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Eucalyptus (Eucapyptus spp.), an evergreen tall tree native to Australia and Tasmania, has been used since ancient times by the aboriginal population for several purposes. In particular, the species E. globulus is widely used in the pulp industry, as well as for the production of eucalyptus oil extracted on a commercial scale in many countries as raw materials in perfumery, cosmetics, food, beverages, aromatherapy and phytotherapy. The 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), the principal and the most important constituent extracted from eucalyptus leaves, demonstrated an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Despite the fact that the healthy effects of eucalyptus have been well established by research, further studies are necessary to investigate other prime effects of the plant and its possible implication in the treatment of a greater number of pathological conditions.
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52 The Open Agriculture Journal, 2016, 10, (Suppl 1: M3) 52-57
1874-3315/16 2016 Bentham Open
The Open Agriculture Journal
Content list available at:
DOI: 10.2174/1874331501610010052
Beneficial and Healthy Properties of Eucalyptus Plants: A Great
Potential Use
Maria Gabriella Vecchio1,*, Claudia Loganes2 and Clara Minto3
1ZETA Research Ltd, Trieste, Italy
2Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy
3Unit of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences,
University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Received: December 04, 2015 Revised: May 09, 2016 Accepted: May 11, 2016
Abstract: Eucalyptus (Eucapyptus spp.), an evergreen tall tree native to Australia and Tasmania, has been used since ancient times
by the aboriginal population for several purposes. In particular, the species E. globulus is widely used in the pulp industry, as well as
for the production of eucalyptus oil extracted on a commercial scale in many countries as raw materials in perfumery, cosmetics,
food, beverages, aromatherapy and phytotherapy. The 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), the principal and the most important constituent
extracted from eucalyptus leaves, demonstrated an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Despite the fact that the healthy
effects of eucalyptus have been well established by research, further studies are necessary to investigate other prime effects of the
plant and its possible implication in the treatment of a greater number of pathological conditions.
Keywords: Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Essential oil, Eucalyptol, Eucalyptus globulus labill.
In recent decades, the demand for plant derived products for therapeutic uses has been increased [1]. In many
countries worldwide aromatic herbs are used in primary health care, especially in rural areas [2], and 80% of the
populations in developing countries use these traditional resources [3]. For this reason, the use of essential oils extracted
from plants for clinical purposes have become an important topic in scientific research and industrial application thanks
to the different biological activities of oils, which exercise antimicrobial [4], antioxidant [5] and anti-inflammatory [6]
activities. In this brief review, the authors will focus the attention on eucalyptus, which is a plant used for several
Eucalyptus (Eucapyptus spp.), is a large genus of the Myrtaceae family, which includes 900 species and subspecies.
This evergreen tall tree is native from Australia and Tasmania and is the second largest genera after acacia [7]. Since the
1850s, it has been successfully introduced into 90 countries worldwide where it is now one of the most important and
widely planted genera [8]. In ancient times the eucalyptus plant was used for several purposes by aboriginal people,
both as medicine and as food. Nowadays, the plant is used in forestry (timber, fuel, paper pulp), environmental planting
(water and wind erosion control), as a source of essential oil (medicinal, perfumery oils), for arts and craft [7]. Among
all the species of Australian Eucalyptus, the E. globulus was widely introduced overseas [9], becoming largely
cultivated in the subtropical and Mediterranean regions [10], as well as in Nigeria. E. globulus which has different
vernacular names (eucalyptus in Bengali and in Hindi; blue-gum eucalyptus in English and Karpuramaram in Tamil
[11]), is considerably used in the pulp industry, as well as for the production of eucalyptus oil (henceforth EO),
* Address correspondence to this author at the Zeta Research Ltd,, Via A. Caccia, 8, 34129 Trieste, Italy; Mobile: +39 3938908862; Tel/Fax: +39 040
358980; Email:
Beneficial and Healthy Properties of Eucalyptus The Open Agriculture Journal, 2016, Volume 10 53
extracted on commercial scale in many countries and adopted in perfumery, cosmetics, food, beverages, aromatherapy
and phytotherapy [12].
