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Blue skies and black boxes: The promise (and practice) of grounded theory in human resource management research

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Abstract

We provide an overview of the grounded theory approach, a methodology with significant (and largely untapped) potential for human resources (HR) research. Grounded theory is an abductive, data-driven, theory-building approach that can serve as a conceptual link between inductive and deductive research approaches. We begin by explaining the grounded theory approach in detail and outlining two versions of the method that have been used in high-impact management publications—the Gioia approach and the Tabula Geminus (twin slate) approach. We then provide an overview of the similarities and differences between grounded theory and other inductive and/or qualitative methodologies, namely, ethnography, discourse analysis, rhetorical analysis, and content analysis. Following this discussion, we offer a step-by-step guide to using grounded theory in human resources research, illustrating these principles with data and processes from extant research. Finally, we conclude by discussing best practices for achieving rigor with the grounded theory approach.

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... Human resource management (HRM) and organizational behavior (OB) studies have been using grounded theory since the early 1990s (see, for example; de Lucas Ancillo, del Val Núñez, and Gavrila (2021); Izvercian, Potra, and Ivascu (2016); Klimoski (1991) ;Malakoutikhah, Jahangiri, Alimohammadlou, Faghihi, and Kamalinia (2021) ;Schalow, Winkler, Repschlaeger, and Zarnekow (2013); Turbill (1993)). It is becoming popular in human resource management and organizational behavior research since it is generally believed to be a trustworthy tool for investigating social and organizational phenomena (Murphy, Klotz, & Kreiner, 2017). Even though Glaser and Strauss designed it in 1967, the method is still relatively new to this field, having been first used some thirty years later. ...
... Even though Glaser and Strauss designed it in 1967, the method is still relatively new to this field, having been first used some thirty years later. Though it was recommended for use in the past; research in the field of HRM & OB has been slower to embrace grounded theory than the research taking place in other areas of management (Malakoutikhah et al., 2021;Murphy et al., 2017). ...
... This clarity is either missing or nonexistent. HR & OB researchers, like those in other business disciplines, may benefit from a better understanding of grounded theory (Murphy et al., 2017). ...
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It is difficult to choose between the Glaserian and the Straussian grounded theory approach when adopting them as a methodology. Many researchers in human resource management and organizational behavior rely on grounded theory to guide their work. They use it sometimes as a method and sometimes as a methodology. The disagreement between Glaser and Strauss, the theory's originators, led to its unique application. There is some social sciences research that suggests using case studies and grounded theory at the same time. Theoretical work pertaining to the area of human resource management (HRM) and organizational behavior (OB) has yet to define how grounded theory may be utilized to develop a research methodology using an interpretive case study approach. The purpose of this article is to help HRM and OB researchers who are considering using grounded theory as a data analysis approach in integration with the case study method. It accomplishes this by first justifying the use of Strauss' methodology in this integration and then enlisting indicators to assist researchers in determining how to carry out this integration.
... GT aims to explore new horizons of a particular phenomenon while simultaneously examining the contradictory elements in extant literature (Murphy et al., 2017). The GT approach also allows for an in-depth exploration of customer experiences instead of incrementally improving the existing models by adding a few new variables. ...
... The approach is useful for the following reasons. (a) It brings researchers closer to the research setting, from where individual behavior can be observed and understood, which allows for theory building from scratch (Murphy et al., 2017;Valor, 2007). (b) Rapid technological changes lead to constant changes in consumer behavior. ...
... (b) Rapid technological changes lead to constant changes in consumer behavior. GT helps incorporate the latest developments in a field and is, therefore, better suited to theory development (Murphy et al., 2017). (c) It is also appropriate for use when past studies show contradictory results (Murphy et al., 2017). ...
Article
The growth in internet adoption has made digital coupons a popular promotional tool. However, the extant literature on digital coupons is at an embryonic stage and requires theory building. This study adopts an inductive grounded theory approach to explore the new horizons for digital coupon redemption. The results showed that the intention to search and subscribe is a key driver of redemption, while coupon proneness and coupon acquisition value are its dimensions. Social media reviews, past experience, privacy risk, and customization are more relevant today for coupon redemption. The study also proposes segmentation of coupon users into deal buyers, planners, and convenience seekers based on consumer behavior.
... The choice of this methodological approach was based on two criteria. First, this approach enabled us to focus on the characteristics of the context (Glaser & Strauss, 1967;Murphy, Klotz, & Kreiner, 2017). Second, this methodology enabled the exploration of "blue skies" or, in other words, relatively unexplored research arenas (Murphy et al., 2017), as most of the literature on the nature of the workforce and the effectiveness of HRM practices in social enterprises has been heavily influenced by research on other forms of entrepreneurial activity (e.g., small businesses, start-ups, nonprofits). ...
... First, this approach enabled us to focus on the characteristics of the context (Glaser & Strauss, 1967;Murphy, Klotz, & Kreiner, 2017). Second, this methodology enabled the exploration of "blue skies" or, in other words, relatively unexplored research arenas (Murphy et al., 2017), as most of the literature on the nature of the workforce and the effectiveness of HRM practices in social enterprises has been heavily influenced by research on other forms of entrepreneurial activity (e.g., small businesses, start-ups, nonprofits). However, despite social enterprises' similarities to these types of organizations, the differences are significant and require exploring within this specific context (Dubé & Paré, 2003). ...
... We deemed this sample size appropriate for two reasons. First, we reached theoretical saturation after the 15th interview (Murphy et al., 2017;Walsh et al., 2015); nevertheless, we carried out the remaining scheduled interviews to verify the initial results. Second, the sample size is consistent with suggestions and norms for adequate sampling in management studies, more pertinently, in the field of social entrepreneurship. ...
Article
The majority of the extant research on human resource management (HRM) draws conclusions based on evidence from for‐profit organizations. In response to calls for the exploration of HRM in different contexts, this study focuses on understanding HRM in the context of social enterprises. The unique context of social enterprises and their unique workforce raise questions about the direct applicability of frameworks developed from examining HRM in for‐profit organizations. The narratives provided by 20 CEOs, HR directors, and managers of social enterprises in the United Kingdom highlight the importance of “ethics of care” as the core of the HRM‐related decisions in the “third sector.” In addition, we identify five distinct workforce categories and propose a typology of differentiated HRM systems that enable social enterprises to achieve their dual mission. Finally, we propose a “virtuous circle” model, highlighting “ethics of care” as the main driver for organizational outcomes, using differentiated HRM systems that better serve their needs.
... La teoría fundamentada, por tanto, no debe usarse para probar hipótesis acerca de la realidad, sino, más bien, a fin de hacer declaraciones acerca de cómo los actores la interpretan (Suddaby, 2006). El objetivo principal de este tipo de esfuerzos concurrentes es la construcción de la teoría que está profundamente informada por los datos de salida teórica (Murphy, Klotz y Kreiner, 2017). Tal como las teorías desarrolladas bajo la teoría fundamentada, en su mayoría son "nuevas" teorías, más o menos en línea con las teorías existentes; de ahí la pretensión de fomentar la innovación (Guillemette, 2006;Pauleen, Corbitt y Yoong, 2007). ...
... Y, sin embargo, la teoría fundamentada difiere de la etnografía en el objetivo de este interés, la teoría verdadera, basada insiste en el valor de una "descripción densa" de todos los aspectos de un contexto de investigación, un reflejo de la profundidad de inmersión del investigador y el alcance global de la configuración. (Murphy et al., 2017) Por tanto, la teoría fundamentada se utiliza para explorar los procesos sociales que están presentes en las interacciones humanas (Izvercian, Potra y Ivascu, 2016;Tavakol et al., 2006). La teoría fundamentada estableció una manera muy diferente y avanzada de hacer la investigación social, con sus propios objetivos y metodología distintivos (Egan, 2002). ...
... En su uso, la teoría fundamentada permite a los investigadores superar el problema del reduccionismo, ya que explica un problema complejo y multifacético sin reducir a priori el número y el tipo de variables que intervienen (Heacock y Hollander, 2011). Por otra parte, la teoría fundamentada se puede utilizar para combinar nuevas observaciones con la teoría existente, a fin de facilitar nuevas perspectivas que explican mejor un fenómeno dado (Murphy et al., 2017;Pauleen et al., 2007). ...
