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Eucalyptus (Eucapyptus spp.), an evergreen tall tree native to Australia and Tasmania, has been used since ancient times by the aboriginal population for several purposes. In particular, the species E. globulus is widely used in the pulp industry, as well as for the production of eucalyptus oil extracted on a commercial scale in many countries as raw materials in perfumery, cosmetics, food, beverages, aromatherapy and phytotherapy. The 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), the principal and the most important constituent extracted from eucalyptus leaves, demonstrated an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Despite the fact that the healthy effects of eucalyptus have been well established by research, further studies are necessary to investigate other prime effects of the plant and its possible implication in the treatment of a greater number of pathological conditions.
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52 The Open Agriculture Journal, 2016, 10, (Suppl 1: M3) 52-57
1874-3315/16 2016 Bentham Open
The Open Agriculture Journal
Content list available at:
DOI: 10.2174/1874331501610010052
Beneficial and Healthy Properties of Eucalyptus Plants: A Great
Potential Use
Maria Gabriella Vecchio1,*, Claudia Loganes2 and Clara Minto3
1ZETA Research Ltd, Trieste, Italy
2Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy
3Unit of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences,
University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Received: December 04, 2015 Revised: May 09, 2016 Accepted: May 11, 2016
Abstract: Eucalyptus (Eucapyptus spp.), an evergreen tall tree native to Australia and Tasmania, has been used since ancient times
by the aboriginal population for several purposes. In particular, the species E. globulus is widely used in the pulp industry, as well as
for the production of eucalyptus oil extracted on a commercial scale in many countries as raw materials in perfumery, cosmetics,
food, beverages, aromatherapy and phytotherapy. The 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), the principal and the most important constituent
extracted from eucalyptus leaves, demonstrated an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Despite the fact that the healthy
effects of eucalyptus have been well established by research, further studies are necessary to investigate other prime effects of the
plant and its possible implication in the treatment of a greater number of pathological conditions.
Keywords: Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Essential oil, Eucalyptol, Eucalyptus globulus labill.
In recent decades, the demand for plant derived products for therapeutic uses has been increased [1]. In many
countries worldwide aromatic herbs are used in primary health care, especially in rural areas [2], and 80% of the
populations in developing countries use these traditional resources [3]. For this reason, the use of essential oils extracted
from plants for clinical purposes have become an important topic in scientific research and industrial application thanks
to the different biological activities of oils, which exercise antimicrobial [4], antioxidant [5] and anti-inflammatory [6]
activities. In this brief review, the authors will focus the attention on eucalyptus, which is a plant used for several
Eucalyptus (Eucapyptus spp.), is a large genus of the Myrtaceae family, which includes 900 species and subspecies.
This evergreen tall tree is native from Australia and Tasmania and is the second largest genera after acacia [7]. Since the
1850s, it has been successfully introduced into 90 countries worldwide where it is now one of the most important and
widely planted genera [8]. In ancient times the eucalyptus plant was used for several purposes by aboriginal people,
both as medicine and as food. Nowadays, the plant is used in forestry (timber, fuel, paper pulp), environmental planting
(water and wind erosion control), as a source of essential oil (medicinal, perfumery oils), for arts and craft [7]. Among
all the species of Australian Eucalyptus, the E. globulus was widely introduced overseas [9], becoming largely
cultivated in the subtropical and Mediterranean regions [10], as well as in Nigeria. E. globulus which has different
vernacular names (eucalyptus in Bengali and in Hindi; blue-gum eucalyptus in English and Karpuramaram in Tamil
[11]), is considerably used in the pulp industry, as well as for the production of eucalyptus oil (henceforth EO),
* Address correspondence to this author at the Zeta Research Ltd,, Via A. Caccia, 8, 34129 Trieste, Italy; Mobile: +39 3938908862; Tel/Fax: +39 040
358980; Email:
Beneficial and Healthy Properties of Eucalyptus The Open Agriculture Journal, 2016, Volume 10 53
extracted on commercial scale in many countries and adopted in perfumery, cosmetics, food, beverages, aromatherapy
and phytotherapy [12].
