
7.71a ± 0.64
8.14a ± 0.14
7.72a ± 0.47
7.86a ± 0.26
Odour liking
7.71a ± 0.47
7.86a ± 0.14
8.00a ± 0.34
7.00a ± 0.49
Flavour liking
6.43a ± 0.36
7.71a ± 0.29
6.71a± 0.42
7.00a± 0.44
Texture liking
7.29a ± 0.18
7.29a± 0.36
7.29a ± 0.42
7.86a ± 0.40
Overall acceptability
7.71a ± 0.43
8.14a ± 0.36
7.71a ± 0.36
7.86a ± 0.37
(Note: Similar superscript alphabets in the rows denote homogeneous means (DMRT, P>0.05)
Sensory attributes were judged on a 9-point hedonic scale: 9 =
like extremely, 8 = Like very much, 7 = like moderately, 6 =
Like slightly, 5 = neither like nor dislike, 4 = dislike slightly,
3 = dislike moderately, 2 = Dislike very much, 1 = dislike
extremely
*Standard error = S.E.
4. Discussions
4.1 Characteristics of feedstuff
The variability in the composition of agro-industrial by-
products and diets formulated and prepared is reflected in
growth and development of O. niloticus. This is because,
growth of fish fed on various diets tended to differ, although
not significantly among the tested diets. The ability of O.
niloticus to utilize various diets could be attributed to wide
spectrum of preference for foods. This is in agreement with
Chou & Shiau (1996) [8], Gonzalez & Allan (2007) [11] and
Audu et al. (2008) [6] who, reported that, O. niloticus readily
adapts to eating a wide variety of feeds, and that they (O.
niloticus) have very long intestines necessary to digest plant
materials.
4.2 Biochemical analysis of fingerlings O. niloticus
It appears higher protein levels for fish fed on diets 2 and 4
correlates positively with higher ether extract (EE)/lipid
levels. This was explained by Habib et al. (1994) cited in Raj
et al. (2008) [17] that, deposition of high lipid content for fish
fed with higher amount of carbohydrates may be due to the
availability of sufficient energy in those diets. This suggests
that, the dietary protein could be used for growth, hence
higher protein levels for fish fed on diets 2 and 4. Although
EE in diet 3 was within acceptable levels according to
Manjappa et al. (2002) [14] for fish, it suggests that, some of
the protein in the diet could have been used as a source of
energy due to the lower NFE levels or perhaps an imbalance
in the carbohydrates to lipid ratio as demonstrated by Ali &
Al-Asgall (2001) [2].
The lower EE in fish fed on diet 3 compared to the EE level in
diet 3 suggests that, EE in diet 3 could have been used as a
source of non-protein energy supplementing the NFE to spare
protein for growth, thus, resulting in lower deposition in the
bodies of fish fed on that diet. The results obtained in this
study are in agreement with Iluyemi et al. (2010) [13] who
reported a decrease in EE in red tilapia fed with palm kernel
cake (PKC) and other plant residues. However, this does not
agree with Ali & Al-Asgall (2001) [2] who, reported that, the
EE in fish appear to correlate positively with the dietary lipid
content.
It appears the by-products used in this study have the potential
to enhance better growth in O. niloticus because of the
increase of the EE in the test fish. Ether extract (EE) in the
range 7.74 - 10.58 fall within the acceptable levels for growth
of fish as reported by Chou & Shiau (1996) [8], Manjappa et
al. (2002) [12] and Audu et al. (2008) [6].
In the present study ash were similar (P>0.05) among fish
groups fed on diets 1, 2 and 3. A similar result was reported
earlier by Metwally & El-Gellal (2009) [15] when plant wastes
used as feed for O. niloticus were evaluated with reference to
the impact on growth and body composition. However, the
significantly (P<0.05) higher ash content recorded for fish fed
on diet 4 suggests that, fish in this group were likely to
contain more minerals than the other groups. This is in
accordance with earlier reports by Stickney (1979) [19], and
Watanabe et al. (1997) [20] that, the ash content of an
ingredient is the total amount of minerals (or inorganic
matter) present within the food.
4.3 Sensory evaluation of fingerlings of O. niloticus fed on
different diets
Considering the following interpretation of the 9-point
acceptability scale in discussion of the ANOVA results (Table
4): like moderately to like extremely was considered
“positive’ or “liked” part of the scale; dislike slightly to like
slightly was considered “neutral” part of the scale, and dislike
moderately to dislike extremely was considered “negative” or
“disliked part of the scale. There were similarities between
colour likeness for diets 2 and 4. This might be alluding to the
fact that, the by-products in these two diets have similar
chemical (e.g. pigments) properties that have the same effect
on the colour of the flesh of the fish. This is because, the
physical colour of pito mash in diet 2 and that of groundnut
bran in diet 4 looked same during and after diets were
prepared.
Panelists “liked” the colour of the flesh of fish fed on
supplementary diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) indicated by the mean
scale rating range of 7.71 - 8.14 perhaps because the colour of
the flesh from these treatments were desired by panelists.
Support for these explanations could be drawn from Boyd
(2005) [7] who explained that, consumers desired tilapia meat
with the normal light gray to white colour. A deviation from
this widely accepted colour for tilapia meat is likely to be less
desired and would attract consumer complaints.
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
Panelists demonstrated that the odour (smell) was not
significantly (P>0.05) different among all the four treatments.
The insignificant difference among all the treatments could be
an indication that the different treatments had similar effects
on the odour of the test fish. However, it is important to note
that, the odour that resulted from the use of all the test diets in
this study was “liked” as indicated by the mean score rating of
range 7.00 - 8.00 from the panelists.
