ArticlePDF Available

A preliminary study on the activity budget of post released Eastern Hoolock Gibbon Hoolock leuconedys (Mammalia: Primates: Hylobatidae) in Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The Wildlife Trust of India has taken a long term responsibility to identify a suitable habitat for the threatened families of Eastern Hoolock Gibbon from a village called Dello in Arunachal Pradesh to a nearby forested area which was the earlier home of this species. There is an ongoing successful rescue and translocation programme since November, 2011 in which four Eastern Hoolock Gibbon families comprising 11 individuals were translocated in three different habitat types in and around the forested area of the Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary. Post-release monitoring is an obvious and required technique to study the rescued families of Eastern Hoolock Gibbons after translocation to confirm their post-release survival and better livelihood. The regular monitoring of the activity patterns has helped to understand the habitat utilization and resource use in the newly released sites. Along with the rescue operation, there is an additional task to find out the potential habitats to define as ideal release sites for gibbons. The post release monitoring was studied through the instantaneous scan sampling method to collect the information mostly about their activity patterns. The present study describes the overall activity patterns and resource use in the released gibbons on the basis of utilization of different habitat types. It was observed that the ranging pattern was mostly influenced by the resource availability and forest type. The gibbon family released in the denser forest habitat developed a general food habit whereas the family from the thinner forest area became the specialist consumer. However, further detailed study with sufficient data is required to comment on their general ecology.
No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
ÖÙ½®Ã®ÄÙùÝãçùÊÄã«ã®ò®ãùç¦ãÊ¥ÖÊÝãÙ½Ý
ÝãÙÄ,ÊʽÊ»'®ÊÄ,ÊʽÊ»½çÊÄùÝ;DÃÃ½®͗
WÙ®ÃãÝ͗,ù½Êã®Ϳ®ÄD«Êt®½½®¥^ÄãçÙù͕
ÙçÄ«½WÙÝ«͕/Ä®
Kuladeep Roy 1͕,ŝŵĂŶŝEĂƵƟLJĂů 2Θ^ŽƵŵLJĂĂƐŐƵƉƚĂ 3
1,3&Ͳϭϯ͕^ĞĐƚŽƌͲϴ͕EŽŝĚĂ͕hƩĂƌWƌĂĚĞƐŚϮϬϭϯϬϭ͕/ŶĚŝĂ
Ϯ^ĐŚŽŽůŽĨEĂƚƵƌĂů^ĐŝĞŶĐĞĂŶĚŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐ͕EĂƟŽŶĂů/ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞŽĨĚǀĂŶĐĞƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ͕//^ĐĂŵƉƵƐ͕ĞŶŐĂůƵƌƵ͕
<ĂƌŶĂƚĂŬĂϱϲϬϬϭϮ͕/ŶĚŝĂ
1 ŬƵůĂĚĞĞƉƌŽLJΛŐŵĂŝů͘ĐŽŵ;ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚŝŶŐĂƵƚŚŽƌͿ͕ϮŚŝŵĂŶŝ͘ŶĂƵƟLJĂůϬϴΛŐŵĂŝů͘ĐŽŵ͕3 ƐŽƵŵLJĂΛǁƟ͘ŽƌŐ͘ŝŶ
7862
/^^EϬϵϳϰͲϳϵϬϳ;KŶůŝŶĞͿ
/^^EϬϵϳϰͲϳϴϵϯ;WƌŝŶƚͿ
KWE^^
ÊÃÃçÄ®ã®ÊÄ
:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨdŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚdĂdžĂͮǁǁǁ͘ƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚƚĂdžĂ͘ŽƌŐͮϮϲKĐƚŽďĞƌϮϬϭϱͮϳ;ϭϮͿ͗ϳϴϲϮʹϳϴϲϵ
K/͗ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĚdž͘ĚŽŝ͘ŽƌŐͬϭϬ͘ϭϭϲϬϵͬ:Ždd͘Žϯϴϲϵ͘ϳϴϲϮͲϵ
ĚŝƚŽƌ͗DĞǁĂ^ŝŶŐŚ͕hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨDLJƐŽƌĞ͕DLJƐƵƌƵ͕/ŶĚŝĂ͘ ĂƚĞŽĨƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͗ϮϲKĐƚŽďĞƌϮϬϭϱ;ŽŶůŝŶĞΘƉƌŝŶƚͿ
DĂŶƵƐĐƌŝƉƚĚĞƚĂŝůƐ͗DƐηŽϯϴϲϵͮZĞĐĞŝǀĞĚϮϰEŽǀĞŵďĞƌϮϬϭϰͮ&ŝŶĂůƌĞĐĞŝǀĞĚϭϱ^ĞƉƚĞŵďĞƌϮϬϭϱͮ&ŝŶĂůůLJĂĐĐĞƉƚĞĚϮϵ^ĞƉƚĞŵďĞƌϮϬϭϱ
ŝƚĂƟŽŶ͗ZŽLJ͕<͕͘,͘EĂƵƟLJĂůΘ^͘ĂƐŐƵƉƚĂ;ϮϬϭϱͿ͘ƉƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJƐƚƵĚLJŽŶƚŚĞĂĐƟǀŝƚLJďƵĚŐĞƚŽĨƉŽƐƚƌĞůĞĂƐĞĚĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶHoolock leuconedys;DĂŵ-
ŵĂůŝĂ͗WƌŝŵĂƚĞƐ͗,LJůŽďĂƟĚĂĞͿŝŶDĞŚĂŽtŝůĚůŝĨĞ^ĂŶĐƚƵĂƌLJ͕ƌƵŶĂĐŚĂůWƌĂĚĞƐŚ͕/ŶĚŝĂ͘Journal of Threatened Taxaϳ;ϭϮͿ͗ϳϴϲϮʹϳϴϲϵ; ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĚdž͘ĚŽŝ͘ŽƌŐͬϭϬ͘ϭϭϲϬϵͬ
:Ždd͘Žϯϴϲϵ͘ϳϴϲϮʹϳϴϲϵ
ŽƉLJƌŝŐŚƚ͗ ©ZĂLJĞƚĂů͘ ϮϬϭϱ͘ƌĞĂƟǀĞ ŽŵŵŽŶƐƩƌŝďƵƟŽŶϰ͘Ϭ/ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů >ŝĐĞŶƐĞ͘:ŽddĂůůŽǁƐƵŶƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƚĞĚƵƐĞŽĨƚŚŝƐĂƌƟĐůĞŝŶĂŶLJŵĞĚŝƵŵ͕ƌĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ
ĂŶĚĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶďLJƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐĂĚĞƋƵĂƚĞĐƌĞĚŝƚƚŽƚŚĞĂƵƚŚŽƌƐĂŶĚƚŚĞƐŽƵƌĐĞŽĨƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͘
&ƵŶĚŝŶŐ͗dŚĞ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ 'ŝďďŽŶdƌĂŶƐůŽĐĂƟŽŶ WƌŽũĞĐƚǁĂƐŵĂũŽƌůLJ ĨƵŶĚĞĚďLJ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů&ƵŶĚĨŽƌ ŶŝŵĂůtĞůĨĂƌĞ;/&tͿ͘dŚĞƌĞǁĂƐ ĂŶŝŶŝƟĂůĚŽŶŽƌ ĂůƐŽŽď
EŽLJĞŶ;dŚĞEŽLJĞŶͲDĞůĞŶĚĞnj&ĂŵŝůLJdƌƵƐƚͿ͘dŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚŚĂĚďĞĞŶŝŶŝƟĂƚĞĚŝŶϮϬϬϵ͘
ŽŶŇŝĐƚŽĨ/ŶƚĞƌĞƐƚ͗dŚĞĂƵƚŚŽƌƐĚĞĐůĂƌĞŶŽĐŽŵƉĞƟŶŐŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚƐ͘
ForƵƚŚŽƌŽŶƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶĂŶĚƵƚŚŽƌĞƚĂŝůƐƐĞĞĞŶĚŽĨƚŚŝƐĂƌƟĐůĞ͘
ĐŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ͗dŚĞŽǀĞƌĂůůǁŽƌŬǁĂƐĂƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶdƌĂŶƐůŽĐĂƟŽŶWƌŽũĞĐƚƵŶĚĞƌƚŚĞŝďĂŶŐsĂůůĞLJŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶWƌŽũĞĐƚŽĨƚŚĞtŝůĚůŝĨĞdƌƵƐƚ