Eucalyptus plants draw the attention of researchers and environmentalists worldwide because it represents a fast-
growing source of wood as well as a source of oil used for several purposes. The oil is extracted from leaves, fruits,
buds and bark showing antibacterial, antiseptic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer activities [11, 13] and for
this reason used in the treatment of respiratory diseases, common cold, influenza, and sinus congestion [14, 15]. The
aim of this paper is to provide and collect scientific information about eucalyptus plants in order to present the
beneficial and healthy properties and its potential use.
Chemical Composition
E. globulus is a rich source of phytochemical compounds as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and propanoids, extracted
in the leaf, stem and root of the plant [11]. Several researches were conducted with the aim to isolate the
phytoconstituents from the plant’s organs: several volatile constituents as 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) aromadendrene, α-
gurjunene, globulol, ß-pinene, pipertone, α-,ß-and γ-terpinen-4-ol, and allo-aromadendrene were found both in leaves
and in shoots (eucalyptol is, in particular, the principal and the most important constituent found in eucalyptus, also in
plant’s buds); borneol, caproic acid, citral, eudesmol, fenchone, p-menthane, myrecene, myrtenol, α-terpineol,
verbinone, asparagine, cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid, ornithine and threonine were extracted from fruits [16], while
forming acid, dextrin and sucrose were extracted from flowers and the honey [17]. Despite the fact that more than 18
compounds were identified in EO, eucalyptol represents the 79.85% of the total chemical composition. The EO also
showed a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes, which change between each Eucalyptus species, with a potential
variation in therapeutic properties [18]. The composition pattern of essential oil is affected by factors such as
geographical location [19] and seasons [20], with consequent influence on biological activities [21]. EO is widely used
in many countries like China, India, South Africa, Portugal, Brazil and Tasmania [20] for perfumery, cosmetics,
aromatherapy, phytotherapy products and for food and beverages preparation [22].
Antiseptic and Antibacterial Effects
Eucalyptus plant was used traditionally as antiseptic and for the treatment of respiratory tract infections [23]: the
herb is, in fact, very helpful for colds, flu, sore throats and chest infections including bronchitis and pneumonia [15].
Several studies showed a moderate antimicrobial activity of EO from E. globulus both on Gram-negative (Salmonella
enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus,
Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes 4b and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e) and a bacteriostatic activity
against all strains tested (with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa) [24]. This effect on bacteria may be attributed
to the dominant presence of eucalyptol which, in the past, has demonstrated a strong antimicrobial activities against
many important pathogens [25]. To strengthen these results, other researchers showed a significant activity of EO from
different Eucapyptus species against various microorganisms, including human pathogen spoilage bacteria, Candida
albicans [9], Propionibacterium acnes and Pityrosporum ovale [26].
These studies supported the potential use of EO (specifically from E. globulus and E. bridgesiana) as natural
preservative for food and pharmaceutical industries, which may be useful as an alternative antimicrobial agent in natural
medicine for the treatment of numerous infectious diseases.
Antioxidant Properties
The infection process frequently induces inflammation which determines the release of free radicals from the
phagocytes. Antioxidants are molecules able to scavenge reactive oxygen species or free radicals, protecting cells from
damage and death. At a physiological level, these free radicals play important roles in energy production, synthesis of
some biomolecules, phagocytosis, and cell growth in living systems [27]. An imbalance between free radical generation
and unfavorable antioxidant defenses leads to oxidative stress, resulting in DNA or tissue damage [28, 29]. It is possible
to distinguish among two categories of antioxidants, the natural and the synthetic. Recently, due to the adverse effects
demonstrated by synthetic antioxidants, the interest in finding naturally antioxidant molecules in foods has increased
considerably [30]. A study by Akolade and colleagues was conducted with an aim to determine the antioxidant effects
of EO from E. globulus grown in Nigeria [18]. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ability of EO to scavenge
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in methanol (DPPH assay) and the results showed that, although its
activity resulted lower when compared with ascorbic acid, the EO depending on concentration, exerts radical
54 The Open Agriculture Journal, 2016, Volume 10 Vecchio et al.
scavenging activity. The low antioxidant capacity of the EO may be attributed to the absence of phenolics compounds
(such as thymol and cavacrol) in Nigerian E. globulus leaf [18].
