Article

Attractive celebrity and peer images on Instagram: Effect on women's mood and body image

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Abstract

A large body of research has documented that exposure to images of thin fashion models contributes to women's body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of attractive celebrity and peer images on women's body image. Participants were 138 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of celebrity images, a set of equally attractive unknown peer images, or a control set of travel images. All images were sourced from public Instagram profiles. Results showed that exposure to celebrity and peer images increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction relative to travel images, with no significant difference between celebrity and peer images. This effect was mediated by state appearance comparison. In addition, celebrity worship moderated an increased effect of celebrity images on body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that exposure to attractive celebrity and peer images can be detrimental to women's body image.

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... Over the last ten years a growing number of experimental studies investigating the effects of the exposure to different types of beauty ideals via SNSs on body image have been conducted. The majority of these studies have used experimental methods to test whether women feel worse about their bodies after exposure to idealized images on SNSs than after exposure to other types of images (e.g., Brown & Tiggemann, 2016). In a typical experiment, participants complete assessments of body image-related constructs, and then they are randomly assigned to view images taken from Instagram or Facebook of the ideal body (e.g., attractive, thin, fit; experimental condition) or images that are considered appearance-neutral (e.g., travel; control condition). ...
... Among women, with respect to an attractive beauty ideal images versus appearance neutral images (e.g., travel, landscapes) comparison, exposure to attractive and thin bodies increased body dissatisfaction (Fardouly & Holland, 2018, β = 0.09;Brown & Tiggemann, 2016, ηp 2 = 0.04; Brown & Tiggemann, 2020, ηp 2 = 0.04; Livingston et al., 2020, d = 0.73;Mills et al., 2018, ηp 2 = 0.06;Sampson et al., 2020, b = 2.39;Tamplin et al., 2018, ηp 2 = 0.02) and facial dissatisfaction (Fardouly & Rapee, 2019, d = − 0.40) relative to travel/landscapes images. Contrarily, Flynn (2016) failed to find a significant effect of viewing body ideal profile pictures on users' body satisfaction. ...
... Four studies (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016Chansiri et al., 2020;Tiggemann & Zaccardo, 2015) found that state appearance comparison mediated the effect of experimental condition (attractive/thin ideal or fit ideal images vs neutral images) on body image (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body appreciation, appearance self-esteem). Effect sizes ranged from β = 0.05 to β = 0.36. ...
Article
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Sharing and viewing photos on Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have been identified as particularly problematic for body image. Although correlational research to date has established that SNS use is associated with increased body dissatisfaction, only experimental studies can enhance confidence in the conclusions drawn. For this reason, this systematic review synthesizes data from 43 experimental studies (N=8637; %F =89.56; mean age= 21.58±1.78) examining the effect of viewing idealized images (i.e., attractive, thin, and fit) and body positive content on SNSs on body image. Two studies were conducted on adolescents. Each study had slight variations in how the images were presented for each category (e.g., selfies and photos taken by others). The wide variability in experimental stimuli and psychological moderators used in the published research make a systematic review more feasible and meaningful than a meta-analysis. Findings indicate that viewing idealized images on SNSs lead to increased body dissatisfaction among young women and men. State appearance comparison (i.e., engaging in social comparison while viewing images) significantly mediated the effect, whereas trait appearance comparison (i.e., the relatively stable general tendency to engage in social comparison) was a significant moderator. Mixed results were found regarding the exposure to body positive images/captions. Viewing images on SNSs depicting unattainable beauty ideals leads young people to feel dissatisfied about their bodies, with appearance comparison processing playing an important role. More research is required to assess the long-term effects.
... Since Instagram content is characterized by a positivity bias, where users generally present an idealized image of themselves [5,6], researchers have suggested even before the publication of the Facebook Files that Instagram may be more detrimental to women's body image than any other social media platform, such as Facebook, which presents more varied content [7]. Prior studies on the link between Instagram use and women's body dissatisfaction mainly focused on social comparison behaviors with peers [8] and specific features such as the role of "selfies" [9] or the number of "likes" [10]. Recent research also considered Instagram influencers [11], focusing on adult women. ...
... Research demonstrated that social comparison was directly associated with greater comparison with "ideals" and negative feelings about one's own body image [30]. In an experimental study, Brown and Tiggemann [10] found that exposure to Instagram images that depict attractive and thin celebrities and peers was associated with higher body dissatisfaction levels, mediated by social comparison. Likewise, Kleemans et al. [31] found that manipulated Instagram pictures had a negative effect on female adolescents' body image, moderated by social comparison. ...
... Although social media, and Instagram in particular, are frequently blamed for disseminating idealized body images, voluntarily or involuntarily [38], there is little research to date that examines the relationship between the exposure to female influencers on Instagram and women's body image. The first study in this regard was carried out by Brown and Tiggemann [10], who demonstrated that the exposure to Instagram images posted by attractive celebrities was related to higher levels of body dissatisfaction among female participants. A similar finding was found in a recent study by Lowe-Calverley and Grieve [11], comparing idealized images of Instagram influencers with high and low popularity metrics (e.g., "likes", number of followers). ...
Article
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Background: Instagram is one of the most popular social media platforms among young females. Idealized body images shared on the platform have been associated with lower levels of body satisfaction in this population, likely due to social comparison processes. In the present study, we tested a mediation model linking Instagram use (i.e., browsing through others' profiles, commenting on others' looks, posting one's own photos or stories) to body dissatisfaction (i.e., body image discrepancy and lack of body appreciation), mediated by upward social comparison with close peers, distant peers, and social media influencers. Methods: We applied structural equation modeling to self-report cross-sectional data collected from 291 female adolescents and young women (Mage = 19.8, SD = 4.6; 94.8% Italian). Results: Our final model results show that browsing on Instagram was associated with lower levels of body appreciation, fully mediated by upward social comparison with social media influencers, not close or distant peers. Commenting on others' looks and posting own content were not associated with body dissatisfaction. Being an adolescent female (compared to a young woman) and having a higher BMI were associated with worse body appreciation. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need for public health interventions to raise awareness about the posting practices of social media influencers and to strengthen a positive body image among young females susceptible to social comparison processes.
... The percentage of patients reading about aesthetic surgery on social media peaked by 29.1% between 2014 and 2019. Although the percentage of surgeons that are convinced about the possibility to obtain reliable information from the internet dropped down from 61.7% in 2014 to 35.2% in 2019, it remains high. At the same time, the percentage of surgeons who are convinced that social media could create unrealistic expectations rose from 38.3% to 65.3% [8]. ...
... Fardouly et al. [34] found that Instagram usage might negatively impact women's concerns and beliefs about their appearance. Brown and Tiggemann [35] revealed that exposure to attractive celebrity and peer Instagram images could increase body dissatisfaction. Instagram images in the travel category did not have a significant correlation. ...
... Instagram images in the travel category did not have a significant correlation. Contrary to the present research, the Brown and Tiggemann [35] study sample consisted of 138 females from one university. Findings for the larger and more diverse population could be different. ...
Article
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The impact of social media on the eagerness to undergo aesthetic breast surgery is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between Instagram engagement and the willingness to undergo breast augmentation. Women aged between 19–34 years old participated in an online survey. Of the 1560 respondents, 1226 (78.59%) met the inclusion criteria. BMI, bra type, bra cup size, education, and level of activity on Instagram increased the willingness to undergo breast augmentation (OR = 1.520, p = 0.020). Moreover, concurrent Snapchat use (OR = 1.348, p = 0.024) and the number of published posts on a respondent’s Instagram accounts (reference, n > 26; 0 < n ≤ 26; OR = 0.708, p = .009; lack of posts (n = 0): OR = 0.702, p = 0.155) were significant drivers of the respondents’ willingness. Fashion (OR = 0.730, p = 0.021), design/architecture (OR = 0.730, p = 0.022), and models (OR = 0.623, p = 0.004) were the searched content categories that increased the desire for breast augmentation. Positive and negative feeling scores that were triggered by Instagram content were correlated with BREAST-Q scores. We concluded that Instagram is a commonly used social network service among young women, and it may drive a desire for breast augmentation. Further analyses of Instagram preferences may help assess the willingness to undergo breast surgery, and in turn assist in tailoring marketing campaigns.
... 62). Participants use social media to profile themselves through often optimized images (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016). In doing so, they consciously or unconsciously create a new form of idealization (ibid.). ...
... It is questionable whether the presentation of Fitspiration images within a specific social media context, in which they can primarily be found, has different effects on the recipients than seeing the photos without this framework (Meier, Gilbert, Börner, & Possler, 2019;Scott & Ravenscroft, 2017;Westerwick, Johnson, & Knobloch-Westerwick, 2017). It is possible that the images only have an impact on the viewer if they can be seen in the Instagram context, since they are perceived as peer content due to the supposedly personal authorship (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Jones, 2001). Without such a social media framework, the people depicted could simply be perceived as sports models whose social and personal distance to the test subjects makes a comparison less relevant (Wood, 1989). ...
... The image evaluation was carried out via a self-developed 5-point Likert scale. It contained eight items, which were acquired based on previous studies (Homan et al., 2012;Brown & Tiggemann, 2016). In addition, some socio-demographic data, as well as weight and size of the participants were recorded. ...
Thesis
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Die vorliegende Studie befasst sich mit der Veränderung der Selbstwahrnehmung durch soziale Vergleichsprozesse im medialen Umfeld. Untersucht wird die Wirkung sogenannter Fitspiration-Bilder auf die physische Selbstwahrnehmung sowie das Selbstbewusstsein. Theoretisch baut die Arbeit auf der Theorie des Sozialen Vergleichs nach Festinger sowie den Besonderheiten computervermittelter Kommunikation über soziale Netzwerke auf. Das Genre Fitspiration umfasst insbesondere Fotografien sportlicher Menschen, die entweder einer entsprechenden Aktivität nachgehen oder lediglich posieren. Betrachter sollen dazu angeregt werden, durch Bewegung und gesunde Ernährung ein positiveres Körperbild sowie einen vernünftigen Lebensstil zu erreichen. Ursprünglich soll das Material der Idealisierung einer schlanken physischen Erscheinung entgegenstehen. Eine Betrachtung einschlägiger Forschung legt jedoch nahe, dass die Bilder bisherigen innerhalb der Massenmedien postulierten Idealen sehr ähnlich sind. Sie könnten daher lediglich einen, um den Aspekt der Muskularität ergänzten, Aufwärtsvergleich verursachen. Die konkreten bisherigen Forschungsergebnisse gehen teilweise weit auseinander, was gegebenenfalls auf die Rahmenbedingungen, das Stimulusmaterial und die diversen Methodiken der einzelnen Studien zurückzuführen ist. Innerhalb der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde daher neues Stimulusmaterial erstellt, das weitestgehend frei von Störvariablen ist. Zwei Vorstudien dienten der Feststellung erster Trends sowie der Bewertung des generierten Bildmaterials. Die Hauptstudie besteht aus einer Kombination von Befragungen und Eyetracking Experiment. Die Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Arbeit stehen der bisherigen Forschung in großen Teilen entgegen. Es fällt auf, dass die Veränderungen der physischen Selbstwahrnehmung sowie des Selbstbewusstseins im Durchschnitt positiv ist – wenn auch mit kleinen Effektstärken. Im Sinne der Theorie des Sozialen Vergleichs kann bestätigt werden, dass in erster Linie die Probanden von Veränderungen betroffen sind, die die Models attraktiv fanden. Als weitere relevante Variablen bei der Frage, wer von den Fitspiration-Bildern beeinflusst wird, stechen der eigene BMI sowie das Alter der Probanden hervor. Es ergeben sich, trotz einiger Limitationen, interessante Ansatzpunkte für weiterführende Forschung.
