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... D'autres auteurs mentionnent également l'influence du QI (Grabner, Neubauer, & Stern, 2006;De Bruin, Kok, Leppink & Camp, 2014), de la motivation (De Bruin, Rikers, & Schmidt, 2007), de la personnalité (Chamberlain, McManus, Brunswick, Rankin, & Riley, 2015) de la capacité en mémoire de travail (Hambrick & Meinz, 2011;Ruthsatz, Ruthsatz-Stephens, & Ruthsatz, 2014)... sur le développement de l'expertise. Dans une méta-analyse, Burgoyne et al. (2016) ont également montré que ce développement semblait être influencé par une multitude de facteurs cognitifs. Et finalement, lorsque l'on prend en compte la pratique délibérée dans l'équation, il semble que celle-ci n'explique qu'une part restreinte de la variance expliquant l'acquisition de l'expertise . ...
... Furthermore, while correlations were established by Bilalic, McLeod and Gobet (2007) with young chess players, they were only for the first practice steps, so deliberate practice is a much more efficient explanatory factor. More recently, a meta-analysis (Burgoyne, Sala, Gobet, Macnamara, Campitelli, & Hambrick, 2016) showed that certain cognitive characteristics are positively correlated with expertise (e.g. fluid reasoning, processing speed…). ...
... But recent studies mainly indicate that there is a link between IQ and expertise (Grabner, 2014). Most of these studies highlight that differences between experts and the rest of the population are concentrated on particular cognitive aspects (Burgoyne et al., 2016). It seems important to find other aspects that could be more developed in the expert population. ...
Thesis
Dans cette thèse, nous nous sommes intéressés au raisonnement et à la capacité décisionnelle des experts. A l’exception d’une étude qui est composée de deux populations expertes différentes (Joueurs d’échecs et joueurs de Go), nous nous sommes concentrés sur la population d’expert du jeu d’échecs. Notre objectif initial était de montrer l’influence de certains processus émotionnels dans les décisions expertes. Dans ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés aux liens pouvant être établis entre la théorie des marqueurs somatiques et les théories en psychologie de l’expertise. Notre idée est que les marqueurs somatiques offrent un cadre intéressant afin d’étudier et de comprendre les performances expertes.Nous avons tout d’abord étudié les capacités de prise de décision générales des experts, en dehors de leur champ d’expertise, à l’aide d’un test spécialement créé pour étudier les marqueurs somatiques (Iowa Gambling Task ; IGT) et d’autres épreuves se focalisant sur les aspects de décision ambiguë (Balloon Analog Risk Task ; BART) et en connaissance des risques (Game of Dice Task ; GDT). L’objectif était de voir si les joueurs d’échecs sont meilleurs que les novices dans ces tâches et de mieux comprendre le type de contexte décisionnel pouvant amener les joueurs experts à dépasser les capacités de la population générale. Nous observons que la prise de décision des experts est meilleure principalement dans le cadre de l’IGT. Ainsi, contrairement à ce qui apparait parfois dans la littérature, les performances des joueurs d’échecs ne semblent pas se limiter exclusivement à leur domaine d’expertise.Nous avons ensuite étudié les décisions des experts au sein de leur domaine de compétence. Nous avons ainsi réalisé deux études utilisant des positions d’échecs. Il s’agit d’une tâche d’amorçage et d’une adaptation de l’effet d’Einstellung (ou effet d’attitude). L’objectif de ces études était d’observer l’influence du traitement automatique des positions sur la performance des joueurs d’échecs. Nos résultats semblent indiquer que les experts procèdent à un traitement automatique des positions pouvant amener à l’activation de schémas et procédures de résolution spécifiques à la situation. Cet activation automatique peut entraîner une amélioration des performances pouvant aller jusqu’à la mise en place d’une décision intuitive pour les joueurs experts. Mais celle-ci peut également venir perturber la décision des joueurs en focalisant leur attention sur des aspects moins pertinents de la situation.Pour ce qui concerne les compétences générales des experts, en dehors de leur champ d’expertise, les résultats obtenus semblent indiquer une utilisation efficace de la voie émotionnelle de la décision responsable de l’activation des marqueurs somatiques. Dans les études menées dans le domaine d’expertise, la théorie des marqueurs somatiques permettrait également, selon nous, d’expliquer les différents modes de décision des experts. Nous proposerons donc dans cette thèse un modèle des décisions expertes incluant la modalité somatique.En résumé, nos résultats semblent indiquer que la théorie des marqueurs somatiques est un cadre interprétatif intéressant pour les décisions expertes. Ces marqueurs sont reliés à de précédentes situations ayant provoqué une réaction émotionnelle et pourraient venir assister les décisions experts dans et hors de leur domaine d’expertise. Néanmoins, de plus amples recherches, incluant des mesures physiologiques, doivent être menées afin de confirmer l’intérêt des marqueurs somatiques dans la décision experte.
... Studies with more than one correlation (e.g., parental PA behaviors and home environments) were treated as separated studies with individual inputs (e.g., first input in CMA is parental PA behavior and participants' PA; the second is home environments and participants' PA). The decentering of studies resulted in a clearer demonstration of the correlations and reduced analysis meta-biases [46,47]. ...
... All effect sizes were converted to Fishers' z and then calculated as a summary correlation ′r to allow comparisons across studies. The effect size was calculated via comprehensive meta-analysis through the synthesis approach of transferring individual correlation to Fisher's z and conversing back to summary correlation ′r [46,48,49]. ...
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Physical activity (PA) and sports are efficient ways to promote the young generation’s physical and mental health and development. This study expected to demonstrate the complexity of correlates associated with children’s and adolescents’ non-organized PA participation. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA), a systematic review and meta-analysis were applied. Seven electronic databases were systematically searched to identify eligible articles based on a series of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The internal validity of the systematic reviews thus identified was evaluated using a validated quality instrument. Calculations were produced in SPSS 27.0 and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.3. Thirty-nine eligible studies (N = 324,953) with moderate to high quality were included. No potential publication bias was detected using statistical analyses. The meta-analysis revealed that the overall ecological factors correlated positively with children and adolescents’ PA; the meta-analytic average of the correlations was (′r = 0.32, p < 0.001). Results from subgroup analysis indicated that theory-based influence factors achieved moderate effect with boys (′r = 0.37, p < 0.001) and girls (′r = 0.32, p < 0.001) in PA participation. Interestingly, higher correlations were found between ecological factors and twins’ PA participation (′r = 0.61, p = 0.001). Further, individual (′r = 0.32, p < 0.001), macro-, and chronosystems factors (′r = 0.50, p < 0.001) appeared slightly more influential than microsystems factors (′r = 0.28, p < 0.001) on children and adolescents’ PA participation. Although findings from the included studies covered were to some extent heterogeneous, it is possible to identify consistent correlates of PA in children and adolescents. The results supported that PA is a complex and multi-dimensional behavior, which is determined by numerous biological, psychological, sociocultural, and environmental factors. Future studies that focus on the integration effect of macrosystem and chronosystem environmental factors, and apply longitudinal designs and objective measurements are encouraged to further unfold the complexity of the ecological system and its implications in promoting children and adolescents’ PA participation.
... Skill-based training methods that focus explicitly on intellectual abilities have shown to improve overall cognitive abilities [16]. Studies on chess learners have observed a strong positive correlation between the level of training and superior cognitive skills [17]. The relevance of skill-based chess training was also demonstrated in working memory tasks [18]. ...
... Drawing parallels to the visual domain, the study extends the transferability of abacus-training effects to the auditory domain, specifically auditory clarity and cognition. Training inclusive of a broad range of cognitive skills (such as chess training, abacus, go games board) have been found associated with superior performance and have been found to transfer to other cognitive tasks, including working memory, executive control, and reasoning [17,68,69]. Similar effects of improvement in the cognition skills including intelligence quotient (IQ) and academic ability of the school going children with musical training [19] has been reported in the literature. ...
Objectives: The present study explored the auditory benefits of abacus-training using a battery of tests (auditory acuity, clarity, and cognition). The study also aimed to identify the relative contributions of auditory processing tests that are most sensitive to the effects of abacus-training. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 60 children aged between 9 – 14 years. These participants were divided into two groups (abacus trained and untrained) of 30 each, who underwent a series of auditory functioning tests. The battery of tests included: auditory acuity (frequency, intensity, temporal, binaural and spatial resolution), auditory clarity (speech perception in noise), and auditory cognition (working digit and syllable memory). Results: Statistically (t-test and Mann Whitney U test), significant changes were observed in the spatial resolution, auditory clarity, and cognition tests, suggestive of positive outcomes of abacus training at the higher-order auditory processing. This finding was complemented by the discriminant function (DF) analyses, which showed that clarity and cognitive measures helped for effective group segregation (abacus-trained and un-trained). These measures had significantly higher contributions to the DF. Conclusions: The findings of the study provide evidence of the multi-component benefits of abacus training in children and the transferability of learning effects to the auditory modality
... To ensure appropriate weighting of each individual study in the meta-analysis, studies contributing multiple outcomes will be aggregated separately such that each one contributed a single effect size to the analysis [44]. As treating nonindependent studies as independent, this approach will result in more accurate standard errors and reduce biases [51,52]. ...
... Specifically, we will use the following procedure to generate the effect size. First, input extracted data into Comprehensive Meta-analysis software; second, the program will calculate correlations to Fisher's Z transformation and perform the analysis using this index; finally, Fisher's Z will be conversed back to summary correlation r as the effect size [51,53,54]. The guidelines of Warner [50] will be applied to interpret effect sizes r by assigning qualitative descriptors as follows: 0-0.3 as small, 0.3-0.6 as moderate, and 0.6 and above as large. ...
Article
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Physical activity (PA) and sports are efficient ways to promote the younger generation’s health and wellbeing. However, evidence is limited due to heterogeneous samples and measurements. This study aims to identify promoting and inhibiting correlates associated with children’s and adolescents’ non-organized PA participation and further demonstrate the complexity of PA and ecological factors. A systematic review and meta-analysis will be applied by following the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P). Seven bibliographic databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, PsycInfo, MEDLINE Complete, ERIC, Dimensions, and Academic Search Complete) will be systematically searched to identify eligible articles based on a series of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria are that the study: (a) is not classified as a systematic review with or without meta-analysis; (b) is published in last 20 years; (c) includes children and adolescents; (d) quantitively measures PA; (e) includes review of ecological factors. The internal validity will be evaluated using a validated quality instrument. Calculations will be produced in SPSS 27.0 and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.3. This study will provide evidence and address the questions regarding the factors that significantly impact children’s PA participation and limitations regarding the design, sampling, and measurement in currently selected studies. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021244918.
... Second, people exhibiting superior overall cognitive function may be more likely to engage in LAs that are cognitive demanding. This hypothesis has been corroborated by numerous studies in the field of chess and music [10,11]. Finally, engaging in intellectually demanding LAs may slow down cognitive decline. ...