Eucalyptus plants draw the attention of researchers and environmentalists worldwide because it represents a fast-
growing source of wood as well as a source of oil used for several purposes. The oil is extracted from leaves, fruits,
buds and bark showing antibacterial, antiseptic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer activities [11, 13] and for
this reason used in the treatment of respiratory diseases, common cold, influenza, and sinus congestion [14, 15]. The
aim of this paper is to provide and collect scientific information about eucalyptus plants in order to present the
beneficial and healthy properties and its potential use.
Chemical Composition
E. globulus is a rich source of phytochemical compounds as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and propanoids, extracted
in the leaf, stem and root of the plant [11]. Several researches were conducted with the aim to isolate the
phytoconstituents from the plant’s organs: several volatile constituents as 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) aromadendrene, α-
gurjunene, globulol, ß-pinene, pipertone, α-,ß-and γ-terpinen-4-ol, and allo-aromadendrene were found both in leaves
and in shoots (eucalyptol is, in particular, the principal and the most important constituent found in eucalyptus, also in
plant’s buds); borneol, caproic acid, citral, eudesmol, fenchone, p-menthane, myrecene, myrtenol, α-terpineol,
verbinone, asparagine, cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid, ornithine and threonine were extracted from fruits [16], while
forming acid, dextrin and sucrose were extracted from flowers and the honey [17]. Despite the fact that more than 18
compounds were identified in EO, eucalyptol represents the 79.85% of the total chemical composition. The EO also
showed a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes, which change between each Eucalyptus species, with a potential
variation in therapeutic properties [18]. The composition pattern of essential oil is affected by factors such as
geographical location [19] and seasons [20], with consequent influence on biological activities [21]. EO is widely used
in many countries like China, India, South Africa, Portugal, Brazil and Tasmania [20] for perfumery, cosmetics,
aromatherapy, phytotherapy products and for food and beverages preparation [22].
Antiseptic and Antibacterial Effects
Eucalyptus plant was used traditionally as antiseptic and for the treatment of respiratory tract infections [23]: the
herb is, in fact, very helpful for colds, flu, sore throats and chest infections including bronchitis and pneumonia [15].
Several studies showed a moderate antimicrobial activity of EO from E. globulus both on Gram-negative (Salmonella
enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus,
Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes 4b and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e) and a bacteriostatic activity
against all strains tested (with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa) [24]. This effect on bacteria may be attributed
to the dominant presence of eucalyptol which, in the past, has demonstrated a strong antimicrobial activities against
many important pathogens [25]. To strengthen these results, other researchers showed a significant activity of EO from
different Eucapyptus species against various microorganisms, including human pathogen spoilage bacteria, Candida
albicans [9], Propionibacterium acnes and Pityrosporum ovale [26].
These studies supported the potential use of EO (specifically from E. globulus and E. bridgesiana) as natural
preservative for food and pharmaceutical industries, which may be useful as an alternative antimicrobial agent in natural
medicine for the treatment of numerous infectious diseases.
Antioxidant Properties
The infection process frequently induces inflammation which determines the release of free radicals from the
phagocytes. Antioxidants are molecules able to scavenge reactive oxygen species or free radicals, protecting cells from
damage and death. At a physiological level, these free radicals play important roles in energy production, synthesis of
some biomolecules, phagocytosis, and cell growth in living systems [27]. An imbalance between free radical generation
and unfavorable antioxidant defenses leads to oxidative stress, resulting in DNA or tissue damage [28, 29]. It is possible
to distinguish among two categories of antioxidants, the natural and the synthetic. Recently, due to the adverse effects
demonstrated by synthetic antioxidants, the interest in finding naturally antioxidant molecules in foods has increased
considerably [30]. A study by Akolade and colleagues was conducted with an aim to determine the antioxidant effects
of EO from E. globulus grown in Nigeria [18]. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ability of EO to scavenge
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in methanol (DPPH assay) and the results showed that, although its
activity resulted lower when compared with ascorbic acid, the EO depending on concentration, exerts radical
54 The Open Agriculture Journal, 2016, Volume 10 Vecchio et al.
scavenging activity. The low antioxidant capacity of the EO may be attributed to the absence of phenolics compounds
(such as thymol and cavacrol) in Nigerian E. globulus leaf [18].