ŽĨ/ŶĚŝĂ͘ tĞĂƌĞǀĞƌLJ ŵƵĐŚƚŚĂŶŬĨƵů ƚŽƚŚĞŵĨŽƌƚŚĞŝƌŽǀĞƌĂůů ůŽŐŝƐƟĐƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ĂŶĚŐƵŝĚĂŶĐĞ͘tĞ ƚŚĂŶŬƚŚĞ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚŽĨ &ŽƌĞƐƚĂŶĚŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ƌƵŶĂĐŚĂů
WƌĂĚĞƐŚĂŶĚDĞŚĂŽtŝůĚůŝĨĞ^ĂŶĐƚƵĂƌLJŝǀŝƐŝŽŶĨŽƌŐŝǀŝŶŐ ƵƐǁŽƌŬƉĞƌŵŝƐƐŝŽŶŝŶZŽŝŶŐĂŶĚĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚĂƌĞĂƐ͘tĞ ĂƌĞǀĞƌLJŵƵĐŚƚŚĂŶŬĨƵůƚŽƚŚĞŝǀŝƐŝŽŶĂů&ŽƌĞƐƚ
KĸĐĞƌ͕ZĂŶŐĞKĸĐĞĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌ ĨŽƌĞƐƚŽĸĐŝĂůƐƚŽŚĞůƉƵƐ ĚƵƌŝŶŐƚŚĞǁŽƌŬŝŶĞŽƉĂŶŝ &ŽƌĞƐƚĞĚĂƌĞĂŽĨDĞŚĂŽtŝůĚůŝĨĞ ^ĂŶĐƚƵĂƌLJ͘KƵƌƐƉĞĐŝĂůƚŚĂŶŬƐƚŽ Dƌ͘/ƉƌĂ
DĞŬŽůĂ͕ŵĞŵďĞƌŽĨtŝůĚůŝĨĞŝŽĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĂƌĚ͕ƌƵŶĂĐŚĂůWƌĂĚĞƐŚ͕ŚŝƉƌĂDĞŬŽůĂ͕ĂŶŝŵĂůŬĞĞƉĞƌ͕ tŝůĚůŝĨĞdƌƵƐƚŽĨ/ŶĚŝĂĂŶĚƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂůǀŝůůĂŐĞƌƐŽĨdĞǁĂƌŝ'ĂŽŶ
ĂŶĚ&ŽƌĞƐƚŽůŽŶLJ͕ZŽŝŶŐĨŽƌƚŚĞŝƌĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͘
ďƐƚƌĂĐƚ͗ dŚĞ tŝůĚůŝĨĞdƌƵƐƚ ŽĨ /ŶĚŝĂ ŚĂƐ ƚĂŬĞŶ Ă ůŽŶŐ ƚĞƌŵƌĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŝĚĞŶƟĨLJ Ă ƐƵŝƚĂďůĞ ŚĂďŝƚĂƚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚ ĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ ŽĨ
ĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ 'ŝďďŽŶĨƌŽŵ ĂǀŝůůĂŐĞĐĂůůĞĚ ĞůůŽŝŶƌƵŶĂĐŚĂů WƌĂĚĞƐŚƚŽ Ă ŶĞĂƌďLJĨŽƌĞƐƚĞĚĂƌĞĂǁŚŝĐŚ ǁĂƐƚŚĞĞĂƌůŝĞƌ ŚŽŵĞŽĨƚŚŝƐ
ƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ͘dŚĞƌĞŝƐĂŶŽŶŐŽŝŶŐƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵůƌĞƐĐƵĞĂŶĚƚƌĂŶƐůŽĐĂƟŽŶƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞƐŝŶĐĞEŽǀĞŵďĞƌ͕ϮϬϭϭŝŶǁŚŝĐŚĨŽƵƌĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶ
ĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐĐŽŵƉƌŝƐŝŶŐϭϭŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐǁĞƌĞƚƌĂŶƐůŽĐĂƚĞĚŝŶƚŚƌĞĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŚĂďŝƚĂƚƚLJƉĞƐŝŶĂŶĚĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞĨŽƌĞƐƚĞĚĂƌĞĂŽĨƚŚĞDĞŚĂŽtŝůĚůŝĨĞ
^ĂŶĐƚƵĂƌLJ͘WŽƐƚͲƌĞůĞĂƐĞŵŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐŝƐĂŶŽďǀŝŽƵƐĂŶĚƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƚŽƐƚƵĚLJƚŚĞƌĞƐĐƵĞĚĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐŽĨĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶƐĂŌĞƌ
ƚƌĂŶƐůŽĐĂƟŽŶƚŽĐŽŶĮƌŵƚŚĞŝƌƉŽƐƚͲƌĞůĞĂƐĞƐƵƌǀŝǀĂůĂŶĚ ďĞƩĞƌůŝǀĞůŝŚŽŽĚ͘ dŚĞƌĞŐƵůĂƌ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐŽĨ ƚŚĞĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ƉĂƩĞƌŶƐŚĂƐ ŚĞůƉĞĚƚŽ
ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĞŚĂďŝƚĂƚƵƟůŝnjĂƟŽŶĂŶĚ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƵƐĞ ŝŶƚŚĞŶĞǁůLJ ƌĞůĞĂƐĞĚƐŝƚĞƐ͘ ůŽŶŐǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞƌĞƐĐƵĞŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕ƚŚĞƌĞŝƐĂŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶĂů
ƚĂƐŬƚŽĮŶĚ ŽƵƚƚŚĞƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůŚĂďŝƚĂƚƐƚŽĚĞĮŶĞĂƐŝĚĞĂů ƌĞůĞĂƐĞƐŝƚĞƐĨŽƌŐŝďďŽŶƐ͘dŚĞ ƉŽƐƚƌĞůĞĂƐĞŵŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐǁĂƐƐƚƵĚŝĞĚƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚŚĞ
ŝŶƐƚĂŶƚĂŶĞŽƵƐƐĐĂŶ ƐĂŵƉůŝŶŐ ŵĞƚŚŽĚ ƚŽĐŽůůĞĐƚƚŚĞ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŵŽƐƚůLJ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚĞŝƌĂĐƟǀŝƚLJƉĂƩĞƌŶƐ͘ dŚĞ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ ƐƚƵĚLJĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐƚŚĞ
ŽǀĞƌĂůůĂĐƟǀŝƚLJƉĂƩĞƌŶƐĂŶĚƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƵƐĞŝŶƚŚĞƌĞůĞĂƐĞĚŐŝďďŽŶƐŽŶƚŚĞďĂƐŝƐŽĨƵƟůŝnjĂƟŽŶŽĨĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŚĂďŝƚĂƚƚLJƉĞƐ͘/ƚǁĂƐŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚƚŚĂƚ
ƚŚĞƌĂŶŐŝŶŐƉĂƩĞƌŶǁĂƐŵŽƐƚůLJ ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞĚďLJ ƚŚĞƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďŝůŝƚLJĂŶĚĨŽƌĞƐƚƚLJƉĞ͘ dŚĞŐŝďďŽŶ ĨĂŵŝůLJƌĞůĞĂƐĞĚŝŶƚŚĞĚĞŶƐĞƌĨŽƌĞƐƚ
ŚĂďŝƚĂƚĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚĂŐĞŶĞƌĂůĨŽŽĚŚĂďŝƚǁŚĞƌĞĂƐƚŚĞĨĂŵŝůLJĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƚŚŝŶŶĞƌĨŽƌĞƐƚĂƌĞĂďĞĐĂŵĞƚŚĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝƐƚĐŽŶƐƵŵĞƌ͘,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ
ĚĞƚĂŝůĞĚƐƚƵĚLJǁŝƚŚƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚĚĂƚĂŝƐƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƚŽĐŽŵŵĞŶƚŽŶƚŚĞŝƌŐĞŶĞƌĂůĞĐŽůŽŐLJ͘
<ĞLJǁŽƌĚƐ͗ĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶ͕ŚĂďŝƚĂƚ͕DĞŚĂŽtŝůĚůŝĨĞ^ĂŶĐƚƵĂƌLJ͕ƉŽƐƚͲƌĞůĞĂƐĞŵŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐ͕ƚƌĂŶƐůŽĐĂƟŽŶ͘
DATA
DEFICIENT
DD
NOT
EVALUATED
NE
ENDANGERED
EN
EXTINCT
IN THE WILD
EW
EXTINCT
EX
CRITICALLY
ENDANGERED
CR
LEAST
CONCERN
LC
NEAR
THREATENED
NT
VULNERABLE
VU
Hoolock leuconedys
ĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶ
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 October 2015 | 7(12): 7862–7869
Acvity budget of post released Eastern Hoolock Gibbon Roy et al.
7863
INTRODUCTION
     