... In this study, we aim to examine how Instagram usage might be linked to the thin-and fit-ideal internalization. This is important since exposure to social media and idealized body types has been linked to various negative outcomes, such as negative evaluation of one's physical appearance, body image, body satisfaction, as well as self-objectification and disordered eating outcomes [5][6][7][42][43][44]. Studies examining these negative outcomes of following positive self-presentations of others on SNS have focused on which specific types of activities can help predict individual's distorted weight perceptions. ...
... Further, Brown and Tiggemann [43] found that celebrity and peer images increase negative mood and body dissatisfaction to a greater extent than travel images on Instagram. This is generally consistent with studies on "fitspiration" [46,47], which found that exposure to fitspiration images causes greater negative mood, higher body dissatisfaction as well as increased drive for thinness, muscularity, compulsive exercise and risk of eating disorder diagnosis, in comparison to travel images [13,46], although one study has found no effects [47]. ...
... The following question was used to assess time on Instagram: "On average, how much time do you spend on Instagram per day?". As control variables, we included participants' time spent on Facebook, also measured in minutes per day, to account for the influence of an SNS, which is more focused on news and less visual compared to Instagram, which is heavily focused on fitness, make-up, fashion, and dietary topics [15,16,43,65], making these topics readily available and easy to imbibe. In addition, we included participants' self-reported weight in pounds and the demographic variables age, gender, and education level in our analysis because prior work has shown that demographics might influence weight perception [66]. ...
Conference Paper
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Visual Social Networking Sites (SNSs) enable users to present themselves favorably to gain likes and the attention of others. Especially, Instagram is known for its focus on beauty, fitness, fashion, and dietary topics. Although a large body of research reports negative weight-related outcomes of SNS usage (e.g., body dissatisfaction, body image concerns), studies examining how SNS usage relates to these outcomes are scarce. Based on the visual normalization theory, we argue that SNS content facilitates normalization of so-called thin- and fit-ideals, thereby leading to biased perceptions of the average body weight in society. Therefore, this study tests whether Instagram use is associated with perceiving that the average person weighs less. Responses of 181 survey participants confirm that Instagram use is negatively related to average weight perception of both women and men. These findings contribute to the growing body of research on how SNS use relates to negative weight-related outcomes.
... According to social comparison and objectification theories, individuals may engage in upward social comparisons when exposed to comparison targets that are seen as superior (Mills, Musto, Williams, & Tiggemann, 2018;Vogel, Rose, Okdie, Eckles, & Franz, 2015;Tiggemann & Polivy, 2010). Idealised images on social media are recognised as potent sources of appearance comparison which can result in a host of negative outcomes (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Tiggemann & Polivy, 2010). Given how modified these images often are, Fardouly, Pinkus, and Vartanian (2017) suggest that these comparisons are more harmful than those which may occur to people in daily life. ...
... Scores ranged from 0 to 100 where greater scores indicated higher satisfaction. Good reliability and validity have been previously reported in young women (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Heinberg & Thompson, 1995). The current sample demonstrates good reliability for appearance satisfaction at pre-(.92) and posttest (.95). ...
... A number of limitations must be acknowledged. Only crude measures of social media engagement were used, but previous research suggests that frequent social media usage is associated with greater body dissatisfaction and upward social comparisons (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Vogel et al., 2015). Familiarity with body positive content, frequency of access, and motivations for access may similarly affect findings in this area. ...
Article
Body positive content on Instagram may act as an antidote to the frequent depictions of thin and digitally modified images of women. Body positivity challenges narrow ideals by promoting diverse appearances and encouraging body appreciation. We examined the effects of congruent body positive messaging (unedited images of a diverse range of women presented with and without body acceptance captions) on state body image. This was the first study to investigate the moderating role of trait broad conceptualisation of beauty; a core component of body positive content and theories. Women 18–30 years (N = 233) were randomly assigned to view Instagram images of diverse women (e.g., varied body sizes, shapes, skin colour), either presented with or without body positive captions, or cityscape images. Pre- and post-test measures were taken of state body appreciation, appearance satisfaction, and positive mood, in addition to social comparison measures. Body appreciation and positive mood increased in all conditions. Appearance satisfaction only increased in the body positive conditions, with a larger effect size in the caption condition. Holding broad conceptualisations of beauty did not moderate findings. Captions did not change direction or amount of social comparison. Findings suggest that congruent body positive content may increase appearance satisfaction in viewers.
... Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954) stresses the importance of social comparison for the development of self-image, while negative effects of upward comparison-comparison with those who are better than oneselfis widely researched in the context of the influence of media on body dissatisfaction (e.g., Fardouly et al., 2017). Recently, the focus of research has shifted from traditional media to social networks (Ahadzadeh et al., 2017;Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Fardouly et al., 2015;Fardouly & Vartanian, 2016;Hendrickse et al., 2017;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013). On social media, as opposed to traditional media, the pool of comparison models is not limited to famous persons but may also include friends, acquaintances, and unfamiliar peers who present themselves in an idealized manner (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016). ...
... Recently, the focus of research has shifted from traditional media to social networks (Ahadzadeh et al., 2017;Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Fardouly et al., 2015;Fardouly & Vartanian, 2016;Hendrickse et al., 2017;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013). On social media, as opposed to traditional media, the pool of comparison models is not limited to famous persons but may also include friends, acquaintances, and unfamiliar peers who present themselves in an idealized manner (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016). ...
... When it comes to passive forms of selfie use, in accordance with research findings on the effects of social media on body dissatisfaction and internalization of societal beauty standards (e.g., Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Engeln et al., 2020;Fardouly et al., 2015;Holland & Tiggemann, 2016;Lowe-Calverley & Grieve, 2021), we hypothesized that it would be related to more fear of evaluation of one's physical appearance, lower body esteem and lower general self-esteem. Since we found no previous studies on the relationship between passive SNS/selfie use and social functioning or BMI, we examined these relationships in an exploratory manner. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on online social networks has indicated that it is appropriate to differentiate between active and passive use of these services, especially since they often have reverse effects on well-being. This study focused on Instagram selfies as a specific form of Instagram activity. We adopted the proposed distinction between active and passive use of social networks and applied it to selfies. In two correlational studies, we measured three aspects of selfie-related behaviors: self-presentation through selfies (active form), selfie preoccupation (active form), and upward physical appearance comparison with others' selfies (passive form). We explored their relationships with body image concerns and self-esteem (in Study 1, N = 284, 16.9% men, age ranged from 17 to 53) as well as subjective well-being and mental health (in Study 2, N = 473, 12.5% men, age ranged from 16 to 49) on the samples of Instagram users from Serbia and Balkan region who reported they take selfies. The results indicated that upward comparison with others' selfies is detrimental to both body image and subjective well-being. However, self-presentation and selfie preoccupation were related to stronger fear of negative appearance evaluation and better social self-esteem, but they had negligible relationship with indicators of mental health. This research was the first to study both active and passive selfie-related behaviors within the same framework and it showed that these behaviors have similar relations to body image, but different to self-esteem and well-being.
... Media has been shown to affect body image in emerging adults, with much of the previous research focusing on females. More specifically, exposure to idealized images in the media has been shown to positively associate with female emerging adult body dissatisfaction (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Robinson et al., 2017) and appearance anxiety (Monro & Huon, 2005) and negatively with selfcompassion (Slater et al., 2017). However, some research also has shown that exposure to idealized images in the media were positively associated with male emerging adult body dissatisfaction (Agliata & Tantleff-Dunn, 2004;Hatoum & Belle, 2004). ...
... A variety of types of images have been shown to contribute to body image issues in female emerging adults. For example, exposure to athletic ideal and thin ideal images (Robinson et al., 2017) and to attractive images of celebrities and peers (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016) were associated with increased body dissatisfaction, and exposure to "fitspiration" (i.e., fitness and inspiration) images was associated with poor self-compassion (Slater et al., 2017). However, exposure to self-compassion quotes in conjunction with fitspiration images was associated with more body satisfaction (Slater et al., 2017). ...
... Previous research has shown that media messages (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Choukas-Bradley et al., 2019;Hatoum & Belle, 2004;Robinson et al., 2017) and parent-child relationship (Almenara et al., 2016;Grenon et al., 2016) influence body image in emerging adults. Furthermore, research has shown that parental messages also influence body image in emerging adults (Biolclati et al., 2020;Lease et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Previous research has shown that media messages affect body image in emerging adults. Furthermore, parental body image messages and parent–child relationship quality have also been shown to affect emerging adult body image. However, little research has examined the relationships among these variables collectively. Thus, the current study examined the indirect effects of media body image messages and parent–child relationship quality on emerging adult body esteem through parental body image messages. Participants included 555 college-attending emerging adults (72.1% female) who completed online surveys assessing media messages, parental messages, parent–child relationship quality, and body esteem. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of maternal parent–child relationship quality and negative media body image messages on male and female emerging adult body esteem via negative parental body image messages.
... It is no secret that #thinspiration and #fitspiration content on Instagram negatively impacts women's body image (Brown and Tiggemann, 2016;Casale et al., 2021;McComb and Mills, 2021;Tiggemann and Barbato, 2018;Tiggemann and Zaccardo, 2015). For example, Brown and Tiggemann (2016) found women exposed to thin-ideal content display significant decreases in mood and body satisfaction. ...
... It is no secret that #thinspiration and #fitspiration content on Instagram negatively impacts women's body image (Brown and Tiggemann, 2016;Casale et al., 2021;McComb and Mills, 2021;Tiggemann and Barbato, 2018;Tiggemann and Zaccardo, 2015). For example, Brown and Tiggemann (2016) found women exposed to thin-ideal content display significant decreases in mood and body satisfaction. Beyond academic research, internal documents released by Instagram's parent company Facebook (recently rebranded as Meta) express similar concerns. ...
... One issue with #bodypositive, and any variation thereof, is that #bodypositive content is dwarfed by #thinspiration and #fitspiration content, with the hashtags amassing nearly 7 billion interactions across the same time period. This issue is exacerbated by the popularity of celebrity accounts on Instagram, the majority of which would be classified as promoting a thinideal (Brown and Tiggemann, 2016;Brown and Tiggemann, 2021). Thus, even if the number of accounts posting #bodypositive content increases, they are unlikely to receive the attention of these celebrity accounts. ...
Article
The body-positive movement (#bodypositive) champions body acceptance by celebrating a diverse - visual - array of body types and shapes online. Sparked out of collective resistance to unrealistic bodies on social media, the #bodypositive community has assembled a considerable following: having now surpassed one billion engagements on Instagram. To mark this milestone, we highlight the problem, the promise, and the peril of image-focused movements on Instagram. On balance, we argue #bodypositive content on Instagram likely has a positive impact. As the movement continues to grow though, advocates can look to strengthen the content’s positive impact with some careful, research-informed, messaging adjustments.
... In manipulated images, thinness and body proportions are unnatural, and flawless skin and faces appear to be the "norm" of online beauty (Meier, 2013;Tiggemann and Slater, 2013). Thus, social comparisons with peers' idealized photos on social media/Instagram may contribute to body dissatisfaction (Brown and Tiggemann, 2016;Fox and Vendemia, 2016;Kleemans et al., 2018). Recently, some researchers (e.g., Chang et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2019;Yang et al., 2020) have found that selfie viewing leads to social comparisons and the internalization of beauty ideals, which contributes to increased body image concerns among girls and causes digitized dysmorphia (Verrastro et al., 2020). ...
... In other words, prolonged and more frequent social media use was associated with decreased self-control, identity integration, or a sense of competence. These findings are consistent with previous studies that demonstrated that the use of social media in the long term might worsen mental well-being and, through the mechanism of social comparison, also lower general self-esteem and self-image (Brown and Tiggemann, 2016;Fox and Vendemia, 2016;Jang et al., 2016;Jiang and Ngien, 2020;Kleemans et al., 2018;Vogel et al., 2014). It seems that social media, by fostering an idealized vision of life, happiness, and appearance, may (through the abovementioned mechanism of social comparison) contribute to the deterioration of self-esteem and well-being. ...