The major derivative compound from E. globulus are called Globulusin A and Eucaglobulin which demonstrated a
suppressive effect on DPPH free radical development were examined. These molecules, in fact, scavenged DPPH free
radical in a concentration dependent manner, and revealed an inhibitory activity stronger than ascorbic acid [31].
According to all these assessments, and considering the various experimental methods used, eucalyptus plant is an
important source of antioxidants.
Anti-inflammatory Activity
The aromatic constituents of EO are used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic remedies [14]. Juergens
et al., examined the role of eucalyptol as inhibitor of the production and synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),
interleukin-1β (IL-1β), leukotriene B4, and thromboxane B2 in human blood monocytes, suggesting that eucalyptol is a
strong inhibitor of cytokines that might be suitable for long term treatment of airway inflammation in bronchial asthma
and other steroid-sensitive disorders [32]. Moreover, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the anti-inflammatory
activity of eucalyptol was evaluated in patients with severe asthma suggesting the efficacy of this molecule and a new
rational for its use as mucolytic agent in upper and lower airway diseases [33]. These results should help to clarify
functional applications for the future of eucalyptus plant and its EO in anti-inflammatory treatments.
Cytotoxic and Toxic Features
Extracts and components isolated from some Eucalyptus species showed cytotoxic activities. In the two studies
presented in this section, the cytotoxicity of the compounds derived from Eucalyptus was evaluated measuring the
concentration of sample that inhibited 50% of cell growth (IC50). The first research was conducted on Cladocalol, a
formylated triterpene isolated from E. cladocalyx leaves, which showed cytotoxic effect on the myeloid leukemia cell
line HL-60 [34]. The second study was carried out in Brazil and investigated the cytotoxic activity of E. benthamii EO
in vitro. The authors compared the activity of EO with some other terpene compounds (α-pinene, terpinen-4-ol and γ-
terpinene) on different pathogenetic cells lines, such as Jurkat (T leukemia cells), J774A.1 (murine macrophage tumor),
and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells lines. The results demonstrated a cytotoxicity of EO mainly against Jurkat and HeLa
cell lines comparing to the isolated terpenes, showing the potential use of E. benthamii as an alternative herbal source
[35]. These studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of EO on some cells, showing the importance to study the
characteristics of this plant for its potential use in the treatment of diseases. For what concern the toxicity, the
information in scientific literature related to EO showed the toxic effect of this compound when ingested. Several cases
of ingestion, especially in children, were recorded (the most common effects were burning sensation in mouth and
throat, abdominal pain and vomiting) [36]. A case reported the story of a 3-years old boy who accidentally ingested EO,
causing a central nervous system depression within 30 minutes [36], while Day et al. conducted a survey to investigate
the unintentional EO poisoning in children with the aim to develop a strategy for the prevention [37], and Webb and Pitt
reported, in 7 years of study, 41 cases of EO poisoning among children under 14 years [38].
Other Positive Effects
Besides the collected data on antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties, little is known about the influence of EO
extract on the cellular components of the immune system, and in particular on the monocytic/macrophagic system,
which are one of the primary cellular effectors of the immune response against pathogen attacks [39]. The effect of EO
extract on the phagocytic ability of human monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) was investigated both in vitro and
in vivo, on rat peripheral blood monocytes/granulocytes, after EO oral administration. The results demonstrated that EO
is able to induce activation of MDMs stimulating the phagocytic response, decreasing the release of pro-inflammatory
cytokines, acting as a complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Implementation of innate cell-mediated immune
response was also observed in vivo after EO administration, mainly involving the peripheral blood
monocytes/granulocytes [39].
Eucalyptol showed an important activity also in the therapy of symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
thanks to its efficacy in reducing frequency, severity and duration of inflammatory exacerbation [40]. Like menthol, EO
decongests the upper respiratory tract in case of common cold activating the nasal receptors, and stimulates the
bronchial epithelium, determining an expectorant and mucolytic effect [11].