... and is in line with substantial findings in the field [3]. Nonetheless, it is possible that engagement in particular types of activities (e.g., playing strategy games, technology use) is more strongly linked to specific constructs such as cognitive function [10,11,33,48]. In future studies, it is thus recommendable to test whether overall LA engagement subsumes specific types of activities impacting differently on the examined constructs, or whether specific activities are more important for certain successful aging aspects than others. ...
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Engagement in leisure activities has been claimed to be highly beneficial in the elderly. Practicing such activities is supposed to help older adults to preserve cognitive function, physical function, and mental health, and thus to contribute to successful aging. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the impact of leisure activities on these constructs in a large sample of Japanese older adults (N = 809; age range 72–74). The model exhibited an excellent fit (CFI = 1); engaging in leisure activities was positively associated with all the three successful aging indicators. These findings corroborate previous research carried out in Western countries and extend its validity to the population of Eastern older adults. Albeit correlational in nature, these results suggest that active engagement in leisure activities can help older adults to maintain cognitive, physical, and mental health. Future research will clarify whether there is a causal relationship between engagement in leisure activities and successful aging.
... Няма корелация с индивидуални характеристики, като опит, образование и дори IQ, корелация има с организацията на различните екипи и особено как те общуват помежду си. 10) Липсата на корелация с индивидуалните способности е потвърдена и от изследванията за колективната интелигентност -при нея няма корелация с индивидуалната, нито с максималната такава (Woolley et al., 2010 (Burgoyne et al., 2016), но е тя не е никак маловажен фактор за победата и е ядро -участвува във всеки компонент на игратав защита, подавания, в точността на стрелбата. Това са поуки от опита и традицията, чакащи добра теоретична формулировка и обосновка, която да произведе ново знание. ...
... Обратният проблем е като пример задачата по проекцията на една триизмерна фигура в равнината да се възстанови най-правдоподобните решения от безкрайното им множество е свързан с интелигентността, както описахме тук, но той е и свързан с ограниченията на всеки един тест за интелигентност, колкото и да се развива и подобрява с времето -измерваното не се представя напълно от измереното. Прост пример е връзката между IQ и уменията в шаха, където корелацията е по-силна сред по-малко опитните играчи, т.е.където се използва интуицията(Burgoyne et al., 2016). Дори нещо толкова математизирано като играта на шах включва по-комплексен набор от променливи освен интелигентността и нейната проекция IQ, свързани с опита и стажа. ...
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This paper answers some questions, raised in public by scholars about the validity and applicability of intelligence quotient measures for analysis and predictions in social sciences, and a description of intelligence. For this purpose, we propose a new definition of knowledge as an anti-fragile system, from dynamic systems perspective. We analyze the nature of intelligence within the framework of plausible reasoning of George Pólya and the epistemology of Eugene Wigner. We analyze arguments, related to nonlinear correlation between intelligence and success at work (or other measured complex proccess), statistical theory and philosophical arguments raised about the nature of intelligence and the measurability of this property. http://www.venets.org/getfile.php?id=303
... Previous literature also reported chess skills to be associated with intelligence (Bart, 2014;Charness, 1992;Horgan & Morgan, 1990; . Chess players outperformed non-chess players on several cognitive skills (Aciego et al ., 2012;Grabner et al ., 2007;, while young chess players had high fluid intelligence (Burgoyne et al ., 2016;de Bruin et al ., 2014) . For example, Aciego and colleagues (2012) conducted a quasi-experimental study, examining the effects of chess training on IQ . ...
... Finally, other factors, not examined in the current study, may have affected the relationship . For example, chess skill was positively correlated with cognitive abilities, such as fluid intelligence, processing speed, short-term and working memory (Burgoyne et al ., 2016) . Future research is needed to determine the relative importance of these cognitive variables, in addition to intelligence, to the relationships between chess instruction and academic performance . ...
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We analysed the association between chess skills and academic performance in primary school students. Additionally, we tested the potential mediating effect of fluid intelligence on this association. The sample consisted of 255 primary school students (48.2% girls), aged between 10 and 12 years, who had received instruction in chess. The students completed fluid intelligence measures and self-reported their chess play abilities. For the academic achievement measure, we accessed the students’ school records. Following mediation analysis, results indicated fluid intelligence to mediate the relationship between chess skills and academic performance in that students with high self-reported chess skills also had higher academic grades. We conclude that chess skills might be a reliable proxy measure of student academic achievement and fluid intelligence.
... Though some studies have looked at chess as it related to specific academic outcomes (Ferguson, 1986;Jerrim et al., 2016) or critical thinking skills (Chitiyo et al., 2020;, there are many potential outcomes that have not been fully explored in the research, such as creative thinking, logical thinking, intuition, logical reasoning, systemic thinking, strategic thinking, foresight, convergent thinking, analytical thinking, problem solving, and concentration, among others (Gardiner et al., 2019). Similar to Sala and Gobet (2016), Burgoyne et al. (2016) conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between chess skills and cognitive ability, which they referred to as intelligence. Their sample included 19 studies, all of which included at least one measure of cognitive ability and at least one measure of chess skill. ...
... If any transfer of learning occurs, evidence has shown that it will occur over longer periods of time (Gobet, 2018;, 2017Trinchero, 2013). Evidence points to small or medium effect sizes regarding the relationship between chess and academic outcomes (Burgoyne et al., 2016;. Trinchero suggested that the effects of chess playing among children would be realized after training at least 30 hours per year. ...
... In psychology, mathematics style games and game-like experimental designs have been influential in models of human decision making and reasoning. Chess (Burgoyne et al., 2016) is perhaps the most famous example. One game that has been suggested for use in teaching scientific reasoning is the popular code breaking game Mastermind (Strom and Barolo, 2011). ...
Article
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Research on Bayesian reasoning suggests that humans make good use of available information. Similarly, research on human information acquisition suggests that Optimal Experimental Design models predict human queries well. This perspective contrasts starkly with educational research on help seeking, which suggests that many students wait excessively long to ask for help, or even decline help when it is offered. We bring these lines of work together, exploring when people seek help as a function of problem state in the Entropy Mastermind code breaking game. The Entropy Mastermind game is a probabilistic version of the classic code breaking game, involving inductive, deductive and scientific reasoning. Whether help in the form of a hint was available was manipulated within subjects. Results showed that participants tended to ask for help late in the game play, often when they already had all the necessary information needed to crack the code. These results pose a challenge for some versions of Bayesian and Optimal Experimental Design frameworks. Possible theoretical frameworks to understand the results, including from computer science approaches to the Mastermind game, are considered.
... Estas preguntas sí han sido abordadas desde el campo de los videojuegos, donde existe evidencia clara que jugar a los denominados "brain games" requiere de aptitudes cognitivas específicas (Ibáñez et al., 2012: Quiroga et al., 2009, y se ha debatido ampliamente si jugar a videojuegos puede mejorar ciertas aptitudes cognitivas y la inteligencia general (Bediou et al., 2018;Powers et al., 2013;Sala et al., 2018). En el campo de los juegos de mesa, se ha encontrado que jugar al ajedrez está relacionado estrechamente con aptitudes cognitivas como el razonamiento fluido (Burgoyne, 2016), y que las intervenciones basadas en el ajedrez podrían ser beneficiosas para mejorar algunas habilidades académicas (Sala y Gobet, 2016). No conocemos, no obstante, ningún otro trabajo que explore si los juegos de mesa modernos estimulan la inteligencia y si requieren de aptitudes cognitivas para su ejecución. ...
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Este libro recoge los artículos de las comunicaciones llevadas a cabo en el II Congreso Internacional "Los juegos en la historia" que celebramos en la Universidad Jaume I de Castellón en noviembre de 2019
... Many cognitive training programs have been shown to improve cognitive abilities (Diamond and Lee, 2011;Diamond, 2013). For instance, working memory training has been suggested to improve performance in untrained working memory (Holmes et al., 2009); video-game training has been reported to improve performance in visual attention and executive control (Strobach et al., 2012;Belchior et al., 2013); musical training and chess or go games playing that require a broad range of cognitive skills, have been found associated with superior performance in multiple cognitive tasks including working memory, executive control and reasoning (Kim et al., 2014;Benz et al., 2016;Burgoyne et al., 2016;. Moreover, all the above cognitive training programs have been reported to produce functional and structural changes in the brain that may provide a neurophysiological basis for the cognitive transfer (Klingberg, 2010;Gong et al., 2015;Benz et al., 2016;Sohn et al., 2017). ...
Article
Abacus, which represents numbers via a visuospatial format, is a traditional device to facilitate arithmetic operations. Skilled abacus users, who have acquired the ability of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), can perform fast and accurate calculations by manipulating an imaginary abacus in mind. Due to this extraordinary calculation ability in AMC users, there is an expanding literature investigating the effects of AMC training on cognition and brain systems. This review study aims to provide an updated overview of important findings in this fast-growing research field. Here, findings from previous behavioral and neuroimaging studies about AMC experts as well as children and adults receiving AMC training are reviewed and discussed. Taken together, our review of the existing literature suggests that AMC training has the potential to enhance various cognitive skills including mathematics, working memory and numerical magnitude processing. Besides, the training can result in functional and anatomical neural changes that are largely located within the frontal-parietal and occipital-temporal brain regions. Some of the neural changes can explain the training-induced cognitive enhancements. Still, caution is needed when extend the conclusions to a more general situation. Implications for future research are provided.
... Moreover, methodological limitations (e.g., small Ns, measures with unknown or unreported reliability) precluded any strong conclusions from those few studies. Providing what might be considered the strongest evidence for the hypothesis, one of these three studies that seem to support the circumvention-oflimits hypothesis was a meta-analysis of chess studies (Burgoyne et al., 2016; see also Burgoyne et al., 2018, corrigendum). As determined by a moderator test, fluid intelligence correlated significantly more strongly with chess rating in lower-skill chess players (avg. ...
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The question of what explains individual differences in expertise within complex domains such as music, games, sports, science, and medicine is currently a major topic of interest in a diverse range of fields, including psychology, education, and sports science, to name just a few. Ericsson and colleagues’ deliberate practice view is a highly influential perspective in the literature on expertise and expert performance—but is it viable as a testable scientific theory? Here, reviewing more than 25 years of Ericsson and colleagues’ writings, we document critical inconsistencies in the definition of deliberate practice, along with apparent shifts in the standard for evidence concerning deliberate practice. We also consider the impact of these issues on progress in the field of expertise, focusing on the empirical testability and falsifiability of the deliberate practice view. We then discuss a multifactorial perspective on expertise, and how open science practices can accelerate progress in research guided by this perspective.
... Chess players' performances are undoubtably highly associated with their cognitive abilities such as attentional skills, strategic thinking, retrieval of relevant information from memory, and making the best possible move (Schneider et al., 1993;Gobet and Charness, 2006;Kaya and Öztürk, 2015;Burgoyne et al., 2016). Accordingly, during the experience of overwhelming stressors and preservative cognitions, players' attention is disposed to be locked into persistent patterns of negative thinking that are difficult to control (Wells, 2009). ...