The major derivative compound from E. globulus are called Globulusin A and Eucaglobulin which demonstrated a
suppressive effect on DPPH free radical development were examined. These molecules, in fact, scavenged DPPH free
radical in a concentration dependent manner, and revealed an inhibitory activity stronger than ascorbic acid [31].
According to all these assessments, and considering the various experimental methods used, eucalyptus plant is an
important source of antioxidants.
Anti-inflammatory Activity
The aromatic constituents of EO are used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic remedies [14]. Juergens
et al., examined the role of eucalyptol as inhibitor of the production and synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),
interleukin-1β (IL-1β), leukotriene B4, and thromboxane B2 in human blood monocytes, suggesting that eucalyptol is a
strong inhibitor of cytokines that might be suitable for long term treatment of airway inflammation in bronchial asthma
and other steroid-sensitive disorders [32]. Moreover, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the anti-inflammatory
activity of eucalyptol was evaluated in patients with severe asthma suggesting the efficacy of this molecule and a new
rational for its use as mucolytic agent in upper and lower airway diseases [33]. These results should help to clarify
functional applications for the future of eucalyptus plant and its EO in anti-inflammatory treatments.
Cytotoxic and Toxic Features
Extracts and components isolated from some Eucalyptus species showed cytotoxic activities. In the two studies
presented in this section, the cytotoxicity of the compounds derived from Eucalyptus was evaluated measuring the
concentration of sample that inhibited 50% of cell growth (IC50). The first research was conducted on Cladocalol, a
formylated triterpene isolated from E. cladocalyx leaves, which showed cytotoxic effect on the myeloid leukemia cell
line HL-60 [34]. The second study was carried out in Brazil and investigated the cytotoxic activity of E. benthamii EO
in vitro. The authors compared the activity of EO with some other terpene compounds (α-pinene, terpinen-4-ol and γ-
terpinene) on different pathogenetic cells lines, such as Jurkat (T leukemia cells), J774A.1 (murine macrophage tumor),
and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells lines. The results demonstrated a cytotoxicity of EO mainly against Jurkat and HeLa
cell lines comparing to the isolated terpenes, showing the potential use of E. benthamii as an alternative herbal source
[35]. These studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of EO on some cells, showing the importance to study the
characteristics of this plant for its potential use in the treatment of diseases. For what concern the toxicity, the
information in scientific literature related to EO showed the toxic effect of this compound when ingested. Several cases
of ingestion, especially in children, were recorded (the most common effects were burning sensation in mouth and
throat, abdominal pain and vomiting) [36]. A case reported the story of a 3-years old boy who accidentally ingested EO,
causing a central nervous system depression within 30 minutes [36], while Day et al. conducted a survey to investigate
the unintentional EO poisoning in children with the aim to develop a strategy for the prevention [37], and Webb and Pitt
reported, in 7 years of study, 41 cases of EO poisoning among children under 14 years [38].
Other Positive Effects
Besides the collected data on antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties, little is known about the influence of EO
extract on the cellular components of the immune system, and in particular on the monocytic/macrophagic system,
which are one of the primary cellular effectors of the immune response against pathogen attacks [39]. The effect of EO
extract on the phagocytic ability of human monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) was investigated both in vitro and
in vivo, on rat peripheral blood monocytes/granulocytes, after EO oral administration. The results demonstrated that EO
is able to induce activation of MDMs stimulating the phagocytic response, decreasing the release of pro-inflammatory
cytokines, acting as a complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Implementation of innate cell-mediated immune
response was also observed in vivo after EO administration, mainly involving the peripheral blood
monocytes/granulocytes [39].