Article
The main aim of the study was to investigate Instagram's impact on users’ mental well-being and behavior (including purchasing activity) during the pandemic. The study was conducted on 359 respondents who stated that they used Instagram regularly. Three questionnaire tools were implemented: the Instagram Usage Questionnaire (original tool), the MSEI Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory by O'Brien and Epstein, and the Personal Data Sheet (original tool). Significant negative correlations were obtained between self-esteem components: self-control, competence, lovability, identity integration, defensive self-enhancement, frequency, and intensity of social media use. The respondents declared no negative influence of Instagram on their current mental well-being. One group (21.2%) considered the influence beneficial to their mental well-being. Observing others’ Instagram profiles did not influence the activity of (most) users, including changing appearance, lifestyle, or making purchase decisions. Moreover, most respondents declared not making purchase decisions based on Instagram ads. The analysis of differences between purchasing and nonpurchasing groups showed significant discrepancies in these self-esteem components: likability, personal power, and competence. Significant differences regarding physical attractiveness, overall self-esteem, lovability, likability, personal power, competence, and vitality were reported between men who made purchase decisions based on Instagram messages and those who did not. Among women, these differences concerned only defensive self-enhancement. The results confirm that prolonged/frequent use of social media can have a negative impact on self-esteem (including identity integration and self-control). However, a positive impact of Instagram on mental well-being was observed. Following (mostly) acquaintances (not influencers) and not undertaking activity (regarding purchasing decisions of Instagram-advertised products) may indicate emerging changes in society due to the pandemic.
... Similarly, Harrison (1997) found that the interpersonal attractiveness of thin celebrities seems to be positively correlated with people's eating disorder symptoms compared with ordinary or heavy celebrities. Brown and Tiggemann (2016) explored the impact of Instagram photos of celebrities and attractive peers on young females' emotions and body dissatisfaction. The results demonstrated that experimental groups exposed to images of celebrities and peers had more negative emotions and body dissatisfaction than the control group (nature images), but there was no significant difference between famous celebrity images and attractive peer images. ...
... They arguably represent ideal beauty in social media and cultural beauty ideals. As current beauty ideals emphasize thinness for women, it is suggested that this constant presentation of edited female body images in social media reinforces an unattainable thin ideal and causes the prevalence of body dissatisfaction among young women (Maltby et al., 2005;Brown and Tiggemann, 2016). Given that the strong influence of female influencers, they can be encouraged to upload real images for other users to view, as previous finding revealed that exposure to the social media influencers' real images resulted in a decrease in body dissatisfaction, relative to exposure to the their ideal images (Tiggemann and Anderberg, 2020). ...
Article
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Many studies have linked idealized body image on social media to negative psychological well-being among young females. However, social media influencers’ imagery has not attracted much research attention in either the Western or the Asian context. This study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of high versus low popular social media influencer images on young Chinese females’ body satisfaction and mood. The participants were 420 female RED users (aged 18–35) who were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) the influencer-high group (idealized imagery alongside high engagement metrics); (2) the influencer-low group (the same idealized imagery adjusted for low engagement metrics); or (3) a control set of nature images. The results revealed that the groups exposed to influencer imagery had lower body satisfaction and more negative mood than the control group (nature images). Notably, this comparison showed no significant difference between the low-influencer and high-influencer groups in body satisfaction and mood. Additionally, this effect was moderated by individuals’ self-discrepancy between personal ideals and their own bodies. That is, exposure to idealized body images does not always produce harmful effects. For those with lower self-discrepancy, idealized body posts somewhat positively affected their body satisfaction. The current research contributes to the media effect literature by providing critical new insights into the study of body image in the context of China.
... Instagram allows individuals to choose personal photos you want to share publicly, and to improve with filtering tools to adapt self-presentation to ideal standards of beauty (Caso et al., 2019;Holland & Tiggemann, 2016). A growing body of studies has suggested that exposure to Instagram images focused on aesthetic ideals, including peers or celebrities, has negative effects on women's body image (e.g., Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Casale et al., 2019;Cohen et al., 2019;Seekis et al., 2020). ...
... It seems that, regardless of the levels of internalization of the socio-cultural standards of beauty, a high number of likes represents feedback from the Instagram users that, by establishing what is socially valuable, can increase worries and unpleasant emotions about one's body. These findings are consistent with those of prior studies that found higher levels of body dissatisfaction and appearance anxiety due to exposure to thinideal images on Instagram (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Kleemans et al., 2018;Monro & Huon, 2005;Tiggemann & Zaccardo, 2015). The presence of many Likes may have evoked cognitive processes (e.g., appearance schemas, reinforcement of beauty ideals) or emotional states pertinent to negative body image (Chua & Chang, 2016;Seekis et al., 2020;Tiggemann et al., 2018). ...
Article
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This study examined the effects of being appreciated on Instagram (numbers of Likes) and knowing whether or not the physical appearance of a person depicted in an Instagram image has been altered (Disclaimer)-on women's self-awareness, body dissatisfaction, and social physique anxiety, both independently and in combination. The study used a 2×2 between-participants design in which the number of Likes (Low vs. High) and the image Disclaimer (Presence vs. Absence of information about digital enhancement) were manipulated. Participants, 201 Italian women (M=22; SD=3.69), were randomly assigned to the various conditions. Findings showed that participants exposed to an Instagram image with many Likes reported higher body dissatisfaction and social physique anxiety compared to those with few Likes. Moreover, an interaction effect between the Disclaimer and the number of Likes emerged. When many Likes were associated with an Instagram image, the presence of a Disclaimer was found to reduce women's self-awareness, lowering levels of attentional focus. These findings suggest that increased media literacy training-designed to foster greater awareness of unrealistic aesthetic ideals-could be advantageous for young women. Specifically, in the presence of socially accepted Instagram images, providing information about digital enhancements could lead to a reduction in attentional focus about one's own appearance.
... Previous research conducted on the influence of sexualized media on females' body image as an indicator of mental health has largely focused on the impact of conventional mass media [41,42], employed quantitative research methods [21,34,[43][44][45], analyzed sexualized content in various forms of media [46], focused on pre/ early adolescent girls [29,47,48] or young women [32,[49][50][51][52]. There are few qualitative studies exploring the influence of sexualized images on social media or the role of social media use in body image development from the perspective of adolescent girls themselves. ...
... While studies have found sexualized images to influence body image among females [34,43,49], participants in this study did not highlight sexualization as a specific concern in relation to body image. The pervasiveness and normalization of sexualized images within social media may help explain why girls participating in this study did not consider such images as distinct from others [34,52]. ...
Article
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Background Adolescent girls appear more vulnerable to experiencing mental health difficulties from social media use than boys. The presence of sexualized images online is thought to contribute, through increasing body dissatisfaction among adolescent girls. Sexual objectification through images may reinforce to adolescent girls that their value is based on their appearance. This study explored how sexualized images typically found on social media might influence adolescent girls’ mental health, in positive and/or negative ways. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with girls aged 14–17 years (n = 24) in Perth, Western Australia. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants identified body image as a major concern, reporting negative appearance comparisons when viewing images on social media. Appearance comparisons were perceived to exacerbate adolescent girls’ appearance-based concerns. Comparisons also influenced adolescent girls’ efforts to change their appearance and seek validation on social media. The importance of awareness and education from a younger age about social media and its influence on body image was emphasized, as was the need for strategies to promote positive body image and counteract negative body image. Conclusion The findings of this study have important implications for professionals working with adolescent girls and for the development of health promotion programs addressing social media use and body image concerns.
... In terms of specific targets served as stimuli, studies have examined the different exposure effects of viewing idealized images of models, celebrities, or peers (Lin and Kulik, 2002;Brown and Tiggemann, 2016;Fardouly et al., 2018). Studies report that exposure to both fashion models and celebrity images led to emotional distress and body dissatisfaction Peña, 2017, 2020). ...
... Studies report that exposure to both fashion models and celebrity images led to emotional distress and body dissatisfaction Peña, 2017, 2020). Similarly, viewing unknown peer images also had a detrimental effect on women's mood and body image (Brown and Tiggemann, 2016). Women from China and Croatia both reported feeling pressure to conform to standard beauty norms from their family, friends, and media (Stojcic et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Previous studies have reported that general or photo-specific social media use was associated with women’s body dissatisfaction and body image disturbance. The current study replicated and expanded upon these findings by identifying the positive association between social media influencer viewing and intentions to change appearance. This study surveyed a sample of 7,015 adult female TikTok users in China regarding their social media influencer viewing frequency, self-objectification, social comparison tendencies when watching short videos, intentions to change appearance, and demographics. The results showed that female TikTok users’ self-objectification mediated the association between their influencer viewing frequency and their intentions to change appearance. Furthermore, social comparison tendencies moderated the association between influencer viewing and intentions to change appearance in that the proposed association was stronger for female TikTok users who had lower social comparison tendencies when watching short videos, compared to female TikTok users who had higher social comparison tendencies. The counter-intuitive finding on social comparison tendencies indicated that women who have higher social comparison tendencies may be more aware of the negative influences and adjust their expectations. The observed association between social media influencer viewing and intentions to change appearance was statistically significant but trivial in terms of effect size. Although the result could warn policymakers and practitioners to design media and health literacy campaigns to cultivate body positivity, caution should be exercised when evaluating the practical implications.
... Celebrities are famous people who are usually noticed for their participation in entertainment or sports. Celebrities are popular in all types of media, from magazines and TV to Facebook and Instagram (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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Consumer behavior and factors affecting their buying behavior is one of the important issues in marketing and sales that many factors affect this process. Using celebrities as endorsers and their presence in advertisements is one of the effective factors in attracting customers. The present study investigated the effect of the apparent attractiveness of celebrities on the intention among young consumers. The answers of 410 Iranian young people, between 17 to 30 years, were collected and examined through the distribution of questionnaires on social networks. The Chi-Square test was used to examine the independence of the variables and the correlation coefficient was used to determine the type and direction of the relationship between the components. The results show that any physical attractiveness of celebrities is not significantly different in terms of gender between males and females and also showed that the physical attractiveness of celebrities has a positive and significant effect on the intention of young consumers to buy. The relationship between the questions and the type of celebrity impact on youth has also been investigated.
... Influencers get followers in the millions by curating material from their everyday life and distributing it via social media sites such as Instagram and YouTube, all while focusing on a single topic (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016). Influencers established their careers on the internet and previously the broader public is unknown, despite the fact that 'traditional' superstars have also gone to social media . ...
Article
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Celebrity endorsements create a magnitude of meaningful differences among luxury brands that subsequently generate skyrocketing sales fueled by celebrity-inspired consumer's confidence. The present study explores the impact of celebrity endorsements as a modern marketing technique on customers' purchase of luxury brands. Applying the signaling theory and quantitative research approach, a standardized questionnaire facilitated a survey of 300 potential buyers of luxury brands in Pakistan. The partial-least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM) based findings revealed that celebrity endorser has a favorable impact on consumers' perceptions of psychological ownership, brand trust and brand attitude. Notably, the customer's psychological ownership, brand trust, and brand attitude significantly mediate celebrity endorsement and luxury brand purchase intentions through multiple pathways. The present study offers new insights on the theoretical and practical consequences of celebrity endorsement for luxury brands, especially pinpointing the potential mediating channels (i.e., psychological ownership, brand trust, and brand attitude) that can significantly enhance customer's confidence and purchase intentions of luxury brands.
... Given concerns about its effects on well-being (Lup et al., 2015), Instagram has been subject to the scrutiny of researchers. For example, consumption of thinideal body images via Instagram negatively impacts women's body image (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016). This may be exacerbated by social comparison such that women who tend to compare themselves more with others also have more negative outcomes when viewing such images on Instagram (e.g., Sherlock & Wagstaff, 2019). ...