The benefits of eucalyptus extract on skin health and integrity were also reported [41]. Several studies described a
Beneficial and Healthy Properties of Eucalyptus The Open Agriculture Journal, 2016, Volume 10 55
close relationship between the levels of ceramides and water-holding functions or between psoriasis or atopic dermatitis
and dry skin [42 - 44]. It is well established that some substances (i.e. lactic acid and nicotinamide) increase ceramide
levels in the stratum cornum [43, 45], and a recent study identified and demonstrates that eucalyptus extract is able to
increase the level of ceramide in human stratum corneum, improving the water holding and barrier functions [41]. The
enhancement of these functions might be the result of the increase of ceramide levels in stratum corneum, keratinocytes
and epidermis, due to an increase of proteins biosynthesis involved in ceramide metabolism. The results of Ishikawa
and co-workers indicate that eucalyptus extract plays an important role in ceramide metabolism and confirm the
possibility to use this plant in therapeutic treatments of skin [41].
Furthermore, sideroxylonal was extracted from the flowers of E. albens., a new molecule that showed various bio-
property [46]. This compound exhibits inhibitory activity against human plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1)
which is related to the pathogenesis of arterial and thrombotic diseases. It means that the molecule extracted from
E. albens . should be a novel way to enhance fibrinolysis and to prevent the development of thrombotic diseases [47,
In conclusion, studies conducted on eucalyptus plant demonstrated its biological activities, due to the multitude of
compounds contained in the leafs, stem and roots [49, 50]. In particular, the abundance of bioactive secondary
metabolites, such as terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, and phloroglucinol derivatives confers both the antiviral and
antibacterial effects [51] that explain the traditional use of the plant as an antiseptic and in the treatment of respiratory
tract infections. Among the genus Eucalyptus, the species E. globulus is the most widely cultivated in the subtropical
and Mediterranean regions, which reach a therapeutic importance thanks to its phytochemicals compounds. However,
despite the several known healthy effects of eucalyptus plant, further studies are necessary to investigate other prime
effects of the plant and the possible implication in the treatment of other pathological conditions, and in case of plant
toxicity, the diffusion of injuries prevention strategies.
The authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest.
The work has been partially supported by an unrestricted grant of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the
Indian Ministry of Science & Technology.
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... Used as an antiseptic, antibacterial agent. Shows antioxidant, antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activity (Vecchio et al., 2016). ...
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From Chief Editor’s Desk After Robert Emerson’s tragic death in a plane crash on February 4, 1959, Carl Cederstrand joined the PhD program in Biophysics, working under the joint mentorship of Eugene Rabinowitch and Govindjee. His very first experiments, were done on projects initiated by Govindjee, which led to the discovery of the two-light effect in chlorophyll a fluorescence (Govindjee et al., 1960), and to the existence of new absorption bands in the far-red region, particularly prominent at 750 nm in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans (Govindjee et al., 1961) (See: Laura Cederstrand and Govindjee this issue). Paul C. Lauterbur (1929 —2007), was the father of 13C NMR (Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and inventor of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). An elegant article on the 2003 Nobel Laureate Paul C. Lauterbur is also included here (see Elise Lauterbur and Govindjee, this issue). Global warming, climate change and human health are interconnected and this issue of our journal focuses on some of these current topics. Omicron is still a problem with new strains emerging; an excellent paper by Yau and Khandelwal, eminent scientists in this area, deals with the ‘striking immune evasion and less disease severity’, in this volume. I quote: “Vaccine waning plus immure evasion have led to the significant increase of ‘breakthrough’ infections during Omicron wave in many countries. For now, the best protection is to take boosters”. Different aspects and possibilities have been discussed in detail in this paper, included in this issue. Pollinators are key components of global biodiversity, providing vital ecosystem services to crops and wild plants. There is clear evidence of recent decline in both wild and domesticated pollinators, and there is a parallel decline in plants that rely upon them. Exposure to multiple interacting stressors is responsible for the loss of honeybee colonies and the consequent decline of wild pollinators. Taking immediate steps to reduce the stress on bees is necessary for sustainable farming methods by enforcing effective quarantine measures on bee movements (See Kumar et al., this volume, for a thorough discussion of this topic). In aquatic ecosystems, an