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Abstract

Bitter personal experience and meta-analysis converge on the conclusion that people do not always do the things that they intend to do. This paper synthesizes research on intention–behavior relations to address questions such as: How big is the intention–behavior gap? When are intentions more or less likely to get translated into action? What kinds of problems prevent people from realizing their intentions? And what strategies show promise in closing the intention–behavior gap and helping people do the things that they intend to do?

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... Intentions are self-instruction to perform particular actions (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). They are seen as the proxy to behavior-the higher intentions, the higher probability of behavior (Smith & McSweeney, 2007). ...
... Moreover, according to these models, the effects of the antecedents of the TRA (attitude and subjective norms) and the TPB (attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) on behavior are fully mediated by intentions (Hassan et al., 2016). Intentions also predict behavior better than other concepts, such as attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, and risk or severity perceptions (e.g., Sheeran et al., 2017Sheeran et al., , 2014 as well as personality factors (e.g., Chiaburu et al., 2011;Sheeran & Webb, 2016). ...
... Even though intentions often predict behavior (Sheeran & Webb, 2016), this relationship does not always exist as intentions may be abandoned or revised to fit the changing circumstances (Ajzen, 1985). Researchers refer to this discrepancy as an intention-behavior gap (Parsatemijani, 2020). ...
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Public donations represent a substantial part of a charitable organization's income. Thus, it is important to understand what influences donation behavior. Researchers mainly focus on intentions, rather than behavior. Although intentions often lead to behavior, there might be a gap between them. This experimental study investigated whether and how aligned and unaligned injunctive (what the majority of people approve of) and descriptive (what the majority of people do) social norms moderate the intention-behavior link. Additionally, I checked whether personal involvement moderates the influence of social norms. Four hundred and twenty-eight respondents were randomly assigned to one of the five conditions where the injunctive and descriptive norms were manipulated. Results revealed a significant and positive relationship between intentions and behavior (p = .000); this relationship is moderated by both aligned (supportive injunctive and descriptive) (p = .01) and unaligned (unsupportive injunctive and supportive descriptive) norms (p = .037). Personal involvement does not affect the moderating power of social norms. Findings are important for better understanding the intentions-behavior-norms dynamic. This can be used to create effective marketing strategies to make sure both favorable and unfavorable intentions translate into monetary donations.
... To reduce data complexity, the questionnaire was subjected to a factor analysis, revealing six factors. A regression analysis showed that four factors predicted use 12 weeks after course completion, in the following order of importance: (1) subjective aspects/confidence, (2) access to materials, (3) work context, and (4) competent support in the workplace. ...
... The intention-behavior gap is well-known and described in numerous domains, including the healthcare context (1,2). It refers to the phenomenon that people have specific intentions for how they would like to act, but-often without understanding the reasons themselves-fail to act on these intentions. ...
... Second, the COVID-19 pandemic led to changes in the work situation of health care professionals, such as increased pressure and psychosocial burden, which might have influenced our results (71-73) (see Supplementary Material 3 for some relevant comments by participants). However, even without the pandemic context, large intention-behavior gaps have been documented in many domains of human behavior change (2,74). Third, there is a chance of a response bias: For example, it is possible that participants who opted in for the study were more motivated to apply LiN than those who did not. ...
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Background After learning new skills, healthcare professionals do not always apply them in practice, despite being motivated. This may be referred to as an intention-behavior gap. One example is the positioning of immobilized and disabled patients in hospitals, nursing homes, or neurorehabilitation clinics. Positioning is crucial to prevent complications such as pressure sores, pneumonia, and deep vein thrombosis. However, it is often not carried out optimally even when professionals have completed education programs. The LiN-method is a positioning procedure involving a special focus on aligning and stabilizing body parts, which has been shown to have advantages over conventional positioning. We assess which factors may facilitate or hinder the use of LiN in clinical practice after participants complete training. Methods A longitudinal survey with 101 LiN-course participants was conducted in Germany. Each participant completed a questionnaire directly after the course and 12 weeks later, including a report of the frequency of use in practice. They also completed a questionnaire which surveyed 23 aspects that might facilitate or hinder use of the new skills, covering the workplace, socio-collegial factors, motivation, self-confidence, and mindset. Results Most assessed aspects were associated with LiN-use, with the highest correlations found for confidence with the method, perceived ease of application, sufficient time, assessing one's skills as sufficient, remembering the relevant steps, and a work environment open to advanced therapeutic concepts. To reduce data complexity, the questionnaire was subjected to a factor analysis, revealing six factors. A regression analysis showed that four factors predicted use 12 weeks after course completion, in the following order of importance: (1) subjective aspects/confidence, (2) access to materials, (3) work context, and (4) competent support in the workplace. Conclusion Numerous aspects are associated with the use of recently acquired clinical or nursing skills, such as LiN. Many of these can be improved by appropriately setting up the workplace. The aspects most associated with use, however, are confidence with the method and self-perceived competence of healthcare professionals. While causality still needs to be demonstrated, this suggests that education programs should support participants in developing confidence and foster a mindset that allows for making mistakes. While causality still needs to be demonstrated, this suggests that education programs should support participants in developing confidence and foster a mindset of continuous learning.
... Despite the difference regarding the number of stages, most stage theories of behaviour seem to distinguish between people without behavioural intention, people with intention who are considering action and people who engage in a particular behaviour (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982, 1986Schwarzer, 1992;Weinstein, 1988). Previous research has proven that not all individuals with intentions for healthy behaviour are successful in translating their intentions into practice (e.g., Conner & Norman, 2015;Sheeran & Webb, 2016). The HAPA distinguishes between different stages and is described in more detail in the following chapters because it is of central significance for the studies in this thesis. ...
... A disparity was apparent in our sample between participants' knowledge of possible hygiene measures and self-reported practices (Appendix B, Table A3 and Table A4). The awareness of such strategies thus does not mean that respondents put them into practice (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). On the contrary, pet owners reported personal behaviours that may promote the transmission of AMR between pets and family members. ...
... However, findings have indicated that the model is better at predicting intention than behaviour . The TPB does not explain the intention-behaviour gap, according to which health behaviours are not always performed in a manner that is consistent with one's intentions, probably because other factors directly influence behaviour (Sheeran & Webb, 2016;. ...
... So, the manual control of windows is a highly controllable behavior that has positive consequences in the short (fresh and healthy air) and long term (lifelong health), and some immediate negative consequences (exposure to uncomfortable cold air from outdoors, energy expenditure, etc.). Intentions are more likely to be translated into behavior when the targeted behaviors are easy to achieve (Sheeran et al., 2003;Sheeran and Webb, 2016). Perceived Behavior control may moderate the other constructs of the TPB model. ...
... Specifically for Study 1, a larger sample size would have been required due to missing responses on the questionnaires used in the hierarchical regression, so these analyses were conducted on a smaller sample than what is recommended by the power analyses, regarding the effect of a recommendation. Nevertheless, the effect size of the prediction of intention by the TPB model is greater (Sheeran and Webb, 2016). Another indication that could be addressed for a larger sample, is taking account for participants local climate conditions. ...
... The focal message (INPES, 2009) was not targeted toward a specific population with a careful consideration of time, context or motivational background of behavior (Keller and Lehmann, 2008). Finally, we did not address the gap between intention and behavior (Sheeran and Webb, 2016). Nevertheless, the specificity of the behavior (to open the windows for 10 min), the global agreement with target behavior and the fact that people have direct experience with it (Glassman and Albarracin, 2006) may narrow the gap with behavior. ...
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Objective The psychological antecedents of the intention to open the windows at home were explored through the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), supplemented with Habits regarding the behavior and contextual factors.DesignA four-treatment design compared the effect of an exposure to a recommendation about home ventilation and the effect of one’s own awareness odors (negative vs. positive) as a manipulated variable. Two quasi-experimental online surveys were conducted. A student sample (Study 1; N = 159) was replicated with a general population sample (Study 2; N = 338).ResultsMultiple hierarchical regression models were conducted (3 for Study 1; 3 for Study 2). The extended TPB model provided stable predictors explaining around sixty percent of variance. Attitude and Habits were the main predictors of window openings, Perceived Behavioral control as a secondary predictor. Perceived Behavioral Control contributed significatively with a negative interaction with Attitudes. Odor awareness decreased Intention to manually ventilate. No effect of recommendation was observed.DiscussionThe results filled a gap in the literature about the willingness to manually ventilate at home and efficacy of a recommendation. Practical implications argue that beyond a generic recommendation, effective messages need to be tailored regarding the determinants of willingness to open the windows.
... This is particularly the case for vaccine behavior, likely due to the challenges of collecting behavioral data and the relatively short time vaccines have been made available (for an exception, see Shiloh et al., 2021). A sole focus on intention is problematic because although intentions are an important theoretical antecedent of behavior, and are often closely associated with behavior in research on social cognition theories (e.g., Carpenter, 2010;McEachan et al., 2011;Milne et al., 2000), the relationship is far from perfect with modest effect sizes observed across studies (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). This intention-behavior 'gap' indicates that, for many individuals, intentions may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for behavioral enactment. ...
... Integrated theories have been instrumental in addressing the intention-behavior 'gap' observed in social cognition theories. The modest association between intention and behavior across social cognition theories applied in health contexts suggests individuals do not necessarily readily act on their intentions (Orbell & Sheeran, 1998;Sheeran & Webb, 2016). Researchers have addressed this problem by integrating processes from other theories on self-regulation (Leventhal, Meyer, & Nerenz, 1980), and, particularly, dual-phase models of action, such as the model of action phases (Heckhausen & Gollwitzer, 1987), into traditional social cognition theories like the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior (Orbell, Hodgkins, & Sheeran, 1997). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented health, economic, and social consequences worldwide. Although contact reductions and wearing face coverings have reduced infection rates, and vaccines have reduced illness severity, emergence of new variants of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, and the shift from pandemic to endemic patterns of infection, highlights the importance of ongoing preventive behavior adherence to manage future outbreaks. Research applying social cognition theories may assist in explaining variance in these behaviors and inform the development of efficacious behavior change interventions to promote adherence. In the present article, we summarize research applying these theories to identify modifiable determinants of COVID-19 preventive behaviors and the mechanisms involved, and their utility in informing interventions. We identify limitations of these applications (e.g., overreliance on correlational data, lack of long-term behavioral follow-up), and suggest how they can be addressed. We demonstrate the virtue of augmenting theories with additional constructs (e.g., moral norms, anticipated regret) and processes (e.g., multiple action phases, automatic processes) to provide comprehensive, parsimonious behavioral explanations. We also outline how the theories contribute to testing mechanisms of action of behavioral interventions. Finally, we recommend future studies applying these theories to inform and test interventions to promote COVID-19 preventive behavior adherence.
... intentions do not necessarily need to be helpful in conservation biology. We submit that measuring actual donations in our study may provide more precise evidence of the intention-behavior gap within the specific context of bird conservation (Ajzen et al., 2004;Kollmuss and Agyeman, 2002;Sheeran and Webb, 2016). ...
... Furthermore, only a small part of the total variance in actual donations was explained by WTD. This large discrepancy between intentions and actual behavior points to an intention-behavior gap (Ajzen et al., 2004;Kollmuss and Agyeman, 2002;Sheeran and Webb, 2016) between WTD and actual donations to the conservation of birds. Possibly, individuals are only moderately inclined to actually donate toward bird conservation. ...