Article
Despite the impact of social media use on women’s self-perception, research has less frequently explored social media’s impact on behavioral intentions. Further, most of the research in this area has taken into account social comparison as a mediating variable, despite the extent of our social comparison being closely related to sexual competition, which is infrequently considered. This study explored the relationships between women’s Instagram use, Instagram image exposure, cosmetics behavior and attitudes, sexual strategies, and a hypothetical cosmetics purchasing decision task in order to determine the impact of sexual strategies and social media use on cosmetics-related consumer intentions. Two hundred twenty women (Mage = 25) completed a series of measures to assess these variables, were shown cosmetics-related Instagram images (idealistic facial images, budget cosmetics, luxury cosmetics, or travel images), and then completed a hypothetical cosmetics purchasing task. Women exposed to luxury cosmetics images spent relatively more than the other groups on the luxury items in the cosmetics purchasing task. Regression further revealed that the predictors of hypothetical cosmetics purchases were real-life cosmetics behavior and attitudes, Instagram use, and intrasexual competitiveness. Thus, considering intrasexual competition is important for a complete understanding of the mechanisms by which Instagram use impacts women’s cosmetics purchasing behavior.
... Given that fitspiration includes a positive emotion-laden word similar to hope (inspiration), this finding could help researchers understand when fitspiration content has positive motivation effects and when, in instances when it does not generate hope, it could potentially lead to negative effects. Additionally, studies on fitspiration have concentrated on either source (e.g., Ho et al., 2016) or emotional responses (e.g., Brown & Tiggemann, 2016), but rarely consider the interplay between both factors. As such, this study contributes to the TPB by taking into account source and emotions when examining psychological and behavioral impacts of social media use in promoting exercise as a positive outcome of fitness-related content exposure. ...
Article
Physical inactivity has become an increasingly important concern for public health. “Fitspiration” social media posts may influence attitudes and intentions toward exercising. An online survey (N = 485) was conducted to examine the potential for fitspiration content from weak and strong ties to shape user emotions, attitudes, norms and behaviors related to exercising. Guided by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social cognitive theory (SCT), the results show that exposure to fitspiration content from both strong ties and weak ties were significant predictors of particular attitudes, norms, intentions, actual exercise frequency. However, our path analyses reveal significant indirect paths between exposure to fitspiration content and outcomes for weak ties through negative emotions (guilt), but only through positive emotions (hope and curiosity) for strong ties. Additionally, we found evidence that body satisfaction levels do matter in shaping the interrelationships between exposure to fitspiration content, emotions, and our outcome variables. In light of our results, we encourage researchers to consider the inclusion of emotional responses as antecedents to TPB outcomes and for practitioners to consider the role of source in campaign design.
... Perception of body image referred to an individual's expectations regarding his own body size and shape 24 . If expectations did not match the real condition of the individual's body, then this condition was considered negative body image 25 . ...
Article
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Background: Nutritional problems, such as over-nutrition and under-nutrition, will raise the risk of non-communicable diseases. Adolescence happens to be one of the most important phase in life since it is a transition phase to adulthood so that nutritional status at this phase could define the health status in adulthood. The limitation of outdoor activities during the pandemic has been done as an effort to break the chain of the Covid-19 virus spread causes decline in physical activity, increase in sedentary behavior and stressful events in the form of a negative body image. Changes in physical activity and the presence of a negative body image, especially in adolescent girls, will likely cause changes in nutritional status and increase the risk of nutritional problems in both over-nutrition and under-nutrition. Objective: To analyze the relationship of body image and physical activity of female students in State Senior High School 2 Surabaya (SMA Negeri 2 Surabaya). Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional study, with a total sample of 61 female students of SMA Negeri 2 Surabaya, aged 15-17 years who were randomly selected using the simple random sampling method. The study instruments were BSQ-16a, IPAQ-short form, personal data including body height and body weight which were designed online. Data analysis were cross tab analysis and the fisher’s exact test using IBM SPSS Statistics v23. Results: There were seven out of ten (70.5%) students that had a negative body image; most of them had normal nutritional status (77%), but the prevalence of overweight (14.8%) was high and the levels of physical activity varied (light=32.8, moderate=31.1%, strenuous=36.1% ). In addition, there was a correlation between body image (p = 0.011) and physical activity (p = 0.006) with nutritional status of female students in SMA Negeri 2 Surabaya. Conclusion: Negative body image and lower physical activity or sedentary behavior contributed to overweight and obesity in female students of State Senior High School 2 Surabaya (SMA negeri 2 Surabaya).
... However, among the participants who followed nutrition-related content on Instagram, 48.4% reported a positive impact, 17.6% a negative impact, and 33.9% reported a neutral impact. On the other hand, it has been established that exposure to attractive celebrities from Instagram can be detrimental to women's body image [27]. However, due to the characteristics of our sample, degree of education, or work status, not much influence on body image was observed in general. ...
Article
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Background: The Internet is today the largest platform for food distribution, and there are concerns about the impact that digital marketing has in the field of nutrition by promoting non-evidence-based recommendations. The purpose of this study was to describe the user profile that draws on Instagram to follow nutrition-related content versus not, and to analyze the frequency and type of content of the information provided by nutritional influencers. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving randomly selected United States residents having an Instagram account was performed. Participants completed an anonymous online survey link. Results: From 898 respondents, 78.7% were women, and 75.6% were Millennials. Scientific evidence present in the posts was 14.3%. Influencers promoted a product or a brand in more than 90% of posts. Women followed more nutrition-related content than men (p < 0.001). Millennials, followed by Generation-Z, followed more nutrition-related content (p < 0.001). There were no significant relationships between the following status of nutrition-related content with BMI, type of job, household income, education degree, or smoking habits. Conclusions: Women and Millennials followed more nutrition-related content. Scientific evidence was scarce and commercial interest in the network was evident. The vast majority of the posts were not based on scientific evidence and instead promoted a product/supplement.
... Unhealthy attitudes have also been connected to how children use social media to continually equate themselves to an artificial ideal (Brown and Tiggemann's, 2016). The challenge for social work is to use the benefits and opportunities that social media enables, without causing harm and reflect critically on their incorporation into everyday practice. ...
Article
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The presence of social media in our daily life gives both its positive and negative impact on communication manners. The study aims to know the effect of excessive screen time on children's development and well-being. Today, all children are using tablets, smart phones and spending hours in front of their even. 2 year children know how to use it, this excessive use causing different problems among children. This study aimed to see the effect of screen time on children's development and well-being. The universe of the present study was mothers of under 10 children sample was selected through convenient sampling. Which consisted of 105 mothers. The findings revealed that excessive screen time is badly affecting children's well-being and development and it causes different mental behavioral issues.
... One key consideration in social comparison research is the source of comparison-that is, to whom the comparison is being made. A plethora of data have evaluated the links between different sources of comparison (e.g., comparison to samesex peers, celebrities, social media, and family members) and eating disorder symptoms among males and females across the life span (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Coomber & King, 2008;Fitzsimmons-Craft et al., 2012;Jones, 2001). However, recent data indicate that, for postpartum women in particular, the most potent source of comparison regarding disordered eating is selforiented body comparison (Thompson & Bardone-Cone, 2021). ...
Article
Evidence suggests self-oriented body comparison (comparison of one’s postpartum body shape and weight to one’s pre-pregnant body shape and weight) is a critical factor associated with increased levels of disordered eating during the postpartum period. However, some postpartum women adopt a self-compassionate and acceptance-based perspective towards their body shape and weight changes. It is unclear if self-compassion may buffer the associations between self-comparisons and disordered eating behaviors among postpartum women which is the aim of the current study. A total of 306 postpartum women who gave birth in the past year completed an online survey asking about self-compassion, social comparison, broad eating pathology, dietary restraint, and binge eating. Results indicated self-compassion appeared to buffer the associations between self-comparison and broad eating pathology and binge eating among postpartum women, such that for women with above average levels of self-compassion the associations between self-comparison and disordered eating was weaker than for women with average or below-average levels of self-compassion. Findings suggesting self-compassion could be a potential target for intervention programs.
... Unhealthy attitudes have also been connected to how children use social media to continually equate themselves to an artificial ideal (Brown and Tiggemann's, 2016). The challenge for social work is to use the benefits and opportunities that social media enables, without causing harm and reflect critically on their incorporation into everyday practice. ...
... Unhealthy attitudes have also been connected to how children use social media to continually equate themselves to an artificial ideal (Brown and Tiggemann's, 2016). The challenge for social work is to use the benefits and opportunities that social media enables, without causing harm and reflect critically on their incorporation into everyday practice. ...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of social media in our daily life gives both its positive and negative impact on communication manners. The study aims to know the effect of excessive screen time on children's development and well-being. Today, all children are using tablets, smart phones and spending hours in front of their even. 2 year children know how to use it, this excessive use causing different problems among children. This study aimed to see the effect of screen time on children's development and well-being. The universe of the present study was mothers of under 10 children sample was selected through convenient sampling. Which consisted of 105 mothers. The findings revealed that excessive screen time is badly affecting children's well-being and development and it causes different mental behavioral issues.
... This may be because females pay more attention to their facial appearance. In addition, their self-image and body satisfaction are negatively affected by unrealistic beauty standards and demands to hide outer imperfections imposed by social media 24 A weakness of our study is that the sample was a non-probabilistic quota sample, so that the data is more suited to descriptive analysis; inference cannot be calculated. Therefore, we have to assume that FROI and ROE scores are independently distributed between those that opt-in and those that do not. ...
Objective: Normative values of patient-reported outcome instruments are needed to identify good candidates for rhinoplasty. Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE) and Functional Rhinoplasty Outcome Inventory-17 (FROI-17) are disease-specific questionnaires that evaluate quality of life in patients undergoing rhinoplasty. Methods: The reference cohort contained 1,000 participants, selected from a non-probability panel. Normative ROE and FROI-17 scores from this reference cohort were compared with ROE and FROI-17 scores from a patient cohort before (n = 104) and 6 (n = 55) and 12 months (n = 32) after septorhinoplasty. Results: Mean FROI-17 scores (± SD) were: overall score, 20.8 ± 17; nasal symptoms, 16.8 ± 7; general symptoms, 24.8 ± 22; and self-confidence, 16.4 ± 21. The ROE total score was 73.1 ± 16. Normative values differed significantly from the preoperative ROE and FROI-17 scores of septorhinoplasty patients (p < 0.01). Except for the FROI-17 general score at 12 months postoperatively (p = 0.004), there were no significant differences between normative ROE/FROI-17 and septorhinoplasty scores postoperatively, indicating that they returned to normalcy. Conclusions: Normative scores for ROE and FROI-17 provide a reference point from which to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from rhinoplasty.
... Particularly, Instagram is influential when an individual's self-worth is contingent on external validation from social others (Stapleton, Luiz & Chatwin, 2017). Further, Instagram, with its proliferation of attractive celebrity and peer images, amplifies women's body dissatisfaction through social comparison (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016) and exposure to #fitspiration on Instagram decreases body satisfaction in women (Prichard et al., 2017). These findings suggest that, although there is not always a direct relationship between media use and self-worth, social media addiction can be particularly detrimental to those already predisposed toward lower levels of self-esteem (Stapleton et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Social media use has become increasingly prolific in modern society, and, as a by-product, so too have the negative implications of excessive social media use. Although there exists a robust body of research on social media use and its subsequent association with social media addiction, life satisfaction and self-esteem, few studies have examined how the social media medium (i.e., the social media platform itself) may influence users distinctively. This study explores how medium differences on the social media platforms, Instagram and YouTube, may result in different media effects for social media users. It is expected that engaging with YouTube may increase users' self-esteem and life satisfaction or that pre-exposure and post-exposure measures will remain constant. However, it is predicted that engaging with Instagram will decrease self-esteem and measures of life-satisfaction post-exposure. Findings of this study can be widely applied in modern business practice.