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Abstrac This article provides a basic knowledge base for researchers who choose to use the steps of grounded theory as an analytical framework, in the search for new knowledge. Despite the significant progress in this research method, the current reality reflects a lack of knowledge in the methodological, to start on this reflective path as a qualitative researcher. A review of systematic literature on the grounded theory and its application was carried out, with the use of databases such as Science Direct and Web of Science, both recognized scientifically for its high academic impact; a total of 52 articles with application of the method in different areas were analyzed. Among the contributions, the benefits for the construction of knowledge stand out, scientifically approached from the theory based as a methodological approach; it is possible to identify the affinity of the method with the social sciences as a field of application. In addition, the increasing use of this method of study in the academic field.
... Grounded theory has been one of the most influential and widely adopted methods in qualitative research for a long time (Murphy, Klotz, & Kreiner, 2017;Timonen, Foley, & Conlon, 2018). Grounded theory is defined as a method for discovering theory from a systematic comparative analysis of emerging patterns from social science data (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). ...
... Getting the hands dirty So far, it was seen that completing grounded theory's turn to the new online era is not that different from traditional offline grounded theory: one must start with good research questionseither a "blue sky" or a "black box" topic (Murphy et al., 2017) even before starting the research itself. The next step is guiding grounded theorists through the minefield of gathering data in online spaces [1] and analyzing it effectively. ...
... On the other hand, if one decides on taking an abductive approach, he/she has to perform both in vivo and theory coding (open and axial coding) simultaneously and iteratively, building emerging theories that are both groundbreaking and connected with existing scholarly conversations (Kreiner, 2016;Murphy et al., 2017). The analysis starts with coding any kind of data one has at his/her disposal (interviews, blog posts, social media interactions, video transcripts, etc.) according to the researchers' feelings regarding what is observed. ...
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Purpose: This study aims to present a guide for using grounded theory methods for exploring organizational phenomena of the new online era. Design/methodology/approach: A reflexive account is adopted on how one can build upon the foundations of traditional offline grounded theory for conducting grounded theorizing with online-based data. Findings: Guidelines for conducting grounded theory on online contexts are presented for crafting research questions, gathering online data, and using consolidated methods for analyzing online data. The article shows future and present challenges posed by the new online era for grounded theorizing, as well as helpful lessons to be learned from traditional offline grounded theory to mitigating them. Implications: The implications are helpful for both established qualitative organizational scholars that are yet to catch-up on the boundary spanning process of using the digital sources of data in grounded theory. They are equally helpful for newcomers on qualitative grounded theory by guiding them on where and how to start these challenging research endeavors of grounded theorizing in this new online era. Originality/value: Scant attention has been given on applications of grounded theory in the new online era. The differences between online and offline settings have not been clearly defined to this date, and neither do guidelines exist for how qualitative grounded theorists can take advantage of online data to build theory about new organizational phenomena emerging in the online era.
... Given the emphasis that is placed on theory development in entrepreneurship, it is oftentimes seen as the epitome of qualitative research (Suddaby et al., 2015). At the same time, it is important to realize that various understandings of grounded theory circulate, with different implications for how the method is being used (Murphy et al., 2017;Suddaby, 2006). In the more interpretive version of the method, grounded theory consists of providing a data-informed thematic representation of the sensemaking of individual entrepreneurs and of processes of social construction (Cornelissen, 2017;Suddaby, 2006). ...
... Such themes can be considered 'theory' providing they reveal "patterned relationships between social actors and how these relationships and interactions actively construct reality" (Suddaby, 2006, p. 636). Other versions of grounded theory (Gioia et al., 2013;Murphy et al., 2017) are more formal-analytical in nature and suggest inductive and abductive steps to derive conceptual categories in the form of general constructs and a transferable process model "that can eventually extend to concrete, testable hypotheses derived from those theoretical models" (Murphy et al., 2017, p. 291). ...
... The difference, however, is their route towards theory-building and what they focus on as the theory that is produced. For the formal-analytical approaches, there is then a further difference between the inductive Gioia approach and the abductive approach suggested by Kreiner and colleagues (see Murphy et al., 2017;Reinhardt et al., 2018). The Gioia approach advocates an inductive 'tabula rasa' (clean slate) approach where researchers are led by the data and by informant-centric labels and terms before they make any conceptual abstractions. ...
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This editorial aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods when studying entrepreneurship. First, it outlines four characteristics of the domain of entrepreneurship that qualitative research is uniquely placed to address. In studying these characteristics, we urge researchers to leverage the plurality of different qualitative approaches, including less conventional methods. Second, to help researchers develop high-level theoretical contributions, we point to multiple possible contributions, and highlight how such contributions can be developed through qualitative methods. Thus, we aim to broaden the types of contributions and forms that qualitative entrepreneurship research takes, in ways that move beyond prototypical inductive theory-building.
... We applied the following criteria to identify informants who (1) had at least two years of experience in direct investment in early-stage companies, (2) were active as an investor in the previous three years, and (3) were based in Europe and invested in European early-stage companies. These criteria were used to ensure informant relevance to the research question and comparability of the data (Murphy et al., 2017). In addition, we conducted two interviews with investors who worked for funds of funds, making mainly indirect but also sometimes direct investments in early-stage companies. ...
... The twin slate approach shares many similarities with the Gioia approach (Gioia et al., 2013), but emphasizes the importance of literature review in the analytical process. The twin slate approach ensures that researchers do not spend time on ideas that are already well covered or develop them in a manner that is disconnected from the literature (Murphy et al., 2017). This makes it an efficient and effective approach to qualitative data analysis (Locke, 2015;Murphy et al., 2017;Van Maanen et al., 2007). ...
... The twin slate approach ensures that researchers do not spend time on ideas that are already well covered or develop them in a manner that is disconnected from the literature (Murphy et al., 2017). This makes it an efficient and effective approach to qualitative data analysis (Locke, 2015;Murphy et al., 2017;Van Maanen et al., 2007). Our process of data analysis is illustrated in Figure 1. ...
... Experts, including president-, vice president-and director-level personnel of organizations representing SME interests, were selected as the key informants to collect the primary data for this study. These experts were close to the phenomenon (Murphy et al., 2017) and represented over 100,000 SMEs. We defined an expert as a person who is responsible for the development and implementation of strategies and policies and who has privileged access to information about groups of persons or decision-making processes (Meuser and Nagel, 1991). ...
... As per Burg et al. (2020), two flavors of the grounded theory approach, the Gioia and Kreiner approaches, suggest analytical steps for conducting data analyses. These two approaches have been, successfully used in high-impact factor management journals (Murphy et al., 2017). While Gioio et al.'s (2013) approach suggests inductive steps to derive constructs, the Kreiner and colleagues approach suggests abductive steps (Murphy et al., 2017;Reinhardt et al., 2018;Burg et al., 2020). ...
... These two approaches have been, successfully used in high-impact factor management journals (Murphy et al., 2017). While Gioio et al.'s (2013) approach suggests inductive steps to derive constructs, the Kreiner and colleagues approach suggests abductive steps (Murphy et al., 2017;Reinhardt et al., 2018;Burg et al., 2020). Murphy et al. ...
Purpose Turbulent hypercompetitive market conditions make small and medium enterprises (SMEs) vulnerable to abrupt crises caused by unexpected competitor moves. In these situations, enterprise risk management (ERM) can serve as a dynamic capability (DC) to overcome the impending crisis and improve SMEs' survival rates. To explore this capacity, which has only been vaguely addressed in prior research, we conduct an exploratory, abductive study to update the extant (ERM and DC) literature with empirical evidence from expert interviews. Design/methodology/approach We conduct an exploratory, abductive study using empirical evidence from expert interviews. Findings Our findings reveal ERM as a second-order DC in the micro-foundational components of competitive intelligence gathering, alliance building and integrative capabilities. We find that competitive intensity and government policy moderate the effects of these foundational capabilities. Finally, our study proposes a survivability model that provides new valuable knowledge of ERM as a DC for SMEs to deal with competition-driven crises. Originality/value This research survivability model shows how ERM as DC can facilitate the survivability of SMEs against competitive surprises. Although restricted to crises arising out of competitive surprises, this study provides valuable knowledge to the literature on what type of DCs are useful for specific situations. The study findings not only extended Teece's (2007) DCs framework to competitive crises but also placed it within a hierarchy of capabilities. The research findings indicate that an ERM culture in SMEs promote the growth and development of sensing, seizing and reconfiguring capabilities, vital for tiding competitive crises.