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An inherent part of elite-level chess are high emotional and cognitive stress loads related to performance development. Sleep is a crucial recovery strategy, previously implicated in athletic performance. The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the associations between performance development and objectively measured sleep in a sample of 14 Norwegian chess players over a period of 120 consecutive days. Seven of the chess players in the current sample had negative development in their International Chess Federation (FIDE) ranking score in the period of sleep monitoring, while 7 had positive development. The sleep patterns of the chess players with positive performance development were different from the players with negative development – with higher amounts of deep sleep, less rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and lower respiration rate in the positive performance development group compared to the negative performance development group. The findings are discussed in terms of existing knowledge on the importance of sleep stage distribution and sleep durations for athlete functioning, and in light of applied implications and possible future research.
... decades, many studies using chess have made it possible to study different cognitive topics. For instance, the relationships between cognitive constructs and chess skills (Burgoyne et al., 2016), the cognitive differences among chess players and nonchess players (Unterrainer et al., 2006), the architecture of the chess players brain (Hänggi et al., 2014) or the limits of human intelligence vs. artificial intelligence (Hassabis, 2017). In other words, chess has demonstrated that it is possible to investigate a large number of theoretical issues related to human cognition using a game. ...
Article
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Video games have been postulated as an emerging field for studying the cognition-expertise relationship. Despite this, some methodological practices hinder scientific advance (e.g., heterogeneous samples, an ambiguous definition of expertise, etc.). League of Legends (LOL) is a massively played video game with a moderately defined structure that meets the requirements to overcome current study limitations. The aim of this study was to analyze cognitive differences among expert LOL players, regular LOL players, and non-videogame players. A sample of 80 participants was enrolled in three different groups of expertise. Participants were evaluated with behavioral tests of working memory, attention, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition. Kruskal-Wallis tests for group comparison showed that the experts performed significantly better than regular players and non-videogame players in the working memory test. Significant differences were also found between players and non-videogame players in the attention test. Methodological implications for future research in neuroscience and human-computer interaction are discussed.
... A limitation in the present study is that other factors related with chess performance such as cognitive ability or the common male predominance in chess were unconsidered here (Blanch, 2016;Blanch et al., 2017;Burgoyne et al., 2016;Grabner, 2014;Grabner et al., 2007;Howard, 2014a). For instance, cognitive skills related with either search or pattern recognition processes might also be probably more important for standard and blitz performance, respectively. ...
Article
Objectives Slow and fast thinking are crucial for human decision making in several domains of human activity including sports. These cognitive processes are remarkable in the intellectually demanding sport of chess. Slow and fast thinking underlie chess performance. However, the relative influence of each process has elicited controversial findings. Moreover, individual differences in chess skill are likely to moderate the integration of both processes. Design The simultaneous change over six time points in slow and fast chess performance was analyzed with a cross-domain latent curve model (LCM). Method Archival data from an extensive group of chess players (n = 32,173) were included in these analyses at untitled, intermediate, and advanced levels of expertise. Intercept and slope latent factors of growth were specified and correlated for both processes. Results There were remarkable differences in the change in slow and fast performance regarding the three expert levels, and in the concurrent interrelationship of both processes. The interdependence between both processes was more robust for the advanced than for the untitled and intermediate players. Conclusions These findings suggest that a better integration of slow and fast performance is produced at higher levels of expertise.
... Therefore, the use of these measures requires memory, especially strong working memory. In line with this, the results of studies by Bart (2014) and Burgoyne, Sala, Gobet, Macnamara, as well as Campitelli and Hambrick (2016) confirmed the effectiveness of chess on working memory, fluid intelligence, and student concentration. In explaining these results, the researchers suggest that chess probably enhances mental abilities, such as reasoning, memory, thinking, concentration, and problem-solving, and that improvement of these elements also develops students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. ...
... Although we have investigated only meta-cognitive abilities, our data seem to go in the direction of the studies that have investigated more general cognitive abilities, e.g., Scholz et al. (2008), who did not find an effect of training with chess on focused attention. A meta-analysis by Burgoyne et al. (2016) considered 19 studies that related cognitive abilities to chess skills and found a positive correlation between general cognitive abilities and chess practice that seemed, however, to be mediated by age and chess skill level. In particular, the younger and more inexperienced participants were, the greater the correlation with cognitive abilities. ...
... Powell et al. [22] utilized fMRI in male beginner chess players to locate the cortical parts in the brain related to chess. Similarly, Burgoyne et al. [3] investigated the connection between chess and cognitive skills. Their findings revealed a positive correlation between chess and fluid reasoning, comprehension-knowledge, short-term memory and processing speed. ...
Article
The topic of virtual humans is increasingly vital in entertainment. They offer an influential medium for amusement and learning. In this article, the researcher investigates virtual chess players of different personalities to explore the psychology of competition between two groups of virtual chess players: grandmasters and class-A players. More specifically, the researcher evaluates the different errors made by the two groups of virtual players while competing against each other. The two virtual grandmasters are represented by Anderssen and Leko, who vary in their attack and defense styles. While Anderssen is an aggressive grandmaster, who starts attacking his opponent at an early stage of the game, Leko is known for being a solid defensive player. The class-A players in this study vary in their Knight-Bishop employment preferences. The study reveals many interesting findings of the errors made by different virtual chess players. These findings have their grounds in social sciences and can be beneficial to psychology and computing researchers.
... A comprehensive meta-analysis has shown that Chess skill correlated positively and significantly with fluid reasoning, comprehension-knowledge, short-term memory, and processing speed [16]. ...
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Social, Emotional and Affective Factors [SEA] are critical to academic and career success [1]. Affective Education helps children better understand their feelings and respond to challenging situations. Although the importance of affect on learning and cognition is widely accepted in Education Research, the research so far has treated affect and cognition on two separate dimensions - loosely coupled. Recent findings, scattered across various disciplines, have shown their relationship to be more tightly coupled than what the previous theories have posited. Also, with the advent of online education, students are on their own to overcome the challenges that arise in the course of learning without the guidance of a human teacher. Therefore, it is imperative that machines detect and respond to affect effectively. In this paper, we propose a unified & scalable framework that brings together findings from multiple disciplines (Decision-making, Affective research, Chess studies, Education, Mindfulness studies), highlighting some of the challenges encountered in detecting/responding to affect and propose ways to address them. We then validate our framework through a Pilot Experiment (Chess puzzles) by examining the effectiveness of response strategies in mitigating the influence of incidental affect on performance. The results from the experiment, 80 chess amateurs solving chess puzzles, reveal that introducing time-delay between tasks & being aware of their state, can minimize the impact of incidental affect. We are hopeful that the learning from these experiments can be incorporated into cognitive-affective agents making learning - effective, sustainable and enjoyable.
... More importantly, they also cited a significant correlation between intelligence and chess ratings (Grabner et al., 2007). However, in a more recent meta-analysis of the correlation between cognitive-ability tests and chess performance, Burgoyne et al. (2016) found a substantial correlation between test scores of cognitive ability and chess performance for beginners and less-skilled players, but the relations were no longer significant for highly-skilled players. There is an accumulating body of evidence for a gradual disappearance of correlations between performance on cognitive ability tests and domain-specific performance as domainspecific mechanisms are acquired and then mediate the superior expert performance. ...
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Over 25 years ago Ericsson et al. (1993) published the results of their search for the most effective forms of training in music, a domain where knowledge of effective training has been accumulated over centuries. At music academies master teachers provide students individualized instruction and help them identify goals and methods for their practice sessions between meetings – this form of solitary practice was named deliberate practice, and its accumulated duration during development was found to distinguish groups with differing levels of attained music performance. In an influential meta-analysis Macnamara et al. (2014) identified studies that had collected estimates of practice accumulated during development and attained performance and reported that individual differences in deliberate practice accounted for only 14% of variance in performance. Their definition of “deliberate practice” differs significantly from the original definition of deliberate practice and will henceforth be referred to as structured practice. We explicate three criteria for reproducible performance and purposeful/deliberate practice and exclude all effect sizes considered by Macnamara et al. (2014) that were based on data not meeting these criteria. A reanalysis of the remaining effects estimated that accumulated duration of practice explained considerably more variance in performance (29 and 61% after attenuation correction). We also address the argument that the limited amount of variance explained by the duration of practice necessarily implies an important role of genetic factors, and we report that genetic effects have so far accounted for remarkably small amounts of variance – with exception of genetic influences of height and body size. The paper concludes with recommendations for how future research on purposeful and deliberate practice can go beyond recording only the duration of practice to measuring the quality of practice involving concentration, analysis, and problem solving to identify conditions for the most effective forms of training.
... In musicians, for instance, working memory capacity predicts sight-reading over and above the effects of deliberate practice (Meinz & Hambrick, 2010), while other studies have found force control during piano strokes in pianists to be unrelated to musical training, but correlated with weight discrimination ability (Hosoda & Furuya, 2016). For chess, a recent meta-analysis found skill level to be related to general fluid intelligence and short-term/working memory (Burgoyne et al., 2016). ...
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Studies of expertise have traditionally had a strong focus on the role of one single factor, i.e. long-term deliberate practice, for expert performance. However, recent empirical and theoretical work strongly suggests that expertise is a function of many variables that may have practice-independent effects on performance, but also moderate the efficacy of practice itself. Here we study such interaction effects in a large cohort (N > 4,500) of Swedish twins, using music as a model domain, and measured expert performance (musical auditory discrimination) as well as self-reported real-life achievement as indices of expertise. Specifically, we test two recently proposed hypotheses, i.e. (1) that the efficacy of practice increases if the individual also takes part in teacher-led lessons, and (2) that practice efficacy increases with higher intelligence. The results did not support the first hypothesis. Both practice and frequency of music lessons had positive associations with the two measures of expertise but, contrary to predictions, the interaction between them was negative, i.e. the effect of each practiced hour decreased with more lessons. In contrast, the second hypothesis was supported by the data, i.e. we found a positive interaction between practice and intelligence, suggesting that higher cognitive ability is related to more efficient practice behaviors. Together the results further support that domain-specific expertise is a complex outcome, which depends on an interplay of a variety of factors.
... All participants were right-handed and had normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Deliberate practice was shown to be a very important factor in determining individual player's chess skill (Ericsson et al., 1993;Campitelli and Gobet, 2011), in addition to cognitive abilities such as general intelligence and EFs (Burgoyne et al., 2016). In the current study, the 15 chess players were selected based on the fact that these children had long-term deliberate and intensive chess training. ...
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Playing chess requires perspective taking in order to consistently infer the opponent’s next moves. The present study examined whether long-term chess players are more advanced in visual perspective taking tasks than their counterparts without chess training during laboratory visual perspective taking tasks. Visual perspective taking performance was assessed among 11- to 12-year-old experienced chess players (n = 15) and their counterparts without chess training (n = 15) using a dot perspective task. Participants judged their own and the avatar’s visual perspective that were either consistent with each other or not. The results indicated that the chess players out-performed the non-chess players (Experiment 1), yet this advantage disappeared when the task required less executive functioning (Experiment 2). Additionally, unlike the non-chess players whose performance improved in Experiment 2 when the executive function (EF) demand was reduced, the chess players did not show better perspective taking under such condition. These findings suggested that long-term chess experience might be associated with children’s more efficient perspective taking of other people’s viewpoints without exhausting their cognitive resources.