      
       

         
        
         

      

        
       

      


       

       
         
      
        


 


 
       
       

        


      
         
      



Subjects
       
        

       
 
 


        


 
        
        


     

METHODS
Study Site

      
        
       


         
  

       
        
       
   



  
         


        
       

Data Collecon
       
      


  
       
       
       

       
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 October 2015 | 7(12): 7862–7869
ĐƟǀŝƚLJďƵĚŐĞƚŽĨƉŽƐƚƌĞůĞĂƐĞĚĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶ ZŽLJĞƚĂů͘
7864
/ŵĂŐĞϭ͘dŚĞƐƚƵĚLJĂƌĞĂͲŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƟŶŐĐĂƉƚƵƌĞƐŝƚĞ;ĞůůŽͿĂŶĚƌĞůĞĂƐĞƐŝƚĞ;DĞŚĂŽtŝůĚůŝĨĞ^ĂŶĐƚƵĂƌLJͿ
/ŵĂŐĞϮ͘DĂůĞĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶ /ŵĂŐĞϯ͘&ĞŵĂůĞĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶ
Ξ<ƵůĂĚĞĞƉZŽLJ
Ξ,ŝŵĂŶŝEĂƵƟLJĂů

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 October 2015 | 7(12): 7862–7869
Acvity budget of post released Eastern Hoolock Gibbon Roy et al.
7865


        
        

     
   
 

  

      
 
   
      
       
       
     
        
     
 


     
        




     



RESULTS
Group 1



         

 
    

       
          



Group 2
          
        
   


  

         
    
   
  
   
        
         
  
 






  

