Zeitgemäße (+Selektive) Entwurmung beim Pferd Version 1.1.

Data (PDF Available) · September 2016with 514 Reads
Abstract
In den vergangenen Jahren hat sich eine Arbeitsgruppe am Institut für Vergleichende Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie der Tierärztlichen Fakultät der LMU München intensiv mit Fragen im Zusammenhang mit der Entwurmung von Pferden und den damit zusammenhängenden Resistenzproblemen auseinandergesetzt. Wichtige Teilergebnisse dieser breitgefächerten Studien sind die hier vorliegende Zusammenfassung über wichtige Pferdeparasitosen und die Entwicklung zukünftiger Bekämpfungsmöglichkeiten. Die hier präsentierte Arbeit wurde von Prof. Kurt Pfister, Dr. Miriam Scheuerle, Dr. Marcus Menzel und mir verfasst und wird von der Arbeitsgruppe Zeitgemäße (+Selektive) Entwurmung (AG ZE) herausgegeben. Diese Veröffentlichung präsentiert therapeutisch relevante Aspekte über die Pferdeendoparasiten und stellt die Methode vor, mit der mittlerweile >10.000 Pferde in Deutschland koprologisch untersucht und (falls notwendig) selbstverständlich auch behandelt werden. Das PDF ist für Tierärzte geschrieben, die sich im Detail mit dieser Materie befassen wollen und auf dieser Grundlage ihre eigenen Behandlungsentscheidungen treffen wollen.
Figures - uploaded by Marcus Menzel
Author content
All content in this area was uploaded by Marcus Menzel
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
This research hasn't been cited in any other publications.
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    Bereits 2011 wurde die Selektive Entwurmung / Zeitgemäße Entwurmung (Selektive Entwurmung / Zeitgemäße Entwurmung) erstmals als ein praxistaugliches, reell anwendbares und komplettes Schema mit definierten Regeln für Pferde mit einem Mindestalter von 3 Jahren in eine oberbayerische Pferdepraxis eingeführt. In der Folge wurden hierzu erste wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse veröffentlicht. Nun folgen retrospektiv weitere Ergebnisse aus den ersten drei Jahren der praxisnahen Umsetzung dieses Schemas, alleinig bezogen auf das originäre Patientengut der Pferdepraxis.
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    Im Jahr 2011 wurde die Selektive Entwurmung erstmals als ein neues, parasitologisches Leistungsangebot in eine oberbayerische Pferdepraxis, die Tierarztpraxis Thurmading, eingeführt. Um zu verstehen, warum dieses neue Endoparasiten Managementsystem eingeführt und nicht einfach die alt bekannte (bewährte?) Methode der „strategischen Entwurmung der Pferde“ beibehalten wurde, muss die Historie der Entwurmung von Pferden beleuchtet und hinterfragt werden.
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    The major goal of anthelmintic control programs is the reduction of clinical symptoms caused by helminths. The targeted selective anthelmintic treatment (SAT) approach claims to achieve this goal by identifying and treating horses with a high level of strongyle egg shedding and thereby reducing the infection pressure on the pasture. The aim of this study was to evaluate SAT under long-term conditions in an equine practice with regard to the identification of horses ≥ 3 years with a consistently high level of egg shedding and the incidence of fatal colic cases. Between January 2011 and April 2014 at least 5 faecal samples per horse (of 1299 participating horses) were analysed with a modified McMaster method. Horses with 3 continuous faecal samples with a result of ≥ 200 strongyle eggs per gram were categorized as consistently high egg shedding animals. In total 14202 samples were analyzed. 66 horses (5.0 %) were identified as high strongyle egg shedders. During the study period 25 horses (1.9 %) were euthanized, 12 of these (0.9 %) due to colic symptoms. In two cases a connection to a nematode infection was suspected but could not be confirmed. These results demonstrate that only a very low percentage of horses are shedding a consistently high level of strongyle eggs. Therefore a strategic and continuous treatment of every horse in a stable is not reasonable. SAT offers a safe long-term alternative that supports the principals of evidence based veterinary medicine.