... Certainly, a large number of studies into chess expertise have suggested that measures of IQ correlate significantly with performance in chess (Grabner, 2014;Hambrick et al., 2014), although the evidence is somewhat mixed. Nevertheless, the results from a comprehensive meta-analysis by Burgoyne et al. (2016) demonstrate that chess skill correlates significantly and positively with four broad cognitive abilities subsumed within global IQ-Gf, Gc, Gsm (short-term memory) and Gs (processing speed) -although not with the global Full Scale IQ score itself. Each of these four components explained between 5-6% of the variance in chess skill. ...
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British-style cryptic crossword solving is an under-researched domain of expertise, relatively unburdened by confounds found in other expertise research areas, such as early starting age, practice regimes, and high extrinsic rewards. Solving cryptic crosswords is an exercise in code-cracking detection work, requiring the segregation and interpretation of multiple clue components, and the deduction and application of their controlling rules. Following the Grounded Expert Components Approach (GECA, Friedlander & Fine, 2016) an earlier survey demonstrated that solvers were typically educated to at least degree level, often in mathematics and science-related disciplines. This study therefore hypothesized that as a group they would show higher-than-average fluid intelligence compared to a general population, with experts showing higher levels than ordinary solvers. Twenty-eight crossword solvers (18 objectively defined experts, and 10 non-experts) solved a bespoke cryptic crossword and completed the Alice Heim tests of fluid intelligence (AH5), a timed high-grade test, measuring verbal and numerical (Part I) and diagrammatic (Part 2) reasoning abilities. In the 45m allowed, 17 experts and 2 non-experts correctly finished the crossword (times ranging between 11m and 40m). Both solver groups scored highly on the AH5 (both overall and for Part I) compared to manual test norms, suggesting that cryptic crossword solving has a high cognitive entry threshold. The experts scored higher than the non-experts, both overall (p = .032) and on Part I (p = .002). The overall and Part I AH5 scores correlated negatively (rs =-.48;-.72 respectively) with extrapolated finishing times: faster finishing time being associated with higher AH5 scores. The experts and non-experts were matched in age, education, crossword solving experience, and weekly hours spent solving, leading to the suggestion that fluid intelligence differences between the groups may play an important role in cryptic crossword solving expertise. Although small in scale, the study thus adds to the growing body of literature which challenges the "deliberate practice only" framework of high expertise in a performance domain. Suggestions for future explorations in this domain are made.
... Overall, individuals with higher mental abilities are generally better at complex analytical problem-solving tasks such as optimisation (e.g. Burgoyne, Sala, Gobet, et al., 2016;Stadler et al., 2015). In other words, they are relatively more likely to find a good solution when searching for the best bundles of slack resources to employ. ...
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The management literature has been investigating teams’ human capital resources as a predictor of their task performance. However, our knowledge regarding the precise structure of the human capital-performance relationship, as well as the resource orchestrator role managers play in this relationship, remains limited. In this study, we relax the assumption that human capital resources are used effectively, and conceptually extend the human capital resources construct by distinguishing between gross and active human capital resources. Doing so both helps to better understand the human capital-performance link and clarify the exact role that managers play in this link. Using 98 teams’ data over 2 years (5492 sets of player-level data aggregated to 196 sets of team-level data) from European Big Five football (soccer) leagues, we test our predictions. Our study has implications for the human capital literature as well as for the resource-based view literature on organisational slack.
... This focus is both warranted and unsurprising given how important cognitive ability is for life success (e.g., Strenze, 2007;Watkins et al., 2007;Lynn & Yadav, 2015), and some of the inspiration for training approaches can be traced to the observation that performing certain tasks seems to be related to improved cognition. For instance, chess players (Burgoyne et al., 2016;Sala et al., 2017) and musicians (Schellenberg, 2011;Swaminathan et al., 2017) have repeatedly been shown to demonstrate greater performance on tests of intelligence than non-playing individuals. ...
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Recent meta-analyses and meta-analytic reviews of most common approaches to cognitive training broadly converge on describing a lack of transfer effects past the trained task. This also extends to the more recent attempts at using video games to improve cognitive abilities, bringing into question if they have any true effects on cognitive functioning at all. Despite this, video game training studies are slowly beginning to accumulate and provide evidence of replicable improvements. Our study aimed to train non-video game playing individuals in the real-time strategy video game StarCraft II in order to observe any subsequent changes to perceptual, attentional, and executive functioning. Thirty hours of StarCraft II training resulted in improvements to perceptual and attentional abilities, but not executive functioning. This pattern of results is in line with previous research on the more frequently investigated “action” video games. By splitting the StarCraft II training group into two conditions of “fixed” and “variable” training, we were also able to demonstrate that manipulating the video game environment produces measurable differences in the amount of cognitive improvement. Lastly, by extracting in-game behavior features from recordings of each participant’s gameplay, we were able to show a direct correlation between in-game behavior change and cognitive performance change after training. These findings highlight and support the growing trend of more finely detailed and methodologically rigorous approaches to studying the relationship between video games and cognitive functioning.
... More importantly, they also cited a significant correlation between intelligence and chess ratings (Grabner et al., 2007). However, in a more recent meta-analysis of the correlation between cognitive-ability tests and chess performance, Burgoyne et al. (2016) found a substantial correlation between test scores of cognitive ability and chess performance for beginners and less-skilled players, but the relations were no longer significant for highly-skilled players. There is an accumulating body of evidence for a gradual disappearance of correlations between performance on cognitive ability tests and domain-specific performance as domainspecific mechanisms are acquired and then mediate the superior expert performance. ...
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This issue on advanced learning focuses on the educational and developmental needs of advanced learners as they develop towards excellence. We speculated that those needs could be observed in at least three ways. The first is that the advanced learner requires educational interventions that are more closely aligned to the “deliberate practice” approach delineated by Ericsson et al. (1993). Ericsson et al. (1993) identified that the number of hours of deliberate practice differentiated among the performance levels of musicians. Deliberate practice can be described as individualised instruction whereby a teacher or coach identifies the goals and activities that need to be adopted by an individual during practice to improve their performance. A second assumption is that advanced learners do not attain high levels of performance in the absence of environmental factors but the factors that support the talent developmental trajectory of advanced learners will not be the same as those that support them at earlier stages. The expertise reversal effect, for example, suggests that the instructional activities designed for novices may have a detrimental effect on more advanced learners Kalyuga (2007). The third premise is the need for more tailored and well-designed learning resources to support talent development. Such learning resources include highly-specialised learning materials and curricula, expert teachers and coaches, mentors, and so on, which are purposefully designed to meet the individual’s specific needs at a specific point in the talent development process. Again, this echoes the deliberate practice approach described earlier.
... It could be described as a cognitive enhancer (Giovanni & Fernand, 2017) A recent meta-analysis reported that chess players outperformed nonchess players in several cognitive skills (e.g., planning, numerical ability, and reasoning). Another metaanalysis (Burgoyne et al.,, 2016) found positive correlations between chess skill and cognitive abilities such as fluid intelligence, processing speed, short-term and working memory (WM), and comprehension knowledge. Chess board was an efficient instructional material for the teaching of matrices in this study, where the arrangement of the pieces in rows and columns facilitate students' cognitive skill. ...
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T his study examined the chess and ethno-mathematical games usage as a panacea to students' academic achievement in Mathematics. The study also compared the effect of chess and ethno-mathematical games and conventional method of teaching on the students' performance in Mathematics. T he research design for this study was a quasi-experimental design of pre-test, post-test, control group. T he sample for this study was 180 students selected from public secondary schools through multistage sampling procedure. T he instrument used for this study was Mathematics Performance T est (MPT) which contained 40 multiple choice items drawn from SSS Mathematics curriculum. Validation of the instrument was done by using t est re-test method, a value of 0.81 reliability coefficient was obtained. Descriptive statistics of frequency count, mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions raised while inferential statistics of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) were used to test the hypotheses and tested at 0.05 level of significance. T he findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference in the post-test mean scores of students exposed to chess and ethno-mathematical games as well as their control group counterparts. The findings of the study also showed that there was significant difference in the post-test mean scores of students exposed to chess game and conventional group. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the use of ethno-mathematical games be encouraged in Mathematics class in secondary schools so as to enhance better academic performance in Mathematics.
... Other evidence indicates that apart from practice, spatial and logical abilities (Horgan & Morgan, 1990) and numerical abilities (Ferreira & Palhares, 2008) predispose to chess performance and chess involvement at early ages. Moreover, a meta-analysis about the association of chess performance with cognitive ability suggests that numerical or spatial abilities might be more important for chess performance at early ages (Burgoyne et al., 2016). Another study contrasting chess playing with cognitive ability highlights the latter as the stronger covariate of academic achievement (Thompson, 2003). ...
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In accordance with the outcomes from a number of reports, there are cognitive and academic improvements derived from chess learning and chess playing. This evidence, however, endures three key limitations: (a) ignoring theoretical premises about the concept of transfer, (b) several shortcomings regarding ideal experiment guidelines, and (c) an uncritical faith in null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) statistical analyses. The present review scrutinized the NHST outcomes from 45 studies describing chess instruction interventions (n = 12,705) in nineteen countries that targeted cognitive ability (100 tests) and academic performance (108 tests), with a mean Hedge’s effect size g = 572 (95% CI = [0.127, 1.062]). There was a lower average statistical power, a higher proportion of false positive outcomes, larger publication biases, and lower replication rates for the studies in the academic performance domain than in the cognitive ability domain. These findings raised reasonable concerns over the evidence about the benefits of chess instruction, which was particularly problematic regarding academic achievement outcomes. Chess should perhaps be regularly taught, however, regardless of whether it has a direct impact or not in cognitive abilities and academic performance, because these are far transfer targets. The more likely impact of chess on near transfer outcomes from higher quality studies remains at present unexplored.
... Systematical chess practice develops several important skills in solving mathematical problems [14][15][16], such as maintaining a high level of attention [17] and focusing on tasks [18], perseverance in pursuing goals, creativity [19], recognizing strategic information in situations and using it in planning strategies, critical reflection on one's actions and predicting the course of events [20]. There is a statistically significant correlation between intelligence and chess performance [21][22][23][24][25][26][27], thus the child who excels at a certain school subject has the chance to achieve better performance in chess. ...
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The role of intelligence in chess is crucial because the game involves a situation of adversity between two players whose goal is to checkmate the opponent’s king. Due to the complex nature of the game and the huge amount of information needed to become a professional chess player, the ability to receive, analyze, sort and use abstract notions is essential. A total of 67 children from the third grade were selected and tested twice, initially and finally, to establish the level of body schema and intelligence. The Raven test was used to numerically quantify their intelligence and the Goodenough test was conducted for the body schema. We used the paired samples T-test to highlight the statistical difference between the results and performed a simple linear regression to see if the level of intelligence is a predictor of the body schema. There is a linear relationship between intelligence and body schema, and we can use the first one to predict the evolution of the second. In conclusion, body schema can be educated through chess lessons, and this will lead to better psychomotor development.
