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Management of tick infestation in dogs

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Abstract

The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.
Kumar and Srikala/ J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 1(3): 145-147, September 2014 145
Management of tick infestation in dogs
Somasani Ayodhya
Campus Veterinary Hospital, TVCC, College of Veterinary Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University,
Andhra Pradesh, India.
Correspondence: sayodhya6@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The present study was carried out during the month
of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history
of various diseases were presented to the Campus
Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical
Complex, College of Veterinary Science,
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs
that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the
clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced
food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously
rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses,
and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination
of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus,
and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were
treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection
dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval
for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with
cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In
the present study, it was observed that
ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was
effective for the management of tick infestation in
dogs.
Keywords
Cypermethrin, Dogs, Ivermectin, Lice, Ticks
Received : 28 March 2014, Revised: 24 April 2014,
Accepted : 16 June 2014, Published online: 16 June 2014.
INTRODUCTION
Ticks, lice, fleas and mites are the most common
parasites of dogs found on skin. The tick infestation in
dog underscores the importance of tick control
measures (Beck et al., 2013). Adult dog ectoparasites
feed on blood while they live on skin. Within 24 h, each
female parasite can lay up to 50 eggs. The eggs fall off
the dog into the surrounding area. The next generation
of ticks is developed in the house, car or other places
where the dog goes. Some dogs bearing the ticks on
their skin do not show any skin disease, whereas others
can show hair loss, severe irritation, inflamed or
secondarily-infected skin (Smith et al., 2011). Different
pathogens are transmitted by ticks to animals and
humans (Beck et al., 2013).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was carried out during the month of
January 2014 in Campus Veterinary Hospital,
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. Tick infestation was
diagnosed based on clinical signs and visualization of
ticks. All tick-infested dogs were treated once weekly
for 3 weeks with Ivermectin injection (at 1 mL/50 kg
b.wt.) subcutaneously and cypermethrin shampoo. For
fast tick eradication, kennel premises were also treated
with insecticide liquid cypermethrin at 1 mL/L of
water. In addition to treatment with these specific
drugs, infested cases were also given multivitamin and
amino acid tablets orally once a day for 30 days and
chlorpheniramine maleate by intramuscular (IM)
injection at 0.5-1.0 mL for 5 days for quick relief from
itching sensation. To avoid reinfestation that might be
associated with the emergence of developing nymphal
stages from eggs that fell on the ground and possible
body contact with other infested animals, the same
therapy was repeated 7 days and 14 days after the first
treatment. The improvement in the therapy was
J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 1(3): 145-147.
Available at- http://bdvets.org/JAVAR
CASE REPORT
OPEN ACCESS
DOI: 10.5455/javar.2014.a18
eISSN 2311-7710
Volume 1 Issue 3 (September 2014)
monitored at different intervals after 0, 7 and 14 days of
post treatment. External parasites were collected for
laboratory diagnosis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48
dogs had the clinical signs of alopecia, itching, reduced
food intake, restlessness, and scratching and were
continuously rubbing their bodies against the walls in
the houses. Clinical examination revealed presence of
alopecia, pruritus, and small crust formation (Jennett et
al., 2013). Lesions were distributed all over the body,
but particularly confined to shoulders, neck, back, ears,
and over the tail head. General clinical examination
revealed no changes in body temperature or pulse rate,
but the visible mucous membranes were pale. Close
inspection of the skin of all dogs at multiple locations
revealed the presence of various stages of ectoparasites.
In the total 148-dog population prevalence of tick
infestation was 32.4%. Of the 48 dogs with clinical signs
of tick infestation, 38 were positive for Rhipicephalus
spp (79.16%), and 10 for Hyalomma spp (20.8%). Of the
clinically affected dogs, 23 were male (47.9%)
compared to 25 female (52.1%), 26 were strays (54.17%)
compared to 22 pets (45.83%), and 27 (56.25%) were
younger than 1 year of age compared to 21 (43.75%)
that were older than 1 year of age. The dogs with above
therapy did not reveal any ticks after 24 h. There were
no adverse reactions to the insecticide in any of the
treated dogs and or any of staff (handlers and kennel
workers).
Amuta et al. (2010) reported that out of the 130 dogs
examined, 55.38% (n=72/130) dogs were infested with
various species of ticks. A study in Nagpur,
Maharashtra, India carried out by Raut et al., (2007) to
assess the prevalence of ticks in 167 male and female
German Shepherd dogs, older than 3 years of age, that
were screened during post-monsoon season, revealed
the prevalence of Rhipicephalus (R.) sanguineus tick
infestation was 80.23%. Similarly, Papazahariadou et al,
(2003) reported 89.3% infestation of R. sanguineus in
dogs. In an another study, Adhikari et al. (2013) found
that 46.39% dogs were infested with three different
ixodid tick spp. (viz., Boophilus spp., Rhipicephalus spp.,
and Haemaphysalis spp.); however, many dogs had
mixed infestations.