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In this study, the protection motivation theory (PMT) was used to investigate factors influencing self-reported willingness to donate and actual donations to conserve endangered bird species.The PMT was extended to include sociodemographic factors (gender, age, education, and income), as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward birds. Data were collected in Germany through an online questionnaire (N = 579, MAge = 49.15, SD = 16.93, women = 51.6 %). Regression analyses showed that the cognitive assessment processes of the PMT, (1) threat appraisal of endangered bird species, and (2) coping appraisal of threat toward endangered bird species were significant predictors of an individual’s willingness to donate. An individual’s attitudes toward birds strengthened willingness to donate, but not actual donations. In contrast, women were more likely to donate and higher perceived barriers were associated with lower rates of actual donations. A discrepancy between willingness to donate and actual donations is evident, which indicates an intention-behavior gap. The results suggest that conservation and education campaigns should be used to increase the population's awareness of existing threats toward endangered bird species, including the constructs of PMT, which could positively influence both willingness to donate and actual donations. Similarly, engagement initiatives could target individuals' self-efficacy to engage in bird conservation and possible coping measures should be made transparent and tangible by stakeholders looking to foster bird conservation.
... Rather, the studies used vignettes to examine participants' intentions to use ghosting versus a more direct relationship dissolution strategy in hypothetical situations. We acknowledge that individuals' intentions do not always match their behaviors (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). However, intentions do provide valuable information on individuals' likely behaviors (Sheeran & Webb, 2016;Sutton, 1998). ...
... We acknowledge that individuals' intentions do not always match their behaviors (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). However, intentions do provide valuable information on individuals' likely behaviors (Sheeran & Webb, 2016;Sutton, 1998). Furthermore, given the variable rates of individuals' engagement in ghosting (Freedman et al., 2019;LeFebvre et al., 2019;Powell et al., 2021), it can be difficult to capture ghosting as it happens among broad samples of adults. ...
Article
Considerable research has examined how people feel when interpersonally rejected. Less attention has been paid to the rejectors, especially on how they reject. Rejection methods can range from direct (i.e., informing the target) to indirect (i.e., ghosting), and the method and motives regarding rejection strategies are important because rejected targets often react negatively to rejection, sometimes even violently. It is imperative, therefore, to understand why people reject the way they do, especially when their rejections may yield unexpected negative consequences. A key factor that may influence rejection method decisions, particularly in the context of romantic rejections, is the gender of the target. Drawing on prior research indicating that men are perceived as more dangerous, in this registered report we hypothesized that bisexual individuals may be more likely to endorse ghosting if the target is a man, especially when safety concerns are made salient. A pilot study supported this hypothesis in a sample of mostly heterosexual individuals. The main study tested this hypothesis in a sample of bisexual individuals in order to manipulate target gender as a within-subjects variable and to better understand romantic rejection processes in an understudied sample. Overall, we found that safety concerns may make individuals more likely to engage in ghosting, but how that decision interacts with target gender was less clear.
... First, a major limitation is that we measured vaccination intention but not actual vaccination behavior. Intentions are considered antecedents of actual behavior (Ajzen, 1991); however, research has consistently shown that people do not always follow their intentions (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). Measuring actual vaccination uptake would bring some ethical and practical issues; nevertheless, future research should attempt to investigate the impact of VR interventions on actual vaccine uptake. ...
... Yet, we did not find any behavioral differences between the experimental conditions. This null finding could be due to a weak conceptual relationship between donation and vaccination behavior or the aforementioned intention-behavior gap (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). ...
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This study investigates the impact of an immersive virtual reality (VR) simulation of herd immunity on vaccination intentions and its potential underlying mechanisms. In this preregistered field study, N = 654 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three VR conditions: (1) Gamified Herd Immunity; (2) Gamified Herd Immunity + Empathy (with additional narrative elements); (3) Control (gamified with no vaccination-related content). In the Gamified Herd Immunity simulation, participants embodied a vulnerable person and navigated the wedding venue trying to avoid getting infected. A total of n = 455 participants with below maximum intentions to take a novel vaccine and without severe cybersickness symptoms were included in the analyses. The Gamified Herd Immunity + Empathy and the Gamified Herd Immunity conditions increased vaccination intentions by 6.68 and 7.06 points on a 0-100 scale, respectively, compared to 1.91 for the Control condition. The Gamified Herd Immunity + Empathy condition enhanced empathy significantly more than the Gamified Herd Immunity condition but did not result in higher vaccination intentions. The results suggest that immersive VR vaccination communication can effectively increase COVID-19 vaccine intentions; the effect is not solely a consequence of the technological experience itself and does not depend on empathy.
... For instance, similar to human-human interactions, some social roles might be more appropriate for communicating a life-threatening diagnosis, whereas another social role might be more appropriate for helping clients monitor a specific vital parameter every day. Eventually, our experimental design only allowed us to measure behavioral intentions, which do not necessarily translate into behavior (cf, intention-behavior gap [117]). Future field experiments should examine how the design of the chatbot actually affects, for instance, the likelihood to share sensitive personal health information (research direction 9). ...
Article
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Background: The working alliance refers to an important relationship quality between health professionals and clients that robustly links to treatment success. Recent research shows that clients can develop an affective bond with chatbots. However, few research studies have investigated whether this perceived relationship is affected by the social roles of differing closeness a chatbot can impersonate and by allowing users to choose the social role of a chatbot. Objective: This study aimed at understanding how the social role of a chatbot can be expressed using a set of interpersonal closeness cues and examining how these social roles affect clients' experiences and the development of an affective bond with the chatbot, depending on clients' characteristics (ie, age and gender) and whether they can freely choose a chatbot's social role. Methods: Informed by the social role theory and the social response theory, we developed a design codebook for chatbots with different social roles along an interpersonal closeness continuum. Based on this codebook, we manipulated a fictitious health care chatbot to impersonate one of four distinct social roles common in health care settings-institution, expert, peer, and dialogical self-and examined effects on perceived affective bond and usage intentions in a web-based lab study. The study included a total of 251 participants, whose mean age was 41.15 (SD 13.87) years; 57.0% (143/251) of the participants were female. Participants were either randomly assigned to one of the chatbot conditions (no choice: n=202, 80.5%) or could freely choose to interact with one of these chatbot personas (free choice: n=49, 19.5%). Separate multivariate analyses of variance were performed to analyze differences (1) between the chatbot personas within the no-choice group and (2) between the no-choice and the free-choice groups. Results: While the main effect of the chatbot persona on affective bond and usage intentions was insignificant (P=.87), we found differences based on participants' demographic profiles: main effects for gender (P=.04, ηp2=0.115) and age (P<.001, ηp2=0.192) and a significant interaction effect of persona and age (P=.01, ηp2=0.102). Participants younger than 40 years reported higher scores for affective bond and usage intentions for the interpersonally more distant expert and institution chatbots; participants 40 years or older reported higher outcomes for the closer peer and dialogical-self chatbots. The option to freely choose a persona significantly benefited perceptions of the peer chatbot further (eg, free-choice group affective bond: mean 5.28, SD 0.89; no-choice group affective bond: mean 4.54, SD 1.10; P=.003, ηp2=0.117). Conclusions: Manipulating a chatbot's social role is a possible avenue for health care chatbot designers to tailor clients' chatbot experiences using user-specific demographic factors and to improve clients' perceptions and behavioral intentions toward the chatbot. Our results also emphasize the benefits of letting clients freely choose between chatbots.
... Because of the survey's brevity, we could not collect many other potentially relevant constructs like technologisation threat 47 or previous experience with health apps. As acceptance due to self-regulatory deficits 70 does not guarantee that intention becomes an action in the future, 57 longitudinal surveys to examine whether video interventions increase the actual recommendations or prescriptions of the respective technologies should be one of the next steps in research. ...
Article
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Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine and enhance physicians' acceptance, performance expectancy and credibility of health apps for chronic pain patients. We further investigated predictors of acceptance. Design: Randomised experimental trial with a parallel-group repeated measures design. Setting and participants: 248 physicians working in various, mainly outpatient settings in Germany. Intervention and outcome: Physicians were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (short video about health apps) or a control group (short video about chronic pain). Primary outcome measure was acceptance. Performance expectancy and credibility of health apps were secondary outcomes. In addition, we assessed 101 medical students to evaluate the effectiveness of the video intervention in young professionals. Results: In general, physicians' acceptance of health apps for chronic pain patients was moderate (M=9.51, SD=3.53, scale ranges from 3 to 15). All primary and secondary outcomes were enhanced by the video intervention: A repeated-measures analysis of variance yielded a significant interaction effect for acceptance (F(1, 246)=15.28, p=0.01), performance expectancy (F(1, 246)=6.10, p=0.01) and credibility (F(1, 246)=25.61, p<0.001). The same pattern of results was evident among medical students. Linear regression analysis revealed credibility (β=0.34, p<0.001) and performance expectancy (β=0.30, p<0.001) as the two strongest factors influencing acceptance, followed by scepticism (β=-0.18, p<0.001) and intuitive appeal (β=0.11, p=0.03). Conclusions and recommendations: Physicians' acceptance of health apps was moderate, and was strengthened by a 3 min video. Besides performance expectancy, credibility seems to be a promising factor associated with acceptance. Future research should focus on ways to implement acceptability-increasing interventions into routine care.
... The application of habit-forming techniques could free cognitive capacity to facilitate engagement in desired behaviors that may help adopt health-related behaviors to maintain weight loss in the long term [104,106,107]. The incorporation of BCTs in digital interventions, such as self-regulatory strategies to bridge the intention-behavior gap (eg, if-then plans/problem solving), habit-related techniques (eg, graded tasks), and self-belief (eg, focus on past success, self-talk), could also be important for targeting specific values (eg, self-management, motivation, and positive self-image) or mechanisms of action (eg, behavioral regulation and beliefs about capability) that may facilitate continued behavior change and weight gain prevention [15,25,32,104,[108][109][110][111][112]. A literature review aimed at identifying links between BCTs and mechanisms of action [112] indicated that some of the core BCTs incorporated in the eCHANGE intervention could affect behavior change mechanisms (eg, beliefs about capabilities, behavioral regulation, and motivation), which is in line with identified weight loss maintenance values and needs [32]. ...
Article
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Background: Long-term weight maintenance after weight loss is challenging, and innovative solutions are required. Digital technologies can support behavior change and, therefore, have the potential to be an effective tool for weight loss maintenance. However, to create meaningful and effective digital behavior change interventions that support end user values and needs, a combination of persuasive system design (PSD) principles and behavior change techniques (BCTs) might be needed. Objective: This study aimed to investigate how an evidence-informed digital behavior change intervention can be designed and developed by combining PSD principles and BCTs into design features to support end user values and needs for long-term weight loss maintenance. Methods: This study presents a concept for how PSD principles and BCTs can be translated into design features by combining design thinking and Agile methods to develop and deliver an evidence-informed digital behavior change intervention aimed at supporting weight maintenance. Overall, 45 stakeholders participated in the systematic and iterative development process comprising co-design workshops, prototyping, Agile development, and usability testing. This included prospective end users (n=17, 38%; ie, people with obesity who had lost ≥8% of their weight), health care providers (n=9, 20%), healthy volunteers (n=4, 9%), a service designer (n=1, 2%), and stakeholders from the multidisciplinary research and development team (n=14, 31%; ie, software developers; digital designers; and eHealth, behavior change, and obesity experts). Stakeholder input on how to operationalize the design features and optimize the technology was examined through formative evaluation and qualitative analyses using rapid and in-depth analysis approaches. Results: A total of 17 design features combining PSD principles and BCTs were identified as important to support end user values and needs based on stakeholder input during the design and development of eCHANGE, a digital intervention to support long-term weight loss maintenance. The design features were combined into 4 main intervention components: Week Plan, My Overview, Knowledge and Skills, and Virtual Coach and Smart Feedback System. To support a healthy lifestyle and continued behavior change to maintain weight, PSD principles such as tailoring, personalization, self-monitoring, reminders, rewards, rehearsal, praise, and suggestions were combined and implemented into the design features together with BCTs from the clusters of goals and planning, feedback and monitoring, social support, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge, natural consequences, associations, antecedents, identity, and self-belief. Conclusions: Combining and implementing PSD principles and BCTs in digital interventions aimed at supporting sustainable behavior change may contribute to the design of engaging and motivating interventions in line with end user values and needs. As such, the design and development of the eCHANGE intervention can provide valuable input for future design and tailoring of evidence-informed digital interventions, even beyond digital interventions in support of health behavior change and long-term weight loss maintenance. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04537988; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04537988.