... Findings of the qualitative study culminated in a grounded model (Fig. 1) which was validated using survey instruments. The study was inductive in nature and adhered to the established standards of mixed-method approach thereby, responding to the call for inductive research in human resource management literature (Murphy et al., 2017;Bainbridge and Lee, 2014). ...
... Development of the grounded model involved the following steps: 1) Principle of constant comparison 2) Theoretical sampling and, 3) Theoretical saturation. Constant comparison involved continuously iterating between extant data, emergent data, and extant theory to identify the patterns grounded in the data (Murphy et al., 2017). For example, after the first interview, the response was analyzed to understand what the interviewee had shared? ...
... what is its relation to the extant theory and literature? (the twin-slate approach, Murphy et al., 2017). Similar steps were repeated with the consecutive participants until the data reached theoretical saturation i.e. information emerged were theoretically saturated and had no further contribution to the emergent model (Charmaz, 2014). ...
The study aimed to explore factors contributing to job dissatisfaction among frontend retail employees in India. It broadly contributes to the problem of talent retention and employee turnover which is one of the biggest challenges of the Indian retail industry. The study adopted mixed-method approach to inductively identify the contextual factors leading to job dissatisfaction. Qualitative data were analyzed using grounded theory approach followed by a survey based quantitative study, using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to validate the qualitative findings. Qualitative study revealed seven factors-customer aggression, abusive supervision, perceived job image, perceived unethical climate, lack of autonomy, work exhaustion and inter-role conflicts contributing to job dissatisfaction. Findings of quantitative study showed all factors except lack of autonomy were significantly related to job dissatisfaction. Theoretical contributions, managerial implication, limitations, and scope for future work are discussed.
... When the researchers reconnected in 2015, the authors realized that their projects had both evolved along similar lines; zooming in on questions about Fairphone's hybrid identity and on the role that leaders played in guiding that hybrid identity formation process. Both projects had also employed a similar inductive theory building approach (Murphy et al., 2017). Subsequently, and akin to research collaborations described elsewhere (Bechky and Okhuysen, 2011;Ravasi and Schultz, 2006), the authors began exchanging ideas on the case. ...
... Where needed, we revisited observations and experiences, and compared them with insights (written or narrated) from the other study, until we were positive about our collective analytical conclusions. In all, combining data on the same case and covering the same time period allowed us to compare theoretically informed observations across a more extensive set of data sources, which in the process enhances the reliability and validity of our overall findings (Murphy et al., 2017). ...
... Although we recognize that a fully inductive approach -seeing the data from a so-called 'tabula rasa' perspective (Murphy et al., 2017) -is difficult to achieve, we did not involve the literature until we were fully engaged in our data analysis. That is, contrary to more recent versions of grounded theory that advocate a quicker involvement with theoretical concepts to inform and adapt the data collection (Murphy et al., 2017), our analysis followed a more traditional, emergent route (Gioia et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The formation of a hybrid organizational identity is a significant challenge for many social enterprises. Drawing on in‐depth longitudinal data from the first three years of a successful social enterprise – Fairphone, founded in Amsterdam – we induce an empirically grounded theoretical model of how a hybrid organizational identity is formed. We identify a general process of organizational identity formation, with founders, leaders and members experimenting with different organizational characters describing ‘who they are’ as well as with alternative social impact strategies defining ‘what they do’. As part of this experimental process, we elaborate the role of a key leadership process – ‘rekeying’, which involves leaders re‐figuring prior understandings into more dual readings – which we found facilitates ongoing adaptation and helps members of the organization to become progressively better able at combining multiple objectives and values as part of a shared hybrid identity. Our theoretical model of hybrid organizational identity formation has a number of direct implications for ongoing research on organizational identity formation and hybrid organizations.
... To address our research question, we chose a person-centric and inductive design to capture "the actual production of meanings and concepts used by social actors in real settings" (Gephart, 2004, p. 457). Our study is based on the principles of grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) by iteratively and inductively constructing theory from data and merging new findings with extant theories (Murphy et al., 2017). ...
... In line with the principle of theoretical sampling (Murphy et al., 2017), we purposely selected our interviewees based on their relevant knowledge and experiences and included managers who were directly affected by the changes and tasked with making decisions on layoffs, contract terminations, or placements. We continued interviewing until no new properties of the patterns appeared according to the principle of theoretical saturation (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). ...
... Our pilot interview resulted in minor adjustments to the interview guide (for excepts of the interview guide, see Supplement 2). While the guide allowed for comparisons across interviews, the semistructured design enabled us to remain open to new developments based on the principle of emergence (Murphy et al., 2017). We considered the research process to involve a constant (re)construction of theory whereby data collection and analysis occurred concurrently (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). ...
Article
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Managers tasked with organizational change often face irreconcilable demands on how to enact justice—situations we call justice conundrums. Drawing on interviews held with managers before and after a planned large-scale change, we identify specific conundrums and illustrate how managers grapple with these through three prototypical paths. Among our participants, the paths increasingly diverged over time, culminating in distinct career decisions. Based on our findings, we develop an integrative process model that illustrates how managers grapple with justice conundrums. Our contributions are threefold. First, we elucidate three types of justice conundrums that managers may encounter when enacting justice in the context of planned organizational change (the justice intention-action gap, competing justice expectations, and the justice of care vs. managerial-strategic justice) and show how managers handle them differently. Second, drawing on the motivated cognition and moral disengagement literature, we illustrate how cognitive mechanisms coalesce to allow managers to soothe their moral (self-) concerns when grappling with these conundrums. Third, we show how motivated justice intentions ensuing from specific justice motives, moral emotions, and circles of moral regard predict the types of justice conundrums managers face and the paths they take to grapple with them.
... After the 37th interview, the author stopped taking interviews as there was no generation of any new information from the respondents. Qualitative research has no published guidelines or tests of adequacy for estimating the sample size required to reach saturation (Morse, 1995) and the researcher can continue to collect data until "theoretical saturation" (Murphy et al., 2016). The present study adopted the purposeful sampling approach suggested by (Marshall, 1996) was to determine the sample size. ...
... The present study adopts grounded theory (GT) developed by Strauss and Corbin (1990), which in all probability is the universal method to analyze qualitative data in the social sciences (Haig, 2010). The transcripts from the telephonic interview were coded into open, axial, and selective codes using the principle of constant comparison where the emerging data is constantly compared with existing data and existing literature (Murphy et al., 2016). The data analysis started with open coding where direct codes are attached to the interview transcripts by identifying commonly recurring concepts in the responses. ...
... The author examined the transcripts and the initial codes repeatedly to remove those which had become redundant and ineffable to express the actual meaning. As suggested by Murphy et al. (2016), Tabula Geminus or twin slate approach was used to code the transcripts. The author used the deductive approach to identify the concepts by adopting terms from the existing literature. ...
Article
The present study attempts to find the factors resulting in increased risk of anxiety and stress due to nation-wide lockdown imposed to reduce the transmission of coronavirus in the Indian context. Grounded theory approach is used to collect, analyse, and code the data elicited from 37 semi-structured interviews. Qualitative analysis of the data found that the lockdown during coronavirus outbreak led to boredom, financial loss, and intimate terrorism which resulted in an elevated risk of anxiety and stress. It was also revealed that risk of anxiety and stress further increased during the lockdown due to the moderating role of the media and doom scrolling. Significance of the study rests in developing a grounded theory framework for stress and anxiety in the Indian context that can help the government and the associated bodies as well as the healthcare departments to devise strategies and policies to reduce the risk of nation-wide lockdown on the mental health of the people. This study is one of the initial attempts that use the grounded theory to unearth and add to the existing literature the intervening and intriguing factors which directly or indirectly increases individuals’ anxiousness and stress during COVID-19 lockdown in the Indian context.
... We identified cases for analysis consistent with established practices in qualitative research (Eisenhardt et al. 2016, Murphy et al. 2017. First, guided by our research question, we drew upon personal contacts in both Haiti and the Haitian diaspora to find potential cases for inquiry. ...