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The relationship between instagram use and body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and internalization of beauty ideals: a correlational study of Iranian women Foozieh Rafati, , Nasim Dehdashti & Azade Sadeghi ABSTRACT Body dissatisfaction, defined as a person’s negative feelings about her body appearance or weight, is a common problem among women and can lead to different health-related problems. This correlational study aimed to investigate how Instagram use is associated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and internalization of beauty ideals. A random sample of 241 Iranian women was recruited from a university of medical sciences. They were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire, an Instagram use questionnaire, the Body Dissatisfaction, and the Drive for Thinness as the subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory, and the Internalization-General subscale of the Sociocultural Attitude Toward Appearance Questionnaire. The findings showed that Instagram use and appearance comparison with fitspiration images and the images of relatives and celebrities had significant positive relationships with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and internalization of beauty ideals. Appearance comparison with the images of relatives and strangers also had significant positive relationships with the drive for thinness and the internalization of body ideals, while appearance comparison with the images of friends had a significant positive relationship with the internalization of beauty ideals. To conclude, the more frequent use of Instagram is associated with greater body image concerns among Iranian women. https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/SGXQWJTFKQJUXWQMWD8U/full?target=10.1080/14680777.2021.1979065
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The present study intends to explore the visual and textual content of posts cosmetic surgeons shared on Instagram pages in order to present their cosmetic surgical or non-surgical procedures. To do so, this study employed a qualitative approach using textual and visual content analysis on 200 Instagram posts shared by cosmetic surgeons. The results demonstrated that the content of analyzed posts can be categorized as 12 sub-themes which are clustered around four main themes; "You have got some body imperfections," "Body imperfections are worrisome," "Cosmetic procedure is the solution; we provide it for you" and "It's not a real surgery!."
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Past research suggests that sexualized women are dehumanized and viewing sexualized images negatively impacts viewers’ body image; however, plus-size women are mostly absent from this research. The current studies investigate how sexualization impacts dehumanization of plus-size women and participants’ body image. In Study 1 (N = 277, Mage = 19.52, SD =1.77) men and women viewed images of plus-size and thin sexualized and non-sexualized women and rated the women on traits linked to dehumanization. Results indicated that sexualized thin targets were perceived as less human than plus-size sexualized and non-sexualized targets. Plus-size sexualized targets were also perceived as less human than plus-size non-sexualized targets. In Study 2 (N = 500, Mage = 18.98, SD = 1.51) we investigated the impact of viewing sexualized images on participants’ feelings about their own body. Results indicated that sexualization, but not body size, impacted women’s objectified body consciousness. Men’s body esteem was impacted by the body size of the image. Perceived race of the image also impacted feelings of body control for both men and women. Taken together these results highlight that sexualization, at any body size, impacts women’s views about themselves and sexualized women, at any body size, are dehumanized.
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El presente trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo de analizar la imagen fotográfica proyectada por las Influencers Kylie Jenner y Tana Mongeau en Instagram desde una perspectiva semiótica. La investigación estuvo enmarcada en el paradigma cualitativo bajo un diseño documental con nivel exploratorio fundamentado en la teoría semiótica de Umberto Eco. Se empleó la observación documental como técnica e instrumento de recolección de datos y para el procesamiento se utilizó la técnica de análisis semiótico basado en la descripción del icono, su connotación y denotación, finalmente se presentó en un formato desarrollado por las autoras. Entre las conclusiones, se destacan las características de las influencers en sus perfiles de Instagram, representándose como figuras sensuales, siendo a veces percibidas como objetos o símbolos sexuales, por lo que se recomienda potenciar la realización de análisis semióticos sobre los diferentes tipos de fotografías compartidos en la red social.
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The present study examined the relationship between posting or viewing fitspiration and clean eating imagery in relation to body image, disordered eating, and compulsive exercise among women. Participants (269 women aged 18–30 years) who posted and/or viewed fitspiration, clean eating or travel imagery on Instagram completed an online cross-sectional questionnaire. Results showed engaging with fitspiration and clean eating material (either posting or viewing) was significantly positively associated with increased levels of compulsive exercise and athletic-ideal internalization. However, only viewing (not posting) fitspiration and clean eating content was significantly related to thin-ideal internalization and disordered eating symptomatology. Athletic-ideal internalization mediated the relationships between posting fitspiration/clean eating and disordered eating symptomatology and compulsive exercise. Both thin-ideal internalization and athletic-ideal internalization mediated the relationship between viewing fitspiration/clean eating material and disordered eating and compulsive exercise. Overall, the findings suggest that viewing fitspiration and clean eating content on Instagram is negatively associated with thin-ideal internalization and disordered eating symptomatology, however the same relationships do not exist for people who frequently post these types of material. The mediational pathways provide a nuanced understanding of how engaging with fitspiration and clean eating material on social media influences female users’ body image and health behaviour.
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Instagram is one of the leading social networking sites today. Especially, that young people prefer using it for its being free entertainment source, simple use and opportunity to engage in socialization. We also examined the attitude of the users towards beauty trends, social media celebrities and effects of Instagram on university students' self-perception after comparing oneself with others. We selected a sample of n= 50 university level students from Lahore Pakistan and used Structural Equation Modellingtechn1qiue. Supported by Self-Perception theory, findings indicated that Instagram users compare themselves with others and they feel bad about themselves and their lives for not being as good as others. Instagram content related to beauty ideals make the users unhappy about themselves. Some of the users consider Instagram celebrities as ideals and some of them think they are just like common people. They start taking interest in beauty and weight loss products that can make them look like celebrities. Weight loss related photos are not much inspirational, but photos of workout are inspiring. Thus, it is concluded that, people are dissatisfied towards their life and appearances after comparing them with others on Instagram. Results supported the proposition, that users given attention to the ideals presented on Instagram and feel pressure from them. Further, we made the conclusions accordingly.
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Social media use contributes to body dissatisfaction and reduced quality of life among adolescents. This study examines the impact of social media use and skin conditions on body image and suggests that a Comfortable in Our Skin (CIOS) pilot community‐based workshop may promote healthier body image and social media usage among urban adolescents.
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The past decade saw a sharp increase in the use of smartphones and digital communication platforms. This manuscript reviews advancements in the study of digital communication and adolescent development over the last decade. We highlight theoretical models that seek to explain the power of digital media in adolescents’ lives. We then examine research conducted over the last decade on five aspects of digital media: (1) potential to contribute to adolescent development, (2) associations with mental health, (3) differential impact of active versus passive social media use, (4) cyberbullying, and (5) sexting. We conclude with a discussion of potential opportunities and challenges for studying the role of digital communication in adolescents’ development during the coming decade.
Conference Paper
In 2018 Facebook blocked a public Application Programming Interfaces (API) that could be used to download data from Facebook and Instagram. Much uncertainty still exists about the effect on social media research due to changes in Instagram API conditions. The presented paper provides an overview of the Instagram domain in terms of a research area. The main focus of this research is on the comparison of the key topics before and after the change of the Instagram API terms (comparing Instagram's research domain before and after 2018). A partial goal was to find out how the change in the conditions of the Instagram API has changed the number of social media research itself. We used a bibliometric approach to map the domain of Instagram. The paper has identified key topics in the domain of Instagram. Between the years 2010 and 2018 the key topics were gender, behavior on social media, dissemination of information, and platform selection. After the change of Instagram API conditions, after 2018, the key topics were gratifications, body image, dissatisfaction, and basic Instagram topics. The paper has found that generally, there was no change in research topics, nor the number of papers published after the Instagram API condition. Further study should focus on establish the relationships between Instagram use and psychological well-being; investigate the motives for Instagram use a study the effect of Instagram API on research with the use of different methods; gaining a better understanding of social media consumer activity; establish whatever our key topics are relevant to other social media platforms (Facebook, Twitter or Tiktok); study Instagram domain on different citation databases (e.g., in Scopus). This paper has also raised important questions about whether the Instagram API should be or should not be open for research purposes.
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Most body image studies assess only linear relations between predictors and outcome variables, relying on techniques such as multiple Linear Regression. These predictor variables are often validated multi-item measures that aggregate individual items into a single scale. The advent of machine learning has made it possible to apply Nonlinear Regression algorithms—such as Random Forest and Deep Neural Networks—to identify potentially complex linear and nonlinear connections between a multitude of predictors (e.g., all individual items from a scale) and outcome (output) variables. Using a national dataset, we tested the extent to which these techniques allowed us to explain a greater share of the variance in body-image outcomes (adjusted R²) than possible with Linear Regression. We examined how well the connections between body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior could be predicted from demographic factors and measures derived from objectification theory and the tripartite-influence model. In this particular case, although Random Forest analyses sometimes provided greater predictive power than Linear Regression models, the advantages were small. More generally, however, this paper demonstrates how body image researchers might harness the power of machine learning techniques to identify previously undiscovered relations among body image variables.
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The authors conducted a study to examine women’s body dissatisfaction, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalization in relation to exposure to social networking sites. Additionally, women’s body dissatisfaction, social comparison, thin-ideal internalization, and exposure to social networking sites were examined in relation to their ethnic backgrounds. A survey was completed by 725 females enrolled in undergraduate programs at California State University. Participants showed higher body dissatisfaction, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalization if they were more exposed to social media sites. Differences were also found based on ethnic backgrounds; results showed that African American and Middle Eastern/Arab women’s body satisfaction was not as low as that of white and Asian women.
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Research has suggested that Instagram is detrimental to one’s body image and health, as a result of its image-driven nature and the social comparisons that are commonly made between users’ bodies and the bodies they see portrayed. This study was designed to provide a better understanding of the effects of thin and fat body types portrayed in Instagram posts. This was done by examining how such body type portrayals influence attention to the posts, in addition to influencing outcomes such as body dissatisfaction and appearance management behavioral intentions. A total of 309 college students viewed 30 Instagram posts in an online experiment with a 2 (portrayed body type: thin vs. fat) X 15 (message repetition) within-subjects design. The findings indicate that thin-body portrayals increase audience self-reported attention to the posts and state body dissatisfaction, but female users who self-perceive themselves as fat report a similar level of attention to the posts regardless of portrayed body types. Additionally, Instagram use (defined as the number of photos users personally post) is found to moderate the effects of the body portrayals.
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Body image research to date has examined the impact of thin- and fit-ideal media on women’s body image, however cultural trends in Western media have recently shifted towards a curvier body type called slim-thick, which is characterized by a large butt and thighs and small waist and flat stomach. We experimentally examined the impact of forced social comparison to slim-thick-, thin-, and fit-ideal imagery on women’s body image relative to a control condition, and whether physical appearance perfectionism moderated these findings. Participants were 402 female undergraduate students. Results revealed that comparison to body-ideal imagery resulted in greater weight and appearance dissatisfaction and less overall body satisfaction, relative to the control condition. Those exposed to slim-thick imagery experienced more weight and appearance dissatisfaction and less body satisfaction than those in the thin-ideal condition. Physical appearance perfectionism moderated these results, such that women who reported moderate or high levels of physical appearance perfectionism experienced greater weight and appearance dissatisfaction and lower body satisfaction in the slim-thick condition, than in the thin-ideal, fit-ideal, or control conditions. It was concluded that drive to achieve body ideals is shifting to a slim-thick body, which maybe more detrimental to women’s body image than thin-ideal imagery.
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Exposure to idealized appearance images on social media is recognized as having a damaging effect on body image. Identifying and harnessing protective factors are, therefore, important research foci. Building on traditional media literacy concepts, one proposed protective factor is social media literacy, that is, the application of a critical analysis of motivations behind social media posts and the constructed, generally unrealistic nature of images, when viewing appearance-focused images on social media. This article describes theoretical models of social media literacy and current measurement approaches. In addition, it examines empirical support for a protective role for social media literacy, before considering directions for future research. It was concluded that, although there is still much that needs to be understood, there is modest preliminary support for a protective role for social media literacy, especially in girls and young women.