In general, the scores for overall flesh quality of all the test
fish did not yield any significant difference as shown by the
results of variance ANOVA. However, it appears fish fed on
supplementary diets were “liked” by the panelists because, the
component that gives good taste in fish (i.e. fat/oil) were
higher in fish fed on supplementary diets.
5. Conclusion
Biochemical analysis of the fish revealed, that the dietary
treatments significantly influenced the body composition of
O. niloticus. The by-products; pito mash, rice bran, groundnut
bran and wheat bran used in this study might have slightly
different effects on the sensory attributes to include; colour,
odour, flavor and taste qualities of the fish. However, the
impact does not affect consumer acceptance.
6. References
1 Agbo NW. Oilseed meals as dietary protein sources for
juvenile Oreochromis niloticus Unpublished doctoral
thesis, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling,
UK, 2008.
2 Ali A, Al-Asgall NA. Effect of feeding different
carbohydrate to lipid ratios on the growth performance
and body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
niloticus) fingerlings. Animal Research. 2001; 50:91-100.
3 Amisah S, Oteng MA, Ofori JK. Growth performance of
the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fed varying
inclusion levels of Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal.
Journal of Applied Science, Environment and
Management. 2009; 13(1):21-26.
4 Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC).
Official Methods of Analysis of the Official Association
of Analytical Chemists (15th ed.). Virginia: Association
of the Official Analytical Chemists. 1990, 1533.
5 Attipoe FYK, Nelson FK, Abbran EK. Evaluation of
three diets, formulated from local agro-industrial by-
products from production of Oreochromis niloticus in
earthen ponds. Ghana Journal of Agriculture Science.
2009; 42:185-191.
6 Audu BS, Adamu KM, Binga SA. The effect of
substituting fishmeal diets with varying quantities of
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... Currently, one of the challenges of fi sh farming is to formulate competitive fi sh feeds with local available low cost raw materials in order to improve quality feeds use and reduce fi sh production costs. So, the use of local agro-industrial by-products as components of fi sh feeds have become increasingly common (Goddard et al., 2008;Agbo et al., 2011;Workagegn et al., 2014;Abarike et al., 2016). ...
... Results attest also the possibility to use local low cost fi sh meal in the formulation of adapted Tilapia O. niloticus fi ngerlings feeds despite the high quantity Ash induce by its use. Also, Abarike et al. (2016), reported good growth of tilapia with feeds contents up to 22.32% Ash and Goddard et al., (2008) reported best growth with of the feeds formulated at 38.9-39.8 % protein levels with local fi sh meal (16.1-24.4% of Ash). ...
... use of ABPs or genetically modified ingredients in salmon feed, despite the potential benefits [114]. Considering the fact that consumer acceptance varies and changes with exposure to products and information, it is possible to achieve potential improvement of products without sacrificing quality [115]. ...
Chapter
Large volumes of protein-rich residual raw materials, such as heads, bones, carcasses, blood, skin, viscera, hooves and feathers, are created as a result of processing of animals from fisheries, aquaculture, livestock and poultry sectors. These residuals contain proteins and other essential nutrients with potentially bioactive properties, eligible for recycling and upgrading for higher-value products, e.g. for human, pet food and feed purposes. Here, we aim to cover all the important aspects of achieving optimal utilization of proteins in such residual raw materials, identifying those eligible for human consumption as co-products and for feed applications as byproducts. Strict legislation regulates the utilization of various animal-based co- and by-products, representing a major hurdle if not addressed properly. Thorough understanding and optimization of all parts of the production chain, including conservation and processing, are important prerequisites for successful upgrading and industrial implementation of such products. This review includes industrially applied technologies such as freezing/cooling, acid preservation, salting, rendering and protein hydrolysis. In this regard, it is important to achieve stable production and quality through all the steps in the manufacturing chain, preferably supported by at- or online quality control points in the actual processing step. If aiming for the human market, knowledge of consumer trends and awareness are important for production and successful introduction of new products and ingredients.
... use of ABPs or genetically modified ingredients in salmon feed, despite the potential benefits [114]. Considering the fact that consumer acceptance varies and changes with exposure to products and information, it is possible to achieve potential improvement of products without sacrificing quality [115]. ...
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Inland and marine capture fisheries productions in Ghana have more or less stabilised. Moreover, the increasing population is always putting pressure on the demand for fish which capture and marine productions alone are not able to meet. The national demand for fish is always greater than the country can supply and the gap is widening year after year. However, fish is the most important animal protein in Ghana accounting for about 82 % of protein consumption. Moreover, the relatively cheaper price of fish compared to the other animal proteins means that the year-after-year short-fall in fish production will affect the protein in-take of the poorer segments of the society in the near future if nothing is done about it. For example according to Tradezone, even though the national fish demand for 2007 was 913, 992 tonnes, the country was able to supply only 511, 836.The development of aquaculture has been seen to be one of the best solutions to the problem. The positive side is that the geo-ecological climate of the country is generally favourable for aquaculture development. These include the vast water surfaces of the dug-outs, dams, lagoons, the Volta Lake (the largest man-made lake in the world) and other water bodies. Nonetheless, this vast potential has not been tapped due to number of bottlenecks such as the availability of quality feed among others. Following the results of my studies and work, I therefore propose that; 1. The local agricultural products and by-products should be tested scientifically in order to formulate cheap feed for aquaculture development. 2. Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture (IAA) should be promoted and developed since it is resource and ecologically efficient and at the same time economically beneficial to farmers. 3. The agricultural extension officers should be trained in fish farming techniques so that that they can help advice farmers more especially on issues of integrated agriculture-aquaculture. 4. Women should be encouraged and motivated to enter into aquaculture and 5. Finally, the Aquaculture Development Committee (ADC) should assist farmers in the acquisition of soft loans and land which have been major stumbling blocks to the development of aquaculture.