... This process involved reading each transcript and ascribing a "code" to specific units of text to capture higher levels of meaning. As this process was emergent (Murphy et al. 2017), we reread and recoded our data multiple times following a recursive process (Lincoln and Guba 1985) that ensured we had adequately accounted for the presence of certain concepts across all the data. The first author documented the codes in an Excel table, in which the interviewees represented columns and the initial list of first-order codes represented rows. ...
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An important and underexamined topic in the growing literature on community-embedded organizing concerns situations in which dramatic shifts in the environment require the time-sensitive re-establishment of both communities and organizations to address urgent needs. We conduct a qualitative study of emergent community-organization trajectories in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake and explore differences in the processes and interactions between emerging organizations and communities. Despite all organizations in our data facing the same external shock, they differed in how they interpreted the nature of crisis-induced voids, established boundaries to build and organize communities, and created connections to bind themselves to their communities. We compare and contrast these differences to reveal three trajectories of community-organization emergence, explain why these trajectories initially formed in the ways they did, and identify unique mechanisms that led to these trajectories’ divergence. Our findings contribute to the literature on community-embedded organizing by demonstrating how organizations re-establish communities while simultaneously emerging within those communities.
... The ongoing process of zooming in and out helped stabilize defining moments in the relationship, denoting stages or critical junctures (Dalpiaz et al. 2016), temporally bracketing the case (Langley 1999). In the spirit of grounded theory, we cycled back and forth between data analysis and interpretation, in order to build reliable interpretations based on the actual data (Murphy et al. 2017). The overall data analysis process is depicted in Figure 1. ...
... We do not claim to have represented 'the truth' of the matter so much as provide an account that is analytical plausible and empirically well-grounded. Throughout the process, we used the team to build trust in the emergent interpretation, with some members acting as outsiders and interrogating the insiders' guiding of the research process as it unfolded (Murphy et al. 2017). The fact that we used public sources makes the case easily open to scrutiny. ...
Article
Institutions have been mainly understood in a dualistic way: as abstract, macro cultural logics, or as inhabited socio-cultural sites. This form of dualism divided people into cognitive cultural dopes or persons with a heart. Scholars are now trying to overcome dualistic modes of thinking about people in institutions, through the consideration of the persons as whole human beings. In this new theoretical approach, it is crucial to understand how institutions frame individual action and how individuals shape institutions. We study this duality by considering the lived experience of Colombia’s presidential transition period from Uribe to Santos in the decade of the 2010s.
... If the organization does not satisfy individual needs, talented employees would be lost. Such challenges are the main drivers behind the systemic shift from the standardization approach to the individualization approach (Murphy et al., 2017). The rapid transformation of employees also forces organizations to differentiate their HRM practices to attract a more qualified workforce (Rosen et al., 2013). ...
... The qualitative analysis in this research revealed that traditional HR practices with "one size fit all" approach and without any flexibility do still exist in addition to I-deals in forms such as attending higher level management programs, band promotion, negotiating for becoming a team leader, pursuing long-term career negotiation by threatening to resign, demands of some extra roles for high performers, assuming some responsibilities of a higher role, and employer-initiated offers for another role that have been observed to exist in this research. Such examples are like I-deals reported in the literature (Conway & Coyle-Shapiro, 2015;Murphy et al., 2017;Rousseau, 2005;Rousseau et al., 2009). ...
... We used an exploratory qualitative research method to building theory on a topic that has been previously unaddressed (Cross & Swart, 2021;Murphy et al., 2017). Semi-structured interviews were conducted, whereby predetermined open-ended questions were posed in combination with additional in-depth questions to explore topics the respondents experienced as important (Longhurst, 2003). ...
... T A B L E 2 Descriptive statistics of the sample thoroughly discussed with all researchers involved. The analysis showed that the point of theoretical data saturation has been reached (Murphy et al., 2017). Due to the explorative nature of our research design, we provided a comprehensive overview of organizational needs and expectations. ...
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This study aimed to advance our understanding of inclusive human resource management (HRM) in freelance employment. We examined organizational needs and freelancers' psychological contracts with a qualitative interview study among eight dyads of HR managers and freelancers. Although the findings showed that organisations and freelancers have different interests, both parties agreed on what inclusive HRM entails in freelancers' employment relationships. However, within the dyads, the content of the psychological contract was not always viewed the same by HR managers and freelancers. Hence, negotiating mutual expectations when implementing inclusive HRM to avoid psychological contract breach appeared important. Furthermore, organizational needs did not seem to be considered when designing inclusive HRM. Due to this lack of strategic fit, organisations may waste opportunities of tapping into the full potential of hiring freelancers. The findings provide organisations insight in considering freelancers as potential sources of competitive advantage.
... Such a methodological approach enables an in-depth analysis of the norms, procedures, and formal and informal rules of these CE meetings, understanding their cultural micro-mechanisms, power relations and everyday practices (Gioia et al., 2013). This grounded approach provides for richer, in-depth understandings that are normally not feasible with a quantitative methodology (Murphy et al., 2017). ...
... The approach, originally developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967), has become a popular methodological approach in the social sciences (e.g. Gioia et al., 2013;Glaser et al., 2013;Murphy et al., 2017) to formulate theory, particularly using qualitative data. While qualitative data tends to be highly contextual, the thorough process of coding and abstraction enables the researcher to develop higher level concepts that can be transferred to and applied in other contexts. ...
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The circular economy (CE) is seen as a structural solution to society's sustainability problems. But with a large diversity of definitions, CE is also often portrayed as immature or in need of conceptual synthesis. Rather than treating the bemoaned ambiguity as a problem, in this article we analyse its implications on CE practice at the example of meetings aimed at popularising CE to businesspeople. To this end, we build on a grounded theory approach to analyse ethnographic and participant observations of CE meetings in Sweden from a performativity perspective. We identify four major communication norms that are enabled by ambiguity in the observed meetings, and simultaneously manage and maintain this ambiguity. The communication norms consist of implicit standards for how people ought to act, talk, respond, and reflect in the meetings. We contribute to CE scholarship by showing how ambiguity is not a sign of failure or immaturity, but an integral and productive part of CE discourse, as it enables diverse actors to congregate around shared aims. Our findings may help CE practitioners and scholars to make explicit the ambiguity of the CE concept in meetings, and ultimately to navigate in debates about what society and economy we want to live in.
... For this study, qualitative research was conducted.2 Acknowledging the dearth of relevant research as well as the uniqueness of the context of social enterprises (Glaser & Strauss, 1967;Murphy, Klotz, & Kreiner, 2017), we adopted an inductive approach and employed a thematic analysis to examine patterns in our data. Following previous literature on social enterprises (Akemu, Whiteman, & Kennedy, 2016) and the suggestions of Braun and Clarke (2006), thematic analysis was performed in six stages. ...
... Guided by the principle of theoretical saturation (Murphy et al., 2017;Walsh et al., 2015) and in line with the norm of having approximately 15 interviews for qualitative studies in the context of social entrepreneurship (Short, Moss, & Lumpkin, 2009), 22 interviews were conducted with representatives from different UK-based social enterprises, as part of a larger research project. The list of members of the "Social Enterprise UK" was used as the sampling framework. ...
Article
Human resource management deployments of social enterprises foster care among their members, encourage caring relationships, and enhance the visibility and impact of the diverse voices of their stakeholders and, ultimately, contribute to the creation of a caring organization. The results of this study emphasize the importance of ethics in social enterprises manifested primarily through human resource management practices. Our analysis confirms that the vast majority of social enterprises are motivated by the ethics of care. Social enterprises offer a unique context to juxtapose the ethics of care and ethics of justice because they are founded and operated by caring people but also have to achieve profitability that reliable decision‐making, objectivity, and impartiality.
... The objective of this study is to pinpoint factors that balance and ameliorate the dynamics of an entrepreneurial team by taking examples from successful (in these points) music bands. Elements of grounded theory were chosen in order to run this research and develop initial question, gather data, and find out patterns and codes in order to build theory (inspired from Murphy, Klotz, & Kreiner, 2017). ...