... First, the current study assumed that search terms reflect intentions that would eventually lead to a relevant behavior. While similar assumptions were made in a previous study (Evers et al., 2021), the gap between intentions and behavior is well-documented (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). For example, donation-related searches might reflect intentions to donate but not actual donation behavior. ...
Article
The current study aimed to address the limitations of the terror management theory literature by using big data analysis to examine the theory's predictions in the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, Google Trends were examined before and after the first COVID-19 case was identified in Singapore. The results showed that there was a significant increase in mortality salience, intergroup conflict, and prosocial behavior, and a significant decrease in materialism after the first COVID-19 case was identified. However, no significant differences were found for anxiety. Limitations include the assumption that search terms reflect intentions that would eventually lead to a relevant behavior and the lack of data from other sources to corroborate with the results from Google Trends. Future research could use data from other sources to examine the effects of COVID-19 on theoretically relevant behaviors.
... Bien que les intentions soient considérées comme les prédicteurs les plus proximaux des comportements (Ajzen, 1985(Ajzen, , 1991, certaines intentions ne se Chapitre 1 -La mobilité quotidienne et ses facteurs associés -53 -concrétisent pas forcément en action (e.g., écart intention-comportement, Sheeran, 2002 ;Sheeran & Webb, 2016). Ce phénomène pourrait être expliqué par la coexistence des intentions avec d'autres variables psychologiques plus automatiques, comme les habitudes (i.e., qui peuvent atténuer ou annuler l'effet des intentions sur le comportement, pour une revue voir Gardner et al., 2020) ...
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La voiture est le mode de transport le plus utilisé pour les déplacements quotidiens (63 % des déplacements quotidiens en France se font en voiture). Néanmoins, l’usage fréquent de la voiture est une source importante d’inactivité physique et est associé à une majeure émission des polluants de l’air et de gaz à effet de serre. Inversement, l’usage quotidien de la mobilité active et durable (le vélo, la marche à pied, les transports en commun et le covoiturage) est associé à une majeure activité physique, à une moindre émission de polluants de l’air et à une moindre empreinte carbone. C’est pour ces raisons qu’une diversité des mesures a été mise en place pour réduire l’usage de la voiture et augmenter l’usage de la mobilité active et durable : des leviers durs ciblant le changement du contexte géographique et économique des individus et des leviers doux ciblant le changement des facteurs principalement psychologiques comme l’intention ou l’attitude vis-à-vis de la mobilité active (des interventions de changement des comportements). La mise en place de ces mesures implique une connaissance approfondie des facteurs influençant la mobilité active et durable. Or, seulement quelques études semblent avoir mobilisé plus d’un cadre disciplinaire pour étudier la mobilité. Par ailleurs, les leviers mis en place dans le passé présentent des limites méthodologiques et théoriques : peu d’études ayant mobilisé des cadres méthodologiques robustes, peu d’études ayant suivi le changement de mobilité au-delà de 6 mois de l’étude, peu d’études mentionnant les théories mobilisées lors du choix des leviers. La question centrale de ce travail doctoral était de mieux comprendre les facteurs associés à la mobilité active et durable afin de proposer un protocole d’étude de changement des comportements de mobilité (vers une mobilité plus active et plus durable) fondée sur les théories scientifiques. Pour cela, cette thèse a combiné des approches psychologiques et géographiques et une diversité de méthodologies (des enquêtes, des entretiens individuels, des focus groups, une étude pilote). Les principaux résultats de ce travail doctoral indiquent que (a) la mobilité active et durable est indépendamment associée à des facteurs géographiques, à des facteurs sociodémographiques et à des facteurs psychologiques, (b) l’association entre certains facteurs géographiques et certains facteurs sociodémographiques et la mobilité active et durable peut être modérée par certains facteurs psychologiques, (c) l’étude ciblant le changement de mobilité (une étude contrôlée randomisée proposant six mois d’accès au transport, des conseils de mobilité personnalisés et des techniques motivationnelles comme la fixation d’objectifs et l’élaboration d’un plan d’action) est réalisable et fidèle lorsqu’elle est implémentée sur le terrain, (d) la formation proposée à l’équipe responsable de l’implémentation de l’étude semble être efficace pour augmenter leur efficacité de soi vis-à-vis de l’implémentation de l’étude et leurs connaissances dans le domaine de la mobilité et de la pollution de l’air. Les résultats de ce travail doctoral soulignent le besoin de combiner des approches interdisciplinaires afin de mieux comprendre la mobilité active et durable et afin de mieux la promouvoir.
... Lastly, most studies examined the intention to install a (hypothetical) CTA, and there is minimal evidence from actual adoption (e.g., Abuhammad et al., 2020;Munzert et al., 2021;von Wyl et al., 2021). Given the evidence concerning the gap between behavioral intention and actual behavior (Sheeran & Webb, 2016), this is a crucial shortcoming. ...
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Contact-tracing applications (CTAs) have been introduced as part of the COVID-19 containment strategy worldwide. In most countries, however, their uptake has been too low to realize their full potential. This study contributes to the understanding of CTA adoption by investigating the influence of public perceptions on adoption and the role of media in forming these perceptions in Singapore and Switzerland. In a comparative approach, online surveys in both countries (Singapore: N = 998; Switzerland: N = 1,022) and multigroup structural equation modeling reveal national differences. First, attention to media was associated more strongly with app-related perceptions in Singapore than in Switzerland, with news media attention correlating positively with favorable perceptions in both countries (i.e., perceived usefulness of the CTA, perceived social norms of adoption) and social media attention correlating negatively with these perceptions in Singapore. Second, regarding the influence of these perceptions on CTA adoption, perceived usefulness was associated with CTA adoption in Switzerland but not in Singapore; conversely, perceived social norms were more important in Singapore than in Switzerland. These results suggest that the communicative formation of public perceptions and their behavioral relevance are contingent on media systems (authoritarian vs. democratic media system) and cultural values (collectivism vs. individualism), highlighting the theoretical value of a country-comparative approach and the practical need for a culturally sensitive implementation of health technologies.
... A limitation of this study is that it did not explore whether the behaviour was actually performed, focussing only on intention. Intentions do not always lead directly to performing a behaviour; the behaviour-intention gap defined by Sheeran and Webb 81 suggested approximately only one half of intentions translate into behaviour. It is possible that social desirability could have affected the results; however, we aimed to minimise this by using an online survey with validated instruments and reassuring participants that the data was anonymised and using validated instruments. ...
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Objectives Cervical cancer is 99.8% preventable when detected early; however, uptake of screening in the United Kingdom is at a 20-year low. Recently, a number of social media influencers have video logged about their experiences of cervical screening through narrative communication with their audience. Here we aimed to explore if accessing cervical screening information from a social media influencer can impact the theory of planned behaviour variables and predict intention to attend cervical screening appointments. Design Utilising a cross-sectional design a volunteer sample of 102 UK women (mean age = 28; SD = 3.10; range = 25–35) took part in an online questionnaire study. Results Hierarchical regression modelling revealed attitude as a significant predictor of intention to attend a cervical screening appointment and that social media influencers affect attitudes of their audience, indirectly influencing intention to attend. Conclusion Health messages communicated by social media influencers are effective in promoting positive attitudes but not directly influence intention to attend towards cervical screening. Further research should explore influencer impact on attitudes towards this health behaviour with the ultimate aim of increasing attendance and consequently saving lives.
... Our research has several limitations. First, in the light of the existing gap between choice tasks regarding a certain behavior and its actual performance [50], the lack of measurement of the actual behavior is the most important limitation of the present study. Second, the choice task required only the selection of fruits; thus, our results may be generalized with caution to the selection of other local food products. ...
Article
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Although local food purchasing provides several benefits to both consumers and producers, research on what recommendation messages can effectively promote the purchase of local food is still lacking. In the present study, 410 participants were involved in a 2-week intervention relying on prefactual (i.e., “If … then”) messages promoting the purchase of local food. All messages were sent through a research app to participants’ mobile phones and were focused on environmental consequences of purchasing (or not purchasing) local food. Four experimental conditions involving messages differing as to outcome sensitivity framing (i.e., gain, non-loss, non-gain and loss) were compared to a control condition. To test the effectiveness of the messages, before and after the 2-week intervention participants were involved in a choice task. They were asked to choose among fruits with different provenience, that is, from the participants’ municipality of residence or abroad. Results showed that all message frames increased the selection of local food, compared to control. Furthermore, pro-environmental consumers were more persuaded by messages formulated in terms of gains and non-gains, whereas healthy consumers were more persuaded by messages formulated in terms of losses or non-losses. Discussion focuses on the advantages of tailored communication to promote the purchase of local food.
... Considering the intention-behavior gap (see e.g., Sheeran & Webb, 2016) a comprehensive account of a psychological constructs needs validation through behavioral measures. This is especially relevant for a concept like curiosity that has facets which are first and foremost describing the tendencies to specific actions (see e.g., Thrill Seeking). ...
Article
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The five-dimensional curiosity-scale revised (5DCR) by Kashdan et al. (2020) is the most comprehensive curiosity inventory available to date. 5DCR measures six facets of curiosity with four items each. Here, we present a German-language adaptation of the 5DCR and comprehensively validate this adaptation in a diverse sample of adults from Germany (N = 486). Moreover, we provide new evidence on the original English-language 5DCR in a parallel sample from the UK (N = 483). In both countries, we investigate the six facets' reliability, factorial validity, and convergent and discriminant validity with a large set of individual-differences constructs. In addition, we analyze the measurement invariance of the curiosity facets across the UK and Germany and across socio-demographic subgroups defined by age, sex, and education. Findings demonstrate that the new German-language adaptation of 5DCR and its English-language source version show psychometric properties similar to the original studies by Kashdan et al. (2020) in the United States. All six curiosity facets reach at least partial scalar invariance across cultures, sex, education, and mostly also across age groups. The findings support the six-faceted theory of curiosity and show that 5DCR allows for a valid assessment of curiosity across cultures.
... This echoes experimental studies supporting the role of efficacy cues in health behaviors in other pandemics (Ort & Fahr, 2018), and correlational evidence that perceived efficacy is found to play a role in adaptive danger control processes under COVID-19 (Jahangiry et al., 2020). However, as we did not include objective outcome measures of actual health behaviors, we could not confirm with certainty whether our participants' behavioral change intentions would further translate into real behavioral changes, as there could be intention-behavior gaps (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). ...