Eucalyptol showed an important activity also in the therapy of symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
thanks to its efficacy in reducing frequency, severity and duration of inflammatory exacerbation [40]. Like menthol, EO
decongests the upper respiratory tract in case of common cold activating the nasal receptors, and stimulates the
bronchial epithelium, determining an expectorant and mucolytic effect [11].
The benefits of eucalyptus extract on skin health and integrity were also reported [41]. Several studies described a
Beneficial and Healthy Properties of Eucalyptus The Open Agriculture Journal, 2016, Volume 10 55
close relationship between the levels of ceramides and water-holding functions or between psoriasis or atopic dermatitis
and dry skin [42 - 44]. It is well established that some substances (i.e. lactic acid and nicotinamide) increase ceramide
levels in the stratum cornum [43, 45], and a recent study identified and demonstrates that eucalyptus extract is able to
increase the level of ceramide in human stratum corneum, improving the water holding and barrier functions [41]. The
enhancement of these functions might be the result of the increase of ceramide levels in stratum corneum, keratinocytes
and epidermis, due to an increase of proteins biosynthesis involved in ceramide metabolism. The results of Ishikawa
and co-workers indicate that eucalyptus extract plays an important role in ceramide metabolism and confirm the
possibility to use this plant in therapeutic treatments of skin [41].
Furthermore, sideroxylonal was extracted from the flowers of E. albens., a new molecule that showed various bio-
property [46]. This compound exhibits inhibitory activity against human plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1)
which is related to the pathogenesis of arterial and thrombotic diseases. It means that the molecule extracted from
E. albens . should be a novel way to enhance fibrinolysis and to prevent the development of thrombotic diseases [47,
In conclusion, studies conducted on eucalyptus plant demonstrated its biological activities, due to the multitude of
compounds contained in the leafs, stem and roots [49, 50]. In particular, the abundance of bioactive secondary
metabolites, such as terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, and phloroglucinol derivatives confers both the antiviral and
antibacterial effects [51] that explain the traditional use of the plant as an antiseptic and in the treatment of respiratory
tract infections. Among the genus Eucalyptus, the species E. globulus is the most widely cultivated in the subtropical
and Mediterranean regions, which reach a therapeutic importance thanks to its phytochemicals compounds. However,
despite the several known healthy effects of eucalyptus plant, further studies are necessary to investigate other prime
effects of the plant and the possible implication in the treatment of other pathological conditions, and in case of plant
toxicity, the diffusion of injuries prevention strategies.
The authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest.
The work has been partially supported by an unrestricted grant of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the
Indian Ministry of Science & Technology.
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A peptic ulcer is a prevalent gastrointestinal disorder affecting a significant proportion of the global population. The use of steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to cure inflammations can lead to recurrent and serious gastrointestinal bleeding and ulceration. Disruption of mucosal resistance to an injury can be caused by two major factors: NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori infection. Even in modern times, herbal medicine remains a widely used primary healthcare option, particularly in developing countries, due to its perceived compatibility with the human body and lower incidence of side effects. Numerous medicinal plants and dietary nutrients have been found to exhibit gastro-protective properties, including aloe, terminalia chebula, ginseng, capsicum, and others. The key objectives of peptic ulcer disease management are to alleviate pain, facilitate ulcer healing, and delay its recurrence. This chapter assesses the anti-ulcer potential of medicinal plants.
... Eukaliptus termasuk family Myrtaceae yang terdiri dari 500 jenis dan 138 varietas (Irvan et al., 2015). Tanaman eukaliptus banyak dimanfaatkan dalam bidang kehutanan (kayu bakar, bubur kertas), kesehatan (antibakteri, antiinflamasi), dan minyak atsiri (Vecchio et al., 2016). Ciri tanaman eukaliptus yaitu memiliki batang sedang sampai besar dengan tinggi dapat mencapai lebih dari 40 meter. ...