Conference Paper
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Literature regarding entrepreneurial teams has risen the last decade (Fayolle et al., 2014). Researchers study entrepreneurial teams as a part of a big company, even though an entrepreneurial team usually does not evolve under the context of a large and stable organization. It mostly works and flourish under circumstances of instability, lack of income, uncertainty, innovation, creativity, problem solving. A music band works under the same circumstances.Music bands already have been used as an example in researching how organizations can be more innovative and creative (Kamoche;2003) and some researchers claim that team dynamics of an early stage entrepreneurial team resembles the dynamics of a music band. Using a qualitative approach, entrepreneurial teams and music bands of 3-5 members, where interviewed in order to shed light on team dynamics and team spirit. This empirical research attempts to identify the differences between the two and point out positive aspects of music bands’ team spirit. The results extract six variables, ‘discussion with the team’, ‘give space to everyone’, ‘practice’, ‘perform as a unity’, ‘trust’, ‘everyone acts as a composer/leader’ which seems to enhance band’s cohesion and performance, as also can help entrepreneurial teams tackle their team dynamics in a way that provides a more efficient outcome. Key words: team dynamics, entrepreneurial teams, music bands, interdisciplinary, startups, entrepreneurship, cohesion
... More can be done to assess these motivations precisely. Because of the relatively wideopen nature of the question of what happens to motivation and passion during the exit process, qualitative studies using grounded theory approaches (Murphy, Klotz, & Kreiner, 2017) may be particularly useful for understanding the different ways entrepreneurs experience this process. Also, although the decision to exit one's venture is distinct from that of the decision to quit one's job, insights from studies on the factors that lead to employee turnover (and burnout) may prove useful in building and testing theory related to the role of entrepreneurial motivation in the venture exit process. ...
... Thus, considering the relevance of proposing a general theoretical model of PD, we started from the theoretical proposition of Kolb (1984) and from primary data obtained through interviews with professionals from different categories, using the methodological approach of the grounded theory, which can be used to merge new observations with the existing theory, pointing to other perspectives that best explain a given phenomenon (Woo, O'Boyle, & Spector, 2017). Regarding PD, this is especially important because the organizational science is too invested in a "top to bottom" deductive approach, without the creation or expansion of theoretical models, which has limited the advancement of scientific production in the area (Murphy, Klotz, & Kreiner, 2017;Spector, Rogelberg, Ryan, Schmitt, & Zedeck, 2014). ...
Article
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Knowing the perceptions of people from different professions about their professional development is one of the current changes in the field of Labor Psychology. The objective of this study was to construct a Trans-occupational theoretical model of professional development based on the grounded theory. To this end, 25 interviews were conducted in depth with five professional categories, namely: lawyers, entrepreneurs, engineers, physicians and psychologists. Data collection instrument was an open script for interviews, which were then recorded and transcribed. Analysis of results was supported by the software Alceste. Results point to similarities and specificities in the career trajectories inter-professions, and we opted for the non-inclusion of entrepreneurs in the model due to their significant difference when compared to the other categories. As a conclusion, we proposed a trans-occupational model of professional development with five key elements: Work Context, Motivation, Training/Learning, Relational Elements and Lived Experiences. The model, although it requires research for validation, offers relevant contributions and reflections to professionals and researchers working in the area.
... For developing a better understanding of the concept of overemployment as well as its consequences, we followed the Grounded Theory approach established by Gioia (see e.g., Gioia et al., 2013;Murphy et al., 2017). According to Gioia et al. (2013), much effort is often invested in concept elaboration, but little in the "more important work of concept development" (Gioia et al., 2013, p. 16). ...
Article
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Many employees would prefer to reduce work time and can be defined as overemployed. However, the concept of overemployment is poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to define overemployment from employees’ point of view, to explain why people work more than they prefer, and to understand the individual consequences it has. We investigate 26 overemployed employees using a Grounded Theory approach. We find that overemployment is a four-dimensional experience consisting of work time length, work time competition (with time outside work), work time distribution on tasks, and work density. A self-reinforcing circle of personal and situational drivers seems to explain the persistence of overemployment. Regarding the psychosocial consequences of overemployment, our findings show large variations, whereby work time sovereignty seems to play a moderating role. This study provides a multidimensional framework of overemployment that provides a basis for understanding employees’ perceptions and behavior regarding overemployment and for deriving appropriate actions to reduce overemployment.
... The quotations selected for analysis were later translated into English and checked by another researcher on accuracy of the translations (Hambleton, 1993). The interviewer followed an emergence interviewing approach in which early analyses of responses led to alterations in questions in the succeeding interviews (Murphy, Klotz, & Kreiner, 2017). The term "emergence" points to the fact that in this approach researchers stay open to new developments during data collection and analysis, and follow these towards "most theoreticallypromising leads", (p. ...
Article
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This paper takes a process perspective in exploring the influence of social interaction on the dynamics of psychological contracting throughout organizational change. Although social interaction is a key focus in social exchange theory, this aspect is largely overlooked in the current psychological contract literature. In this qualitative study, we adopt a retrospective design, asking change recipients to recollect events over time in the context of digital transformation in Dutch travel organizations. Our data reveal a sequence of different kinds of social interactions over the course of a change process, from collective-focused interactions (i.e., kindness and sharing) in stable contracts to transactional interactions (i.e., “what is in it for me”) following psychological contract disruption, to relational interactions (i.e., vigilance about equity in social exchange) in psychological contract repair, and to a final return to resonance and alignment with others and a return to psychological contract maintenance. Our results suggest that social interactions play a more potent role in the dynamics of psychological contracting than is currently recognized in the literature. Finally, we discuss a number of implications for dynamic models of psychological contracting.
... Informant identification: Informants in this study were bound to the contextual conditions and thus purposefully and conveniently selected based on the informants' relevance to and experiences with the context (Murphy et al. 2017). From the preliminary documentation review, the author identified 12 organizations that assisted undocumented immigrants in South Apopka. ...
Article
This qualitative case study aims to gain a greater understanding of collective action among organizations assisting undocumented immigrants in South Apopka, Florida, following Hurricane Irma in 2017. In-depth semistructured interviews serve as the primary data sources. In addition, analysis of relevant documentation triangulates the interview data and identifies converging themes. For data analysis, qualitative data is structured through multiple coding steps: open coding, using the language of informants; axial-coding, using labels created by the researcher; and core-coding, central themes and constructs of the study. The following themes are identified as common descriptors of the collective action patterns in the context: heterogeneity, constituents, mediators, and collaboration. In addition, six themes emerge as factors of the collective action: acquaintance, boundary, communication, dedication, events, and flexibility. The author further discusses the themes and suggests policy strategies to encourage interorganizational collective action to protect vulnerable people from institutional blindness in disasters.
... GT is appropriate to apply where the phenomena are quite recent and need more in-depth inquiry (Murphy et al., 2017). Most technology adoption theories do not consider variables from the post-smartphone era; therefore, their relevance and comprehensiveness in explaining digital coupon redemption are questionable. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid scale for measuring digital coupon redemption. The scale development process began with the grounded theory approach for item generation. This was followed by the development of a conceptual framework, item generation, initial reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on primary data collected from 609 participants. For validating the scale, the CFA was repeated using data from 411 unique participants. Results from two independent surveys supported the proposed scale in terms of construct, convergent and discriminant validity. Survey study resulted in a 45-item digital coupon redemption scale. It also covers digital aspects such as intention to search, attitude toward internet searching, perceived risk, perceived convenience and personal innovativeness which were not covered in earlier promotion scales. This scale would assist marketers to maximize digital coupon redemption during their promotion campaigns. This is the first attempt to provide a comprehensive scale to measure digital coupon redemption in the marketing literature.
... In the following sections, we review existing literature relevant to our research question, namely: How do individuals in emerging occupations create the subjective sense that "who they are" in their occupational role is necessary, desirable, and appropriate (i.e., legitimate) within the broader occupational landscape? As there is little research that directly answers this question, we adopt a qualitative, theorybuilding approach in this paper, and our literature review is thus necessarily brief (Edmondson & McManus, 2007;Murphy, Klotz, & Kreiner, 2017). ...