Article
Within the coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, disease-related information is omnipresent in the media, whereas information about how to manage the pandemic is less often covered. Under the context where threat is present, this study investigated whether and how the strength of efficacy framing (i.e., the perspective adopted by a communicating text that emphasizes one's possibilities to cope with an external threat) of COVID-19-related news, as well as its interaction with trait health anxiety under the COVID-19 context, related to people's COVID-19-related cognitive outcomes. One hundred and ninety-three participants reported demographics, trait health anxiety, and COVID-19-related behaviors (e.g., precautionary measures, information-seeking behaviors). They then either read high-efficacy (n = 112; e.g., cure rate) or low-efficacy (n = 81; e.g., mortality rate) information about COVID-19. Afterward, their tendency to interpret illness- and COVID-19-related information more negatively, and other COVID-19-related cognitions (e.g., risk perception, behavioral change intentions) were assessed. High-efficacy framing resulted in lower-risk perception and marginally weaker COVID-19-related interpretation bias, compared with low-efficacy framing. There was some evidence of an interaction with health anxiety such that high-efficacy framing, compared with low-efficacy framing, was associated with greater intention to adopt protective behaviors, particularly for individuals with higher levels of health anxiety. Media framing of COVID-19 information affects how people respond to the pandemic; a high-efficacy communication style might more effectively encourage healthy behaviors than a low-efficacy narrative, particularly for people who are already anxious about their health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Boseman's death at age 43-which occurred less than 3 months before we began data collection-may have indirectly influenced younger Black men in our sample, leading them to disregard masculine barriers typically observed in that cohort. It is well established, however, that intentions do not always translate into behavior (65). Moreover, while Boseman's death may have increased CRC awareness among Black men, it is unclear whether increased awareness alone translates to increased CRC screening uptake. ...
Article
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Objective To determine if masculinity barriers to medical care and the death from colorectal cancer (CRC) of actor Chadwick Boseman (The Black Panther) influenced CRC early-detection screening intent among unscreened American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) and Non-Hispanic-Black (Black) men compared with Non-Hispanic-White (White) men. Methods Using a consumer-panel, we surveyed U.S. men aged 18–75 years ( N = 895) using the 24-item Masculinity Barriers to Medical Care (MBMC) scale. We calculated the median score to create binary exposures to evaluate associations with CRC screening intent and conducted multivariable logistic regression to evaluate independent associations stratified by race/ethnicity. Results Overall, Black respondents were most likely to have a high MBMC score (55%) compared to White (44%) and AIAN (51%) men ( p = 0.043). AIAN men were least likely to report CRC screening intent (51.1%) compared with Black (68%) and White men (64%) ( p < 0.001). Black men who reported the recent death of Chadwick Boseman increased their awareness of CRC were more likely (78%) to report intention to screen for CRC compared to those who did not (56%) ( p < 0.001). Black men who exhibited more masculinity-related barriers to care were more likely to intend to screen for CRC (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 0.98–3.16) than their counterparts, as were Black men who reported no impact of Boseman's death on their CRC awareness (aOR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.13–7.67). Conversely, among AIAN men, those who exhibited more masculinity-related barriers to care were less likely to have CRC screening intent (aOR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.27–0.82) compared with their counterparts. Conclusions Masculinity barriers to medical care play a significant role in intention to screen for CRC. While Black men were most likely to state that The Black Panther's death increased their awareness of CRC, it did not appear to modify the role of masculine barriers in CRC screening intention as expected. Further research is warranted to better understand how masculine barriers combined with celebrity-driven health-promotion interventions influence the uptake of early-detection screening for CRC. Impact Our study provides formative data to develop behavioral interventions focused on improving CRC screening completion among diverse men.
... This might be especially interesting when examining gaps between individual and system behavior, and also intraindividual gaps between intention and action. A prominent example for a gap between intention and action on the individual level [29] is the so called valueaction gap in the context of pro-environmental behavior [4]. Most individuals state that they want to behave in climate-friendly way, but this is not necessarily reflected in their behavior (e.g., vacation flights). ...
Conference Paper
As the interest in the use of agent-based models is increasing in the social sciences, so is the need for a standardized way to design, document, and communicate about agent-based models grounded in empirical research. This paper explores the use of structural equation model data as a foundation for the design of agent-based models. Utilizing existing protocols for standardized creation of agent-based models like the ODD protocol, we introduce the SEM2Agent translation scheme, which provides guidance on designing agent-based models grounded in structural equation models in a standardized way. After, we demonstrate the translation scheme and exemplarily design two agent-based models. We found that structural equation models can provide an excellent basis for some components of agent-based models, whereas other components such as the emergent and interactive aspect of the agent-based model have to be designed independently from the structural equation model.
... Furthermore, on completion of the study, 88% of participants indicated that the video had increased the likelihood of accepting the vaccine. While this was a positive finding, it must be acknowledged that intention alone does not necessarily predict future vaccine uptake, as per reference [43] a disparity known as the intention-behaviour gap [44]. A variety of strategies have been suggested to bridge this gap: keeping these favourable immunization intentions in mind through reminders, prompts, and cues and reducing barriers through logistics and heuristics [45]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to design, develop, and evaluate the feasibility of a theory- and evidence-based intervention to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine knowledge and intention to vaccinate, among parent–daughter dyads. A theory- and evidence-based online behavioral intervention, “Is the HPV vaccine for me?”, was developed to improve HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and intention to vaccinate. Knowledge, intention to vaccinate, and feasibility of the intervention were evaluated in a prospective, randomized, controlled feasibility trial. A total of 49 parent–daughter dyads completed the baseline knowledge assessment (n = 24 control, n = 25 intervention), and 35 dyads completed the knowledge assessment at week 2 (n = 17 control, n = 18 intervention). The intervention resulted in a statistically significant increase in HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and intention to vaccinate. All intervention participants found the video interesting, while 96% found it useful. This intervention was found to be useful, effective, safe, and acceptable in this feasibility study.
... In 2018, only 6% of US homeowners have adopted a solar system for generating electricity on their property [1]. This suggests that not all intentions translate into solar adoption [2,3] and this is referred to as the intention-action gap. This gap occurs for several reasons such as the economic feasibility of solar in terms of generating enough rate of return or a lower expected payback period, the appropriateness of the house for solar such as enough roof space and shading, concerns about upfront and future unexpected costs, and in some cases the difficulty in gathering and processing information for decision-making [4]. ...
... 20% below midpoint) (Chu & Liu, 2021). Usually, intention does not always translate into action (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). In the case of COVID-19 vaccination , the actual (March 2022) vaccination rate in Germany and UK with approximately 24% unvaccinated people plus the already mentioned intention-behavior gap, reflects our findings. ...
Article
The goal of our study was to examine the intention to get vaccinated using predictors from the 5C Model of vaccination attitudes, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Health Belief Model (HBM). Between August and November 2020, an online survey was delivered to 1428 participants in the UK and Germany (mean age = 40.6; 57% women), assessing socio-demographic and health factors, general vaccination attitudes, TBP and HBM variables, and COVID-19 vaccination intention. Vaccination intentions did not differ by country or survey period. Predictors of intention with the highest explanatory power in a relative weight analysis were confidence, collective responsibility (5C) perceived behavioral control, social norms, attitudes (especially negative affect & TPB cognitions), and perceived benefits (HBM). Women reported lower intention, although the effect size was small. Predictors from the TPB and HBM were effective to explain the intention to receive COVID-19 vaccines over and above socio-demographic variables, health-related factors and general vaccination attitudes. The results are interpreted in the context of current vaccination campaigns. Messages promoting sense of autonomy and control over the decision to get vaccinated, approval from significant others and reassurance that getting vaccinated will not be associated with fear or other negative feelings are important facilitators of vaccine uptake.
... The use of behavioral intention as a surrogate for actual behavior is also a concern, since intentions translate into action only about half the time. 17 A more robust experimental design is needed to untangle these two endpoints. ...
Article
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Purpose: To identify cataract surgery candidates' knowledge, beliefs, desires and emotions as they relate to cataract surgery generally as well as to their behavioral intent to adhere to a doctor-recommended pre-surgical ocular surface prep routine designed to improve refractive outcomes and prevent surgical complications. Methods: This national, noninterventional, cross-sectional, mixed methods survey included 278 US adults ages 65 and older with no history of cataract surgery in either eye. Results: Only 20% of participants said they want to have cataract surgery, and even fewer (8%) said they wish they could have cataract surgery right away. Fear was the predominant emotion in one out of every three respondents and was correlated with intention to delay having cataract surgery for as long as possible (r = 0.44). Fewer than 2% of participants said their doctors recommended home-health strategies to combat the risks of ocular surface disease preoperatively. However, most say they would use a pre-surgical prep kit if their doctor gave them one (87%), asked them to buy one (83%), or directed them to obtain one online (71%). Conclusion: These findings negate the popular assumption that patients are in a hurry to have their cataract surgery right away and, therefore, may resist physician recommendations to address ocular surface disease pre-operatively.
... Implementation intentions provide a potential, pragmatic solution to reduce the 2 intention-behaviour gap (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). They involve the creation of a plan that 3 identifies when, where, and how an intended behaviour will take place using "if/when, 4 then..." statements (Gollwitzer, 1999). ...
Preprint
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Implementation intentions effectively promote health behaviours, but we know little about the processes underlying their effects in naturalistic settings. This mixed-methods study assessed the impact and potential underlying processes of using implementation intentions to increase self-reported water intake over a five-day follow-up. Ninety-five participants (Mage = 39, SD = 12) received an educational quiz to increase their water drinking motivation before being randomly assigned to the control or intervention group. Participants also completed a qualitative survey that assessed the processes underlying their attempts to increase water intake. Quantitative results suggested that most participants increased their average daily water intake regardless of group. Qualitative results indicated that implementation intention participants struggled with remembering and the perceived effort of preparation and drinking behaviours, which reduced the effect of planning on behaviour. The effects and mechanisms of implementation intentions in real-life situations may be more complex than previously assumed.
... We also note that attitudes and intentions can differ from actual behaviors (Weber & Gillespie, 1998). While intentions and actions are typically moderately correlated, there are specific cases where they are very strongly correlated (e.g., Hrubes et al., 2001) and cases where they are weakly correlated (Sheeran & Webb, 2016). Our survey instrument asked about perceptions rather than actual behaviors, thus future work might close this gap by utilizing data that demonstrates trust through behaviors and not just attitudes. ...
Article
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The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in hiring entails vast ethical challenges. As such, using an ethical lens to study this phenomenon is to better understand whether and how AI matters in hiring. In this paper, we examine whether ethical perceptions of using AI in the hiring process influence individuals' trust in the organizations that use it. Building on the organizational trust model and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, we explore whether ethical perceptions are shaped by individual differences in performance expectancy and social influence and how they, in turn, impact organizational trust. We collected primary data from over 300 individuals who were either active job seekers or who had recent hiring experience to capture perceptions across the full range of hiring methods. Our findings indicate that performance expectancy, but not social influence, impacts the ethical perceptions of AI in hiring, which in turn influence organizational trust. Additional analyses indicate that these findings vary depending on the type of hiring methods AI is used for, as well as on whether participants are job seekers or individuals with hiring experience. Our study offers theoretical and practical implications for ethics in HRM and informs policy implementation about when and how to use AI in hiring methods, especially as it pertains to acting ethically and trustworthily.
... Groups came up with team names to promote group distinctiveness. Individual behavior change strategies included having social support from other participants, encouraging the use of action & coping plans, and having participants utilize self-monitoring tools as part of their asynchronous learning (40). ...