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    In equine parasitology faecal egg counts (FEC) using the McMaster method are becoming increasingly important. But FEC results present considerable variability questioning their reliability. Different reasons for this variability are discussed. Analogous to cell counts in haematology, FEC are based on a Poisson process and thus subject to random errors. The presented study demonstrates the influence of Poisson distribution on the variability of strongyle FEC between subsamples. A total of 2214 faecal samples from 202 horses were mixed manually in a closed plastic bag. Two subsamples were analysed by a modified McMaster method with a sensitivity of 30 eggs per gram faeces (epg). The index of dispersion (ID) of all pairs of replicates was calculated for the results on the counted egg level (ID = variance/mean). In order to fit the Poisson distribution the ID of the two replicates should not exceed 5. The maximal ID of all samples was 4.6 (1st FEC: 1590 epg; 2nd FEC: 780 epg). The ID of 2209 samples (99.8%) was 2 or lower. The large variability between results of replicates is explained by the Poisson process. Therefore, further optimization of the mixing procedures was not possible. Consequently, 95% confidence intervals of treatment cut offs can be calculated with the Poisson distribution and the sensitivity of the method used. Through an understanding of the sensitivity of the FEC method and the associated 95% confidence intervals, reliable treatment decisions can be based on FEC despite the inevitable Poisson variability of this method.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background As a consequence of the increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomes, new strategies for equine parasite control are being implemented. To assess the potential risks of these, the occurrence of strongyles was evaluated in a group of 1887 horses. The distribution of fecal egg counts (FECs), the frequency of anthelmintic drug use, and the deworming intervals were also analyzed. Between June 2012 and May 2013, 1887 fecal samples from either selectively or strategically dewormed horses were collected at 195 horse farms all over Germany and analyzed quantitatively with a modified McMaster technique. All samples with FEC ≥20 eggs per gram (EPG) were subjected to coproculture to generate third-stage larvae (LIII) for species differentiation. Results Egg counts were below the limit of detection (20 EPG) in 1046 (55.4%) samples and above it in 841 (44.6%) samples. Strongylus vulgaris larvae were identified in two of the 841 positive samples. Infections with cyathostomes were found on every farm. The most frequently applied anthelmintic was ivermectin (788/50.8%), followed by pyrantel (336/21.6%). The mean time since last treatment was 6.3 months. High-egg-shedding (>500 EPG) strategically dewormed horses (183/1357) were treated, on average, three times/year. The planned treatment date was already exceeded by 72.5% of the high egg-shedders and by 58.1% of the moderate (200–500 EPG) and low egg-shedders (20–199 EPG). Conclusions S. vulgaris seems to be rare in Germany and no difference in its frequency has yet been found between selectively treated horses and horses receiving treatment in strategic intervals. However, inconsistent parasite control has been observed. Therefore, to minimize the risks for disease, consistent and efficient parasite control should be implemented.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    http://vetline.de/download/sonderheft/2014-pferdefokus/index.html
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    The selective treatment of horses is an important method to decrease the number of treatments per horse and year and to thereby slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance. The method tries to identify low and high egg-shedders, respectively, using faecal egg counts (FEC). However, the value of this method depends upon the stability of faecal egg counts over time. One way to assess the stability of animal ranking is the repeatability which is defined as the variance between horses divided by the total variance. The repeatability varies between 0 (no consistency in the values) to 1 (perfect consistency). To determine the repeatability of FEC in naturally infected horses over time, 2637 FEC from 303 horses were collected and analysed with SAS 9.3. The distribution of FEC was overdispersed with an excess of zeros. Therefore, a zero-inflated negative binomial model in the GENMOD procedure was used. The within-horse-repeatability was approx. 32.4% of the total variance, with covariance parameter estimates for horse: 0.1050 and for residuals: 0.2190. The model estimated that 12% of horse FEC belonged to the zero distribution. In a second analysis, we excluded horses that were treated during the study period by dropping all FEC values within the respective egg reappearance period. In this analysis, 3% of horse FEC belonged to the zero distribution and the within-horse-repeatability was even stronger with approx. 51.0% of the total variance (covariance parameter estimates for horse: 0.5117, residuals: 0.4918). The analysed data show that FEC of individual horses stay fairly consistent over time and support the idea that FEC can be used as a reliable basis for treatment decisions in the context of targeted selective treatment.