Minyak atsiri merupakan minyak yang memiliki aroma dan mudah menguap yang berasal dari tanaman, seperti minyak eukaliptus. Minyak atsiri eukaliptus umumnya dihasilkan dari penyulingan daun eukaliptus dan memiliki nilai jual yang cukup tinggi. Desa Giripurno merupakan desa yang memiliki hutan eukaliptus yang sangat melimpah. Permasalahan yang timbul adalah ketidaktahuan warga desa mengenai pengolahan eukaliptus menjadi produk yang memiliki nilai jual, seperti minyak atsiri. Oleh karena itu Tim Bina Desa Teknik Kimia UPNVJT 2023 melakukan program pengabdian masyarakat berupa pemanfaatan daun eukaliptus menjadi minyak atsiri yang ditujukan kepada kelompok tani dan ibu-ibu PKK dasawisma Desa Giripurno. Pengabdian masyarakat dilakukan dalam beberapa tahapan berupa diskusi dan observasi lapangan, persiapan, serta pelatihan. Adapaun teknologi yang ditransfer adalah peralatan penyulingan sederhana distilasi uap dan air. Hasil yang diperoleh dari pelaksanaan ini adalah anggota kelompok tani dan ibu-ibu PKK dasawisma memperoleh pengetahuan hal baru dalam pemanfaatan daun eukaliptus menjadi minyak atsiri dan memahami teknik sederhana penyulingan minyak atsiri menggunakan alat sederhana.
... Nilgiri is used to treat respiratory conditions, influenza, the common cold, congestion, and sinus because of these qualities. Other applications include aromatherapy, phytotherapy, cosmetics, food, and beverages [22]. ...
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The study is on the application of Eucalyptus leaves extract (ELE) as anticorrosive properties for aluminium alloy in 0.5 M HCl by using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), gravimetric weight loss, and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) methods. The corrosion inhibition characteristics of ELE on aluminium in HCl solution have been examined. This investigation showed the finest inhibition efficiencies of 95.0%, 92.0% and 89.3% that were obtained from weight loss, PDP and EIS at concentration of 0.5% ELE at 303 K respectively. As per Langmuir adsorption isotherm models, an extract of Eucalyptus leaves was adsorbed on the metal surface. The effect of the temperature on the corrosion behaviour with adding of the best concentration of ELE was studied in the temperature range 313-333 K. It was found that inhibition efficiency is independent of temperature. The negative Gibb's free energy and activation parameters of the ELE were recorded and the results indicated that the adsorption rates were spontaneous. The results obtained from PDP and EIS shows that the corrosion inhibition procedure is charge transfer controlled, and the ELE works as a mixed-type inhibitor. The findings of SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) and AFM (Atomic force microscopy) studies support the adsorption inhibition mechanism. The results of all the experiments conduct are consistent. The functional groups of the ELE were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
... Eucalyptus (Euc.) and its combined leaves extract were taken for the synthesis. Nee. and Euc. are well known for medicinal [5,6] and antimicrobial activities [7]. The Nee. and Euc. ...
Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) from leaf extract involves simple, stable, cost-effective, eco-friendly, economically viable, sustainable and feasible approach. This method is more beneficial than conventional methods like physical and chemical methods, as they are toxic, expensive, non-biocompatible and causes environmental contamination. The present work focuses on Neem, and Eucalyptus leaves mediated synthesis of ZnONPs and its photocatalytic capability towards the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. Here, the phytochemicals present in the leaf extract play a binary role by acting as effective capping and reducing agents in the synthesis process. In this work, we synthesis three samples of ZnO NPs; one is using Neem leaf extract (ZnO-Nee.), second one is using Eucalyptus leaves extract (ZnO-Euc.) and third one is using both the leaves extract together (ZnO-N&E). The structural, morphological and optical properties were analysed using XRD, UV-Vis, Raman, FT-IR, XPS, FE-SEM and HR-TEM techniques. The structural data confirmed single hexagonal phase wurtzite crystalline structure for all the three samples. The absorption spectra showed variation in the band gap of three NPs, evaluated using Tauc method. Mixed morphology of polygon, rod and sphere is observed for all the NPs. The photocatalytic degradation of MB pollutant using ZnO photocatalyst followed green protocol and achieved an excellent result with slight variation in the photocatalytic efficiency percentage. The highest photocatalytic decomposition of MB pollutant is observed for ZnO-Nee. sample as 97.98%. This photocatalytic study can make the synthesised ZnOas an efficient agent for water pollution by varying physicochemical parameters.