Article
In emerging occupations, individuals are given very little prepackaged identity “content”—e.g., occupational values, legitimating ideologies, clear goals, tasks, and/or routines—to help them build their individual‐level occupational identities. By contrast, individuals in well‐established occupations (e.g., professions) are given ample identity content, and prior identity research has examined identity work processes almost exclusively in the context of such occupations. Consequently, prior theory assumes that identity work is mostly a matter of tailoring prepackaged identity content to fit one’s individual‐level preferences and objectives. Prior theory is therefore of limited use in emerging occupations, where the key identity problem is not one of tailoring identity content effectively but creating an identity in the first place—more specifically, an identity whose existence feels justified and valid. Thus, in this paper, we ask: how do individuals in emerging occupations construct an internal sense that “who they are” is necessary, desirable, and appropriate (i.e., legitimate) within the broader occupational landscape? On the basis of a grounded theory study of health coaches, we suggest that individuals in such circumstances can craft this sense of “identity legitimacy” via a sensemaking process we call occupational boundary play . This process consists of both “occupational boundary‐setting” and “occupational boundary‐blurring,” the former providing for individuals a sense of identity novelty and the latter providing a sense of identity familiarity. Taken together, this subjective experience of both novelty and familiarity provides for individuals the sense that “who they are” is legitimate within the broader occupational landscape.
... Likewise, qualitative research considers extreme cases or participants with highly unique experiences as potentially important for theoretical insight and the exploration of phenomenon boundaries (Murphy et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we describe and discuss innovative ways for employing qualitative methods in the field of age and work. Our aim is to inspire researchers to explore how qualitative methods may allow them to address research questions that they have so far been unable to examine using quantitative methods alone. We provide an introduction to qualitative research methods by outlining core characteristics of these methods, opportunities they afford, challenges researchers need to manage, and giving recommendations for their application. We also introduce a taxonomy that connects key dimensions of aging research with core aims of qualitative research, develop research questions that emerge from this taxonomy, and illustrate how qualitative methods can advance the research domain of age and work.
... Given the pre-mature level of a university-driven innovation ecosystem, case research gained respect in this design as it is ideal (Yin, 2003), allowing for a richer knowledge of non-conceptualized issues. When conducting qualitative research, several stages take place as depicted in Figure 3 (adapted from Murphy et al., 2016): develop initial objective; data collection; the coding process; searching for patterns. ...
Conference Paper
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Entrepreneurship and its connection to the manifestations of innovation has been discussed in academia for quite some time. The last 15 years saw the increasing relevance of open innovation and a rising prominence of so-called ecosystems. As interactions between different stakeholders become more complex, innovation ecosystems are becoming of prime importance. There is a need for further researching how these ecosystems are formed and the factors that can render them successful or failed. The purpose of this article is to present the cases of three university-driven innovation ecosystems, i.e. ecosystems that are formed by established firms and startups under the coordination of a university. These ecosystems are created through an open innovation program aiming to create collaborative schemes by bringing together incumbent firms and startups to accelerate innovation and facilitate a co-creation process. These schemes involved important and discuss how their interactions shape the innovation process. The cases deal with different sectors airport, food, and finTech and provide insights on how an ecosystem is formed and how the innovation process is affected by the collaboration of different firms, funds, sponsors, and institutional partners. This work contributes to the current research on how to set up a university-driven scheme and identifies key factors that drive the actors to continue to operate within the ecosystem.
... These three aggregate dimensions were constructed around tensions related to different aspects of roles: cognition, or the substantive content of the tensions; emotion, the affective states involved in action; and action or the social dimension of behavior. The processes involved a constant comparison of data and theory (Murphy et al., 2017), as well as discussion among the authors during data analysis (see Figure 1).Through this process of iteration we began to make sense of our data as composed of tensions whose facets were paradoxical. These opposites involved the potential for both synergy and trade-off, as Li (2016) suggested, and they were persistent rather than solvable or temporary (Cunha and Clegg, 2018). ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of the study is to explore inductively the unique paradoxical tensions central to family business (FB) and to analyze how FB’s members face these tensions and their implications in the personal and professional realms. Design/methodology/approach – A multiple-case study with 11 parent–offspring dyads from Portuguese FBs was conducted putting the focus on the micro-level interactions. Findings – The slopes of roles and relationality in FBs produces three persistent sets of tensions around cognition, emotion and action. These tensions exist in a paradoxical state, containing potentiality for synergy or trade-off. Originality/value – Our study is the first to empirically demonstrate that paradoxical tensions between parent and offspring are interrelated, by emphasizing the uniqueness of FB as a paradoxical setting and offering insights to negotiating of these singular paradoxes.
... As a researcher in the interview process, my role was to develop open-ended questions in a semistructured way to validate and allow for further questions to enhance the depth of knowledge.The interview protocol (see Appendix A) also served to mitigate bias. As stated byMurphy et al. (2017), confirmation bias, which is a tendency to select and use evidence from existing literature or secondary sources, needs to be avoided, and the participant's language and experiences need to be prioritized. The data collection and coding approach of existing sources at the early stage was avoided to mitigate my personal bias. ...
Research
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Failure to adopt an interoperable eHealth system limits the accurate communication exchange of pertinent health-care-related data for diagnosis and treatment. Patient data are located in disparate health information systems, and the adoption of an interoperable eHealth system is complex and requires strategic planning by senior health care IT leaders. Grounded in DeLone and McLean’s information system success model, the purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore strategies used by some senior information technology (IT) health care leaders in the successful adoption of an eHealth system. The participants were 8 senior health care IT leaders in the eastern United States who successfully adopted an interoperable eHealth system. Data were collected using semistructured interviews following Kallio’s five phase interview guide and analyzed using thematic analysis. Six themes emerged: eHealth ecosystem, implementation approach, quality, strategy, use/intent to use, and user satisfaction. A key recommendation from results indicates that further identification and development of strategies based on the DeLone and McLean IS success model might benefit successful eHealth adoption and implementation. Positive social change implications include the potential for senior health care IT leaders to identify a framework to enhance accuracy among eHealth systems to reduce medical errors and improve patient care.
... First, it provides a systematic guide on how to code the data. Second, it focuses on creating a data structure that visualizes the analysis process (Gioia et al. 2013;Murphy et al. 2017). The data structure visualizes how 1st order codes, 2nd order categories, and aggregate dimensions relate to each other. ...
Conference Paper
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This study explores how organizations translate principles of ethical artificial intelligence (AI) into practice. To date, the research on AI ethics has been mostly conceptual, with a significant emphasis on defining the principles of ethical AI. Thus, there is momentum for a shift from principle-based ethics toward an increased focus on the implementation of ethical principles in practice. In this study, we analyzed data collected through a set of expert interviews in organizations deploying AI systems. We identified that ethical AI principles are implemented through four sets of practices: i) governance, ii) AI design and development, iii) competence and knowledge development, and iv) stakeholder communication. As our contribution to IS research, we empirically elucidate how the principles of ethical AI are translated into organizational practices. For IS practice, we provide organizations deploying AI with novel insights on how to govern their AI systems.
... These three aggregate dimensions were constructed around tensions related to different aspects of roles: cognition, or the substantive content of the tensions; emotion, the affective states involved in action; and action or the social dimension of behavior. The processes involved a constant comparison of data and theory (Murphy et al., 2017), as well as discussion among the authors during data analysis (see Figure 1).Through this process of iteration we began to make sense of our data as composed of tensions whose facets were paradoxical. These opposites involved the potential for both synergy and trade-off, as Li (2016) suggested, and they were persistent rather than solvable or temporary (Cunha and Clegg, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
PURPOSE – The purpose of the study is to explore inductively the unique paradoxical tensions central to family business (FB) and to analyze how FB’s members face these tensions and their implications in the personal and professional realms. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – A multiple-case study with 11 parent–offspring dyads from Portuguese FBs was conducted putting the focus on the micro-level interactions. FINDINGS – The slopes of roles and relationality in FBs produces three persistent sets of tensions around cognition, emotion and action. These tensions exist in a paradoxical state, containing potentiality for synergy or trade-off. ORIGINALITY/VALUE – Our study is the first to empirically demonstrate that paradoxical tensions between parent and offspring are interrelated, by emphasizing the uniqueness of FB as a paradoxical setting and offering insights to negotiating of these singular paradoxes. KEYWORDS – Business families, Micro-foundations, Parental relationships, Paradox, Role conflict
... Researchers have found numerous difficulties to operationalize studies using the Grounded Theory method (APRAMIAN et al, 2016;MURPHY et al, 2016). Bianchi and Ikeda (2008) state that the evolution of Grounded Theory (GT) ended up generating a list of risks and situations of exception. ...