In our study, stray dogs were found to be mostly
affected (54.17%) as compared to pet dogs. These
results supported the findings of Adhikari et al. (2013)
who reported a higher rate of tick infestation among
stray dogs (58.33%) as compared to pet dogs. In terms
of age group, younger (<1 year) dogs were highly
infested (56.25%) as compared to older (>1 year) dogs
(43.75%), which were in agreement with Adhikari et al.
(2013).
For the treatment of pets, a topical spot-on solution was
developed that contained metaflumizone and amitraz
as active ingredients (Sabnis et al., 2007). As we
reported in this paper, Pradeep et al. (2010) found
cypermethrin as an effective drug against R. sanguineus.
Similarly, Sharma et al (2008) reported that within 48 h
post-application of cypermethrin, 100% of female
engorged ticks were disappeared, and all the dogs
treated with cypermethrin shampoo were completely
tick free. After completion of three applications of the
above combination therapy along with supportive
therapy, all the dogs retained their normal activities
with normal intake of feed and normal habitat.
CONCLUSIONS
In the present study, it was observed that a
combination therapy of weekly subcutaneous injections
of ivermectin (at 0.02 mL/kg b.wt.), weekly bathing
with cypermethrin shampoo, and spraying premises
with cypermethrin (1 mL/L of water) was effective for
the management of tick infestation in dogs.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors are grateful to Dr. T. Madhava Rao,
Professor & Head, Campus Veterinary Hospital,
Teaching Veterinary Clinical complex, College of
Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad for
providing necessary facilities, and funding to carry out
the present investigation.
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Aim: To study the prevalence of tick infestation in dogs in and around Bhubaneswar. Materials and Methods: Atotal of 610 dogs (360 stray dogs & 250 pet dogs) in and around Bhubaneswar belonging to either sex were examined for tick infestation during a period of one year (Aug 2011-July 2012). Standard parasitological procedures were followed for collection, processing and identification of ticks. Result: 283 dogs (46.39%) were found positive for tick infestation with three different ixodid tick spp., viz. Rhipicephalus spp (39.51%), Boophilus spp.(4.92%) and Haemaphysalis spp. (1.97%) with many dogs having mixed infestations. Higher rate of incidence was recorded among stray dogs (58.33%) as compared to pet dogs (29.20%). Prevalence among dogs less than 1 year of age was higher (53.41%) than dogs above one year (45.21%). The overall percentage of incidence was higher (53.97%) among males than females (38.31%) in both stray and pet dogs. Influence of age and the variation due to sex on prevalence of tick infestations was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Highest percentage of prevalence (48.86%) was recorded during rainy season followed by summer season (40.39%) and lowest (32.24%) in winter. Influence of season on the prevalence of tick infestation was highly significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: Our study revealed the occurrence of three types of ixodid ticks in dogs with a prevalence of mixed infestation. Influence of age, sex and season on the prevalence of tick infestation was found to be significant.
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Increases in the abundance and distribution of ticks and tick borne disease (TBD) within Europe have been reported extensively over the last 10-20 years. Changes in climate, habitat management, economic patterns and changes in the abundance of hosts, particularly deer, may all have influenced this change to varying extents. Increasing abundances of tick populations in urban and peri-urban environments, such as parks, are of particular concern. In these sites, suitable habitat, wildlife hosts, tick populations, people and their pets may be brought into close proximity and hence may provide foci for tick infestation and, ultimately, disease transmission. The distribution and abundance of ticks were examined in an intensively used, peri-urban park. First the seasonal and spatial distribution and abundance of ticks in various habitat types were quantified by blanket dragging. Then the pattern of pet dog movement in the park was mapped by attaching GPS recorders to the collars of dogs brought to the park for exercise, allowing their walking routes to be tracked. Information about the dog, its park use and its history of tick attachment were obtained from the dog-owners. Ticks were found predominantly in woodland, woodland edge and deer park areas and were least abundant in mown grassland. Tick infestation of dogs was a relatively frequent occurrence with, on average, one case of tick attachment reported per year for a dog walked once per week, but for some dogs walked daily, infestation 4-5 times per week was reported. All dogs appeared to be at equal risk, regardless of walk route or duration and infestation was primarily influenced by the frequency of exposure. In peri-urban green spaces, tick-biting risk for dogs may be high and here was shown to be related primarily to exposure frequency. While tick-biting is of direct veterinary importance for dogs, dogs also represent useful sentinels for human tick-exposure.