... At the same time, the procedures for generalized essence mastering of complex knowledge and the transition in the individualization processes in school student's nearest development zones will be more pronounced and directed if the indicative and informational foundations of school student's research activities design are cemented by a specially designed founding cluster. It really manages and observe the research levels and the essence manifestations of complex knowledge generalized construct [19]. Thus, school student's experience founding as an innovative mechanism for personal development and comprehension of the essence of complex knowledge generalized construct (in the course of modern achievements in science mastering) can unfold in three educational niches: the content of mathematics teaching at school, the technology of implementing adaptive processes and the development of school student's personal qualities (presented and realized in [22]). ...
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Introduction. Mathematics teaching based on the development of complex knowledge generalized constructs (for example, modern achievements in science) becomes an effective direction for the formation of school student’s mathematical literacy with a significant applied and mathematical-informational potential of personal development. The purpose of the study: to develop a technology for student’s mathematical literacy formation during the development of complex mathematical knowledge and in the context of universal educational actions actualization by means of mathematical and computer modeling. Materials and methods. The research materials are based on the historiogenesis and actualization of mastering processes of complex mathematical knowledge by students as an effective mechanism for personal development. A synergetic approach, digitalization tools and visual modeling methods are being implemented to adapt the mastering processes of complex knowledge to school mathematics with the effect of student’s mathematical literacy forming. The choice and justification of methods for personal experience founding create the effect of core actualization of universal educational actions, manifest themselves in the processes of students ' activities individualization. The results of the study. For the first time, a technology for student’s mathematical literacy formation based on the symbiosis of mathematical and computer modeling in mathematics development of complex knowledge has been developed. The founding clusters and research and adaptation technology of hierarchies of complex multi-level knowledge (including modern achievements in science) to school mathematics are constructed. The stages and means of visual modeling and personal experience founding with the effect of student’s mathematical literacy forming in a rich information and educational environment are clarified. Conclusion. Educational practices have shown the high efficiency of this method to school student’s mathematical literacy forming in the process of modern achievements mastering in science. Such didactic solutions and practices are characterized by the ability to fully meet the needs of each school student in self-education and self-actualization when complex knowledge constructs mastering and set the value imperative of personal development, including mathematical literacy.
... Playing chess is a complex, strategic, and cognitively demanding task that has been heavily used by cognitive psychologists to investigate strategic and cognitive aspects of human thinking, such as perception, memory, and problem-solving (e.g., de Groot, 1946;Chase and Simon, 1973;Simon and Chase, 1973;Charness, 1992). Burgoyne et al. (2016) survey the empirical evidence for the relationship between chess skill and general cognitive skills such as fluid reasoning, comprehension knowledge, short-term memory, and processing speed. In ...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, traditional (offline) chess tournaments were prohibited and instead held online. We exploit this unique setting to assess the impact of remote–work policies on the cognitive performance of individuals. Using the artificial intelligence embodied in a powerful chess engine to assess the quality of chess moves and associated errors, we find a statistically and economically significant decrease in performance when an individual competes remotely versus offline in a face-to-face setting. The effect size decreases over time, suggesting an adaptation to the new remote setting.
... Research involving chess, which is played by two players on a board with 64 black and white squares and 16 pieces for each player [1], has contributed to the theoretical development of cognitive psychology [2]. For example, Burgoyne et al. [3] conducted a meta-analysis and demonstrated that chess skills are significantly and positively correlated with four broad cognitive abilities: fluid reasoning, comprehension-knowledge, short-term memory, and processing speed. Similarly, a metaanalysis by Sala and Gobet [4] found that chess instruction moderately improves the cognitive skills of children. ...
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To examine the effectiveness of board games and programs that use board games, the present study conducted a systematic review using the PsycINFO and PubMed databases with the keywords "board game" AND "trial;" in total, 71 studies were identified. Of these 71 studies, 27 satisfied the inclusion criteria in terms of program content, intervention style, and pre-post comparisons and were subsequently reviewed. These 27 studies were divided into the following three categories regarding the effects of board games and programs that use board games: educational knowledge (11 articles), cognitive functions (11 articles), and other conditions (five articles). The effect sizes between pre- and post-tests or pre-tests and follow-up tests were 0.12-1.81 for educational knowledge, 0.04-2.60 and - 1.14 - - 0.02 for cognitive functions, 0.06-0.65 for physical activity, and - 0.87 - - 0.61 for symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present findings showed that, as a tool, board games can be expected to improve the understanding of knowledge, enhance interpersonal interactions among participants, and increase the motivation of participants. However, because the number of published studies in this area remains limited, the possibility of using board games as treatment for clinical symptoms requires further discussion.
... Go is sometimes considered to be the most complex of all classic mind games, which makes Go players an interesting subject pool for studying cognitive skills. Compared to the numerous studies on the cognitive ability of chess players (see a recent meta-analysis by Burgoyne et al., 2016), the cognitive characteristics of Go players are under-researched. Our empirical study of tournament Go players showed that there is a robust relation between Go playing strength and cognitive reflection for both strong and weaker players. ...
Article
Go is a classical Chinese mind game and a highly popular intellectual pursuit in East Asia. In a survey at two Go tournaments (one of them the largest in Europe), we measured cognitive reflection and decision in strategic games (using the classical “beauty contest” game) (N = 327). We found that Go players in our survey had outstanding average cognitive reflection test (CRT) scores: 2.51 among all participants and 2.80 among players of high master level (dan). This value easily outperforms previous measurements, for example, of undergraduates at top universities. The CRT score was closely related to the playing strength, but not to the frequency of playing. On the other hand, frequent players tended to have higher theory of mind, regardless of their playing strengths. However, self-reported patience was not statistically significantly correlated with Go strength or playing frequency.
... The domain of chess is particularly appropriate to address the role of ability and nonability traits in performance, because it bears noteworthy taxing intellectual and emotional demands. Cognitive ability traits contribute to partly explain individual differences in chess performance (Bilalic et al., 2007a;Blanch et al., 2017;Burgoyne et al., 2016). Non-ability traits have been much less studied in this specific domain, however, although the current findings suggest that extraversion contributed in addition to explain the variability in chess performance (Krogius, 1976;Matthews & Gilliland, 1999). ...
Article
Chess is an appropriate model to study ability and non-ability traits as related with performance because it bears intellectual and emotional demanding requirements. With a group of amateur chess players (n = 100), the current study addressed two interrelated aims. First, we assessed whether the three broad PEN personality factors (psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism), and emotion regulation traits (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) differentiated chess players from the general population. Second, we compared the association of domain knowledge and personality/emotion traits with chess skill. The main findings indicated that chess players scored lower in neuroticism and higher in expressive suppression compared with the general population. Moreover, chess knowledge related in a greater extent with chess skill than personality/emotion regulation traits, even though extraversion explained additional variability in chess skill. Overall, the findings suggest that non-ability traits may be influential in the selection of the chess environment. Besides, the findings corroborate the stronger impact of cognitive ability than personality traits on intellectual performance found in other domains.
... It could be described as a cognitive enhancer (Giovanni & Fernand, 2017) A recent meta-analysis reported that chess players outperformed nonchess players in several cognitive skills (e.g., planning, numerical ability, and reasoning). Another metaanalysis (Burgoyne et al.,, 2016) found positive correlations between chess skill and cognitive abilities such as fluid intelligence, processing speed, short-term and working memory (WM), and comprehension knowledge. Chess board was an efficient instructional material for the teaching of matrices in this study, where the arrangement of the pieces in rows and columns facilitate students' cognitive skill. ...
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This study examined the chess and ethnomathematics games usage as a panacea to students' academic achievement in Mathematics. The study also compared the effect of chess and ethnomathematics games and conventional methods of teaching on the students' performance in Mathematics. The research design for this study was a quasi-experimental design of pre-test, post-test, control group. The sample for this study was 180 students selected from public secondary schools through a multistage sampling procedure. The instrument used for this study was Mathematics Performance Test (MPT) which contained 40 multiple-choice items drawn from the SSS Mathematics curriculum. Validation of the instrument was done by using the test re-test method, a value of 0.81 reliability coefficient was obtained. Descriptive statistics of frequency count, mean, and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions raised while inferential statistics of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was used to test the hypotheses and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference in the post-test mean scores of students exposed to chess and ethnomathematical games as well as their control group counterparts. The findings of the study also showed that there was a significant difference in the post-test mean scores of students exposed to chess games and conventional groups. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the use of ethnomathematics games be encouraged in Mathematics classes in secondary schools so as to enhance better academic performance in Mathematics.
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Introduction. The study of Al-Farabi’s pedagogical heritage is relevant, since it allows forming a scientific idea of the level of progressive experience in teaching and upbringing in the conditions of the early Middle Ages, in the era of the flourishing and rise of culture in the East. Research purpose is to consider Al-Farabi’s creative heritage and give an overview of his scientific-pedagogical ideas. Materials and methods. The authors used Al-Farabi’s treatises, reflecting his pedagogical ideas, as well as the works of modern teachers, historians and philosophers. Research methods: analysis, synthesis and historical-pedagogical interpretation of the data contained in the sources; systematization and generalization of materials obtained as a result of studying open Internet sources and modern scientific literature. Research results. Despite the fact that Al-Farabi’s ideas were based on the works by Plato and Aristotle on the cognizability of the world, the scholar has developed original applications of this theory in relation to the needs of that time, taking into account the state religious policy. According to the thinker, the ideal of upbringing and education includes the mastery of scientific knowledge, moral and aesthetic perfection of both the student and the teacher. The rules proposed by Al-Farabi asserted the social significance of teaching and upbringing based on mutual respect of teachers and students. The educational system and teaching methods proposed by Al-Farabi made it possible to activate the students’ creative and cognitive activity, contributed to the development of logical thinking and comprehension of the information they receive. Discussion and conclusion. The study and analysis of Al-Farabi’s treatises show that the thinker considered all aspects of the educational process: educational goal, learning content, teaching methods and tools, the duties of the student and the teacher. The thinker’s entire creative heritage is imbued with the ideas of humanizing and democratizing society through its improvement by upbringing and educational tools.
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Several studies have been carried out to demonstrate the benefits of chess instruction, especially for children’s mathematical abilities. Some studies suggested that chess instruction may increase children’s mathematical skills, because playing chess enhances their meta-cognitive abilities and helps to shape children’s way of reasoning. In this work we have investigated the relationship between chess, general meta-cognitive abilities and academic school skills (written text comprehension and recall, and mathematical problem-solving ability) in the same experimental design. A sample of 85 children attending primary school participated in the study: 48 children in the experimental group and 37 in the control group. The experimental group took part to a chess training (a 30-h chess program) during school hours; the control group carried out a sport program. The results show that after the chess training, a significant difference emerged between the two groups in mathematical problem-solving ability, whether the two groups did not differ in their written text recall and comprehension ability. As for the general meta-cognitive abilities involved in learning, no significant differences emerged between the two groups. In this work, we tried to cast light on the debated issue of the potential to improve general meta-cognitive abilities through the training of a specific skill.