understanding of biomass accumulation dynamics, carbon sequestration and primary productivity (using chlorophyll estimation) at a regional to global scale is undoubtedly crucial in dealing with changing climatic conditions. Future remote sensing missions for aquatic science will bring new offerings and capabilities to monitor biomass and productivity dynamics. Potential of ‘remote sensing’ for improved understanding of aquatic chlorophyll, biomass and primary productivity estimation is presented by Gupta et al. (in this volume). Forests, the most valuable ecological resources, are greatly being impoverished economically, aesthetically and environmentally in India and elsewhere. To evaluate the present status of forests in the light of species richness and vegetation, a study was conducted in Dakshin Dinajpur district of West Bengal (see Das and Chakraborty, this issue). For future volumes of our journal, we welcome articles on current issues, in life sciences, and hope that it will have a great impact our readership. We thank all the reviewers, who have done excellent work for the journal. My special thanks go to Frank Yau for his crucial help for this issue of our journal. We also thank Govindjee (of the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign) for his support to our journal. We sincerely hope that you will find this issue very useful for research and teaching. Prof. Ashwani Kumar Chief Editor
... Terpenes such as α-epinene, β-epinene, limonene, β-myrcene, sabinene and terpinolene were known to have good antioxidant properties, but depending on the antioxidant mechanism [41] (Martins et al., 2014). In addition, a strong antioxidant activity of EOs was attributed to their phenolic groups such as thymol, carvacrol and probably to 1,8-cineole [40,42]. A study on the anti-free radical power of the essential oil of E. globulus has shown that essential oils from the fruits of E. globulus were more effective than those of its leaves with an IC50 value of 0.033 for fruits and 0.067 mg/ml for leaves [43]. ...
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This work was conducted as part of evaluation of the antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from a plant that belongs to the family of Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus globulus. The extraction of the essential oil was carried out by hydrodistillation and followed by extraction yield determination and physicochemical analysis. Then, the evaluation of the antioxidant activity was performed according to the method of DPPH free radical scavenging and the determination of total antioxidant capacity. The extraction of the essential oil gave a content of 0.41 ± 0.01%. The analytical study of the physicochemical properties of the essential oil of E. globulus showed that this plant presented an essential oil of acceptable quality and in conformity with the standard. The results of the evaluation of the antioxidant activity showed that this essential oil has interesting antiradical properties. It was manifested by a low value of IC50 (0.017 mg/ml) compared to the standard antioxidant (ascorbic acid). It was noticed that the essential oil of E. globulus has an antioxidant capacity of the order of 19 ± 0.01 mg AAE/g. This result showed that the essential oil of E. globulus has a powerful antioxidant power by reducing phosphomolybdate. Thus, the essential oil of E. globulus appeared effective in reducing oxidative reactions.
... There are many studies that report positive effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) on human health as a remedy for abscess, arthritis, asthma, boils, bronchitis, burns, flu, inflammation, rhinitis, worms, and wounds (21) and it also has antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics (22,23). Therefore, there is an increasing interest in its application as a natural additive for food (24). ...
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The study examines consumer sensory preferences of 12 different handmade pastry products in the form of minions, made of rice and flaxseed flour, tapioca starch with natural taste ingredients and with addition of prebiotic (inulin), herbs and other ingredients. The sensory evaluation was performed by professionals (experienced tasters). Preferred minion flavour was tested at group of 324 consumers (hotel guests) of different nationality. ANOVA and t-test were performed to reveal differences in attitudes related to socio-demographic characteristics of the consumers. Also, determination of taste preferences according to consumer nationality was examined as an additional consumer care aspect. The evaluation of equality of the samples’ average rates, as well as the groups of minions, is done by parametric or nonparametric model of variance analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in order to group the investigated minions regarding their sensory properties, while the sum of ranking differences (SRD) was used to determine the minions with the best sensory properties. Consumers and experienced tasters have almost the same opinion about the sensory quality of minions, which indicates that assessment of the consumer can be considered as a representative opinion in the near future. Such functional food - minions could be widely used as a substitute for the most common commercial sweets rich in sugar and fat.