... Eucalyptus leaf extracts and EO have long been used in the pharmaceutical, sanitary, agricultural, cosmetic, and food industries because of their beneficial and healthy properties [25,26]. In fact, traditionally, Eucalyptus leaves have been widely used for the treatment of various diseases such as influenza, dysentery, pulmonary tuberculosis, cystitis, diabetes, articular pain, fungal infections, dermatitis, scabies, and burns [25,27]. ...
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E. globulus leaves have been mainly exploited for essential oil recovery or for energy generation in industrial pulp mills, neglecting the abundance of valuable families of extractives, namely, triterpenic acids, that might open new ways for the integrated valorization of this biomass. Therefore, this study highlights the lipophilic characterization of E. globulus leaves before and after hydrodistillation, aiming at the integrated valorization of both essential oils and triterpenic acids. The lipophilic composition of E. globulus leaves after hydrodistillation is reported for the first time. Extracts were obtained by dichloromethane Soxhlet extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, their cytotoxicity on different cell lines representative of the innate immune system, skin, liver, and intestine were evaluated. Triterpenic acids, such as betulonic, oleanolic, betulinic and ursolic acids, were found to be the main components of these lipophilic extracts, ranging from 30.63–37.14 g kg−1 of dry weight (dw), and representing 87.7–89.0% w/w of the total content of the identified compounds. In particular, ursolic acid was the major constituent of all extracts, representing 46.8–50.7% w/w of the total content of the identified compounds. Other constituents, such as fatty acids, long-chain aliphatic alcohols and β-sitosterol were also found in smaller amounts in the studied extracts. This study also demonstrates that the hydrodistillation process does not affect the recovery of compounds of greatest interest, namely, triterpenic acids. Therefore, the results establish that this biomass residue can be considered as a promising source of value-added bioactive compounds, opening new strategies for upgrading pulp industry residues within an integrated biorefinery context.
... Due to fast growth and high adaptability, Eucalyptus is extensively planted covering more than 20 million hectares of land in the world to obtain timber, fuel wood, pulp for paper, etc. [1]. Also, some of these plantations are grown to obtain essential oils for medicinal purposes and perfume industry in addition to preventing water and wind erosion [2,3]. Other than these uses recent studies show that plantations such as Eucalypts could be a good sink for carbon (C) and thus proposed to be used in reducing the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) [4][5][6]. ...
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Alpha-Pinene is secreted by some tree species including Eucalyptus grandis and Corymbia torelliana. This monoterpene is known to affect microorganisms and therefore it could affect soil microbial processes including organic matter (OM) decomposition. To study the effect of α-Pinene on soil microorganisms and soil organic carbon (SOC), the soils taken from 7-years-old E. grandis and C. torelliana plantations in Passara, Sri Lanka were analysed for total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), bacterial and fungal populations, and α-Pinene content. As the control, the soils of an adjacent grassland were analyzed. The results revealed that E. grandis plantation had the highest TOC, MBC, bacterial population and α-Pinene content while the lowest of these parameters were observed in grassland soil including the highest fungal population. Interestingly a significant positive correlation was observed between α-Pinene content and TOC in the soils of the study sites (P =0.000). The results also indicated a significant positive correlation between α-Pinene content and, the bacterial population while the fungal population showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.05). When the fungal population is retarded possibly due to the activity of α-Pinene, the decomposition process could also slow down resulting in more TOC in plantation soils. Therefore, we could mention that α-Pinene content in soil could affect soil microorganisms and their processes and therefore, it can be considered as an important factor that determines carbon sequestration potential in Eucalypt plantation forest soils.