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Using social media applications can lead to increased body dissatisfaction among young women, particularly when they compare themselves to such images. One intervention for combating these harmful effects may be through self-compassion, or the ability to treat oneself as a friend. The goal of this study was to determine whether a self-compassion micro-intervention could prevent increases in body dissatisfaction after comparing themselves to thin ideal images on Instagram. In an online study, 230 women (M = 25.88, SD = 0.70) completed measures of state weight and appearance dissatisfaction before completing a brief self-compassion writing task (experimental condition) or a simple sorting task (control condition). After completing the assigned tasks, participants reported state body dissatisfaction. Next, they were asked to compare themselves to pre-selected thin ideal images of a curated Instagram profile before reporting state body dissatisfaction for a final time. The results demonstrated that the self-compassion intervention led to decreased in weight dissatisfaction and appearance dissatisfaction that were maintained after Instagram use. Those in the control condition showed increased in body image concern after Instagram use. These preliminary findings suggest that a self-compassion micro-intervention may serve as an effective buffer against certain adverse effects of social media on body image.
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Objectives Mindfulness-based interventions have shown effectiveness in reducing risk factors for disordered eating; however, little is known about mechanisms. This online study evaluated two isolated metacognitive components of mindfulness, adopting a decentered or non-judgemental stance towards internal experiences, respectively, for reducing body dissatisfaction and negative affect. Methods Women (N = 330, Mage = 25.18, SD = 4.44) viewed appearance-ideal media images before listening to a 5-min audio recording that guided them to (a) distance themselves from their experience (decentering), (b) accept their experience without judgement (non-judgement), or (c) rest (active control). Participants reported state body dissatisfaction and negative affect at baseline, post-media exposure, and final assessment. Trait measurements (weight and shape concerns, mindfulness, emotion regulation) were assessed as potential moderators. Participants self-reported engagement and acceptability. Results All groups reported significant reductions in body dissatisfaction and negative affect following the recording (d = 0.15–0.38, p < 0.001), with no between-group differences. Trait measurements did not moderate effects. Conclusions The results suggest rest was as effective as the metacognitive components in ameliorating immediate negative impacts of appearance-related threats. Alternatively, coping strategies spontaneously adopted by the control group may have supplied temporary relief. Findings highlight the importance of including suitable control; further research should investigate when and for whom specific aspects of mindfulness-based interventions may be particularly helpful.
Article
In physical education (PE), learning about and with the body is central. During their physical education teacher education (PETE) program, students are presented with different understandings and practices regarding the body. However, PETE students understanding of the body are also influenced by sites beyond formal schooling. One such site is social media. There is limited knowledge regarding PETE students and their reflections on how the body is presented on social media. Inspired by activist approaches to PE, this article focuses on third-year PETE students’ critical reflections about different presentations of the body on social media. The data material consists of the PETE students’ visual photos, transcribed text from group conversations, and reflection logs. Working with the visual as public pedagogy of the body, our goal has been to enable the PETE students to reflect and raise critical awareness about different presentations of the body on social media and discuss how this approach can be used in PE teaching. The analysis revealed two contrasting stories about the body on social media: body pressure, and body positivity. Our research makes visible the complexities and paradoxes of social media as public pedagogy, its impact on PETE students’ embodied experiences, and their reflections on how they can work with social media as future PE teachers.
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In this review, analysis of the studies pertaining to the role of social media in body dissatisfaction eventually leading to body dysmorphia and eating disorders was conducted.Objective:The aim was to review how social media creates the urge of attaining unrealistic body images which is impossible in real life but possible in real-life.Methods:Different search mediums including PubMed, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were used in order to find out the effects of social media in influencing body dissatisfaction. The inclusion criteria were based on the selection of research articles from 2014-2021 which correlated social media with eating disorder & body dysmorphia. Additionally, the articles that were not original researches, abstract only and not in English were excluded. After exclusion of irrelevant sources, duplicated article, abstract only& articles published before 2014, Total 25 articles were selected for the purpose of systematic review. Result:As per this systematic review, body dysmorphia & eating disorders were related to high levels of social media addiction. Moreover, how much social media has negatively impacted both the physical health of young adults especially in regards to disordered eating patterns as well as mental health. Social comparison in order to attain unrealistic images on social media resulting in body dysmorphia and body dissatisfaction.Conclusion:By reviewing different studies and finding out the effects of social media in body dysmorphia it is revealed that social media can highly influence various types of eating disorders like anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders.
Article
In this review, analysis of the studies pertaining to the role of social media in body dissatisfaction eventually leading to body dysmorphia and eating disorders was conducted.Objective:The aim was to review how social media creates the urge of attaining unrealistic body images which is impossible in real life but possible in real-life.Methods:Different search mediums including PubMed, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were used in order to find out the effects of social media in influencing body dissatisfaction. The inclusion criteria were based on the selection of research articles from 2014-2021 which correlated social media with eating disorder & body dysmorphia. Additionally, the articles that were not original researches, abstract only and not in English were excluded. After exclusion of irrelevant sources, duplicated article, abstract only& articles published before 2014, Total 25 articles were selected for the purpose of systematic review. Result:As per this systematic review, body dysmorphia & eating disorders were related to high levels of social media addiction. Moreover, how much social media has negatively impacted both the physical health of young adults especially in regards to disordered eating patterns as well as mental health. Social comparison in order to attain unrealistic images on social media resulting in body dysmorphia and body dissatisfaction.Conclusion:By reviewing different studies and finding out the effects of social media in body dysmorphia it is revealed that social media can highly influence various types of eating disorders like anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders.
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Previous research has shown the effect of both media messages and parental feedback on emerging adult body esteem. However, not much research has examined the combined effects of these types of feedback on emerging adult body esteem. Previous research has also shown that mothers and fathers can affect their children differently. Thus, the current study examined the interaction effects of maternal and paternal feedback and media messages on emerging adult body esteem. Participants included 555 college-attending emerging adults (72.1% women). Participants completed an online survey measuring negative media messages, negative maternal and paternal feedback, and body esteem. Results indicated significant negative main effects of media messages and maternal and paternal feedback on emerging adult body esteem Furthermore, results indicated a significant three-way interaction effect of media messages and maternal and paternal feedback on body esteem in emerging adult women. Findings from this study can be used to inform interventions addressing body image in emerging adults.
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Objective The use of social networks has grown substantially over the past few years and especially during COVID-19. This study aims to investigate the possible relationship between social media addiction and obesity which may lead to disturbed body perception in university students.Participants: A total of 250 undergraduates participated.Results: Social media addiction depends on the number of years of social media use, meal skipping, and increased frequency of fast food consumption. There was a significant relationship between fast-food consumption frequency and body perception. No significant relationship was found between BMI and SMAS while there was a significant relationship between SMAS and body perception.Conclusion: The findings support, social media addiction may lead to increased risk factors for obesity and as a consequence impair body perception in young adults.
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A randomized controlled trial of three school-based programs and a no-intervention control group was conducted to evaluate their efficacy in reducing eating disorder and obesity risk factors. A total of 1316 grade 7 and 8 girls and boys (mean age = 13.21 years) across three Australian states were randomly allocated to: Media Smart; Life Smart; the Helping, Encouraging, Listening and Protecting Peers (HELPP) initiative; or control (usual school class). Risk factors were measured at baseline, post-program (5 weeks later), and at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Media Smart girls had half the rate of onset of clinically significant concerns about shape and weight than control girls at the 12-month follow-up. Media Smart and HELPP girls reported significantly lower weight and shape concern than Life Smart girls at the 12-month follow-up. Media Smart and control girls scored significantly lower than HELPP girls on eating concerns and perceived pressure at the 6-month follow-up. Media Smart and HELPP boys experienced significant benefit on media internalization compared with control boys and these were sustained at the 12-month follow-up in Media Smart boys. A group × time effect found that Media Smart participants reported more physical activity than control and HELPP participants at the 6-month follow-up, while a main effect for group found Media Smart participants reported less screen time than controls. Media Smart was the only program to show benefit on both disordered eating and obesity risk factors. Whilst further investigations are indicated, this study suggests that this program is a promising approach to reducing risk factors for both problems.
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This article reviews research pertaining to mass media as a causal risk factor for negative body image and disordered eating in females. The specific purpose is to clarify the impact of mass media by applying seven criteria that extend those of Kraemer et al. (1997) and Stice (2002). Although media effects clearly meet a majority of the criteria, this analysis indicates that, currently, engagement with mass media is probably best considered a variable risk factor that might well be later shown to be a causal risk factor. Recommendations are made for further research, with an emphasis on longitudinal investigations, studies of media literacy as a form of prevention, and clarification of psychosocial processes that moderate and mediate media effects.
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A study was conducted to examine the link between college women's interpersonal attraction to female media personalities of various body sizes, and several indices of disordered eating symptomatology. Interpersonal attraction to thin television characters and magazine models, operationalized as a combination of liking, feeling similar to, and wanting to be like these individuals, was expected to be positively related to disordered eating symptomatology. The theoretical proposition that attraction to social agents facilitates modeling of these agents’ behavior was proposed to account for the observed relationships. Attraction to thin media personalities predicted 6 of 7 eating disorder indices, even when exposure to thinness‐depicting and ‐promoting (TDP) media was controlled. The argument is advanced that interpersonal attraction thin media personalities is an important element in the relationship between consumption of TDP media and disordered eating, and exerts an influence on disordered eating beyond the influence of mere media exposure.
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94 college students recorded details of their social comparisons over 2 wks using a new instrument, the Rochester Social Comparison Record. Major results were (1) comparison direction varied with relationship with the target; (2) precomparison negative mood led more often to upward comparison than to downward comparison, supporting a selective affect–cognition priming model in which dysphoria primes negative thoughts about the self (G. H. Bower, 1991; J. P. Forgas et al, 1990) rather than a motivational self-enhancement model (T. A. Wills, 1981, 1991); (3) upward comparison decreased subjective well-being, whereas downward comparison increased it; and (4) high self-esteem individuals engaged in more self-enhancing comparison. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N= 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women (neutral-advertisement control). Exposure to thin-ideal advertisements increased body dissatisfaction, negative mood, and levels of depression and lowered self-esteem. In addition, social comparison processes mediated the relationship between exposure to thin-ideal advertisements and negative self-directed effects. Notably, self-discrepancy moderated this mediation. Women with high levels of body image self-discrepancy were more likely to engage in social comparison from exposure to thin-ideal advertisements, as well as more likely to have those comparison processes induce self-directed negative consequences. This research provides support for an individual difference variable (body image self-discrepancy) that moderates the mediating effect of social comparison from exposure to thin-ideal media.
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Within the cultural context of MySpace, this study explores the ways emerging adults experience social networking. Through focus group methodology, the role of virtual peer interaction in the development of personal, social, and gender identities was investigated. Findings suggest that college students utilize MySpace for identity exploration, engaging in social comparison and expressing idealized aspects of the selves they wish to become. The public nature of self and relationship displays introduce feedback mechanisms by which emerging adults can legitimize images as associated with the self. Also, male–female differences in self-presentation parallel, and possibly intensify, gender norms offline. Our study suggests that social networking sites provide valuable opportunities for emerging adults to realize possible selves; however, increased pressure for female sexual objectification and intensified social comparison may also negatively impact identity development. A balanced view, presenting both opportunities and drawbacks, should be encouraged in policies regarding youth participation in social networking sites.
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Swami, V., Taylor, R. & Carvalho, C. (2011). Body dissatisfaction assessed by the Photographic Figure Rating Scale is associated with sociocultural, personality, and media influences. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 52, 57–53. This study sought to investigate the convergent validity of a new measure of body dissatisfaction, namely the Photographic Figure Rating Scale (PFRS), in relation to media influence, celebrity worship, the Big Five personality factors, and respondent weight status. A total of 401 female undergraduates completed a battery of scales consisting of the PFRS, the third revision of the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Scale (SATAQ-3), a measure of celebrity worship, a measure of the Big Five personality factors, and provided their demographic details. Results of a multiple regression showed that body dissatisfaction was most strongly predicted by two of the SATAQ-3 subscales and participant body mass index, although celebrity worship and Emotional Stability added incremental variance. Limitations of the current study are discussed in conclusion.