... Other applications where Eucalyptus leaves extract can be used are in the mild steel industry as a source for inhibiting corrosion in acidic media [22], and as tool to control and reduce the proliferation of cyanobacteria in aquatic environments [23]. Moreover, there has been an increasing interest in the use of Eucalyptus leaves extracts from different fields such as pharmaceutical [11,24], cosmetic [25], and food industries [11,24]. ...
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The leaves of Eucalyptus have multiple biological activities such as antimicrobial, antiseptic, antioxidant, and antifungal. A Soxhlet extraction, SLE, and HD were used to obtain extracts from the leaves of six Eucalyptus species, E. globulus, E. oblicua, E. pavaflora, E. camaldulensis, E. viminalis, and E. nitens, and to study their antioxidant capacity. Solvents such as acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, hexane, methanol, and water were used to study how polarity influences extraction yields. The SLE method achieved higher or similar yields, depending on the species and its composition, than the Soxlet method at a temperature of 50 °C. The highest yields were obtained with E. viminalis with methanol (42.5 wt.%), the highest phenolic content was obtained with E. nitens with methanol (124.17 mg GAE/g of extract), and the highest anthocyanin levels obtained were with E. nitens with hexane (5.05 mg CC/g of extract). E. nitens obtained almost five times more phenolic content than E. globulus; therefore, it is the most promising species. The high content of the compounds analysed confirm the good potential of these species to obtain value-added compounds. Our results demonstrate that the differences in the extract contents depend on the polarity of the solvents used. In addition, the use of these species will reduce the residue in the forest, which is greatly beneficial.
... Chemical and biological investigations of ethnomedicinal plants with high therapeutic indices and reputation of being curative have furnished the world with many clinically potent drugs [13,14]. The phytochemical screening carried out on ET leaves showed the presence of saponins, condensed tannins, terpenoids, glycosides and reducing sugars while the stem of ET contained the same secondary metabolites except saponins. ...
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The use of traditional medicines has been observed to increase globally. The search for new antimicrobial agents has increased as a result of increase in microbial infections as well as antimicrobial resistance. The phytochemical and antibacterial activities of ethanolic and methanolic extract of leaves and stem of Eucalyptus torelliana was investigated to detect the presence of secondary metabolites and also evaluate their antibacterial potential. The phytochemical constituents of the powdered leaves and stem of Eucalyptus torelliana were determined using standard methods. The antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria from different sources to the leaves and stem extract was determined using agar diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC of the extracts were also determined. Phytochemical screening of Eucalyptus torelliana yielded glycosides, reducing sugars, condensed tannins and terpenoids in both leaf and stem extract while saponins were found only in the leaves extract. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus torelliana had antibacterial activities at 20mg/ml and 10mg/ml especially at 20mg/ml where it showed significant difference in their activity in relation to the negative control. The extracts from the stem were observed to have better antibacterial activity compared to the leaves. Gentamicin was used as a positive control. The ethanolic extracts had MIC range between 10mg/ml->10mg/ml while that of the methanolic extracts was >10mg/ml. The results from this study validate the possible use of Eucalyptus torelliana in the production of new antimicrobial agents.
... Eucalyptus globulus and Azadirachta indica have been reported to be rich sources of phytochemical compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and propanoids, extracted in the leaf, stem and root of the plants [19][20][21][22]. Their antioxidant property has also been widely reported [23][24][25]. ...
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Traditional healthcare system depends majorly on natural medicinal plants from the environment. These plants produce secondary metabolites which confer on them the various medicinal properties; however, Seasonal fluctuations have impact on their availability and quantity hence their therapeutic efficacy. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of seasonal changes on the quantity of secondary metabolites from Neem and Eucalyptus plants. Leaves and bark of Neem and Eucalyptus plants from SHESTCO, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria, were collected during the four quarters of the year 2019. Samples were dried, milled into powder, quantity of secondary metabolites was estimated and antioxidant activity was analysed using standard methods and protocols. Results from this study showed a variation in secondary metabolite compositions in response to seasons. In both plants' organs, saponin content peaked and crashed during the second and fourth quarters of the year respectively, while alkaloid had the highest content during the fourth quarter of the year. Highest level of tannin was recorded in the leaf and bark of the plants during the third quarter of the year. Antioxidant activity of both plant extracts showed a regular patterned decrease with increasing concentration, with lowest antioxidant activity for both plants' organs recorded during the third quarter. Findings of the study indicate that the quantity of inherent secondary metabolites in the medicinal plants and their corresponding antioxidant activity varies in specific manners at different times of the year due to seasonal variation.