Image 4. Male and female Eastern Hoolock Gibbons

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 October 2015 | 7(12): 7862–7869
ĐƟǀŝƚLJďƵĚŐĞƚŽĨƉŽƐƚƌĞůĞĂƐĞĚĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶ ZŽLJĞƚĂů͘
7866
'ƌŽƵƉϯ
ƚŽƚĂů ŽĨ ϴϰϯ ƐĐĂŶƐ ǁĞƌĞ ƌĞĐŽƌĚĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ϮϬ ŬŝůŽ
ŐƌŽƵƉŽĨ ǁŚŝĐŚ Ϯϴϭ͕ϮϴϭĂŶĚϮϴϭ ƐĐĂŶƐǁĞƌĞŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ
ĨŽƌƚŚĞĂĚƵůƚŵĂůĞ͕ĂĚƵůƚĨĞŵĂůĞĂŶĚŝŶĨĂŶƚƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ͘
KĨƚŚĞϮϴϭƐĐĂŶƐ ƚŚĞ ĂĚƵůƚ ŵĂůĞ ǁĂƐŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚĨĞĞĚŝŶŐ
;ϱϲ ŽĨ Ϯϴϭ ƐĐĂŶƐͿ ŝƚ ǁĂƐ ŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞ ĨŽƵƌ
ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƚLJƉĞƐŽĨƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘KƵƚŽĨƚŚŽƐĞƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͕ƚŚĞ
ĂĚƵůƚŵĂůĞǁĂƐŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚŵŽƐƚůLJƚŽĐŽŶƐƵŵĞůĞĂǀĞƐ;Ϯϱ
ŽĨϱϲ ƐĐĂŶƐ͕ϰϰ͘ϲϰйͿ͕ĨŽůůŽǁĞĚďLJĨƌƵŝƚ;ϭϰŽĨ ϱϲ ƐĐĂŶƐ͕
Ϯϱ͘ϬϬйͿ͕ ĨĂƵŶĂů ĐŽŵƉŽŶĞŶƚƐ ;ϭϭ ŽĨ ϱϲ ƐĐĂŶƐ͕ ϭϵ͘ϲϰйͿ
ĂŶĚŇŽǁĞƌƐ;ϲŽĨϱϲƐĐĂŶƐ͕ ϭϬ͘ϳϭйͿ͕;ʖϮсϭϯ͘ϴϱϳ͖ĚĨсϯ͖
ƉфϬ͘ϬϭͿ͘  dŚĞ ĂĚƵůƚ ĨĞŵĂůĞ ǁĂƐ ŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ ƚŽ ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵ
ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐ ;ϱϵ ŽĨ Ϯϴϭ ƐĐĂŶƐͿ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ƚLJƉĞƐ ŽĨ
ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞŝƚĞŵƐ͘ dŚĞ ĂĚƵůƚ ĨĞŵĂůĞǁĂƐŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ
ŵĂdžŝŵƵŵ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƐĐĂŶƐ ƚŽ ĨĞĞĚ ŽŶ ůĞĂǀĞƐ ;Ϯϴ ŽĨ
ϱϵ ƐĐĂŶƐ͕ ϰϳ͘ϰϲйͿ͕ ĨŽůůŽǁĞĚ ďLJ ĨƌƵŝƚƐ ;ϭϲ ŽĨ ϱϵ ƐĐĂŶƐ͕
Ϯϳ͘ϭϮйͿ͕ ĨĂƵŶĂů ĐŽŵƉŽŶĞŶƚƐ ;ϭϯ ŽĨ ϱϵ ƐĐĂŶƐ͕ ϮϮ͘ϬϯйͿ
ĂŶĚŇŽǁĞƌƐ;ϮŽĨ ϱϵ ƐĐĂŶƐ͕ ϯ͘ϯϵйͿ͕ ;ʖϮ сϮϯ͘Ϯϯϳ͖ĚĨ сϯ͖
ƉфϬ͘ϬϭͿ͕;&ŝŐ͘ϯͿ͘dŚĞŝŶĨĂŶƚǁĂƐŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚƚŽďĞĐĂƌƌŝĞĚ
ďLJƚŚĞĂĚƵůƚĨĞŵĂůĞĂŶĚƚŽĐŽŶƐƵŵĞŽŶůLJŵŝůŬ͘
ŽŵƉĂƌŝƐŽŶŽĨŵĂũŽƌĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ
dŚĞ ŐŝďďŽŶ ĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ ĨƌŽŵ ^ĂůůLJ >ĂŬĞ ƐŝƚĞ ŽǀĞƌĂůů
;ϰϰ͘Ϯϱй͕ϯϴϭŽĨϴϲϭƐĐĂŶƐͿƐƉĞŶƚŵŽƌĞƟŵĞŽŶƉĂƐƐŝǀŝƚLJ
ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ĨĂŵŝůLJ ŽĨ ϮϬ ŬŝůŽ ;ϯϬ͘ϳϮй͕ Ϯϱϵ ŽĨ ϴϰϯ ƐĐĂŶƐͿ͕
;ʖϮ сϯϯ͘ϮϯϮ͖ ĚĨ с ϭ͖ ƉфϬ͘ϬϭͿ͘  ^ŝŵŝůĂƌůLJ͕ ƚŚĞ ŐŝďďŽŶ
ĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞ^ĂůůLJ>ĂŬĞƐŝƚĞŽǀĞƌĂůů;Ϯϭ͘Ϯϱй͕ϭϴϯŽĨ
ϴϲϭƐĐĂŶƐͿƵƐĞĚŵŽƌĞƟŵĞĨĞĞĚŝŶŐƚŚĂŶƚŚĂƚŽĨϮϬŬŝůŽ
;ϭϯ͘ϲϰй͕ϭϱŽĨ ϴϰϯ ƐĐĂŶƐͿ͕ ;ʖϮ сϭϳ͘ϭϬϳ͖ ĚĨ сϭ͖ƉфϬ͘ϬϭͿ͘
dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞ ŝŶ ůŽĐŽŵŽƟŽŶ;ʖϮ
сϭϵ͘ϳϲϯ͖ ĚĨ сϭ͖ ƉфϬ͘ϬϭͿ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŝƚ ǁĂƐ ŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ
ƚŚĞŐŝďďŽŶĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐŽĨ^ĂůůLJ>ĂŬĞƐŝƚĞŽǀĞƌĂůů;ϮϰϭŽĨϴϲϭ
ƐĐĂŶƐ͕Ϯϳ͘ϵϵйͿƌĂŶŐĞĚŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĨĂŵŝůLJŽĨ
ϮϬŬŝůŽ;ϭϱϵŽĨϴϰϯƐĐĂŶƐ͕ϭϴ͘ϴϲйͿ͘/ƚǁĂƐĂůƐŽƌĞĐŽƌĚĞĚ
ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ŐŝďďŽŶ ĨĂŵŝůLJ ŽĨ ϮϬ ŬŝůŽ ;ϭϳ͘ϵϭй͕ ϭϱϭ ŽĨ ϴϰϯ
ƐĐĂŶƐͿ ŚĂĚ ŵŽƌĞ ŽĨ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƚLJƉĞƐ ŽĨ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͕
ůŝŬĞĐŚĂƐŝŶŐ͕ďŽĚLJĂŶĚŶŝƉƉůĞĐŽŶƚĂĐƚďLJŝŶĨĂŶƚĞƚĐ͕ƚŚĂŶ
ƚŚĂƚŽĨƚŚĞŐŝďďŽŶĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐŽĨ^ĂůůLJ>ĂŬĞƐŝƚĞ;ϯ͘ϬϮй͕ϮϲŽĨ
ϴϲϭƐĐĂŶƐͿ͕;ʖϮсϭϬϭ͘ϰϵϬ͖ĚĨсϭ͖ƉфϬ͘ϬϭͿ͘,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ƚŚĞƌĞ
ǁĂƐŶŽ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞŝŶƐŽĐŝĂů ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ;ʖϮс͘ϯϲϳ͖
ĚĨсϭ͖E^ͿďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞƚǁŽĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐŽĨŐŝďďŽŶ^ĂůůLJ>ĂŬĞ͕
ŚĂďŝƚĂƚϭ;Ϯϳ͘ϵϵй͕ϮϰϭŽĨϴϲϭƐĐĂŶƐͿĂŶĚϮϬŬŝůŽ;ϭϴ͘ϴϲй͕
ϭϱϵŽĨϴϰϯƐĐĂŶƐͿ;&ŝŐ͘ϰͿ͘
ŽŵƉĂƌŝƐŽŶŽĨĨĞĞĚŝŶŐĞĐŽůŽŐLJ
dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞŽŶ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽĨ
ĨƌƵŝƚƐ ;ʖϮ сϴ͘ϯϱϳ͖ ĚĨ сϭ͖ ƉфϬ͘ϬϭͿ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ŐŝďďŽŶ
ĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐŽĨƚŚĞƚǁŽĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŚĂďŝƚĂƚƐ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĞŐŝďďŽŶ
ĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐŽĨ^ĂůůLJ>ĂŬĞƐŝƚĞǁĞƌĞŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚŽǀĞƌĂůů;ϰϮ͘ϲϮй͕
ϳϴ ŽĨ ϭϴϯ ƐĐĂŶƐͿ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞ ŵŽƌĞ ĨƌƵŝƚƐ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ
ƚŚĞŐŝďďŽŶĨĂŵŝůLJ ŽĨ ϮϬŬŝůŽ;Ϯϲ͘Ϭϵй͕ϯϬŽĨϭϭϱ ƐĐĂŶƐͿ͘
ϵϬ͘ϬϬ
ϴϬ͘ϬϬ
ϳϬ͘ϬϬ
ϲϬ͘ϬϬ
ϱϬ͘ϬϬ
ϰϬ͘ϬϬ
ϯϬ͘ϬϬ
ϮϬ͘ϬϬ
ϭϬ͘ϬϬ
Ϭ͘ϬϬ
ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐĨƌƵŝƚ ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐĨĂƵŶĂů
ĐŽŵƉŽŶĞŶƚƐ
ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐůĞĂǀĞƐ ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐŇŽǁĞƌ
ĚƵůƚŵĂůĞ
ĚƵůƚĨĞŵĂůĞ
&ŝŐƵƌĞϭ͘ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƚLJƉĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌŽĐĐƵƌƌĞŶĐĞŽĨĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶŝŶ
ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚƐĐĂŶŝŶĂĚƵůƚŵĂůĞĂŶĚĂĚƵůƚĨĞŵĂůĞŽĨ'ƌŽƵƉͲϭ
ϵϬ͘ϬϬ
ϴϬ͘ϬϬ
ϳϬ͘ϬϬ
ϲϬ͘ϬϬ
ϱϬ͘ϬϬ
ϰϬ͘ϬϬ
ϯϬ͘ϬϬ
ϮϬ͘ϬϬ
ϭϬ͘ϬϬ
Ϭ͘ϬϬ
ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐĨƌƵŝƚ ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐĨĂƵŶĂů
ĐŽŵƉŽŶĞŶƚƐ
ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐůĞĂǀĞƐ ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐŇŽǁĞƌ
&ŝŐƵƌĞϮ͘ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƚLJƉĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌŽĐĐƵƌƌĞŶĐĞŽĨĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶŝŶ
ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚƐĐĂŶŝŶĂĚƵůƚŵĂůĞ͕ĂĚƵůƚĨĞŵĂůĞĂŶĚƐƵďͲĂĚƵůƚĨĞŵĂůĞŽĨ
'ƌŽƵƉͲϮ
ĚƵůƚŵĂůĞ ĚƵůƚĨĞŵĂůĞ ^ƵďĂĚƵůƚĨĞŵĂůĞ
ϱϬ͘ϬϬ
ϰϱ͘ϬϬ
ϰϬ͘ϬϬ
ϯϱ͘ϬϬ
ϯϬ͘ϬϬ
Ϯϱ͘ϬϬ
ϮϬ͘ϬϬ
ϭϱ͘ϬϬ
ϭϬ͘ϬϬ
ϱ͘ϬϬ
Ϭ͘ϬϬ
ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐĨƌƵŝƚ ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐĨĂƵŶĂů
ĐŽŵƉŽŶĞŶƚƐ
ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐůĞĂǀĞƐ ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐŇŽǁĞƌ
&ŝŐƵƌĞϯ͘ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƚLJƉĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌŽĐĐƵƌƌĞŶĐĞŽĨĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶŝŶ
ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚƐĐĂŶŝŶĂĚƵůƚŵĂůĞĂŶĚĂĚƵůƚĨĞŵĂůĞŽĨ'ƌŽƵƉͲϯ
ĚƵůƚŵĂůĞ
ĚƵůƚĨĞŵĂůĞ
ϱϬ͘ϬϬ
ϰϬ͘ϬϬ
ϯϬ͘ϬϬ
ϮϬ͘ϬϬ
ϭϬ͘ϬϬ
Ϭ͘ϬϬ ůŽĐŽŵŽƟŽŶ ƉĂƐƐŝǀŝƚLJ ŽƚŚĞƌ
ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ
ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐ ƐŽĐŝĂů
ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ
ƐƵĐŬŝŶŐŵŝůŬ
ďLJŝŶĨĂŶƚ
ϮϬŬŝůŽ
WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞŽĨƐĐĂŶƐ
^ĂůůLJ>ĂŬĞ
&ŝŐƵƌĞϰ͘ŽŵƉĂƌŝƐŽŶŽĨŵĂũŽƌĂĐƟǀŝƚLJŽĨŐŝďďŽŶĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐŝŶƚǁŽ
ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŚĂďŝƚĂƚƐ
ĐƟǀŝƚLJ
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 October 2015 | 7(12): 7862–7869
ĐƟǀŝƚLJďƵĚŐĞƚŽĨƉŽƐƚƌĞůĞĂƐĞĚĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶ ZŽLJĞƚĂů͘
7867
,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ƚŚĞŐŝďďŽŶĨĂŵŝůLJĨƌŽŵϮϬŬŝůŽ;ϰϲ͘Ϭϵй͕ϱϯŽĨ
ϭϭϱƐĐĂŶƐͿǁĂƐŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚƚŽĐŽŶƐƵŵĞŵŽƌĞůĞĂǀĞƐƚŚĂŶ
ƚŚĞŽǀĞƌĂůůĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶŽĨůĞĂǀĞƐďLJƚŚĞŐŝďďŽŶĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ
Ăƚ^ĂůůLJůĂŬĞƐŝƚĞ;ϮϬ͘ϮϮй͕ϯϳŽĨϭϴϯ ƐĐĂŶƐͿ͕;ʖϮсϮϮ͘ϰϭϴ͖
ĚĨсϭ͖ƉфϬ͘ϬϭͿ͘dŚĞŽǀĞƌĂůůĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŇŽǁĞƌƐ ďLJ
ƚŚĞŐŝďďŽŶĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐĨƌŽŵ^ĂůůLJ>ĂŬĞƐŝƚĞǁĂƐ;ϯϳ͘ϭϲй͕ϲϴ
ŽĨ ϭϴϯ ƐĐĂŶƐͿ ĂůƐŽ ŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ
ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŐŝďďŽŶ ĨĂŵŝůLJ ŽĨ ϮϬ ŬŝůŽ
;ϲ͘ϵϲй͕ϴŽĨϭϭϱƐĐĂŶƐ͕Ϳ͕;ʖϮсϯϯ͘ϵϬϱ͖ĚĨсϭ͖ƉфϬ͘ϬϭͿ;&ŝŐ͘
ϱͿ͘  dŚĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽŶ ĨĂƵŶĂů ĐŽŵƉŽŶĞŶƚƐ ǁĂƐ ŽŶůLJ
ŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚŽŶƚŚĞĨĞĞĚŝŶŐŽĨƚŚĞŐŝďďŽŶĨĂŵŝůLJŽĨϮϬŬŝůŽ͘
&ŽŽĚƉůĂŶƚƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ
EŽƚĂůůƚŚĞƉůĂŶƚƐƉĞĐŝĞƐŽĨƚŚĞƚǁŽƐƚƵĚLJĂƌĞĂƐǁĞƌĞ
ŝĚĞŶƟĮĞĚǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞůŝŵŝƚĞĚƉĞƌŝŽĚŽĨƟŵĞ͘KƵƚŽĨƚŚĞ
ƐĂŵƉůĞĚƉůĂŶƚƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ͕ƵĂďĂŶŐĂŐƌĂŶĚŝŇŽƌĂ, Saurauia
armata, Vitex ƐƉ͕ Bauhinia perpurea, Spondias ƐƉ ĂŶĚ
Ficus roxburghii ǁĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ ŵĂũŽƌ ƉůĂŶƚ ƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ
^ĂůůLJ >ĂŬĞ ƐŝƚĞ ĂŶĚ͕ ŽůŽŶĂ ŇŽƌŝďƵŶĚĂ, Ficus ƐƉ, Litsea
ƐƉ, Alangium ƐƉ, Randia ƐƉĂŶĚFicus semicordataǁĞƌĞ
ŝĚĞŶƟĮĞĚĂƐ ƚŚĞŵĂũŽƌƉůĂŶƚƐƉĞĐŝĞƐŝŶ ƚŚĞϮϬŬŝůŽ ƐŝƚĞ͘
ƉŝƉŚLJƚĞƐ͕ ĐůŝŵďĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ >ŝĂŶĂƐ ǁĞƌĞ ŶŽƚ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ
ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ǀĞŐĞƚĂƟŽŶĞƐƟŵĂƟŽŶ͘  dŚĞ ƉůĂŶƚƐ ǁŚŝĐŚ ǁĞƌĞ
ŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚƚŽďĞƵƐĞĚďLJƚŚĞŐƌŽƵƉƐǁĞƌĞƌĞĐŽƌĚĞĚŽŶůLJ
ĨŽƌŝĚĞŶƟĮĐĂƟŽŶ͘dŚĞƌĞǁĂƐŶŽĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐĨŽƌŚĂďŝƚĂƚĂŶĚ
ŶŽ ĞƐƟŵĂƟŽŶ ŽŶ ƉŚĞŶŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďŝůŝƚLJ
ĂůƐŽ͘
/^h^^/KE
 WƌĞǀŝŽƵƐ ƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ ŽŶ ŵĂŶLJ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŐƌĞĂƚ ĂƉĞƐ ůŝŬĞ
ĐŚŝŵƉĂŶnjĞĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŐŽƌŝůůĂƐ ƌĞǀĞĂůĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ĂŶ
ĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶĂƌLJƚƌĂŝƚŽŶƚŚĞĨŽƌĂŐŝŶŐƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJĂƚĐŽͲƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ
ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶ;'ŽŽĚĂůůϭϵϴϲ͖tĂƩƐϭϵϵϲͿ͘dŚĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞ
ŽĨĂŐĞƐĞdžĐůĂƐƐĞƐŽŶƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƵƟůŝnjĂƟŽŶŝƐĂůƐŽƌĞƉŽƌƚĞĚ
ŝŶŵĂŶLJŐƌĞĂƚĞƌĂƉĞƐ;ŽĞƐĐŚϭϵϵϰ͖tĂƩƐϭϵϵϴͿ͘dŚĞƌĞ
ĂƌĞ ĂůƐŽ ƐĞdž ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ďƵĚŐĞƚ͕
ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ƉŚLJƐŝŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ůŝŬĞ ŚŝŐŚ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ
ŽĨ ŶƵƚƌŝƟŽƵƐ ĨŽŽĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ĨĞŵĂůĞ ;<ŶŽƩ ϭϵϵϴ͕ ϮϬϬϭ͖
dĂŬĂŚĂƐŚŝ ϮϬϬϮ͖ &ŽdžĞƚ Ăů͘ ϮϬϬϰͿ͘  dŚŝƐ ĚŝƐƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶĂů
ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĚŝĞƚ ĂůƐŽ ůĞĂĚƐ ƚŽ ƐŽĐŝĂů ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ
ĂŶĚŚŝĞƌĂƌĐŚŝĐĂůƉŽƐŝƟŽŶƐ;&ŽƐƚĞƌΘ:ĂŶƐŽŶϭϵϴϱͿ͘/ŶƚŚĞ
ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐƚƵĚLJ͕ƚŚĞƌĞǁĂƐŶŽ ƐƵĐŚƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞ
ŽŶĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶĂŐĞͲƐĞdžĐůĂƐƐĞƐ͘DŽƌĞŽǀĞƌ͕ĂƐ
ƚŚĞŐƌŽƵƉƐŝnjĞŽĨƚŚĞĂƐƚĞƌŶ,ŽŽůŽĐŬ'ŝďďŽŶĨĂŵŝůLJ ŝŶ
ŐĞŶĞƌĂůŝƐƐŵĂůů;ŚĞƚƌLJϮϬϬϴͿ͕ŵĂŶLJĂĐƟǀŝƚLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ
ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĂŐĞͲƐĞdž ĐůĂƐƐĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ŝŶ Ă ƐŝŶŐůĞ
ŐƌŽƵƉ ƵŶůŝŬĞ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĂƉĞƐ ;ůƵƫŽŶͲƌŽĐŬ Θ ,ĂƌǀĞLJ
ϭϵϳϳ͖&ŽdžĞƚĂů͘ϮϬϬϰͿ͘
dŚĞ ŚĂďŝƚĂƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƟĂƟŽŶ ĐĂƵƐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ǀĞŐĞƚĂƟŽŶ
ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐĨŽƌƉƌŝŵĂƚĞƐƚŽƵƟůŝnjĞƚŚĞŝƌĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘
DĂŶLJĂƉĞƐůŝŬĞŽƌĂŶŐƵƚĂŶ͕ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ƚŚĞ ŚĂďŝƚĂƚůŽĐĂƟŽŶ
ĨƌĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ďĂƐŝƐ ŽĨ ĨŽŽĚ ĂǀĂŝůĂďŝůŝƚLJ ;>ĞŝŐŚƚŽŶ
Θ >ĞŝŐŚƚŽŶ ϭϵϴϵ͖ dŝůƐŽŶ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ϭϵϵϯͿ͘  ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ŝƚ ǁĂƐ
ĨŽƵŶĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƉĂƐƐŝǀŝƚLJ ǁĂƐ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŝŶ
ĂůůƚŚĞ ƚŚƌĞĞŐƌŽƵƉƐ͘dŚĞĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ ǁŚŝĐŚǁĞƌĞƌĞůĞĂƐĞĚ
ŝŶ^ĂůůLJ>ĂŬĞƐŝƚĞǁĞƌĞĨŽƵŶĚƚŽƐƉĞŶĚĂ ŚŝŐŚĞƌĂŵŽƵŶƚ
ŽĨƟŵĞŝŶĨĞĞĚŝŶŐĂŶĚŝŶƌĂŶŐŝŶŐƚŚĂŶƚŚĂƚŽĨƚŚĞŐŝďďŽŶ
ĨĂŵŝůLJŝŶƚŚĞϮϬ ŬŝůŽĂƌĞĂ͘/ƚǁĂƐ ƉƌŽďĂďůLJďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŚĞ
ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĨƌŽŵ ĂŶ ĂƌĞĂ ŽĨ ŚŝŐŚ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďŝůŝƚLJ͕
ŚĂĚ ůĞƐƐ ƟŵĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƌĂŶŐŝŶŐ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ
ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŽĨƐŽŵĞŽƚŚĞƌĂƌĞĂŚĂǀŝŶŐĂƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJůŽǁĞƌ
ƉůĂŶƚ ďŝŽŵĂƐƐ ;tĂƩƐ ϭϵϴϴͿ͘  dŚŝƐ ŽďƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ ǁŽƵůĚ
ŚĞůƉ ƚŽ ƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjĞ ƚŚĞ ŚĂďŝƚĂƚ ƉƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŽĨ ŐŝďďŽŶ
ĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ͘/ƚǁĂƐĂůƐŽĨŽƵŶĚƚŚĂƚ͕ŐƌŽƵƉƐŽĨƐŽŵĞƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ
ŽĨ ĂƉĞƐ ƐƉĞŶƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƟŵĞ ĨƌĂŵĞƐ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚ ƚŚĞ
ĚĂLJ ŽŶ ƐĞĂƌĐŚŝŶŐ ĨŽƌĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĨŽŽĚ ŝƚĞŵƐ ĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ
ƚŚĞƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ;tĂƩƐϭϵϵϲ͖DŽŽƚŶŝĐŬΘEĂĚůĞƌ
ϭϵϵϳ͖ŚĞLJŶĞϮϬϬϰ͖DĂƐŝĞƚĂů͘ϮϬϬϵͿ͘
ůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ ƐƚƵĚLJ ǁĂƐ ĨŽƌ ƚǁŽ ĂŶĚ ŚĂůĨ
ŵŽŶƚŚƐ͕ŝƚ ǁĂƐ ŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞƌĞ ǁĂƐ ĂƐĞůĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ
ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƚLJƉĞƐďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞŐŝďďŽŶĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐŽĨƚŚĞƚǁŽ
ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŚĂďŝƚĂƚƐ͘  dŚĞ ĨĂŵŝůLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϮϬ ŬŝůŽ ƐŝƚĞ ǁĂƐ
ŵŽƐƚůLJ ŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞ ŵŽƌĞ ůĞĂǀĞƐ ƚŚĂŶ ŽƚŚĞƌ
ƉůĂŶƚ ƉĂƌƚƐ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞĂƐ͕ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƟŵĞ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ƚŚĞ
ĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐĨƌŽŵƚŚĞ ^ĂůůLJ >ĂŬĞ ƐŝƚĞ ǁĞƌĞŵŽƐƚůLJŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ
ƚŽĐŽŶƐƵŵĞĨƌƵŝƚƐĂŶĚŇŽǁĞƌƐ͘dŚĞĐĂƉƚƵƌĞĂŶĚƌĞůĞĂƐĞ
ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞǁĞƌĞ ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĞĚŝŶƚŚĞƉŽƐƚǁŝŶƚĞƌ ƐĞĂƐŽŶ
ǁŚĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀĞƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ ŵĂŶLJ ƉůĂŶƚƐ ůŝŬĞ ĨƌƵŝƚƐ
ĂŶĚ ŇŽǁĞƌƐ ǁĞƌĞ ŚĂƌĚůLJ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͘  DŽƌĞŽǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ
ĂƌĞ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ůŝŬĞ ŚĂďŝƚĂƚ ;ďĞƐ ϮϬϬϭͿ͕ ĂďŝŽƟĐ
ĐŽŵƉŽŶĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƐĞĂƐŽŶĂů ǀĂƌŝĂƟŽŶ ;ŽůůĞŶ Θ ŽŶĂƚů
ϮϬϬϬ͖ ŝŵŵĞƌŵĂŶ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ϮϬϬϳ͖ >ĂŚĂŶŶ ϮϬϬϴͿ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ
ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĨƌƵŝƚƐ͕ ŇŽǁĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ůĞĂǀĞƐ͘  dŚĞƌĞ ǁĂƐ
ĂůƐŽ ĂŶ ĂůƟƚƵĚŝŶĂů ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϮϬ ŬŝůŽ ;ϵϵϬŵͿ
ĂŶĚ^ĂůůLJ>ĂŬĞĂƌĞĂ;ϰϯϯŵͿǁŚŝĐŚůĞĚƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞ
ŽĨƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůĂŶĚĂďŝŽƟĐĨĂĐƚŽƌƐŽŶƉŚĞŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĂƐƉĞĐƚƐ͘
ϱϬ͘ϬϬ
ϰϬ͘ϬϬ
ϯϬ͘ϬϬ
ϮϬ͘ϬϬ
ϭϬ͘ϬϬ
Ϭ͘ϬϬ
ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐĨƌƵŝƚ ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐ
ůĞĂǀĞƐ
ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐĨĂƵŶĂů
ĐŽŵƉŽŶĞŶƚƐ
ĨĞĞĚŝŶŐ
ŇŽǁĞƌ
ϮϬŬŝůŽ
WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞŽĨƐĐĂŶƐ
^ĂůůLJ>ĂŬĞ
&ŝŐƵƌĞϱ͘ŽŵƉĂƌŝƐŽŶŽĨƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐƵƟůŝnjĂƟŽŶŽĨŐŝďďŽŶĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐŝŶ
ƚǁŽĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚŚĂďŝƚĂƚƐ͘
ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐƵƐĞƐ
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 October 2015 | 7(12): 7862–7869
Acvity budget of post released Eastern Hoolock Gibbon Roy et al.
7868