Article
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Background Mindfulness and self-care, practiced through a variety of methods like meditation and exercise, can improve overall sense of holistic well-being (i.e., flourishing). Increasing mindfulness and self-care may lead to increased flourishing and job satisfaction among the nation-wide Cooperative Extension system delivery personnel (agents) through a theory-based online program and an extended experiential program. Methods Cooperative Extension agents from two states were invited to participate in MUSCLE via statewide listservs. Participants were invited to attend sessions and complete competency checks and between-session assignments each week. The study was conducted using Zoom. Pre- and post- program surveys included validated scales for flourishing and physical activity status. Due to high demand for mindfulness programing during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, experiential “Mindful Meet-up” 30-minute sessions were held on Zoom. Dissemination and implementation of the two differing interventions (i.e., MUSCLE and Mindful Meet-ups) were examined. Results MUSCLE (more intensive program with assignments and competency checks) had lower reach, and did not show statistically increased flourishing or physical activity. Mindful Meet-ups had higher attendance and proportional reach during the beginning of the pandemic, but no practical measure of flourishing or physical activity behaviors. Unsolicited qualitative feedback was encouraging because the interventions were well-received and participants felt as though they were more mindful. Conclusions While agents anecdotally reported personal improvements, capturing data on outcomes was challenging. Complementing outcome data with implementation and dissemination outcomes allowed for a richer picture to inform intervention decision-making (i.e., offering the same or new programming depending on participant needs).
... Although considered a critical predictor of health behavior, research shows that people render their "good" intentions into action in only 53% of the time (75). This discrepancy between peoples' intentions and behavior is typically referred to as the intention-behavior gap, reflecting that forming goal intentions is necessary but insufficient for goal attainment (76,77). ...
Article
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Few theory-informed interventions to support people who use drugs during sex have been conceptualized and developed. We conceptualize sexualized drug use, also referred to as chemsex or pharmacosex, as a self-control challenge, and draw on extant theory and research to propose intervention approaches that can be tailored to meet the differing needs of people who engage in sexualized drug use. We draw on a continuum perspective of sexualized drug use, in particular chemsex, and discuss the role of reasoned and automatic processes in behavioral decisions, as well as critical components of effective self-control of behavior. A self-control approach can empower people to tackle their sexualized drug use, and classify their experienced sex-related drug use as problematic. Self-control encompasses clarifying one's goals and identifying strategies to mitigate behaviors to achieve these goals, despite competing pharmacosex desires. Our approach to self-control sexualized drug use contains three critical components: goal setting, goal enactment, and goal progress appraisal and goal adjustment. Goals should be formulated specific, ambitious yet realistic, and tailored to the individual's needs and wishes. Goals may target aspects of drug use, protecting sexual health and mitigating negative impacts. Implementing goal enactment implies translating goals into concrete (short-term) actions to move toward the higher-order goal via goal intentions and action/coping plans. During the goal progress appraisal and adjustment stage, people compare their actual with their planned behavior. This reflection may result in goal adjustment through feedback loops to adjust their goals and action/coping plans. We propose that our self-control approach can guide the development of interventions to effectively support people to prevent or limit pharmacosex, and helps to effectively mitigate or reduce negative impacts via self-help, peer support or professional support, offered via personal counseling or digital tools.
... As additional limitation of this study, it should be noted that there was no condition including a "no-focus instruction" which would have represented a baseline-condition for the present outcomes. Also, we only assessed psychological determinants of compliant behavior and not compliant behavior itself which certainly represents a limitation given well-known gaps between knowledge, behavioral intentions and actual behavior (Sheeran and Webb 2016). Put differently, measuring potential long-term consequences of (repeated) empathy-inductions and assessing their effect on actual HHC calls for on-site intervention studies in the future. ...
Article
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Aim The “Five moments of hand hygiene” (World Health Organization 2009) can be classified into moments of hand hygiene before and after patient care. Based on research indicating that hand hygiene compliance differs with regard to moments before and after patient care, this research evaluates the effectiveness of an empathy-based intervention in motivating hand hygiene compliance with regard to moments before patient care which protect vulnerable individuals from contamination and infection. Subjects and method An online experiment involving 68 healthcare professionals working at a German hospital during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic investigates whether instructing healthcare professionals to consider consequences for others (vs for themselves) if they contracted SARS-CoV-2 promotes hand hygiene compliance referring to moments before (vs after) patient care. Results In the condition in which healthcare professionals considered consequences for others if they contracted SARS-CoV-2 (other-focus condition), ratings of importance increased ( M = 3.49, SD = 1.30) compared to the condition in which healthcare professionals considered consequences for themselves ( M = 2.68, SD = 1.24), F (1,66) = 6.87, p = .011, part η ² = .09. Participants in the other-focus condition reported more intentions to comply with “before moments” in the future ( M = 3.34, SD = 1.14) compared to participants in the self-focus condition ( M = 2.77, SD = 0.80), F (1,66) = 6.15, p = .016, part η ² = .09. Conclusion Results indicate that activating an empathic focus in the context of the current pandemic promotes perceived importance and motivation of healthcare professionals to comply with moments aiming at protecting vulnerable others.
... It can easily be extended to accommodate specific situations such as continuance intentions. We believe that the UTAUT may be one of the best available theories in the study of technology adoption behavior and may be achieving the status of a paradigm, since several studies show that intentions are good predictors of behavior (Sheeran and Webb, 2016). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to predict the intention to continue online learning post the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among students in the two largest universities of higher learning in Botswana. Furthermore, the purposes of this study are to elucidate the nexus between performance expectancy and continuance intention to establish the effects of efforts expectancy on continuance intention to investigate the relationship between social influence and continuance intention to determine the relationship between facilitating conditions and continuance intention and to examine the relationship between satisfaction and continuance intention using the extended unified theory of acceptance and usage technology (UTAUT) model postulated by Venkatesh et al. (2003). Design/methodology/approach The study is based on the descriptive research design, using a structured questionnaire to collect quantitative data from 509 undergraduate and postgraduate students at Botswana's two major Universities using convenience sampling strategy. An online survey was used to gather primary data due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study employed correlation and regression analysis in testing the five hypothesized relationships. Findings Using the extended theory of UTAUT as a theoretical lens, the study found that: performance expectancy, social influence and satisfaction predict continuance intention of online learning services. These factors have shown to be good predictors of intention in previous research. Expectancy effort had no influence on intention. Research limitations/implications The current study covered on only university students from two tertiary institutions; therefore, results cannot safely be generalized to the student population in the country. Therefore, future research should consider enlisting more universities to be more representative, focusing on lecturers, which is an important group in fostering online teaching that could have a spill-over effect on the students' continued online learning. Practical implications Implications for online technology selection: These findings suggest that although most universities temporarily adopted online teaching as an emergency solution, students appear to have felt that the outcomes delivered by the system improved their performance. This implies that academic institutions need to consider adjusting the curriculum to promote online learning in the future, whether there is pandemic or no pandemic. Implications for teaching and learning: First, the concept of social influence suggests that lecturers can make use of online chat discussion boards and rooms to foster student collaboration and a sense of community. Second, and finally online service providers should foster a close relationship with students to understand their expectations and extend the performance of their applications to satisfy their users. Originality/value This study contributes to literature on online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic period by including satisfaction and continuance intention to the original UTAUT model thus extending the practical value of the model. This study extends knowledge on the factors that determine continuance intention by incorporating satisfaction in addition to the four factors of the traditional UTAUT. The study provides evidence for the predominance of satisfaction over the four traditional factors in predicting intention to continue online learning among students.
... Moreover, it can be assumed that mother's support of certain child activities is a better predictor of child behavior than mother's mental states (cf. intention-behavior gap; Sheeran & Webb, 2016). To get a comprehensive picture of the relationship between these constructs, future research should expand the presented theoretical model by including scaffolding intentions on a mental and behavioral level. ...
Article
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This study examined how mothers' scaffolding predicts preschoolers' metacognitive strategies and task performance. N = 132 preschoolers and their mothers participated in the study. Problem-solving tasks were solved in mother-child interactions and independently. Mothers' scaffolding (means; cognitive, metacognitive, autonomy support) and mother-child task performance were coded during mother-child interactions. Children's meta-cognitive strategies and task performance were coded during child-alone problem-solving. Path-model analyses found that mothers' metacognitive support was negatively-and autonomy support positively-associated with mother-child task performance. Mothers' scaffolding means served different scaffolding intentions, building two scaffolding strategies: (1) Mothers using more scaffolding means provided more cognitive support, which was related to lower levels of children's metacognitive strategies. (2) Mothers using fewer scaffolding means provided more autonomy support, which was related to higher levels of children's metacognitive strategies. This study demonstrates the importance of examining scaffolding strategies and shows that different scaffolding strategies may be relevant in joint and child-alone problem-solving.
... Similarly, 'attitudes' represent one's tendency to engage in certain actions [67], and 'intentions' represent one's self-directives to engage in certain actions in the future [68]. Both attitudes and intentions have been shown to correlate with one's behavior [69,70]. The ...
... Step during the past decades, has to be interpreted in the light of the fact that attitudes and intention are often not translated into action (e.g., see the meta-analysis on the so called intention-behaviour gap; Sheeran & Webb, 2016). Looking at the high numbers of people with cancer being insufficiently physically active (Coletta et al., 2019;Eng et al., 2018;Steindorf et al., 2019;Yan et al., 2018), many patients during acute cancer treatment having a positive attitude on the activity paradigm might still need behavioural and psychological support, for example, based on behaviour change interventions, to translate it into a healthy lifestyle (Bluethmann et al., 2015). ...
Article
Objective: Evidence on the benefits of physical activity (PA) during cancer has caused a paradigm shift from people with cancer being advised to save energy (rest paradigm) to guidelines recommending them to engage in regular PA (activity paradigm). This study examined the rest and the activity paradigm among people with cancer based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was completed by N = 1244 people (58% women; M = 59.95 years) with breast, prostate and colorectal cancer, including 15 items on rest and activity attitudes. To explain the intention to engage in PA, hierarchical regression analyses were calculated. Results: The two-dimensional structure of attitudes (rest and activity) was confirmed. The agreement with the activity paradigm (M = 4.11; SD = 0.78) was higher compared to the rest paradigm (M = 2.56; SD = 0.78, p < .001). The TPB was an appropriate model to explain the intention to engage in PA (R2 = .59), showing that the activity paradigm, but not the rest paradigm, was significantly associated with participants' intention for PA. Conclusion: Results indicate that the paradigm shift has successfully reached attitudes of people with cancer. Interventions focusing on the benefits of PA rather than addressing rest cognitions promise higher effectiveness in affecting PA levels. Clinical trial registration number: NCT02678832.
... This may be partly due to the fact that the outcomes of insufficient health knowledge and the consequent health-damaging decisions will not become evident until adulthood. Although many consider the knowledge-behavior relationship to be strong, intervention studies have often shown that awareness of health-related risks is not sufficient to influence behavior (20). ...