Aluminum (Al) is one of the problems and is a factor inhibiting plant growth on soils with acidic pH. This study aims to examine the growth response of Eucalyptus pellita and Eucalypus Deglupta seedlings to Al exposure. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with one factor, where the Al concentration consisted of 5 levels, namely: 0 mM (control), 2 mM, 4 mM, 6 mM, and 8 mM with 3 repetitions each and each repetition consisted of 3 units of the plant. The results showed that Al treatment had a significant effect on the growth parameters of both plant types, except for the root dry weight parameter for E. deglupta. Increasing the Al concentration can reduce almost all growth parameters. The 4 mM Al concentration was able to increase the height growth, plant dry weight (roots and shoots), and tolerance index for the E. pellita species, while the Al 2 mM concentration was able to increase the root growth of E. deglupta plants. Almost all growth parameters for E. pellita species were higher than that of E. deglupta, except for the SPAD chlorophyll index. The concentrations of 6 mM and 8 mM were toxic to E. pellita and E. deglupta.
Cajuput plant ( Melaleuca cajuputi Powell) and its waste is one of the plants that can produce atsiri oils. Cajuput plant essential oil has the largest compound component, 1.8 cineol which has the ability as an antibacterial to kill pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of cajuput leaf waste extract against pathogenic bacteria and find out the category of inhibition zones formed from extracts of cajuput leaf waste. This study used a completely randomized design method. Cajuput leaf waste used has a shelf life of 0, 2 and 4 months old. The pathogenic bacteria used consisted of 17 isolates, each treatment was repeated twice. The results showed that cajuput leaf extract had antibacterial activity known by the formation of inhibitory zones. The inhibitory zone in the extract of the 0-month leaf waste was greater than in the leaf extract of leaf of 2 months and 4 months. The diameter of the inhibition zone is at most 13 mm and at least 1 mm. With these results, it can be concluded that the antibacterial activity of cajuput leaf waste belongs to the category of low to strong.
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The investigation was designed to determine the chemical composition, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of the leaf essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus Labill grown in Nigeria. Fresh leaves of E. globulus on steam distillation yielded 0.96 % (v/w) of essential oil. Investigation of the oil on GC/MS resulted in the identification of 16 compounds, the bulk of the oil was constituted by oxygenated monoterpenes (46.5 %) with terpinen-4-ol (23.46 %) as the most abundant constituent. Other notable compounds include γ-terpinene (17.01 %), spathulenol (8.94 %), ρ-cymene (8.10 %) and ρ-cymen-7-ol (6.39 %). Globulol (2.52 %) and α-phellandrene (2.20 %) were also among the constituents identified. The antioxidant features of the essential oil was evaluated using inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, a concentration dependent radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 136.87 μl/ml was observed. Cytotoxic effect was assayed using the brine shrimp lethality test, Probit’s analysis of the result revealed a LC50 value of 9.59 μl/ml. The absence of 1,8-cineole and presence of α-phellandrene coupled with low antioxidant activity and high cytotoxic effect of the Eucalyptus oil investigated in the study suggest it may not be suitable for medicinal purposes but can be used as insecticidal agents.
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Chemical composition of the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus Labill., grown in Montenegro, was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and its antimicrobial activity was evaluated against 17 microorganisms, including food poisoning and spoilage bacteria and human pathogens.The Eucalyptus essential oil yield was 1.8% (w/w) on the fresh weight basis, whereas the analysis resulted in the identification of a total of 11 constituents, 1.8 cineole (85.8%), α-pinene (7.2%), and β-myrcene (1.5%) being the main components. Other compounds identified in the oil were β-pinene, limonene, α-phellandrene, γ-terpinene, linalool, pinocarveol, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol. The results of the antimicrobial activity tests revealed that the essential oil of E. globulus has rather a strong antimicrobial activity, especially against Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentration revealed the lowest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonela infantis (3.13 mg/ml) while the highest activity was against S. aureus, E. coli, and S. pyogenes (0.09 mg/ml).