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People acquire information about their abilities by comparison, and research suggests that people restrict such comparisons to those whom they consider sources of diagnostic information. We suggest that diagnosticity is often considered only after comparisons are made and that people do not fail to make nondiagnostic comparisons so much as they mentally undo them. In 2 studies, participants made nondiagnostic comparisons even when they knew they should not, and quickly unmade them when they were able. These results suggest that social comparisons may be relatively spontaneous, effortless, and unintentional reactions to the performances of others and that they may occur even when people consider such reactions logically inappropriate.
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The effect of experimental manipulations of the thin beauty ideal, as portrayed in the mass media, on female body image was evaluated using meta-analysis. Data from 25 studies (43 effect sizes) were used to examine the main effect of mass media images of the slender ideal, as well as the moderating effects of pre-existing body image problems, the age of the participants, the number of stimulus presentations, and the type of research design. Body image was significantly more negative after viewing thin media images than after viewing images of either average size models, plus size models, or inanimate objects. This effect was stronger for between-subjects designs, participants less than 19 years of age, and for participants who are vulnerable to activation of a thinness schema. Results support the sociocultural perspective that mass media promulgate a slender ideal that elicits body dissatisfaction. Implications for prevention and research on social comparison processes are considered.
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Celebrity worship has been conceptualized as having pathological and nonpathological forms. To avoid problems associated with item-level factor analysis, 'top-down purification' was used to test the validity of this conceptualization. The respondents (N = 249) completed items modelled after existing celebrity worship questionnaires. A subset of 17 unidimensional and Rasch scalable items was discovered (the local reliability ranged from.71 to.96), which showed no biases related to age and gender. This subset was dubbed the Celebrity Worship Scale (CWS). The items also showed no celebrity bias, indicating that CWS applies equally to acting, music, sports, and 'other' celebrities. The Rasch nature of the items defines celebrity worship as consisting of three qualitatively different stages. Low worship involves individualistic behaviours such as watching and reading about a celebrity. At slightly higher levels, celebrity worship takes on a social character. Lastly, the highest levels are characterized by a mixture of empathy with the celebrity's successes and failures, over-identification with the celebrity, compulsive behaviours, as well as obsession with details of the celebrity's life. Based on these findings, the authors propose a model of celebrity worship based on psychological absorption (leading to delusions of actual relationships with celebrities) and addiction (fostering the need for progressively stronger involvement to feel connected with the celebrity).
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Theory and research suggests that cultural norms for appearance present unrealistic standards of beauty which may contribute to women's body dissatisfaction. In Study 1, women described their appearance more negatively than men and made more upward social comparisons about their bodies, but not about other domains. Women also compared more than men with unrealistic targets (e.g., models). In Study 2, we explored the role of cultural norms for appearance in social comparisons with relevant (peer) or irrelevant (model) superior targets. When cultural norms were not salient, participants judged a peer to be more relevant, compared more with the peer, and were more negatively affected by the peer. However, when cultural norms were salient, participants judged a professional model to be equally relevant, compared more with the model and felt worse after exposure to the model. We discuss the powerful role of cultural norms in determining social comparison processes and self-appraisals.
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Research suggests that exposure to mass media depicting the thin-ideal body may be linked to body image disturbance in women. This meta-analysis examined experimental and correlational studies testing the links between media exposure to women's body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, and eating behaviors and beliefs with a sample of 77 studies that yielded 141 effect sizes. The mean effect sizes were small to moderate (ds = -.28, -.39, and -.30, respectively). Effects for some outcome variables were moderated by publication year and study design. The findings support the notion that exposure to media images depicting the thin-ideal body is related to body image concerns for women.
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Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
One hundred and thirty-nine women viewed television commercials that contained either Appearance-related commercials (demonstrating societally-endorsed images of thinness and attractiveness) or Non-Appearance-related advertisements. Pre-post measures of depression, anger, anxiety, and body dissatisfaction were examined. Participants were blocked by a median split on dispositional levels of body image disturbance and sociocultural attitudes regarding appearance. Individuals high on these measures became significantly more depressed following exposure to the Appearance videotape and significantly less depressed following a viewing of the Non-Appearance advertisements. In addition, individuals high on the level of sociocultural awareness/internalization became more angry and participants high on body image disturbance became more dissatisfied with their appearance following exposure to commercials illustrating thinness/attractiveness. Participants who scored below the median on dispositional levels of disturbance either improved or showed no change on dependent measures in both Appearance and Non-Appearance video conditions. The findings are discussed in light of factors that might moderate media-influenced perturbations in body image.
Article
The present study experimentally investigated the effect of Facebook usage on women's mood and body image, whether these effects differ from an online fashion magazine, and whether appearance comparison tendency moderates any of these effects. Female participants (N = 112) were randomly assigned to spend 10 min browsing their Facebook account, a magazine website, or an appearance-neutral control website before completing state measures of mood, body dissatisfaction, and appearance discrepancies (weight-related, and face, hair, and skin-related). Participants also completed a trait measure of appearance comparison tendency. Participants who spent time on Facebook reported being in a more negative mood than those who spent time on the control website. Furthermore, women high in appearance comparison tendency reported more facial, hair, and skin-related discrepancies after Facebook exposure than exposure to the control website. Given its popularity, more research is needed to better understand the impact that Facebook has on appearance concerns.
Article
Use of social media, such as Facebook, is pervasive among young women. Body dissatisfaction is also highly prevalent in this demographic. The present study examined the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns among female university students (N=227), and tested whether appearance comparisons on Facebook in general, or comparisons to specific female target groups (family members, close friends, distant peers [women one may know but do not regularly socialize with], celebrities) mediated this relationship. Results showed a positive relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns, which was mediated by appearance comparisons in general, frequency of comparisons to close friends and distant peers, and by upward comparisons (judging one's own appearance to be worse) to distant peers and celebrities. Thus, young women who spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially to peers) on Facebook. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between media exposure and body image concerns in preteenage girls, with a particular focus on the Internet. A sample of 189 girls (aged 10-12 years) completed questionnaire measures of media consumption and body image concerns. Nearly all girls (97.5%) had access to the Internet in their home. Time spent on-line was significantly related to internalization of the thin ideal (as was time reading magazines and watching television), body surveillance, reduced body esteem, and increased dieting. In accord with the sociocultural model, internalization mediated the effect of the Internet on body image concerns. Further, 14% of the girls had a MySpace profile and 43% had a Facebook profile. Time spent on these social networking sites produced stronger correlations with body image concern than did overall Internet exposure. It was concluded that the Internet represents a potent sociocultural force among preteenage girls.
Article
Objective Social media sites, such as Facebook, merge two factors that influence risk for eating disorders: media and peers. Previous work has identified cross-sectional and temporal associations between Facebook use and disordered eating. This study sought to replicate and extend these findings using an experimental design. Method In Study 1, 960 women completed self-report surveys regarding Facebook use and disordered eating. In Study 2, 84 women were randomly assigned to use Facebook or to use an alternate internet site for 20 min. ResultsMore frequent Facebook use was associated with greater disordered eating in a cross-sectional survey. Facebook use was associated with the maintenance of weight/shape concerns and state anxiety compared to an alternate internet activity. DiscussionFacebook use may contribute to disordered eating by maintaining risk for eating pathology. As such, targeting Facebook use may be helpful in intervention and prevention programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014)
Article
Abstract The present study examined the relationship between body image and adolescent girls' activity on the social networking site (SNS) Facebook (FB). Research has shown that elevated Internet "appearance exposure" is positively correlated with increased body image disturbance among adolescent girls, and there is a particularly strong association with FB use. The present study sought to replicate and extend upon these findings by identifying the specific FB features that correlate with body image disturbance in adolescent girls. A total of 103 middle and high school females completed questionnaire measures of total FB use, specific FB feature use, weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, appearance comparison, and self-objectification. An appearance exposure score was calculated based on subjects' use of FB photo applications relative to total FB use. Elevated appearance exposure, but not overall FB usage, was significantly correlated with weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, and self-objectification. Implications for eating disorder prevention programs and best practices in researching SNSs are discussed.
Article
The impact of social comparisons of body weight on self-perceptions has been investigated in previous research; however, previous studies have focused on the effects of exposure to idealized media images. The current study tested the hypothesis that upon exposure to information about a peer's weight, restrained eaters (but not unrestrained eaters) use this information to determine their own relative standing. Seventy female undergraduates participated in this study under the impression that it was a study of person memory. Participants read about a female peer described as either average weight, overweight, or thin. Participants then rated their self-perceptions, after which their food intake was surreptitiously measured. Restrained eaters exposed to the description of the thin peer experienced more negative self-perceptions; there were no significant effects of exposure to the overweight peer. For unrestrained eaters, there was no effect of exposure to the thin peer but evidence of self enhancement following exposure to the overweight peer. Social comparisons to peers may contribute to the worsening of body satisfaction and self-esteem in restrained eaters.
Article
Thisstudy aimed to investigate the role of social comparison processes in women's responses to images of thin-idealize d female beauty. A sample of 126 women viewed magazine advertisements containing full-body, body part, or product im- ages. Instructional set was also manipulated with three levels: control, appearance focus, and social comparison. Mood and body dissatisfaction were measured im- mediately before and after advertisement viewing, while state weight anxiety and the amount of appearance comparison engaged in were measured only after the advertisements. It was found that exposure to either body part or full body images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction, while the amount of com- parison processing was affected by both image type and instructional set. Impor- tantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type on mood and body dissatisfaction were mediated by the amount of social comparison reported. It was concluded that the processing in which women engage in response to media images is an important contributor to negative effects. Sociocultural theory provides the most strongly supported theoretical account of the high levels of body image disturbance, body dissatisfac- tion, and disordered eating experienced by many women in Western so- cieties (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999). This model maintains that current societal standards for beauty inordinately emphasize the desirability of thinness, and thinness at a level impossible for many women to achieve by healthy means. In fact, the gap between the average woman's body size and the ideal is now larger than ever be-
Article
The present study aimed to investigate the role of processing in women's responses to thin idealized images of beauty. A sample of 144 women viewed magazine advertisements containing either thin ideal or product images. Instructional set was manipulated with three levels: control, social comparison, and fantasy instructions. It was found that exposure to thin ideal images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction, while instructional set had its effect on positive mood and body dissatisfaction. For thin ideal images, social comparison instructions led to greater negative mood and body dissatisfaction, while fantasy instructions led to improved positive mood. Importantly, regression analyses indicated that both comparison processing (negatively) and fantasy processing (positively) were associated with women's response to thin ideal images. It was concluded that the nature of the processing women engage in is crucial to their response to thin ideal images.
Article
Objective: The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between Internet exposure and body image concern in adolescent girls, with a particular focus on the social networking site of Facebook. Method: A sample of 1,087 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13-15 years) completed questionnaire measures of Internet consumption and body image concerns. Results: The overwhelming majority of girls (95.9%) had access to the Internet in their home. Time spent on the Internet was significantly related to internalization of the thin ideal, body surveillance, and drive for thinness. Further, 75% of the girls had a Facebook profile, and spent an average of 1.5 hours there daily. Facebook users scored significantly more highly on all body image concern measures than non-users. Discussion: It was concluded that the Internet represents a potent socio-cultural medium of relevance to the body image of adolescent girls.