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Encuentros alrededor del tablero: miradas interdisciplinarias sobre el ajedrez es fruto del Semillero Estudios Interdisciplinarios de Ajedrez: Juego, Cultura y Cognición desarrollado durante el año 2019 con el Apoyo del Espacio Interdisciplinario de la Universidad de la República. Este libro reúne aportes de un conjunto de investigadores provenientes de distintas Facultades y Servicios de la Universidad de la República (Facultad de Arquitectura Diseño y Urbanismo, Facultad de Ciencias, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, Facultad de Ingeniería, Facultad de Psicología), del Servicio Central de Bienestar Universitario (Área de Cultura, Proyecto Ajedrez- Udelar) y Ministerio de Educación y Cultura (Ajedrez para la Convivencia). Junto a investigadores extranjeros de universidades de Australia, España e Inglaterra. El
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The forced transition to distance learning due to the pandemic led to a qualitative change in the components of the educational environment of the university The purpose of article is a comparative analysis of students' evaluation of the educational environment (spatial-subject, communicative and technological components) in regular education before the pandemic and during the transition to distance forms of education during the pandemic. Based on this, a hypothesis was put forward about the correlation between the stage of a student’s subjecthood and the eco-psychological type of his interactions with each of the components of the educational environment in the regular (traditional) and distance (virtual) learning modes. The test subjects were students of the second and fifth years of engineering specialties (N = 159; M = 20.3; SD = 1.5; 68 per cent of girls). To diagnose the evaluation of the interaction of the components of the educational environment, we used the questionnaire, which allows us to evaluate the correlation of each component of the environment with the Eco-psychological types of subject-environmental interactions on an interval scale (from object-object to subject-subject). To assess the stages of the formation of a student’s subjecthood in educational activity, the author modified G. Kelly’s grid, with the help of which the ideographic research method was implemented. The influence of the components of the educational environment on students was determined by stepwise regression analysis. The study identified the stages of the formation of a student’s subjecthood "journeyman" (subject-object and object-subject type), "student" (subject-joint type), "critic" and "creator" (generative subject type) of traditional and digital educational environments. In particular, the increased frequency of the “apprentice” stage of a student’s subjecthood testifies to the dominance of reproductive technologies in teaching both in the traditional (33%) and in the “digital” (22%) environment. In the technological component of the traditional educational environment in the pre-pandemic period, a correlation was revealed with a number of stages of the formation of a student’s subjecthood "observer" (0,20), "journeyman" (0,21), "student" (0,20), "master" (0,17) and "creator" (0,22). Whereas in regard to the “digital” environment, only one inversely proportional relationship with the severity of the “creator” stage (-0,19) in the object-object type of interaction was revealed.
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Ericsson, Krampe, and Tesch- Römer published their research on “The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance” over 25 years ago. Since then, hundreds of new articles have been published with findings regarding the effects of practice on performance in sports. The original paper searched for conditions underpinning optimal acquisition of reproducibly superior (expert) performance in domains, where methods for producing such performance had been refined over centuries. At an elite music academy, superior music students were found to have engaged for longer periods in solitary practice guided by their music teachers – an explication of the conditions of this type of practice led to a definition of deliberate practice. When other researchers in sports started searching for optimal practice, they could not find any practice activities meeting all the criteria for “deliberate practice”, yet referred to somewhat similar activities using that same term. This paper shows that the effects of these different types of practice activities on attained performance differ from those of deliberate practice and should be given different distinct names. The paper concludes with recommendations for how future research on purposeful and deliberate practice can inform, not just athletes and their coaches, but all adults about how their achievements can be improved with individualized forms of effective practice.
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Considerable research has been carried out on chess in the last seventy years. While classic research has centred on perception, memory, and decision making, contemporary research has focused on deliberate practice, individual differences, and education. Contrasting with classical research, which has mainly used experiments and computer modelling, more recent research has tended to use questionnaires, interviews, and analysis of computer databases as source of information. This article reviews these recent research trends, focusing on what has been learnt from chess research with respect to deliberate practice, intelligence, and transfer of skill. It also discusses ageing and risk taking between civilizations as examples of computer database analyses. Results clearly indicate that deliberate practice is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for achieving high levels of expertise. Other factors are important, some of which are innate. One of them is intelligence. Data show that chess players on average are more intelligent than individuals who do not play chess, and that chess skill positively correlates with intelligence. These results are unlikely to be explained by the hypothesis that chess leads to an increase of intelligence, as the results of experiments using chess instruction to bring about far-transfer effects are inconsistent. In addition, experiment designs used in chess instruction research are typically insufficient to allow strong conclusions about causality. Research using chess databases have led to interesting results, but its generalisability is likely to be limited. The article ends with recommendations for future research.
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Background Regular practice of a cognitively stimulating activity, such as chess, can help maintain a healthy cognitive, social, and psychological state during the aging process. Objective To evaluate the effects of a chess-training program on cognitive status, mood, and quality of life (QoL) in a sample of institutionalized and semi-institutionalized older adults. Method A nonrandomized, controlled pilot study with repeated measures (pre- and post-intervention) was conducted. Results Analyses revealed a positive impact of the chess program on general cognitive status (p < 0.001) and promising evidence (p < 0.043) of an impact on attention, processing speed, and executive functions. The participants in the intervention group also showed significant improvement in QoL scores (p < 0.021). Conclusions A 12-week chess-training protocol with two 60-minute sessions per week improved cognition and QoL in a sample of institutionalized and semi-institutionalized older adults. Further research with larger samples is needed to explore its effects in depth.
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Research into the development of musical imagery ability has remained stagnant in both the fields of aural skills pedagogy and cognitive science. This article integrates scholarship from both disciplines to provide a way forward for both the study and practice of imagery development. Analysis of North American pedagogical practices provides a foundation for the types and functions of activities used to affect imagery ability, while newly designed measurement techniques in the cognitive sciences are shown to have promising implications for assessing change in imagery ability over time. Following consideration of insights from both fields, this article consolidates them by developing a model of imagery development. Framed through the lens of expertise acquisition and skilled memory performance, this model has implications for approaches to imagery in the aural skills classroom and for empirical studies of imagery development in music cognition.
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The chess game comprises different domains of cognitive function, demands great concentration and attention and is present in many cultures as an instrument of literacy, learning and entertainment. Over the years, many effects of the game on the brain have been studied. Seen that, we reviewed the current literature to analyze the influence of chess on cognitive performance, decision-making process, linking to historical neurological and psychiatric disorders as we describe different diseases related to renowned chess players throughout history, discussing the influences of chess on the brain and behavior.
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In the pre-school period, children's learning speed is at the highest level. During this period, physical and mental games are very important for the development of children. One of the mental games that make a significant contribution to the development of children is chess. Important contributions of chess education to the development of children have enabled some societies to include chess as a lesson in their programs. This study reveals the opinions of chess coaches, pre-school teachers and pre-school education experts to evaluate the Pre-school Chess Teaching Program published in 2019 for the pre-school period. This research was designed in the basic qualitative research model. Participants of the study consist of 115 people including chess coaches, pre-school teachers and pre-school education experts. The data of the study were collected through semi-structured interviews. Descriptive analysis method was used in the analysis of the interview data. Findings were expressed after analyzing the data. According to the findings obtained in the research, it was concluded that most of the participants stated that the special aims of the Chess Teaching Program were in accordance with the general objectives of pre-school education. Participants generally stated that they thought of implementing the program. It was stated that the program was sufficient in teaching children chess rules. It was concluded that most of the participants stated that the topics and achievements determined in the program were appropriate for the levels of the children. Some participants stated that the program should be elaborated and organized. It was concluded that most of the participants stated that the problems that may be encountered during the implementation process of the program are aimed at children, and some of them stated that there may be problems arising from the teacher or the program.
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Little is known about the outer reaches of learning curves for very complex cognitive skills exercised over decades. Can skill performance improve as long as practice lasts or do all learners ultimately plateau? Furthermore, does natural talent set widely varying performance limits or do all learning curves eventually converge? Chess skill learning curves were examined for 333 players, mostly grandmasters, who, over a median 20 years, played at least 1500 internationally-rated games. Curves of nine of the 333 participants who played more than 3050 games, and one of the 333 and two others who played more than 4250 games over more than 30 years, also were examined. Players on average reached an approximate plateau by around 1200 games. This asymptotic value has changed little from the 1990s despite massive changes in the chess environment. Out to more than 3050 or 4250 games, players stayed at an approximate plateau for many games and years and then performance eventually declined. Chess skill learning curves do not rise forever. Over extensive practice lasting decades, they typically plateau for a long time and eventually decline. The more talented tend to plateau later and curves of the greater and lesser talented do not converge.
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Many individuals travel between countries as part of their professional routines. How do they perform during those short trips abroad? To begin to answer this question, I analyzed the outcomes of over 5 million chess games played around the world. Importantly, tournament chess provides a clean setting in which location-dependent factors are mostly irrelevant; the audiences are quiet and the referees make hardly any judgments. Controlling for differences in chess skills, I found enhanced performance among players who were competing outside of their home countries. This finding was robust to additional controls such as age, sex, and skill momentum or game practice, and to the inclusion of individual or country fixed effects. This advantage, an approximately 2% increase in game outcome, suggests that traveling has a positive effect on performance.
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Background Within team sports, players’ ability to inhibit inappropriate behavioral responses and flexibly adapt to upcoming challenges relates significantly to their game performance. As such, there have been calls for cognitively fostering programs to form the basis of game teaching and coaching practice. However, only few studies have tested so far the effects of purposefully designed perceptual-cognitive interventions on players’ tactical performance. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a chess-based intervention designed to train invasion-game athletes’ executive functions (EFs) could positively impact their tactical game behaviors. Methods Twenty-six invasion-game athletes, 19 to 20 years old (M = 20.58, SD = 1.74) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to a chess group (ChG) (n = 13) and a control group (CG) (n = 13). The ChG participated in a 10-week chess training program designed to foster EFs, while the CG received no special treatment. Pre-and-post measures were completed using: (a) core EF tests and (b) the game performance assessment instrument. Results After the intervention, the ChG group showed improvement in working memory and selective attention (cool EFs; higher memory span, fewer errors on incongruent stimuli), as well as decision-making and flexibility in passing (tactical behaviors; more appropriate passes, variety in passes), whereas no such changes were recorded for the CG. Further, there were no differential changes in cognitive flexibility and affective decision making (cool and hot EFs), as well as support, originality and fluency in passing (tactical behaviors) for the two groups as a function of time. Conclusion By embracing the idea of situated cognition, the current study provides some initial evidence for the linkage between perceptual-cognitive training and team sport performance, suggesting that EFs – as fundamental cognitive processes – can be trained to work in conjunction with the cognitive components of game performance within sport settings. The results of this work are discussed in the context of cognitive and game teaching research, extending current knowledge and understanding of how lab-based and sport training methods can be effectively combined and delivered.