Article
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Researchers has been found difficult to develop studies using the Grounded Theory (GT) method. This article presents the methodological path about the operationalization of a GT. The research that provided this description sought to clarify what are the factors that influence the use of the Learning Management System in the management of Distance Education in a university and how they act, based on the experience of its managers. The research adopted the Straussian current: the problem was explicitly defined and open, axial and selective coding were developed, with data collected from documents and semi-structured interviews. The main contribution of this article is to present the operational procedures for the construction of a GT.
... The data from the transcribed interviews was the basis for the analysis, which was carried out by means of a coding process which followed certain steps, namely, initial codingreading each transcript and attaching codes to interviews' extracts; coding dictionarydevelopment of a list of codes, sub-codes linked based on their conceptual and logical similarity; and relationshipsestablishing and clarifying relationships among codes (Murphy, Klotz, & Kreiner, 2017;Saldaña, 2009). Table 3. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to unfold how different digital marketing tools and strategies influence recruitment effectiveness. More specifically, it focuses on understanding if, and how, information sources’ credibility, content marketing, and organisational reputation influence candidates’ decision to apply for a job in the Portuguese market. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative research, aligned with a content analysis, was conducted to focus on the insights from the 21 participants interviewed, to understand their thoughts and experiences regarding the subject. Findings The results show that digital marketing tools owned by the company are seen to be more credible and more relevant for the job application decision. LinkedIn is considered to be a more credible platform for advertising job openings than Facebook. In terms of content marketing, LinkedIn has a positive influence on candidates’ decision, as well as companies’ reputation. Practical implications This study provides practical implications which are useful for both HR and marketing managers, namely, the implementation of an integrated marketing communication strategy, the reinforcement of the company’s website and LinkedIn page and a presence on universities’ platforms, and also in terms of the information that content marketing should focus on. Originality/value This research paper incorporates marketing insights into a well-known HRM subject – recruitment, and thus adds further knowledge to the literature and prepares the ground for researchers who wish to explore this subject further.
Purpose This paper studies the impact of social distancing causing crises (SDCC) such as pandemics in its early stages on e-tailers demand and supply side operations and provides a conceptual framework for adaptation. Design/methodology/approach A grounded theory-based approach has been used, wherein journal papers and news articles are the key data sources. Standard qualitative methodology, including open, axial and selective coding has been followed. Findings The study provides second order themes derived from first-order categories, the theoretical dimensions and their interrelationships on how e-tailers need to adapt to variations in online buying behaviour, manage manpower shortage and daily necessities inventory shortage, during SDCC. Panic buying emerges as a key disrupting factor as it has multiple repercussions on demand and supply side operations of e-tailers. Research limitations/implications Exploratory qualitative research such as this is helpful in early development of a research stream and paves the way for future quantitative studies. Practical implications This study makes a valuable contribution on e-tailers adaptation to SDCC with significant managerial implications. There are social, economic and policy implications too. For academicians, this study provides a conceptual framework and serves as a springboard for future research. Originality/value The study is unique as perhaps it is one of the first to study e-tailers adaptation to SDCC. It contributes to a body of the literature which is currently scarce but expected to grow exponentially in the coming years.
Article
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Researchers has been found difficult to develop studies using the Grounded Theory (GT) method. This article presents the methodological route about an operationalization of a GT. The research that provided this description sought to clarify what are and how they act the factors that influence the use of the Learning Management System in the management of Distance Education in a university, based on the experience of its managers. The research adopted the Straussian current: the problem was explicitly defined and open, axial and selective coding were developed, with data collected from documents and semi-structured interviews. The main contribution of this article is to present the operational procedures for the construction of a GT.
Thesis
Past research indicates that employees’ motivation to relocate abroad plays a crucial role for the success or failure of expatriate assignments. Hence, companies should know about employees’ international relocation mobility readiness (IRMR) and its antecedents. However, past research has defined, conceptualized and measured IRMR heterogeneously, leading to mixed results regarding its antecedents. Moreover, we lack a theoretical framework that comprehensively describes employees’ decision-making process regarding their international relocation mobility. This thesis seeks to close these crucial research gaps by applying qualitative as well as quantitative research approaches. The thesis comprises four manuscripts. The results indicate that IRMR must be differentiated in a basic IRMR (trait) and a situational IRMR (state). The situational IRMR is the result of a decision-making process and is determined by an interplay of individual and situational variables. Future IRMR conceptualizations and measurements should consider the whole decision-making process regarding IRMR. Companies should consider important antecedents of IRMR (e.g. specific personality traits) within their expatriate selection processes.
Article
The proportion of older workers in the labor force is increasing. While much research over recent decades has suggested that this will create significant challenges for organizations, current evidence suggests that age-related human resource management practices are rare. Using a grounded theory approach, we examine why organizations are not adopting formal practices and what they are doing instead of using data from 43 interviews and focus groups within eight German and U.S. manufacturing facilities in 3 organizations. We find significant tension between perceptions of aging’s impact by top managers and unit supervisors. Lacking top-level formal support for age-related initiatives, our evidence shows supervisors adopting more informal, unit-level responses that do not require significant reorganization of work, masking the impact of workforce aging to top leaders. We also develop a typology of practices used to respond to workforce aging based on their effects on human capital flows in and out of the organization. Finally, we find that while aging is assessed similarly in the U.S. and Germany, German firms have greater flexibility and more formal practice options in their response due to employee relations systems, working time arrangements, and human resource planning systems which pressure organizations more to adopt formal practices. Our results inform a human capital perspective of the organizational response to workforce aging.
Book
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The edited volume Age and Work: Advances in Theory, Methods, and Practice presents a systematic collection of key advances in theory, methods, and practice regarding age(ing) and work. This cutting-edge collection breaks new ground by developing novel and useful theory, explaining underutilized but important methodological approaches, and suggesting original practical applications of emerging research topics. The book begins with a prologue by the World Health Organization’s unit head for aging and health, an introduction on the topic by the editors, and an overview of past, current, and future workforce age trends. Subsequently, the frst main section outlines theoretical advances regarding alternative age constructs (e.g., subjective age), intersectionality of age with gender and social class, paradoxical age-related actions, generational identity, and integration of lifespan theories. The second section presents methodological advances regarding behavioral assessment, age at the team and organizational levels, longitudinal and diary methods, experiments and interventions, qualitative methods, and the use of archival data. The third section covers practical advances regarding age and job crafting, knowledge exchange, the work/nonwork interface, healthy aging, and absenteeism and presenteeism, and organizational meta-strategies for younger and older workers. The book concludes with an epilogue by an eminent scholar in age and work. Written in a scientifc yet accessible manner, the book ofers a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, academics in the felds of psychology and business, as well as practitioners working in the areas of human resource management and organizational development.
Article
Cet article traite de l’enjeu environnemental dans une perspective appropriative. Une étude qualitative, menée dans le secteur de la grande distribution, envisage l’appropriation d’une écostratégie comme un processus d’apprentissage organisationnel mobilisant six compétences individuelles. Cinq dispositifs de gestion sont également proposés pour favoriser l’activation de ces compétences.