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Body image issues are at the core of major eating disorders. They are also important phenomena in and of themselves. Kevin Thompson and his colleagues provide an overview of a wide variety of body image issues, ranging from reconstructive surgery to eating disorders. The book will be a valuable resource for even the most established researchers in the field, as it is filled with data, information about assessment tools, and a thorough treatment of virtually all major theoretical perspectives on the development of body image and their implications for treatment and prevention. At the same time, the authors' decision to include numerous experiential anecdotes makes the book easily accessible to those just entering the field who are trying to understand the nature of these phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Asked 189 female and 108 male undergraduates to rate the importance of 6 groups (e.g., family, friends) as comparison targets for 7 attributes (e.g., figure/physique, intelligence). Factor analysis of the 42 ratings yielded 3 components, largely reflecting a particularistic-universalistic comparison target dimension rather than an attributional configurement. Factor analysis was also conducted on pooled target ratings for the 7 attributes. Gender by target effects emerged, indicating male–female differences in comparison tendencies. Strong gender differences emerged when factor scores were correlated with indices of body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance, reflecting significant relationships only for females. Findings indicate that the ascribed importance of a comparison group is a better predictor of body image disturbance than is the similarity between the S and the comparison target. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study aimed to investigate the role of social comparison processing in women's responses to thin idealized images. In particular, it was predicted that comparison with the images on the basis of appearance would lead to more negative outcomes than comparison on the basis of intelligence. A sample of 114 women viewed fashion magazine advertisements featuring thin and attractive models under one of three instructional set conditions: control, appearance comparison, and intelligence comparison instructions. We found that both comparison instructional set conditions led to decreased mood relative to the control condition, but they had no effect on subsequent body dissatisfaction. However, regression analyses indicated that the form of processing in which individuals (irrespective of experimental condition) actually engaged was crucial. In particular, both appearance comparison processing (positively) and intelligence comparison processing (negatively) were associated with increased body dissatisfaction. In addition, poorer recall of both products and their brand names was associated with a greater impact of the media images on mood and body dissatisfaction. We concluded that the dimensions on which social comparison takes place are critical in women's response to media-portrayed thin ideal images, with comparisons on the basis of intelligence or education associated with more positive reactions. More generally, the results offer strong support to appearance social comparison as the mechanism by which idealized media images translate into body dissatisfaction for many women.
Article
Disordered eating is linked to body shapes and images presented in the mass media. Favored celebrities may represent a particularly strong source of influence. We examined cross-sectional relationships between women's disordered eating and their perceptions of body-shape differences with favored celebrities. Women between the ages of 18 and 27 rated personal body shapes alongside those of self-selected favored celebrities. Multivariate analyses showed self/celebrity body-shape discrepancies to be linked to EAT-26 diet, bulimia, and oral control scales independent of personal body-shape and self/ideal discrepancies. For bulimia subscale scores, this relationship was moderated by a more favorable perception of the celebrity relative to the self. Celebrities might be important in creating an unrealistic social comparison standard that contributes to disordered eating.
Article
The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between media exposure and body image in adolescent girls, with a particular focus on the ‘new’ and as yet unstudied medium of the Internet. A sample of 156 Australian female high school students (mean age = 14.9years) completed questionnaire measures of media consumption and body image. Internet appearance exposure and magazine reading, but not television exposure, were found to be correlated with greater internalization of thin ideals, appearance comparison, weight dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness. Regression analyses indicated that the effects of magazines and Internet exposure were mediated by internalization and appearance comparison. It was concluded that the Internet represents a powerful sociocultural influence on young women’s lives. KeywordsInternet exposure-Body image-Internalization of thin ideals-Tripartite influence model-Media exposure-Adolescents
Article
Research suggests that appearance focused social comparisons are associated with body image disturbances. This study utilized ecological momentary assessment to examine associations between appearance focused social comparisons to media images and peers and body image disturbance and affect. Appearance focused cognitive distortions were examined as a moderator. Ninety-three undergraduate women from a large public Midwestern university in the United States completed questionnaires assessing the nature, frequency, and consequences of appearance focused social comparisons. Compared to no comparison, media comparisons were associated with greater body checking, negative affect, and guilt; peer comparisons were associated with greater body checking and guilt. Cognitive distortions moderated the relationship between appearance focused social comparisons and body checking. Specifically, the relationship between peer comparisons and body checking was strengthened at higher levels of appearance focused cognitive distortions. When only upward comparisons were considered, the relationships between both media and peer comparisons and body checking were strengthened at higher levels of appearance focused cognitive distortions. These results have implications for the treatment of body dissatisfaction. KeywordsBody image–Social comparison–Sociocultural pressure
Article
Relations among body image satisfaction and social comparisons to either same-sex peers or media models were examined in 2 studies of adolescent boys and girls. In the first study, 9th and 10th graders described their conceptions of attractiveness for same- and opposite-sex adolescents. These attractiveness attributes were then used in Study 2 in which 7th- and 10th-grade boys and girls reported on social comparisons to models/celebrities and same-sex peers. Body dissatisfaction was also assessed. The results confirmed that both same-sex peers and models/celebrities were the targets of social comparisons for physical attributes, but comparisons on personal and social attributes were more likely directed toward same-sex peers. For boys and girls, weight comparisons to both peer and model targets were primary correlates of body dissatisfaction. In addition, shape comparisons reported by the girls and facial comparisons endorsed by the boys also related to body dissatisfaction. Gender differences in social comparison indicated that girls reported more social comparisons across targets and attributes. Results are discussed in terms of the role of social comparison and peer context for body image during adolescence.
Article
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Article
The relationship between social comparison and body dissatisfaction was examined using meta-analysis. Several demographic and methodological variables were examined as potential moderators. Data from 156 studies (189 effect sizes) showed that social comparison was related to higher levels of body dissatisfaction. The effect for social comparison and body dissatisfaction was stronger for women than men and inversely related to age. This effect was stronger when social comparison was directly measured rather than inferred. No differences emerged for the presence of eating psychopathology, study design, or object of comparison. Results confirm theory and research suggesting that comparing oneself unfavorably to another on the basis of appearance may lead to dissatisfaction with one's own appearance. Moderator variables refine our understanding of the social comparison-body dissatisfaction relationship. These constructs and their relationship should be explored further in future studies.
Article
Experimental exposure to idealized media portrayals of women is thought to induce social comparisons in female viewers and thereby to be generally detrimental to female viewers' satisfaction with their own appearance. Through meta-analysis, the present paper examines the impact of moderators of this effect, some identified and updated from a prior meta-analysis and some that have hitherto received little attention. Participants' pre-existing appearance concerns and the processing instructions participants were given when exposed to media portrayals were found to significantly moderate effect sizes. With regard to processing instructions, a novel and counter-intuitive pattern was revealed; effect sizes were smallest when participants were instructed to focus on the appearance of women in media portrayals, and largest when participants processed the portrayals on a distracting, non-appearance dimension. These results are interpreted through a framework that suggests that social comparisons are automatic processes, the effects of which can be modified through conscious processing.
Article
Hypotheses involving mediation are common in the behavioral sciences. Mediation exists when a predictor affects a dependent variable indirectly through at least one intervening variable, or mediator. Methods to assess mediation involving multiple simultaneous mediators have received little attention in the methodological literature despite a clear need. We provide an overview of simple and multiple mediation and explore three approaches that can be used to investigate indirect processes, as well as methods for contrasting two or more mediators within a single model. We present an illustrative example, assessing and contrasting potential mediators of the relationship between the helpfulness of socialization agents and job satisfaction. We also provide SAS and SPSS macros, as well as Mplus and LISREL syntax, to facilitate the use of these methods in applications.
Article
A weight-height index of adiposity should indicate the relative fatness of subjects of differing height unless obesity is itself correlated with height. The average body fat among adult women attending a hospital outpatient clinic for obesity was 40.5 percent of body weight. The height of an unselected series of 286 of these outpatients was found to be similar to that of the general population of women of similar age, which indicates that obesity in adult women is not significantly related to height. Body composition was measured by body density, body water and body potassium in a series of 104 female and 24 male subjects aged 14-60 years. In both sexes density, water and potassium gave progressively higher estimates of body fat (kg), and there was a significant difference between the values by different methods. The average of the estimates by these three methods was taken to be the 'true' value for each individual (F kg). Regression of F/H2 on W/H2 (Quetelet's index) gave a correlation coefficient of 0.955 for women and 0.943 for men. The deviation of the body fat estimated from Quetelet's formula from the 'true' value was not much greater than that when density, water or potassium were used as a basis for estimating body fat. It is concluded that Quetelet's formula is both a convenient and reliable indicator of obesity.
Article
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between celebrity worship and body image within the theoretical perspective of intense para-social relationships with celebrities. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between celebrity worship and body image. Three samples, 229 (102 males and 127 females) adolescents, 183 (88 males and 95 females) full-time university undergraduate students, and 289 (126 males and 163 females) adults were administered an amended version of the Celebrity Attitude Scale, the Attention to Body Shape Scale, and the Body Shape Questionnaire-Revised. Significant relationships were found between attitudes toward celebrities and body image only among female adolescents. Multiple regression analyses suggested that Intense-personal celebrity worship accounted for unique variance in scores in body image. Findings suggest that in female adolescents, there is an interaction between Intense-personal celebrity worship and body image between the ages of 14 and 16 years, and some tentative evidence has been found to suggest that this relationship disappears at the onset of adulthood, 17 to 20 years. Results are consistent with those authors who stress the importance of the formation of para-social relationships with media figures, and suggest that para-social relationships with celebrities perceived as having a good body shape may lead to a poor body image in female adolescents.
Article
Although social comparison with media-portrayed thin-ideal images has been found to increase body dissatisfaction and negative affect, research has not yet tested whether social comparison with attractive peers in the real world produces similar effects. We randomly assigned 119 young women to interact either with a confederate who conformed to the thin ideal or one who conformed to the average body dimensions of women, within the context of an ostensive dating study. Exposure to the thin-ideal confederate resulted in an increase in body dissatisfaction but not negative affect or heart rate. Initial thin-ideal internalization, perceived sociocultural pressure, self-esteem, and observer-rated attractiveness did not moderate these effects. Results suggest that social comparative pressure to be thin fosters body dissatisfaction but may not promote negative affect.
Article
Although exposure to thin-ideal females in the media has been shown to increase women's body dissatisfaction, only a few studies have examined the effects of comparisons with peers, and no prior work has studied the effects of peer comparisons in a naturalistic setting or on objective behavior. Female undergraduates (n = 45) in a campus gym who exercised on a target apparatus were assigned to have a fit-peer, unfit-peer, or no-peer (control) exercise within their view on a nearby apparatus. Objective time spent exercising and body satisfaction reports were collected. Exposure to a fit peer had undermining effects on women's body satisfaction and exercise duration, whereas an unfit peer produced no compensating greater body satisfaction but did elicit longer exercise duration relative to controls. Incidental comparisons with fit versus unfit peers can affect women's body satisfaction and fitness-related behavior in a naturalistic setting.
Article
This research examined whether comparison target moderates the effects of naturally occurring appearance-focused social comparisons on women's affect, appearance esteem, and dieting thoughts. During daily activities, body-satisfied (BS) women and body-dissatisfied (BD) women recorded their comparison targets and reactions to comparison information. For BS women, upward comparisons with peers were associated with more positive affect (PA) and appearance esteem and less guilt than upward comparisons with media images and downward comparisons with peers were associated with less PA than downward comparisons with media images. For BD women, upward comparisons with peers were associated with more appearance esteem and diet thoughts than upward comparisons with media images and downward comparisons with peers were associated with less PA, appearance esteem, and diet thoughts and more guilt than downward comparisons with media images.
Average number of Instagram followers of teenage users in United States as of Retrieved from http
  • Statista
Statista. (2015). Average number of Instagram followers of teenage users in United States as of March 2015. Retrieved from http://www.statista.com/statistics/419326/us- teen-instagram-followers-number/
The Internet and adolescent girls' weight satisfaction and drive for thinness Upward and downward: Social comparison processing of thin idealized media images