Nano-technologies have wide applications in the field of forensic science. Nanotechnology is animportant and powerful tool in most the areas including medicine, imaging, and forensic sciences. Ithas potential to make significant positive contribution in forensic science in crime detection. Thepresent article focuses on the applications of CaO nanoparticles in developing and detecting thelatent fingerprints. Fingerprint is considered noteworthy evidence in any crime scene, andnano-based techniques. An attempt was made to elucidate how nanotechnologies could be crucial inaddressing current forensic investigation issues such as explosive detection, toxicological analysis,finger print analysis, forensic DNA analysis, detection of explosive residue, forensic nano trackersand drug facilitated crime.
In the current study, both the essential oil composition and biological activity of Saussurea lappa and Ligusticum sinensis were investigated by means of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and characterised by Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), whereas the antimicrobial efficiency of MAHD essential oils was examined against four pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans responsible for microbial infections. The goal was to spot synergy and a favourable method that gives essential oils to possibly use as alternatives to common antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections using a microdilution assay. S. lappa's 21 compounds were characterised by MAHD extraction. Sesquiterpene lactones (39.7% MAHD) represented the major components, followed by sesquiterpene dialdehyde (25.50% MAHD), while L. sinensis's 14 compounds were identified by MAHD extraction. Tetrahydroisobenzofurans (72.94% MAHD) was the predominant compound class. S. lappa essential oil collection showed the strongest antimicrobial activity with MIC values of 16 µg/ml against all pathogens tested, while L. sinensis showed strong antibacterial activity and moderate antifungal activity with MIC values of 32 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml, respectively. The principal components of both oils, (velleral, eremanthin and neocnidilide), were docked into the bacterial histidine kinase (HK) and the fungal heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90).
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The investigation was designed to determine the chemical composition, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of the leaf essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus Labill grown in Nigeria. Fresh leaves of E. globulus on steam distillation yielded 0.96 % (v/w) of essential oil. Investigation of the oil on GC/MS resulted in the identification of 16 compounds, the bulk of the oil was constituted by oxygenated monoterpenes (46.5 %) with terpinen-4-ol (23.46 %) as the most abundant constituent. Other notable compounds include γ-terpinene (17.01 %), spathulenol (8.94 %), ρ-cymene (8.10 %) and ρ-cymen-7-ol (6.39 %). Globulol (2.52 %) and α-phellandrene (2.20 %) were also among the constituents identified. The antioxidant features of the essential oil was evaluated using inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, a concentration dependent radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 136.87 μl/ml was observed. Cytotoxic effect was assayed using the brine shrimp lethality test, Probit’s analysis of the result revealed a LC50 value of 9.59 μl/ml. The absence of 1,8-cineole and presence of α-phellandrene coupled with low antioxidant activity and high cytotoxic effect of the Eucalyptus oil investigated in the study suggest it may not be suitable for medicinal purposes but can be used as insecticidal agents.
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Chemical composition of the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus Labill., grown in Montenegro, was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and its antimicrobial activity was evaluated against 17 microorganisms, including food poisoning and spoilage bacteria and human pathogens.The Eucalyptus essential oil yield was 1.8% (w/w) on the fresh weight basis, whereas the analysis resulted in the identification of a total of 11 constituents, 1.8 cineole (85.8%), α-pinene (7.2%), and β-myrcene (1.5%) being the main components. Other compounds identified in the oil were β-pinene, limonene, α-phellandrene, γ-terpinene, linalool, pinocarveol, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol. The results of the antimicrobial activity tests revealed that the essential oil of E. globulus has rather a strong antimicrobial activity, especially against Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentration revealed the lowest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonela infantis (3.13 mg/ml) while the highest activity was against S. aureus, E. coli, and S. pyogenes (0.09 mg/ml).