Chapter
Vor Führungskräften wird hinsichtlich professioneller Mitarbeitendenführung sehr viel verlangt. Um täglich die vielen Herausforderungen meistern zu können, muss die Führungskraft aus einer soliden Basis heraus agieren, denn nachhaltig erfolgreiche Führung beginnt zunächst bei jeder Führungskraft selbst. Nur wer sich selbst führen kann, sich seiner Stärken und Entwicklungsfelder, seiner Wirkung und Ziele „selbst-bewusst“ ist, kann andere Menschen wirksam anleiten. Zur Führung der eigenen Personen gehören u. a. Selbstreflexion, Selbstmanagement, Selbstfürsorge und die eigene (Führungs-)Kompetenzentwicklung. Zur Bewältigung der Aufgabenvielfalt und zur Gestaltung von guten Arbeitsbedingungen steht Führungskräften ein großes Repertoire von Instrumenten zur Verfügung. Diese können sich auf die Beziehungsgestaltung und Führungskommunikation, die Entwicklung einer motivierenden, zufriedenheitsförderlichen wie gesunden Arbeitsumgebung sowie auf Fragen von Ziel-, Feedback- oder Anreizsystemen beziehen und somit zur Erreichung humaner, ökonomischer und gesellschaftlicher Ziele beitragen. Einige Führungswerkzeuge und die damit verbundenen Führungstätigkeiten werden ausgeführt: Auswahl, Integration, Beurteilung und Entwicklung von Mitarbeiter*innenOrientierung geben durch Rahmen und ZieleMotivieren durch DelegationEntscheidungen treffen, kommunizieren und umsetzenPartizipation, Kreativität und Innovation fördern Auswahl, Integration, Beurteilung und Entwicklung von Mitarbeiter*innen Orientierung geben durch Rahmen und Ziele Motivieren durch Delegation Entscheidungen treffen, kommunizieren und umsetzen Partizipation, Kreativität und Innovation fördern
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Vaccines are vital to protecting health. However, fear and experiencing vasovagal symptoms (e.g., dizziness) are deterrents to medical procedures. Thus, study aims were to test (1) if vaccine relevant fears predict vasovagal symptoms during or following seasonal influenza vaccination and (2) if vaccine relevant fears and vasovagal symptoms predict seasonal influenza and COVID‐19 vaccine uptake. Using a prospective design, 1077 participants recruited online completed surveys during Oct 2019 assessing vaccine relevant fears, and May–June 2020 assessing 2019–2020 seasonal influenza vaccine uptake, ratings of vasovagal symptoms, and seasonal influenza and COVID‐19 vaccination intention. A behavioral follow up assessing 2020–2021 seasonal influenza and COVID‐19 vaccine uptake took place June–July 2021. Heightened vaccine relevant fears predicted reduced 2019–2020 seasonal influenza vaccine uptake and greater vasovagal symptoms among those who did receive a seasonal influenza vaccine. Serial mediation analyses identified significant indirect effects with greater vaccine relevant fears reducing 2020–2021 seasonal influenza vaccine uptake through intention and reducing COVID‐19 vaccine uptake through vasovagal symptoms and intention. Intervention research to reduce fear and prevent vasovagal symptoms to support vaccine uptake is warranted.
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This study examines the social‐psychological drivers of conservation action among landowners in Minnesota. In particular, we apply an integrated norm activation theory to understand landowner conservation behavior. Data were collected through a self‐administered mail survey of 3,000 landowners in La Crescent and Reno Watersheds in Southeastern Minnesota and analyzed using structural equation modeling. Study findings show that landowners' conservation action is driven by their feelings of personal obligation, and beliefs about whether one is capable of taking actions to influence outcomes (i.e., self‐efficacy). Landowners who feel a sense of personal obligation and believe that their actions can make a difference are more likely to take conservation actions. Further, landowners who believe it is their personal responsibility to protect water and perceive social expectations are more likely to develop feelings of personal obligation. Importantly, this study highlights the role of self‐efficacy as an activator of personal norm, as well as a driver of conservation behavior. Our study suggests that strategies that appeal to landowners' sense of personal responsibility and self‐expectations, promote conservation action as a social norm, and build landowners' self‐efficacy or confidence in their ability to make a difference, are likely to be successful.
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In three essays, this dissertation examines the past, present and future of branding in an international context, contributing to the research area of global/local brands, while also offering managers valuable insights for their branding strategies. The first essay provides scholars and practitioners a detailed state of the art of global/local brand research and proposes promising angles for future research, especially considering major challenges for our societies. The second essay incorporates the segment of cosmopolitan consumers into perceived brand globalness/localness research. Theoretically grounded in the concepts of social identity theory and complexity, the essay builds on perceived brand globalness/localness to analyze how cosmopolitans arrange both their global and local orientations. Aside offering scholars a new theoretical lens regarding consumer cosmopolitanism, managers can benefit from the gained insights, if cosmopolitans are a particular target group in their business strategy. The third and final essay meta-analytically investigates how the variables perceived brand globalness and localness materialize on various key outcome variables. At heart of this essay is a comparison of both perceived brand globalness and localness, offering scholars and practitioners valuable empirical insights on similarities and differences between their effects on outcomes such as brand quality.
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As a result of social, environmental, and economic crises, demand for public donations has increased drastically, putting charitable organizations in tough competition with each other. In these uncertain times, when every penny counts, researchers and practitioners have identified several antecedents, drivers, and mechanisms of individual donations. Nevertheless, social norms remain one of the most important influencers of individuals’ attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. Despite their importance, norms as drivers of charitable intentions and behavior have not been thoroughly studied. This dissertation addresses the gaps in the literature and explores the influence of injunctive (what others approve of) and descriptive (what others do) norms on individuals’ charitable intentions and behavior. Across four studies reported in three articles, my coauthors and I address not only whether social norms matter but also how and when. Surveying 288 respondents, in the first article, we not only identified that descriptive norms influence donation intentions but also determined two mediators: perceived impact and personal involvement. Although intentions often predict behavior, the relationship between the two does not always exist. The second article examines whether aligned (both injunctive and descriptive norms being either supportive or unsupportive of the action) and unaligned (one of the types being supportive and the other unsupportive) social norms moderate the intentionbehavior link. An experiment involving 428 participants demonstrated a positive relationship between intentions and behavior. Surprisingly, both aligned (both types of norms being supportive) and unaligned (unsupportive injunctive and supportive descriptive) social norms moderate the intention-behavior relationship. The third article reports on two experiments involving 347 participants. The findings suggest that (a) both supportive and unsupportive norms affect giving intentions, (b) injunctive norms are more powerful than descriptive ones, and (c) unaligned social norms decrease donation intentions by negatively influencing collective efficacy. The dissertation contributes to the scientific literature by furthering several theories, including social norms theory, social expectation theory, focus theory, collective action theory, theory of planned behavior, and attitude-behavior theory. The findings also have practical implications for content creation and persuasion techniques that charitable organizations can use to increase individual donations.
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This article proposes an integrative model of wise behavior in real life. While current research findings depend considerably on how wisdom is conceptualized and measured, there are strong conceptual commonalities across psychological wisdom models. The proposed model integrates the components of several existing models into a dynamic framework explaining wise behavior. The article first specifies which real-life situations require wisdom and discusses characteristics of wise behavior. The core proposition of the model is that in challenging real-life situations, noncognitive wisdom components (an exploratory orientation, concern for others, and emotion regulation) moderate the effect of cognitive components (knowledge, metacognitive capacities, and self-reflection) on wise behavior. The model can explain the situation specificity of wisdom and the commonalities and differences between personal and general wisdom. Empirically, it accounts for the considerable variation in correlations among wisdom measures and between wisdom measures and other variables. The model has implications for the design of wisdom-fostering interventions and new wisdom measures.
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Using the tenets of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this study aims to investigate the role of person–organisation (P–O) fit in predicting the job-seeking intentions of university graduates in Bangladesh. There is a lack of adequate research into the theoretical phenomenon in career-related literature, especially in light of inconsistent findings for the suggested relationships under the TPB framework. This may be one of the pioneer studies that examines the role of perceived P–O fit in the association between the TPB core constructs (i.e., subjective norms, self-efficacy and attitudes) and job-seeking intentions. Based on data collected from 239 unemployed university graduates in Bangladesh, this article examines the hypothesised relationships among the study variables with structural equation modelling. The results indicated that P–O fit significantly predicted job-seeking intentions, both directly and indirectly, through the influence of attitudes. Additionally, attitudes partially mediated the association between self-efficacy and job-seeking intentions. Notably, although subjective norms could not influence job-seeking intentions, the boundary conditions of P–O fit perceptions on the relationship between subjective norms and job-seeking intentions appeared significant. Based on the findings, there is a discussion of practical implications for career counsellors and recruitment policymakers. Finally, the study’s limitations and possible research directions are highlighted.
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Experts debate whether COVID-19 vaccine mandates or financial incentives will reduce, rather than increase, interest in vaccination. Among 3,698 unvaccinated U.S. residents, we conducted a randomized, controlled survey-embedded experiment to estimate the absolute and relative psychological effects of: mandates by employers or airlines, bars, and restaurants; lotteries for $1 million, $200,000, or $100,000; guaranteed cash for $1000, $200, or $100; and $1,000 as either a tax credit or penalty. Vaccine intention--the study outcome—predicts uptake and provides insight into the psychological mechanism that is most proximal to behavior (i.e., vaccination). Compared to controls, those who learned about the $1,000 cash reward were 17.1 (±5.3)% more likely to want vaccination. Employer mandates are more promising than other mandates (8.6 [+/- 7.4]% vs. 1.4 [+/- 6.0]%). The full results suggest that neither mandates nor financial incentives are likely to have counterproductive psychological effects. These policies are not mutually exclusive and, if implemented well, they may increase vaccine uptake.
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To maintain social distancing in the long term, in the current COVID-19 scenario, people’s motivation must be strong and of high quality. Many governments adopted measures enforcing social distancing. Enforcement, however, can produce feelings of defiance and backfiring effects. The present work aims at investigating the relationship between autonomous motivation and intentions to maintain social distancing, through adherence to recommendations and feelings of defiance. A sample of 502 Italian residents, from different parts of Italy, completed an online survey assessing their present behavior, levels of autonomous motivation and feelings of defiance, as well as intentions to observe social distancing in the short and long term. Results support the hypotheses that autonomous motivation is related to stronger intentions to maintain social distancing, particularly in the long term, and that feelings of defiance mediate this relationship. These results underline importance of promoting understanding and internalizing reasons for social distancing, beyond norms.
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Single-use packaging items constitute a large proportion of the plastic litter found in the marine environment. Consumer decisions contribute to the accumulation of this pollution in the environment. Here we undertook two studies to assess consumer responses to different types of single-use packaging. Moreover, we introduce a new measure of ocean connectedness adapted from nature connectedness measures and investigate its association with consumer response. In Study 1, 60 UK undergraduate students completed a packaging rating task and a survey on ocean connectedness in a laboratory environment. In the rating task pictures of bottled drinks with unique combinations of packaging recyclability (recyclable or non-recyclable) and type of material (plastic, glass, aluminium or carton) were rated in terms of willingness to buy, anticipated affective response and attractiveness. Study 2 used the same experimental approach online, with responses gathered from a broader UK public sample (n = 512). The data were analysed using linear mixed models. Both studies demonstrated a strong preference for recyclable over non-recyclable packaging and found interaction effects between recyclability and ocean connectedness: We found larger differences between ratings for recyclable and non-recyclable packaging in consumers high in ocean connectedness than in respondents low in ocean connectedness. Interactions between packaging material and consumer ratings showed that plastic packaging in general was viewed as less benign by those high in ocean connectedness. Ocean connectedness has the potential to encourage sustainable purchasing and help minimise plastic waste. Study limitations and wider implications are discussed.