Thesis
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In der Dissertation werden Ursachen von Kommunikations- und Koordinationsproblemen in der operativen standortverteilten Produktentwicklung untersucht. Dabei wird die Frage behandelt, wie sich die Beziehung kooperierender Standorte auf den Projektalltag von Entwicklungsabteilungen auswirkt. Im Rahmen eines qualitativen multi-methods Mehrfallstudiendesigns untersucht die Arbeit vier Fallstudien in drei multinationalen Technologieunternehmen aus den Branchen Automobil, Automatisierungs- und Steuerungstechnik sowie der chemischen Industrie. Anhand der empirischen Erkenntnisse werden vier Modelle zur Erklärung von Ziel- und Einmischungskonflikten entwickelt. Dabei werden die beobachteten Kommunikations- und Koordinationsprobleme der standortverteilten Entwicklungsteams auf inkompatible Aufgaben- und Rollenverständnisse zurückgeführt. Zum einen wird gezeigt, dass standortverteilte Teams in Abhängigkeit der Rolle ihres Standorts unterschiedliche Vorstellungen der zu erledigenden Aufgabe entwickeln (sog. representational gaps). Genauer führen die Marktperspektive eines Standorts, sein Wissensstand sowie die jeweilige Teamorganisation zu abweichenden Zieldefinitionen, Prioritäten und Grundannahmen über die Vorgehensweise. Zum anderen wird dargelegt, dass auf unterschiedlichen Hierarchieebenen auseinandergehende Auffassungen der Rolle eines Standorts sowie seines Kompetenzlevels bestehen können. Diese als team perception gaps betitelten Divergenzen führen zu inkompatiblen Erwartungshaltungen und Einmischungskonflikten. Indem der operative Projektalltag und die Teamebene adressiert werden, leistet die Dissertation einen wichtigen wissenschaftlichen Beitrag im Forschungszweig der headquarters-subsidiary relations und liefert außerdem bedeutsame Erkenntnisse für Entscheidungsträger in Unternehmen in Bezug auf die Gestaltung von Standortbeziehungen sowie die Neudefinition und Weiterentwicklung von Standortrollen. ABSTRACT (ENGLISH): The present study is dedicated to the causes of communication and coordination problems in the operative distributed product development in the context of headquarters-subsidiary cooperation. It takes a closer look at the question of how the relationship between cooperating subsidiaries affects the everyday project work of development departments. Using a qualitative multi-methods multi-case study design, empirical data were collected in three multinational technology companies from the automotive, automation and steering as well as the chemical industry. Based on four case studies, goal and interference conflicts could be traced back to incompatible task and role understandings. As one main finding, the dissertation shows that the subsidiary role impacts the development of shared understanding in distributed teams. Based on its specific market perspective, knowhow & competences as well as the team structure, each team builds a specific task understanding. Incompatible task understandings (so-called representational gaps) lead to goal conflicts. Furthermore, the concept of perception gaps, meaning divergent perceptions of the subsidiary's role, is found to apply also at the team level. In particular, several hierarchical levels can have different views on the subsidiary’s maturity level as well as the required degree of autonomy, provoking incompatible expectancies, interference and role conflicts. Thus, the perception of a subsidiary’s role is even more complex than previously acknowledged. The dissertation advances the current knowledge on headquarters-subsidiary cooperation through focusing on the team level and distinguishing various level of analysis inside headquarters and subsidiaries and thus offers a new perspective on challenges in daily distributed product development.
Article
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Adopting an intra‐individual process, we explore the dynamics that underlie the emergence of a psychological contract breach. Thirty‐seven unique storylines expose how selected stimuli shake employees’ psychological contracts to attention and give rise to perceptions of breach as a result of an iterative process of disrupting (introducing triggers that prompt a shift from automatic processing to conscious attention of psychological contract terms), appraisal (revealing elements—goals, attribution, fairness, and resources—playing a role in appraising and making sense of triggers) and (problem‐focused and emotion‐focused) coping. We discuss the implications of accounting for breach in the absence of a discrete event and draw on selective attention theory to differentiate when stimuli become triggers with the capacity to activate the psychological contract. We extend existing research by revealing the unique role that triggers and their interconnectedness play in the cognition of contract breach, building up pressure until a threshold has been surpassed and breach is perceived. Our study highlights the need for managers to use strategies to deescalate the accumulation of triggers.
Purpose To understand human resource (HR) practices outcomes on HR decision making, strategic human resource management (HRM) and organizational performance by exploring the HR data quality along with descriptive and predictive financial and non-financial metrics. Design/methodology/approach This work utilizes the grounded theory method. After the literature was reviewed, 113 HR managers of multinational and national companies in India were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. The collected interview data was analyzed with NVivo 8.0 software. Findings It is interesting to uncover the descriptive and predictive non-financial and financial metrics of HR practices and their influence on organizational performance. It was found that HR data quality moderates the relationship between the HR practices outcome and HR metrics. This study found that HR metrics help in HR decision-making for strategic HRM and subsequently affect organizational performance. Originality/value This study has uniquely provided the descriptive and predictive non-financial and financial metrics of HR practices and their impact on HR decision making, strategic HRM and organizational performance. This study highlights the importance of data quality. This research offers insights to the HR managers, HR analysts, chief HR officers and HR practitioners to achieve organizational performance considering the various metrics of HRM. It provides key insights to the top management to understand the HR metrics' effect on strategic HRM and organizational performance.
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Methodological issues arising from access to large data sources are now affecting domains of research that were previously not very concerned, such as organizational behavior. The discussion on methods for taking advantage of the possibilities offered by large amounts of secondary data is relatively recent. Management scholars, traditionally accustomed to working with small samples in a deductive framework, face a real methodological challenge when they seek to benefit from secondary data through a data-driven approach. One possible approach to meet this challenge is the use of Gaussian graphical models (GGMs), which allow for the visualisation and analysis of relationships between a set of Gaussian variables. The application of this approach to psychology has led to the development of a very active line of research, known as Network Psychometrics, which is renewing the study of attitude measurement scales by relying on parsimonious graphs. The aim of this article is to illustrate the potential added value of this approach in the field of organizational behavior. We will show that GGMs can offer a complementary point of view when it comes to analyzing systems of interactions between variables and we will discuss how they can be articulated with confirmatory approaches using structural equation methods, more commonly used for this type of analysis. The challenges of this articulation will be illustrated by exploring the French version of a recent measure of workplace commitment. Keywords organizational behavior, psychological networks, Gaussian graphical models, methodology, workplace commitment
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Purpose Small businesses and start-ups have started to reopen post coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdowns but are facing numerous challenges mainly due to changed customer preferences and the need to fine-tune the business models. This research aims to identify the important aspects that start-ups need to focus on, as they weather the COVID-19 pandemic storm. Design/methodology/approach Research uses constructivist grounded theory methodology to analyse data collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs and senior employees at start-ups. A conceptual model based on nine categories impacting a start-up’s performance is investigated. Interview memos are thematically analysed to identify repeated ideas, concepts or elements that become apparent. Findings Study reveals that employees’ and customers’ safety, prudent cost management and online presence/doorstep services are key for start-ups to succeed today's changed business landscape due to COVID-19. Practical implications Findings act as a practical guide for start-ups in setting mechanisms, optimizing operations and fine-tuning strategy to address COVID-19 challenges. Start-ups are advised to evaluate the implications of the three findings on their respective businesses to successfully tackle the challenges posed by COVID-19. Originality/value This research, being cognizant of a start-up’s unique characteristics and nuances, takes a fresh approach to identify key aspects that start-ups need to focus on and fine-tune in the wake of COVID-19. The paper enriches scientific research of understanding impact of COVID-19 on organizations by specifically surfacing how start-ups can learn and adapt by knowing how other start-ups are surviving today.
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Confirmation bias, as the term is typically used in the psychological literature, connotes the seeking or interpreting of evidence in ways that are partial to existing beliefs, expectations, or a hypothesis in hand. The author reviews evidence of such a bias in a variety of guises and gives examples of its operation in several practical contexts. Possible explanations are considered, and the question of its utility or disutility is discussed.
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We report on the findings of an inductive, interpretive case study of organizational identity change in the spin-off of a Fortune 100 company's top-performing organizational unit into an independent organization. We examined the processes by which the labels and meanings associated with the organization's identity underwent changes during and after the spin-off, as well as how the organization responded to these changes. The emergent model of identity change revolved around a collective state of identity ambiguity, the details of which provide insight into processes whereby organizational identity change can occur. Additionally, our findings revealed previously unreported aspects of organizational change, including organization members' collective experience of “change overload” and the presence of temporal identity discrepancies in the emergence of the identity ambiguity.
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This commentary offers reflections on the conversation about grounded theory in management and organization studies. It highlights the institutional context in which we are having this conversation, noting its consequences for grounded theory practice. It also raises questions about the definition and boundaries of grounded theory, including the role of theory in the analytic process, and it argues for a pragmatic consideration of its research practices.
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We employed a qualitative interview technique to develop an inductive model of punishment from a managerial perspective. Findings suggest that managers feel pressure from a variety of sources - organizations, work groups, punished subordinates, and themselves. Managers are also aware that punishment is a highly charged cognitive and emotional event with broad and far-reaching effects that range well beyond punished subordinates and simply changing their attitudes and behaviors.
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