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Data from four different jobs (N = 1,474) were used to evaluate three hypotheses of the joint relation of job experience and general mental ability to job performance as measured by (a) work sample measures, (b) job knowledge measures, and (c) supervisory ratings of job performance. The divergence hypothesis predicts an increasing difference and the convergence hypothesis predicts a decreasing difference in the job performance of high- and low-mental-ability employees as employees gain increasing experience on the job. The noninteractive hypothesis, by contrast, predicts that the performance difference will be constant over time. For all three measures of job performance, results supported the noninteractive hypothesis. Also, consistent with the noninteractive hypothesis, correlational analyses showed essentially constant validities for general mental ability (measured earlier) out to 5 years of experience on the job. In addition to their theoretical implications, these findings have an important practical implication: They indicate that the concerns that employment test validities may decrease over time, complicating estimates of selection utility, are probably unwarranted.
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Chess is a good model to study high-level human brain functions such as spatial cognition, memory, planning, learning and problem solving. Recent studies have demonstrated that non-invasive MRI techniques are valuable for researchers to investigate the underlying neural mechanism of playing chess. For professional chess players (e.g., chess grand masters and masters or GM/Ms), what are the structural and functional alterations due to long-term professional practice, and how these alterations relate to behavior, are largely veiled. Here, we report a multimodal MRI dataset from 29 professional Chinese chess players (most of whom are GM/Ms), and 29 age matched novices. We hope that this dataset will provide researchers with new materials to further explore high-level human brain functions.
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Chess is thought to be a game demanding high cognitive abilities to be played well. Although many studies proved the link between mastery in chess and high degree of intelligence, just few studies proved that chess practice can enhance cognitive abilities. Starting from these considerations, the main purpose of the present research was to investigate the potential benefits of in-presence chess lessons and on-line training on mathematical problem-solving ability in young pupils (8 to 11 years old). Five hundred sixty students were divided into two groups, experimental (which had chess course and on-line training) and control (which had normal school activities), and tested on their mathematical and chess abilities. Results show a strong correlation between chess and math scores, and a higher improvement in math in the experimental group compared with the control group. These results foster the hypothesis that even a short-time practice of chess in children can be a useful tool to enhance their mathematical abilities.
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More than 20 years ago, researchers proposed that individual differences in performance in such domains as music, sports, and games largely reflect individual differences in amount of deliberate practice, which was defined as engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain. This view is a frequent topic of popular-science writing-but is it supported by empirical evidence? To answer this question, we conducted a meta-analysis covering all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated. We found that deliberate practice explained 26% of the variance in performance for games, 21% for music, 18% for sports, 4% for education, and less than 1% for professions. We conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued.
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The present study aim demonstrate of role chess training has on school performance, memory, sustained attention and creativity. A group of 20 novice primary school students took part in 10 blended learning chess lessons and in a final chess competition (the chess group, ChG). Eighteen control students participated in 10 fun math lessons. Most cognitive skills increased from pretest to posttest in both groups but the School Performance Test increased significantly more in the ChG. Resistance to monotony and not IQ at pretest predicted success in the chess contest.
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Popular lore tells us that genius is born, not made. Scientific research, on the other hand, reveals that true expertise is mainly the product of years of intense practice and dedicated coaching. Ordinary practice is not enough: To reach elite levels of performance, you need to constantly push yourself beyond your abilities and comfort level. Such discipline is the key to becoming an expert in all domains, including management and leadership. Those are the conclusions reached by Ericsson, a professor of psychology at Florida State University; Prietula, a professor at the Goizueta Business School; and Cokely, a research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, who together studied data on the behavior of experts, gathered by more than 100 scientists. What consistently distinguished elite surgeons, chess players, writers, athletes, pianists, and other experts was the habit of engaging in "deliberate" practice-a sustained focus on tasks that they couldn't do before. Experts continually analyzed what they did wrong, adjusted their techniques, and worked arduously to correct their errors. Even such traits as charisma can be developed using this technique. Working with a drama school, the authors created a set of acting exercises for managers that remarkably enhanced executives' powers of charm and persuasion. Through deliberate practice, leaders can improve their ability to win over their employees, their peers, or their board of directors. The journey to elite performance is not for the impatient or the faint of heart. It takes at least a decade and requires the guidance of an expert teacher to provide tough, often painful feedback, it also demands would-be experts to develop their "inner coach" and eventually drive their own progress.
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Meta-analysis collects and synthesizes results from individual studies to estimate an overall effect size. If published studies are chosen, say through a literature review, then an inherent selection bias may arise, because, for example, studies may tend to be published more readily if they are statistically significant, or deemed to be more “interesting” in terms of the impact of their outcomes. We develop a simple rank-based data augmentation technique, formalizing the use of funnel plots, to estimate and adjust for the numbers and outcomes of missing studies. Several nonparametric estimators are proposed for the number of missing studies, and their properties are developed analytically and through simulations. We apply the method to simulated and epidemiological datasets and show that it is both effective and consistent with other criteria in the literature.
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In this paper we present the context and results from a study, with 3rd to 6th grades children, about the relationship between chess and problem solving involving geometric and numeric patterns. The main result of this study is the existence of a relation between strength of play and patterns involving problem solving. We have included in the beginning an analysis of chess as a context for elementary mathematics problems, also showing its richness historically.
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Twenty years ago, Ericsson, Krampe, and Tesch-Römer (1993) proposed that expert performance reflects a long period of deliberate practice rather than innate ability, or “talent”. Ericsson et al. found that elite musicians had accumulated thousands of hours more deliberate practice than less accomplished musicians, and concluded that their theoretical framework could provide “a sufficient account of themajor facts about the nature and scarcity of exceptional performance” (p. 392). The deliberate practice viewhas since gained popularity as a theoretical account of expert performance, but here we show that deliberate practice is not sufficient to explain individual differences in performance in the two most widely studied domains in expertise research—chess and music. For researchers interested in advancing the science of expert performance, the task now is to develop and rigorously test theories that take into account as many potentially relevant explanatory constructs as possible.
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In many studies included in meta-analyses, the independent variable measure, the dependent variable measure, or both, have been artificially dichotomized, attenuating the correlation from its true value and resulting in (a) a downward distortion in the mean correlation and (b) an upward distortion in the apparent real variation of correlations across studies. We present (a) exact corrections for this distortion for the case in which only one of the variables has been dichotomized and (b) methods for making approximate corrections when both variables have been artificially dichotomized. These approximate corrections are shown to be quite accurate for most research data. Methods for weighting the resulting corrected correlations in meta-analysis are presented. These corrections make it possible for meta-analysis to yield approximately unbiased estimates of mean population correlations and their standard deviations despite the initial distortion in the correlations from individual studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Data from four different jobs ( N = 1,474) were used to evaluate three hypotheses of the joint relation of job experience and general mental ability to job performance as measured by (a) work sample measures, (b) job knowledge measures, and (c) supervisory ratings of job performance. The divergence hypothesis predicts an increasing difference and the convergence hypothesis predicts a decreasing difference in the job performance of high- and low-mental-ability employees as employees gain increasing experience on the job. The noninteractive hypothesis, by contrast, predicts that the performance difference will be constant over time. For all three measures of job performance, results supported the noninteractive hypothesis. Also, consistent with the noninteractive hypothesis, correlational analyses showed essentially constant validities for general mental ability (measured earlier) out to 5 years of experience on the job. In addition to their theoretical implications, these findings have an important practical implication: They indicate that the concerns that employment test validities may decrease over time, complicating estimates of selection utility, are probably unwarranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We estimated the average reliability, stability, and validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Rorschach Inkblot Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) from articles published in the Journal of Personality Assessment and the Journal of Clinical Psychology between 1970 and 1981. Following standard psychometric theory, reliability values exceeded stability values, which exceeded validity values. Validity studies based on theory, prior research, or both showed greater effects than did studies lacking a theoretical or empirical rationale. In general, the reliability and stability of all three tests were acceptable and approximately equivalent. The convergent-validity estimates for the Rorschach and MMPI were not significantly different, but both these estimates were lower than the estimate for the WAIS. It appears that both the MMPI and Rorschach can be considered to have adequate psychometric properties if used for the purpose for which they were designed and validated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Deliberate practice (DP) occurs when an individual intentionally repeats an activity in order to improve performance. The claim of the DP framework is that such behavior is necessary to achieve high levels of expert performance. The proponents of the framework reject evidence that suggests that other variables are also necessary to achieve high levels of expert performance, or they claim that the relationship between those variables and expert performance is mediated by DP. Therefore, the DP framework also implies that DP is sufficient to achieve high levels of expert performance. We test these claims by reviewing studies on chess expertise. We found strong evidence that abundant DP is necessary (but not sufficient) and estimated that the minimum requirement to achieve master level is 3,000 hours of DP. We also review evidence showing that other factors play a role in chess skill: general cognitive abilities, sensitive period, handedness, and season of birth.
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The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 yrs. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Accurate empirical tests of theories and hypotheses are not possible unless the inevitable biases induced into data by measurement error are controlled for. Yet despite 90 years of recommendations from measurement theory and methodology, some still do not control for these biases in their research. This paper presents simple and direct demonstrations showing why basic measurement principles require that biases in data created by measurement error be removed and refutes commonly heard objections to the corrections for these biases. One factor contributing to resistance on the part of some researchers is the fact that most psychologists are not aware that measurement error is produced by real psychological processes that can be studied and understood. This paper describes those substantive psychological process and shows how each generates a different type of measurement error. We also show how different types of reliability estimates assess and calibrate different error processes and types of measurement error, leading directly to conclusions about which types of reliability estimates are appropriate for measurement error corrections in different research settings. Failure to control for biases induced by measurement error has retarded the development of cumulative research knowledge. It is our hope that this paper will contribute to removing these hobbles from psychological research.
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During the past decade the Cattell–Horn Gf–Gc and Carroll Three-Stratum models have emerged as the consensus psychometric-based models for understanding the structure of human intelligence. Although the two models differ in a number of ways, the strong correspondence between the two models has resulted in the increased use of a broad umbrella term for a synthesis of the two models (Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory of cognitive abilities—CHC theory).The purpose of this editorial is three-fold. First, I will describe the CHC framework and recommend that intelligence researchers begin using the CHC taxonomy as a common nomenclature for describing research findings and a theoretical framework from which to test hypotheses regarding various aspects of human cognitive abilities. Second, I argue that the emergence of the CHC framework should not be viewed as the capstone to the psychometric era of factor analytic research. Rather, I recommend the CHC framework serve as the stepping stone to reinvigorate the investigation of the structure of human intelligence.Finally, the Woodcock-Muñoz Foundation Human Cognitive Abilities (HCA) project, which is an evolving, free, on-line electronic archive of the majority of datasets analyzed in Carroll's (1993) seminal treatise on factor analysis of human cognitive abilities, is introduced and described. Intelligence scholars are urged to access the Carroll HCA datasets to test and evaluate structural models of human intelligence with contemporary methods (confirmatory factor analysis). In addition, suggestions are offered for linking the analysis of contemporary data sets with the seminal work of Carroll. The emergence of a consensus CHC taxonomy and access to the original datasets analyzed by Carroll provides an unprecedented opportunity to extend and refine our understanding of human intelligence.