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Prior work suggests that imagining helping others increases prosocial intentions and behavior towards those individuals. But is this true for everyone, or only for those who tend towards – or away from – helping more generally? The current study (N=283) used an imagined helping paradigm and a battery of behavioral and self‐report measures of trait prosociality to determine whether the prosocial benefits of imagination depend upon an individual’s general tendency to help others. Replicating prior work, we found links between imagination and prosociality and support for a three‐factor model of prosociality comprising altruistically, norm‐motivated, and self‐reported prosocial behaviors. Centrally, the effects of imagination on prosociality were slightly larger for less altruistic individuals but independent of norm‐motivated and self‐reported prosociality. These results suggest leveraging people’s abilities for episodic simulation as a promising strategy for increasing prosociality in general, and perhaps particularly for those least likely to help otherwise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The practice of lifestyle medicine and its emphasis on behavioral change continues to grow around the world. Yet much of the burden of disease weighing on healthcare systems from chronic, modifiable conditions remains stubbornly present. From a behavior change perspective, efforts to date have primarily focused on public health messaging and public health campaigns (global approaches) to interventions such as health coaching (individual approaches). There exists an opportunity to consider contextual elements which support behavioral change. The practice of “nudging” behavior in primary care and allied health settings is proposed as a means of responding to these contextual opportunities. Nudging does not assure change; however, it can invite curiosity about change and small behavioral efforts in the direction of a desired change. Furthermore, its nature conserves autonomy and patient choice while inviting a health-creating behavior. As such, when considered and applied in the context of public health and individual treatment options, it creates a consistent milieu in which behavior change is facilitated.
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Objectives: Planning is an effective self-regulation strategy. However, little is known why some people take up planning and some do not. Such understanding would help interventions to promote planning. We investigated how adolescents explain their (non) use of planning for physical activity after an intervention. Methods: Qualitative content analysis was employed to investigate follow-up interviews (a purposeful sampling; n = 19 low-to-moderately active, vocational school students) of Let's Move It trial participants twice post-intervention: 6-8 weeks and 14 months post-baseline. In the intervention, planning was one of the key techniques used to promote PA. Results: We identified seven categories linked to reasons for (not) using planning. Most were related to feelings anticipated to result from planning. Action- and identity-related concerns were also raised. The reasons for planning were that the plan (1) helps to clarify what to do and to get things done, (2) strengthens the feeling of autonomy, (3) promotes a sense of progress, ability and control over one's PA. The reasons for not planning were that (having) a plan may (1) feel forced and like an unpleasant duty, (2) take away life's spontaneity and freedom, (3) result in anticipated annoyance and bad mood if one fails to enact the plan, or (4) be an effective strategy for others but not for the interviewee. Conclusions: Planning may not only link to behavioural control but also the sense of autonomy, and thus subsequent motivation. We suggest various strategies to promote planning, including challenging non-planner identity and harnessing social dimension of planning.
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The conservation community often communicates about the importance of conservation using language related to instrumental, intrinsic, and relational values about ecosystems; use of these values is frequently connected to ecosystem services conversations. However, few studies have examined whether messages that emphasize values associated with ecosystem services result in different policy‐support or behavior‐change outcomes among different audiences. We conducted a large‐scale survey experiment (n = 815) to examine whether messages about watershed protection that emphasize instrumental, intrinsic, or relational values result in differing support for policies or behavioral intentions. We find that respondents’ personal characteristics have a stronger effect on conservation beliefs than the way values are framed (i.e., than our treatments in the experiment)—for example, income positively predicted policy support (B = 0.07, CI = 0.02, 0.12, p = 0.01; corrected p = 0.03). We also find evidence that instrumental messages can decrease policy support among people who identify as politically liberal (B = ‐0.75, CI = ‐1.19, ‐0.30, p = 0.001; corrected p = 0.003). Over 40% of respondents selected relational values over other value types as the main reason to protect watersheds). Our results demonstrate that: political orientation interacts with how values are framed in complex ways; more research is needed to understand how such interactions relate to human behavior; and relational values likely are an important reason why people engage in conservation‐related behavior. Further, our research shows that conservation practitioners might improve the effectiveness of communication efforts by incorporating relational values and adjusting messages based on to the audience. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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To successfully pursue a goal in the face of temptation, an individual must first identify that she faces a self-control conflict. Only then will the individual exercise self-control to promote goal pursuit over indulging in temptation. We propose a new model that distinguishes between the problems of conflict identification and those of conflict resolution. We then review research on the factors that influence conflict identification and those that determine conflict resolution.
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Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N �= 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d� �= 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d� �= 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change.
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Objective: Previous research has shown that the degree to which individuals base their intentions on particular underlying cognitions (i.e., motives) significantly moderates the intention-behavior relationship. Studies have individually examined the moderating effect of intentions based on overall attitude, affective attitudes, injunctive norms, and moral norms. The present research used a within-persons approach to simultaneously test the moderating effects of intentions based on instrumental attitude, affective attitude, anticipated affective reactions, injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and moral norms on the intention-behavior relationship and the impact of controlling for intention stability, self-efficacy, and past behavior. Method: Adults (N = 366) completed questionnaires assessing instrumental attitude, affective attitude, anticipated affective reactions, injunctive norms, descriptive norms, moral norms, self-efficacy and past behavior at baseline; intentions at baseline and 1-month follow-up; and behavior at 2-month follow-up for 20 health behaviors. The main outcome measures were the self-reported performance of 20 health behaviors. Results: When tested simultaneously using multilevel modeling the only significant moderator of the intention-behavior relationship was the extent to which intentions were based on anticipated affective reactions (intentions more strongly based on anticipated affective reactions were significantly stronger predictors of behavior). This effect remained when we also controlled for intention stability (which also moderated the intention-behavior relationship), self-efficacy, and past behavior. Conclusions: Intentions based on anticipated affective reactions may be particularly important predictors of health behaviors. Studies manipulating such intentions to test their effects on behavior change are required. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
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Whereas hedonic consumption is often labeled as impulsive, findings from self-licensing research suggest that people sometimes rely on reasons to justify hedonic consumption. Although the concept of self-licensing assumes the involvement of reasoning processes, this has not been demonstrated explicitly. Two studies investigated whether people indeed rely on reasons to allow themselves a guilty pleasure. Participants were exposed to a food temptation after which passive and active reasoning was assessed by asking participants to indicate the justifications that applied to them for indulging in that temptation (Study 1) or having them construe reasons to consume the hedonic product (Study 2). Regression analyses indicated that higher levels of temptation predicted the number of reasons employed and construed to justify consumption. By providing evidence for the involvement of reasoning processes, these findings support the assumption of self-licensing theory that temptations not only exert their influence by making us more impulsive, but can also facilitate gratification by triggering deliberative reasoning processes.
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Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness meditation, can be conceived as becoming aware of one’s thoughts and experiences and being able to observe them as transient mental events. Here, we present a series of studies demonstrating the effects of applying this metacognitive perspective to one’s spontaneous reward responses when encountering attractive stimuli. Taking a grounded cognition perspective, we argue that reward simulations in response to attractive stimuli contribute to appetitive behavior and that motivational states and traits enhance these simulations. Directing mindful attention at these thoughts and seeing them as mere mental events should break this link, such that motivational states and traits no longer affect reward simulations and appetitive behavior. To test this account, we trained participants to observe their thoughts in reaction to appetitive stimuli as mental events, using a brief procedure designed for nonmeditators. Across 3 experiments, we found that adopting the mindful attention perspective reduced the effects of motivational states and traits on appetitive behavior in 2 domains, in both the laboratory and the field. Specifically, after applying mindful attention, participants’ sexual motivation no longer made opposite-sex others seem more attractive and thus desirable as partners. Similarly, participants’ levels of hunger no longer boosted the attractiveness of unhealthy foods, resulting in healthier eating choices. We discuss these results in the context of mechanisms and applications of mindful attention and explore how mindfulness and mindful attention can be conceptualized in psychological research more generally.
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Despite evidence that monitoring domestic electricity usage can reduce consumption, there is currently little information on what factors motivate people to monitor their consumption. The present research used an augmented version of the theory of planned behavior as a framework for understanding householders’ intentions. Participants (N = 346) completed a questionnaire measuring their beliefs about electricity use and monitoring consumption, their environmental behavior, and concern about climate change. Regression revealed that the primary predictors of intentions to monitor consumption were perceived behavioral control, attitudes toward monitoring, past behavior, descriptive, and subjective norms. In addition, we developed a modified home electricity monitor that legged when participants looked at their consumption. A subset of participants (n = 38) were given a monitor for three months. Participants looked at the monitor relatively frequently during the first week but usage rapidly declined. There was, however, some evidence that participants found the monitor beneficial.
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Objective: Motivation is not sufficient to actually use condoms, as self-regulatory processes are needed to translate motivation into action. Buying condoms and carrying them constitute preparatory behaviors that may serve as proximal predictors of action. Whether or not such preparatory behaviors operate as mediators between intention and action within a broader behavior change framework has been examined. Method: A sample of 150 heterosexual men between ages 18 and 25 years responded at three points in time to a computer-based survey that assessed behavior as well as social-cognitive antecedents. A structural equation model was specified that included preparatory behaviors and self-efficacy as mediators at Time 2. Results: Preparatory behaviors were the most proximal predictors of condom use, and they were, themselves, predicted by self-efficacy and intention. The latter was partly determined by positive emotional outcome expectancies. Conclusion: To bridge the intention-behavior gap, preparatory behaviors play a mediating role, and they represent a side of planning that constitutes the most proximal predictor of condom use.
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Hedonic overconsumption is often considered to be caused by impulsive factors. The current paper investigates whether self-licensing, relying on reasons to justify subsequent gratification, can also be included as a significant contributor to hedonic consumption. Two studies were conducted to investigate whether self-licensing can account for an increase in hedonic consumption while ruling out impulsive factors such as resource depletion, negative affect, and visceral state as alternative explanations. A pilot study indicated that perceiving oneself as having invested greater effort and thus having a self-licensing cue did not lead to a decline in self-control capacity compared with not having a self-licensing cue. The main study employed the same procedure and established that having a licensing cue did lead to increased snack intake while controlling for impulsive factors. Together, these studies support the notion that self-licensing is a separate mechanism leading to hedonic gratification independent of impulsive factors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of European Journal of Social Psychology is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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Weakness of the will may lead to ineffective goal striving in the sense that people lacking willpower fail to get started, to stay on track, to select instrumental means, and to act efficiently. However, using a simple self-regulation strategy (i.e., forming implementation intentions or making if–then plans) can get around this problem by drastically improving goal striving on the spot. After an overview of research investigating how implementation intentions work, I will discuss how people can use implementation intentions to overcome potential hindrances to successful goal attainment. Extensive empirical research shows that implementation intentions help people to meet their goals no matter whether these hindrances originate from within (e.g., lack of cognitive capabilities) or outside the person (i.e., difficult social situations). Moreover, I will report recent research demonstrating that implementation intentions can even be used to control impulsive cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses that interfere with one’s focal goal striving. In ending, I will present various new lines of implementation intention research, and raise a host of open questions that still deserve further empirical and theoretical analysis.
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Self-regulation failure is often explained as being overwhelmed by impulse. The present article proposes a novel pathway, presenting a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure. With justification we refer to making excuses for one's discrepant behavior, so that when experiencing a self-regulation dilemma between immediate impulses and long-term intentions, people resolve the conflict by developing and employing justifications that allow violations of the goal they endorse. Accordingly, rather than inhibiting motivations from the impulsive system, the reflective system can also facilitate them, leading to self-regulation failure. We bring together empirical evidence from various domains demonstrating that justifications can instigate self-regulation failure and rule out alternative accounts. Having established that justification processes contribute to self-regulation failure, we then propose several mechanisms that may fuel the effect. Finally, routes for future research and the conceptual and practical implications of these novel insights for self-regulation are discussed.