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Hydrodistilled leaves and fruits of Hoslundia opposita yielded 0.54% and 0.65%v/w of essentials oils. Investigation by GC and GC-MS revealed that the bulk of the oils were constituted by oxygenated monoterpenes (81.3 and 81.4% for the leaves and fruits, respectively). The principal constituents of the leaf oil were 1, 8-cineole (72.3%), -terpineol (7.2%), sabinene (4.5%), thymol (4.2%) and car-3-ene (3.7%).The fruit oil had abundance of camphor (69.5%), linalool (5.4%) and limonene (2.5%).
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The use of herbal/botanical products, also referred to as complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), worldwide enjoys increasing popularity. It appears in particular highly prevalent in patient populations already exposed to complex treatment algorithms and polypharmacotherapy, frequently involving narrow therapeutic index drugs. Accordingly, the potential clinical dimension and relevance of herb-drug interactions has received considerable attention over the last years. However, review of pertinent literature indicates that the available clinical evidence in this regard is still limited and sometimes inconclusive. Also, communication of herb-drug interaction data in the biopharmaceutical/medical literature is often complex and confusing, not always unbiased, and in many cases appears not to strive for clear-cut and useful guidance in terms of the clinical relevance of such findings.This systematic review summarizes and interprets the published evidence on clinical herb-drug interaction studies which examined the potential of six popular herbal drugs (Echinacea, garlic, gingko, ginseng, goldenseal, and milk thistle) as perpetrators of pharmacokinetic (PK) drug interactions. Reported effect sizes were systematically categorized according to FDA drug interaction guideline criteria. A total of 66 clinical PK interaction studies, meeting the scope of the present review, were identified. The clinical evidence was found to be most robust and informative for Gingko biloba (GB; 21 studies) and milk thistle/silymarin (MT; 13), and appears still limited for ginseng (9), goldenseal/berberine (GS; 8), garlic (8), and Echinacea (7). Collectively, the available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, none of these herbs act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes or P-glycoprotein (ABCB1). Weak effects in terms of either induction or inhibition were found for GB (presystemic/hepatic CYP3A4 induction/inhibition, CYP2C19 induction at high doses), milk thistle/silymarin (CYP2C9 inhibition), GS/berberine (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibition), Echinacea (presystemic/hepatic CYP3A4 inhibition/induction, CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 inhibition at high doses). Information was found not always complete for the major drug metabolizing CYP enzymes in the less well-studied herbs and is largely limited to P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) when effects on drug transporters have been investigated.
This experiment was conducted during the four seasons: Spring, summer, autumn and winter of two successive annual cycles; 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 (starting from May 2008). Four Eucalyptus species were under investigation; Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Bentham, Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Seasonal variations in the amount of fixed and volatile oils in Eucalyptus spp. matured leaves were investigated. It was determined that the amount of total lipids and essential oils significantly varied by the seasons (P < 0.01). The amount of total lipids in Eucalyptus spp. reached its peak mostly in spring. But the amounts of essential oils in different species were determined to be higher in summer, autumn and spring seasons, than in winter. Furthermore, the amount of total lipids and essential oils was higher in E. camaldulensis and E. cinerea than in other species. The anatomical investigation in the four studied Eucalyptus species, in relation to lipids percentage indicated that, the best lipids percentage amounts in this study were exhibited in E. cinerea and E. camaldulensis, for spring and winter; and were in agreement with these species highest lamina thickness. In general, fluctuation in lipids percentage is more correlated to the internal structure of lamina (duct average diameter, ducts total numbers, and open ducts numbers) in the same season; whereas, among seasons, it is thought that metabolism contributed more greatly. Cuticle thickness is true correspondence to seasonal environmental fluctuation, since it increases in all species, by shifting up from spring to summer then decrease to winter. Essential oils secretion which coincided with lipids percentage may be due to environmental stress influence over metabolism rather than structural adaptation.