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Hydrodistilled leaves and fruits of Hoslundia opposita yielded 0.54% and 0.65%v/w of essentials oils. Investigation by GC and GC-MS revealed that the bulk of the oils were constituted by oxygenated monoterpenes (81.3 and 81.4% for the leaves and fruits, respectively). The principal constituents of the leaf oil were 1, 8-cineole (72.3%), -terpineol (7.2%), sabinene (4.5%), thymol (4.2%) and car-3-ene (3.7%).The fruit oil had abundance of camphor (69.5%), linalool (5.4%) and limonene (2.5%).
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The use of herbal/botanical products, also referred to as complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), worldwide enjoys increasing popularity. It appears in particular highly prevalent in patient populations already exposed to complex treatment algorithms and polypharmacotherapy, frequently involving narrow therapeutic index drugs. Accordingly, the potential clinical dimension and relevance of herb-drug interactions has received considerable attention over the last years. However, review of pertinent literature indicates that the available clinical evidence in this regard is still limited and sometimes inconclusive. Also, communication of herb-drug interaction data in the biopharmaceutical/medical literature is often complex and confusing, not always unbiased, and in many cases appears not to strive for clear-cut and useful guidance in terms of the clinical relevance of such findings.This systematic review summarizes and interprets the published evidence on clinical herb-drug interaction studies which examined the potential of six popular herbal drugs (Echinacea, garlic, gingko, ginseng, goldenseal, and milk thistle) as perpetrators of pharmacokinetic (PK) drug interactions. Reported effect sizes were systematically categorized according to FDA drug interaction guideline criteria. A total of 66 clinical PK interaction studies, meeting the scope of the present review, were identified. The clinical evidence was found to be most robust and informative for Gingko biloba (GB; 21 studies) and milk thistle/silymarin (MT; 13), and appears still limited for ginseng (9), goldenseal/berberine (GS; 8), garlic (8), and Echinacea (7). Collectively, the available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, none of these herbs act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes or P-glycoprotein (ABCB1). Weak effects in terms of either induction or inhibition were found for GB (presystemic/hepatic CYP3A4 induction/inhibition, CYP2C19 induction at high doses), milk thistle/silymarin (CYP2C9 inhibition), GS/berberine (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibition), Echinacea (presystemic/hepatic CYP3A4 inhibition/induction, CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 inhibition at high doses). Information was found not always complete for the major drug metabolizing CYP enzymes in the less well-studied herbs and is largely limited to P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) when effects on drug transporters have been investigated.
This experiment was conducted during the four seasons: Spring, summer, autumn and winter of two successive annual cycles; 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 (starting from May 2008). Four Eucalyptus species were under investigation; Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Bentham, Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Seasonal variations in the amount of fixed and volatile oils in Eucalyptus spp. matured leaves were investigated. It was determined that the amount of total lipids and essential oils significantly varied by the seasons (P < 0.01). The amount of total lipids in Eucalyptus spp. reached its peak mostly in spring. But the amounts of essential oils in different species were determined to be higher in summer, autumn and spring seasons, than in winter. Furthermore, the amount of total lipids and essential oils was higher in E. camaldulensis and E. cinerea than in other species. The anatomical investigation in the four studied Eucalyptus species, in relation to lipids percentage indicated that, the best lipids percentage amounts in this study were exhibited in E. cinerea and E. camaldulensis, for spring and winter; and were in agreement with these species highest lamina thickness. In general, fluctuation in lipids percentage is more correlated to the internal structure of lamina (duct average diameter, ducts total numbers, and open ducts numbers) in the same season; whereas, among seasons, it is thought that metabolism contributed more greatly. Cuticle thickness is true correspondence to seasonal environmental fluctuation, since it increases in all species, by shifting up from spring to summer then decrease to winter. Essential oils secretion which coincided with lipids percentage may be due to environmental stress influence over metabolism rather than structural adaptation.