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A trial was undertaken to study the comparative efficacy of cypermethrin and doramectin on the basis of various haematobiochemical alterations following treatment of dogs naturally infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A cent percent control of ticks was attained with both the acaricides on 7 days post treatment. The animals exhibited improvement in levels of haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and packed cell volume following treatment with acaricides. An increase in serum total proteins and albumin was also observed in dogs post treatment. Both the drugs were successful in controlling ticks in dogs at the recommended doses with spray wash cypermethrin being additionally used in animal kennels.
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Rhipicephalus sp is the most versatile and common tick infesting all breeds of dogs. In the present communication efficacy of Amitraz (Tactick) as topical application and shampoo based Cypermethrin (Cisaflux) and Carbaryl (Notix) were evaluated against tick infestation in pet dogs.
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The efficacy of three commonly used acaricides cypermethrin, deltamethrin (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% concentrations) and amitraz (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% concentrations) was evaluated against the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The in vitro methods viz. tea bag, filter paper impregnation and immersion (Shaw larval immersion) methods were used. Adult immersion test with discriminating doses recommended by FAO, 1999 was used to note resistance development if present. Comparison of different in vitro methods was done based on the efficacy against different stages of the tick. The immersion method fared better in efficacy followed by tea bag and filter paper methods. Amitraz was highly effective against R. sanguineus, whereas 30% resistance was observed with both cypermethrin and deltamethrin.
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Ticks can transmit different pathogens to humans and animals. Dogs are frequently exposed to tick infestation, which underscores the importance of tick control measures. The objective of this study was to examine the awareness of dog owners regarding tick infestation and tick prophylaxis by a questionnaire survey. During the period from March to December 2010 a total of 616 owners of 670 dogs completed the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire results, 92% of the dogs were previously infested by ticks; 31% of these showed a moderate tick infestation (1-2 ticks a month), almost one in ten dogs was infested by eight or more ticks a month. 17% of the dogs were examined for ticks by the respective owner not at all or only at irregular intervals, 61% of the dogs were examined at least once a day. A tick prophylaxis was performed in 469 dogs (71%). In 353 dogs (53%), registered pharmaceutical products with appropriate label claims were employed. Spot-on products were used most frequently (93%), followed by collars (5%) and sprays (1%).These products were not used as recommended in 56% of the dogs. For further 33% of the dogs, it was not possible to decide if the products were used correctly or not. According to the dog owner statements, tick borne diseases were diagnosed in approximately 2% of the dogs. Dog specific characters, such as coat length, size, age, and walking habits were significant factors influencing the frequency of tick infestation. In summary it can be concluded that nearly every dog in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg is infested by ticks. In the majority of cases the prophylactic and/or therapeutic measures to prevent infestation are not performed correctly.
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Ticks were collected from 249 dogs, admitted over a one-year period (1996-1997) to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital and four private veterinary practices located in the county of Thessaloniki, Greece. A total of 2812 ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were collected, of which 2511 (89.3%) were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) adults (1070 males, 1441 females), 156 (5.5%) R. turanicus Pomerantsev adults (35 males, 121 females), 100 (3.6%) Rhipicephalus spp. nymphs and 45 (1.6%) Rhipicephalus spp. larvae. Dogs living outdoors, in rural areas and in close proximity to farm animals, were infested with higher numbers of ticks than dogs living indoors. Tick attachment sites were recorded on 237 dogs, harbouring a total of 1711 ticks. The most heavily infested sites were, in decreasing frequency, the ear pinnae, neck, interdigital skin folds, trunk, head, ventrum, extremities and the tail. Cutaneous lesions at the attachment sites were noticed in 129 dogs and then mainly in the more severely infested animals.
Severe tick infestation in German Shepherd dogs at Nagpur
  • Pa Raut
  • Dk Maske
  • Ak Jayraw
  • Vg Sonkusale
Raut PA, Maske DK, Jayraw AK, Sonkusale VG (2007). Severe tick infestation in German Shepherd dogs at Nagpur. Indian Journal of Field Veterinarians, 2:64-66.
Tick infestation of dogs in Makurdi metropolis
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Amuta EU, Houmsou RS, Ogabiela M (2010). Tick infestation of dogs in Makurdi metropolis, Benue State-Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 7:15.