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Can cognitive abilities such as reasoning be improved through working memory training? This question is still highly controversial, with prior studies providing contradictory findings. The lack of theory-driven, systematic approaches and (occasionally serious) methodological shortcomings complicates this debate even more. This review suggests two general mechanisms mediating transfer effects that are (or are not) observed after working memory training: enhanced working memory capacity, enabling people to hold more items in working memory than before training, or enhanced efficiency using the working memory capacity available (e.g., using chunking strategies to remember more items correctly). We then highlight multiple factors that could influence these mechanisms of transfer and thus the success of training interventions. These factors include (1) the nature of the training regime (i.e., intensity, duration, and adaptivity of the training tasks) and, with it, the magnitude of improvements during training, and (2) individual differences in age, cognitive abilities, biological factors, and motivational and personality factors. Finally, we summarize the findings revealed by existing training studies for each of these factors, and thereby present a roadmap for accumulating further empirical evidence regarding the efficacy of working memory training in a systematic way.
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Objective Palatable food, such as sweets, contains properties that automatically trigger the impulse to consume it even when people have goals or intentions to refrain from consuming such food. We compared the effectiveness of two interventions in reducing the portion size of palatable food that people select for themselves. Specifically, the use of dieting implementation intentions that reduce behaviour towards palatable food via top-down implementation of a dieting goal was pitted against a stop-signal training that changes the impulse-evoking quality of palatable food from bottom-up. DesignWe compared the two interventions using a 2x2 factorial design. Methods Participants completed a stop-signal training in which they learned to withhold a behavioural response upon presentation of tempting sweets (vs. control condition) and formed implementation intentions to diet (vs. control condition). Selected portion size was measured in a sweet-shop-like environment (Experiment 1) and through a computerized snack dispenser (Experiment 2). ResultsBoth interventions reduced the amount of sweets selected in the sweet shop environment (Experiment 1) and the snack dispenser (Experiment 2). On average, participants receiving an intervention selected 36% (Experiment 1) and 51% (Experiment 2) fewer sweets than control participants. In both studies, combining the interventions did not lead to additive effects: Employing one of the interventions appears to successfully eliminate instrumental behaviour towards tempting food, making the other intervention redundant. Conclusions Both interventions reduce self-selected portion size, which is considered a major contributor to the current obesity epidemic.
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Using meta-analytic tests based on 87 statistically independent samples, we investigated the relationships between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors in both the aggregate and specific forms, including individual-directed, organization-directed, and change- oriented citizenship. We found that Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness/Intellect have incremental validity for citizenship over and above Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, 2 well- established FFM predictors of citizenship. In addition, FFM personality traits predict citizenship over and above job satisfaction. Finally, we compared the effect sizes obtained in the current meta-analysis with the comparable effect sizes predicting task performance from previous meta-analyses. As a result, we found that Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Extraversion have similar magnitudes of rela- tionships with citizenship and task performance, whereas Openness and Agreeableness have stronger relationships with citizenship than with task performance. This lends some support to the idea that personality traits are (slightly) more important determinants of citizenship than of task performance. We conclude with proposed directions for future research on the relationships between FFM personality traits and specific forms of citizenship, based on the current findings.
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The present experiment investigated cognitive and behavioral effects of planning (i.e. forming implementation intentions) on goal pursuit during the performance of mundane behaviors. Participants received the goal to collect a coupon halfway the hall from the lab to the cafeteria. Later, they were also given the task to go from the lab to the cafeteria. Thus participants had to attain a new goal by interrupting a mundane behavior. Some participants enriched their goal with implementation intentions, others did not. Results showed that participants who formed implementation intentions were more effective in goal pursuit than the control group. Importantly, the data suggest that the effects of planning on goal completion are mediated by a heightened mental accessibility of environmental cues related to the goal completion task. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Past behavior guides future responses through 2 processes. Well-practiced behaviors in constant contexts recur because the processing that initiates and controls their performance becomes automatic. Frequency of past behavior then reflects habit strength and has a direct effect on future performance. Alternately, when behaviors are not well learned or when they are performed in unstable or difficult contexts, conscious decision making is likely to be necessary to initiate and carry out the behavior. Under these conditions, past behavior (along with attitudes and subjective norms) may contribute to intentions, and behavior is guided by intentions. These relations between past behavior and future behavior are substantiated in a meta-analytic synthesis of prior research on behavior prediction and in a primary research investigation.
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Psychological approaches often conceptualize "free will" as self-determined decision-making. However, the functional mechanisms potentially underlying volitional freedom or its limitations have barely been elaborated. Starting from a functional definition of volition, we illustrate how personality systems interactions (PSI) theory may contribute to explaining underlying mechanisms of volitional freedom. Specifically, based on neurobiological evidence, this theory postulates that degrees of volitional freedom increase with an increasing involvement of more complex levels of psychological functioning (e.g., from habits and affective impulses toward motives, specific goals, intentions, and more global, personal goals). We will demonstrate how, at a psychological level, demand-related stress limits the pursuit of specific goals, whereas threat-related stress limits self-congruent choice of specific goals. Empirical evidence will be reported that relate to these two possible ways of losing volitional ("top-down") control. In addition, we report on neurobiological findings supporting the present view of volitional freedom and its limitations.
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Can children improve shielding an ongoing task from distractions by if-then planning (i.e., by forming implementation intentions)? In an experimental study, the situational and personal limits of action control by distraction-inhibiting implementation intentions (“If a distraction comes up, then I will ignore it!”) were tested by comparing them to simple goal intentions (“I will ignore distractions!”). Goal intentions were sufficient to successfully ignore distractions of low attractiveness. In the presence of moderately and highly attractive distractions, as well as a distraction presented out of the children’s sight, however, only implementation intentions improved children’s task shielding, as indicated by faster response times in an ongoing categorization task and shorter periods of looking at highly attractive distractions presented out of their field of vision. These findings held true regardless of the children’s temperament and language competency. Implications for research on planning and developmental research on self-control are discussed.
Article
Two experiments based upon Gollwitzer's (1993) concept of implementation intentions are described. In both experiments, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions from Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behaviour were used to measure participants' motivation prior to an intervention in which participants made implementation intentions specifying where and when they would take a vitamin C pill each day. Behaviours were assessed by self-report and pill count at both 10 days and 3 weeks in Experiment 1, and at 2 weeks and 5 weeks in Experiment 2. Results supported the view that participants who formed implementation intentions were less likely to miss taking a pill every day compared to controls. Evidence suggested that implementation intentions were effective because they allowed participants to pass control of behaviour to the environmental cues contained in the implementation intention. Implications of the study and some suggestions for future research are outlined. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Experience has a paradoxical effect on intention-behavior consistency. In some studies greater experience is associated with weaker intention-behavior relations (due to habit formation), whereas in other studies experience strengthens the relationship between intention and behavior (by stabilizing intentions). The present research tests the idea that both of these findings are possible—because experience produces a quadratic relationship between intentions and behavior. Findings from a longitudinal study of blood donors (N = 2,389) indicated that the intention-behavior relation exhibited the predicted inverted U-shaped curve as a function of lifetime donation experience. Greater experience of donation enhanced the predictive validity of intention up to a point; thereafter, increasing experience was associated with weaker prediction of donation behavior by intention. These findings are consistent with the idea that experience both strengthens and weakens the intention-behavior relation and help to resolve a long-standing paradox in research on behavioral prediction.
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Although observers of human behavior have long been aware that people regularly struggle with internal conflict when deciding whether to behave responsibly or indulge in impulsivity, psychologists and economists did not begin to empirically investigate this type of want/should conflict until recently. In this article, we review and synthesize the latest research on want/should conflict, focusing our attention on the findings from an empirical literature on the topic that has blossomed over the last 15 years. We then turn to a discussion of how individuals and policy makers can use what has been learned about want/should conflict to help decision makers select far-sighted options. © 2008, Association for Psychological Science. All rights reserved.
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How can progress in research on health behavior change be accelerated? Experimental medicine (EM) offers an approach that can help investigators specify the research questions that need to be addressed and the evidence needed to test those questions. Whereas current research draws predominantly on multiple overlapping theories resting largely on correlational evidence, the EM approach emphasizes experimental tests of targets or mechanisms of change and programmatic research on which targets change health behaviors and which techniques change those targets. There is evidence that engaging particular targets promotes behavior change; however, systematic studies are needed to identify and validate targets and to discover when and how targets are best engaged. The EM approach promises progress in answering the key question that will enable the science of health behavior change to improve public health: What strategies are effective in promoting behavior change, for whom, and under what circumstances? Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 68 is January 03, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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The resource model of self-control casts self-control as a capacity that relies on some limited resource that exhausts with use. The model captured our imagination and brought much-needed attention on an important yet neglected psychological construct. Despite its success, basic issues with the model remain. Here, we ask six questions: (i) Does self-control really wane over time? (ii) Is ego depletion a form of mental fatigue? (iii) What is the resource that is depleted by ego depletion? (iv) How can changes in motivation, perception, and expectations replenish an exhausted resource? (v) Has the revised resource model unwittingly become a model about motivation? (vi) Do self-control exercises increase selfcontrol? By providing some answers to these questions – including conducting a meta-analysis of the self-control training literature – we highlight how the resource model needs to be revised if not supplanted altogether.
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Can self-control be improved through practice? Several studies have found that repeated practice of tasks involving self-control improves performance on other tasks relevant to self-control. However, in many of these studies, improvements after training could be attributable to methodological factors (e.g., passive control conditions). Moreover, the extent to which the effects of training transfer to real-life settings is not yet clear. In the present research, participants (N 174) completed a 6-week training program of either cognitive or behavioral self-control tasks. We then tested the effects of practice on a range of measures of self-control, including lab-based and real-world tasks. Training was compared with both active and no-contact control conditions. Despite high levels of adherence to the training tasks, there was no effect of training on any measure of self-control. Trained participants did not, for example, show reduced ego depletion effects, become better at overcoming their habits, or report exerting more self-control in everyday life. Moderation analyses found no evidence that training was effective only among particular groups of participants. Bayesian analyses suggested that the data was more consistent with a null effect of training on self-control than with previous estimates of the effect of practice. The implication is that training self-control through repeated practice does not result in generalized improvements in self-control.
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The present experiment investigated cognitive and behavioral effects of planning (i.e. forming implementation intentions) on goal pursuit during the performance of mundane behaviors. Participants received the goal to collect a coupon halfway the hall from the lab to the cafeteria. Later, they were also given the task to go from the lab to the cafeteria. Thus participants had to attain a new goal by interrupting a mundane behavior. Some participants enriched their goal with implementation intentions, others did not. Results showed that participants who formed implementation intentions were more effective in goal pursuit than the control group. Importantly, the data suggest that the effects of planning on goal completion are mediated by a heightened mental accessibility of environmental cues related to the goal completion task. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Cybernetic models suggest that to achieve one's long-term goals, one must create specific plans, enact these plan, monitor progress toward the goal, and resist temptations. Although many studies have examined these proposals in laboratory settings, few studies have examined such processes in daily life. This was the explicit purpose of the current investigation. Participants identified 4 long-term goals during an orientation session. They then completed a diary protocol in which they reported on these self-regulatory processes. The results were largely consistent with predictions. Of the 20 hypotheses examined, 17 were significant in the expected direction. For example, testing led to the initiation of long-term goal operations, which in turn led to goal progress. Likewise, temptations led to self-control operations, which in turn led to the successful resistance of temptations. The investigation thus suggests that cybernetic principles have broad relevance to understanding goal pursuit in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record