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Although it is widely acknowledged that chess is the best example of an intellectual activity among games, evidence showing the association between any kind of intellectual ability and chess skill has been remarkably sparse. One of the reasons is that most of the studies investigated only one factor (e.g., intelligence), neglecting other factors relevant for the acquisition of chess skill (e.g., amount of practice, years of experience). The present study investigated the chess skill of 57 young chess players using measures of intelligence (WISC III), practice, and experience. Although practice had the most influence on chess skill, intelligence explained some variance even after the inclusion of practice. When an elite subsample of 23 children was tested, it turned out that intelligence was not a significant factor in chess skill, and that, if anything, it tended to correlate negatively with chess skill. This unexpected result is explained by a negative correlation between intelligence and practice in the elite subsample. The study demonstrates the dangers of focusing on a single factor in complex real-world situations where a number of closely interconnected factors operate.
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This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000 + English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's g from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational achievement (GCSE scores) was 0.81. General intelligence contributed to success on all 25 subjects. Variance accounted for ranged from 58.6% in Mathematics and 48% in English to 18.1% in Art and Design. Girls showed no advantage in g, but performed significantly better on all subjects except Physics. This was not due to their better verbal ability. At age 16, obtaining five or more GCSEs at grades A⁎–C is an important criterion. 61% of girls and 50% of boys achieved this. For those at the mean level of g at age 11, 58% achieved this; a standard deviation increase or decrease in g altered the values to 91% and 16%, respectively.
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Sources of individual differences in scientific problem solving were investigated. Participants representing a wide range of experience in geology completed tests of visuospatial ability and geological knowledge, and performed a geological bedrock mapping task, in which they attempted to infer the geological structure of an area in the Tobacco Root Mountains of Montana. A Visuospatial Ability × Geological Knowledge interaction was found, such that visuospatial ability positively predicted mapping performance at low, but not high, levels of geological knowledge. This finding suggests that high levels of domain knowledge may sometimes enable circumvention of performance limitations associated with cognitive abilities.
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One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for 8 standard statistical tests: (1) the difference between independent means, (2) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (3) the difference between independent rs, (4) the sign test, (5) the difference between independent proportions, (6) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (7) 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and (8) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.
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What does a chess master think when he prepares his next move? How are his thoughts organized? Which methods and strategies does he use by solving his problem of choice? To answer these questions, the author did a study, to which famous chess masters participated (Alekhine, Max Euwe, Reuben Fine, Tartakower and Flohr). This book is still useful for everybody who studies cognition and artificial intelligence. The studies involve participants of all chess backgrounds, from amateurs to masters. They investigate the cognitive requirements and the thought processes involved in moving a chess piece. The participants were usually required to solve a given chess problem correctly under the supervision of an experimenter and represent their thought-processes vocally so that they could be recorded. De Groot found that much of what is important in choosing a move occurs during the first few seconds of exposure to a new position. Four stages in the task of choosing the next move were noted. The first stage was the 'orientation phase', in which the subject assessed the situation and determined a general idea of what to do next. The second stage, the 'exploration phase' was manifested by looking at some branches of the game tree. The third stage, or 'investigation phase' resulted in the subject choosing a probable best move. Finally, in the fourth stage, the 'proof phase', saw the subject confirming with him/herself that the results of the investigation were valid. De Groot concurred with Alfred Binet that visual memory and visual perception are important and that problem-solving ability is of paramount importance. Memory is particularly important, according to de Groot (1965), in that there are no 'new' moves in chess and so those from personal experience or from the experience of others can be committed to memory. © 1965, Mouton Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands. All right reserved.
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Recently, chess in school activities has attracted the attention of policy makers, teachers and researchers. Chess has been claimed to be an effective tool to enhance children's mathematical skills. In this study, 931 primary school pupils were recruited and then assigned to two treatment groups attending chess lessons, or to a control group, and were tested on their mathematical problem-solving abilities. The two treatment groups differed from each other on the teaching method adopted: The trainers of one group taught the pupils heuristics to solve chess problems, whereas the trainers of the other treatment group did not teach any chess-specific problem-solving heuristic. Results showed that the former group outperformed the other two groups. These results foster the hypothesis that a specific type of chess training does improve children's mathematical skills, and uphold the idea that teaching general heuristics can be an effective way to promote transfer of learning.
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Why are some people so much more successful than other people in music, sports, games, business, and other complex domains? This question is the subject of one of psychology's oldest debates. Over 20 years ago, Ericsson, Krampe, and Tesch-Römer (1993) proposed that individual differences in performance in domains such as these largely reflect accumulated amount of “deliberate practice.” More controversially, making exceptions only for height and body size, Ericsson et al. explicitly rejected any direct role for innate factors (“talent”) in the attainment of expert performance. This view has since become the dominant theoretical account of expertise and has filtered into the popular imagination through books such as Malcolm Gladwell's (2008) Outliers. Nevertheless, as we discuss in this chapter, evidence from recent research converges on the conclusion that this view is not defensible. Recent meta-analyses have demonstrated that although deliberate practice accounts for a sizeable proportion of the variance in performance in complex domains, it consistently leaves an even larger proportion of the variance unexplained and potentially explainable by other factors. In light of this evidence, we offer a “new look” at expertise that takes into account a wide range of factors.
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The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 years. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning.
Article
Why are some people more skilled in complex domains than other people? According to one prominent view, individual differences in performance largely reflect individual differences in accumulated amount of deliberate practice. Here, we investigated the relationship between deliberate practice and performance in sports. Overall, deliberate practice accounted for 18% of the variance in sports performance. However, the contribution differed depending on skill level. Most important, deliberate practice accounted for only 1% of the variance in performance among elite-level performers. This finding is inconsistent with the claim that deliberate practice accounts for performance differences even among elite performers. Another major finding was that athletes who reached a high level of skill did not begin their sport earlier in childhood than lower skill athletes. This finding challenges the notion that higher skill performers tend to start in a sport at a younger age than lower skill performers. We conclude that to understand the underpinnings of expertise, researchers must investigate contributions of a broad range of factors, taking into account findings from diverse subdisciplines of psychology (e.g., cognitive psychology, personality psychology) and interdisciplinary areas of research (e.g., sports science).
Article
Do the same mechanisms underlie processing of music and language? Recent investigations of this question have yielded inconsistent results. Likely factors contributing to discrepant findings are use of small samples and failure to control for individual differences in cognitive ability. We investigated the relationship between music and speech prosody processing, while controlling for cognitive ability. Participants (n = 179) completed a battery of cognitive ability tests, the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) to assess music perception, and a prosody test of pitch peak timing discrimination (early, as in insight vs. late, incite). Structural equation modeling revealed that only music perception was a significant predictor of prosody test performance. Music perception accounted for 34.5% of variance on prosody test performance; cognitive abilities and music training added only about 8%. These results indicate musical pitch and temporal processing are highly predictive of pitch discrimination in speech processing, even after controlling for other possible predictors of this aspect of language processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Discussion in this paper centers around the circumstances under which unequal sample size in the two-group study arises and when the point-biserial correlation resulting therefrom should be construed as attenuated and therefore corrected. Formulas are provided for correcting the coefficient either directly or through the mediation of relevant statistics found in studies where the coefficient itself is not reported. Problems and solutions discussed in the two-group study with a single dependent or independent measure are generalized to the two-group study with two or more such measures.
Article
A view holds that expertise level depends on practice alone and that certain types of practice are important or unimportant. Supporting evidence largely comes from studies using a correlational retrospective recall paradigm, usually with small samples. Initially, these studies were partially replicated with 533 international chess players. Log number of games played was the strongest predictor of latest performance rating. Then, effects of study hours, having had coaching and the number of games played were examined longitudinally to control for key variables confounded in the retrospective recall paradigm. Groups with a nearly 5–1 median difference in weekly study hours, roughly equated on time in the domain and the number of games played, were observed over 7 years. More study hours had negligible impact. Coaching had some effect over time, and the number of games had a strong effect even when participants were equated on time in the domain. Previous studies show that a factor other than the number of games is important in developing chess expertise. Study is a weak factor at best and could not be that important factor. Chess expertise apparently does not depend on practice (study and the number of games) alone. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Controversies surrounding nature and nurture determinants of expert/elite performance have arisen many times since antiquity, and remain sources of concern in the present day. Extreme positions on this controversy are fundamentally silly — both nature and nurture are necessary determinants of expert/elite performance, but neither alone represents a sufficient causal factor. The central issues surrounding the so-called “talent myth” and the “deliberate practice theory (also referred to as the “10,000 h rule”) are reviewed. Also provided is a discussion of the science of individual differences related to talent, the fundamental characteristics of talent and the role of talent in predicting individual differences in expert/elite performance. Finally, a review of the critical psychometric and statistical considerations for the prediction of individual differences in the acquisition of expert/elite performance is presented. Conclusions focus on how these various issues fit together, to provide an integrated view of the importance of talent, but also the limitations of talent identification procedures for discovering which individuals will ultimately develop expert/elite levels of performance.
Article
Reports some unexpected byproducts of experiments with chess-playing tasks and computer simulation of skilled performance and problem solving. First, the theory of the processes used by expert chess players in discovering checkmating combinations and the MATER computer simulation of these processes are reviewed. Next phenomena involving the perceptual bases of mastery in chess and eye movements at the chess board are described. Perceptual processes were evaluated by way of the MATER program, and a new program, PERCEIVER, was used to explain the eye movement phenomenon. To further refine the above findings, other more sophisticated simulation programs were introduced. Findings indicate that acquisition of chess skills depends, in large part, on building up recognition memory for many familiar chess patterns. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The highest levels of performance and achievement in sports, games, arts, and sciences have always been an object of fascination, but only within the last couple of decades have scientists been studying these empirical phenomena within a general theoretical framework. [This book] brings together [research] on specific domains of expertise and related theoretical issues, such as the importance of individual differences in ability and innate talent for attaining expert levels of performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A list of 44 available adult tests is given. They are critically reviewed as to their inadequate standardization in terms of the general population. The technical obstacles which psychologists must overcome to test adults adequately are listed and discussed. A survey of the current literature on the nature of intelligence shows wide divergence, reflecting the varying objectives of intelligence testing. Likewise, an examination of the validation procedures fails to reveal precise concepts about the nature of intelligence. Factor analysis is examined as an objective method of evaluating abilities, with the conclusion that "we may have to decide by fiat the precise directions, by means of reference tests and populations, of these group-factors or primary abilities." Detailed discussion follows on specific problems of test construction and validation such as length of test, choice of subtests, influence of speed, role of test sophistication, age and declining scores, and the use of IQ. The author presents the hypothesis that there are two kinds of adult mental capacity: fluid, or purely general ability, and crystallized, or long established discriminatory habits. The latter determine the peaks of performance in adult life. Bibliography of 137 titles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)