         

         
        
 
   



      

      

         

   

         
      
          
        
      

    




        

  




REFERENCES
Abes, T. (2001).        
    Aucuba japonica 
American Journal of Botany
Altmann, J. (1974).     
Behaviour 
Armstrong, D.P., T. Soderquist & R. Southgate (1994). 

  Reintroducon Biology of Australian and NewZealand
Fauna
Boesch, C. (1994).    Animal
Behavior
Bollen, A. & G. Donatl (2005).
Biotropica
Cluon-Brock, T. & P. Harvey (1977).    
Journal of Zoology
Chetry, D., R. Chetry, A. Das, C. Loma & J. Panwor (2008). 
   Hoolock leuconedys   Primate
Conservaon 
Cheyne, S.M. (2004).    
      

Di Fiore, A. (2004).    
Internaonal Journal of Primatology

Fox, E., C. van Schaik, A. Sitompul & D. Wright (2004). 
    Pongo pygmaeus
American
Journal or Physical Anthropology 
Foster, S.A. & C.H. Janson (1985).
  Ecology 

Go, M. (2010).      
        
Primates
Goodall, J. (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Paerns of Behavior,

Houle, A., C.A. Chapman & W.L. Vickery (2004).  
    Internaonal Journal of
Primatology
IUCN (1998).      

Kapos, V., A. Bzlmford, R. Aveling, P. Bubb, P. Carey, A. Entwistle,
J. Hopkins, J. Mulliken, R. Saord, A. Staerseld, M. Walpole
& A. Monica (2009).    
Oryx
Kleiman, D. & A. Rylands (2002). Lion Tamarins: Biology and
Conservaon.     

Kno, C.D. (1998).      
        
Internaonal Journal of Primatology
Kno, C.D. (2005).      
    
       Seasonality in Primates:
Studies of Living and Exnct Human and Non-human Primates
 
Lahann, P. (2008).    
    
Internaonal Journal of Primatology 
Lehner, P.N. (1996). Handbook of Ethological Methods 

Leighton, M. & D.R. Leighton (1982).     
Alouaa
palliataTrichilia cipo
Biotropica
Loiselle, B.A. & J.G. Blake (1990).
Studies in Avian
Biology
Masi, S., C. Cipollea & M.M. Robbins (2009).  
 Gorilla gorilla gorilla)     
American Journal of Primatology 

Miller, K.E. & J.M. Dietz (2004).       
         
Leontopithecus rosalia Internaonal Journal of Primatology 

Mootnick, A.R. & R.D. Nadler (1997).  
 Hylobates Developmental Psychobiology

Naro, E., E.L. Mero, E. Naro, K. Kapfo, K. Wezah, K. Thopi, K. Rhakho,
L. Akami, L. Thopi, M. Chirhah, T. Chirhah, T. Tsuhah, T. Thopi,
W Wezah, W.L. Mero, W. Thopi, K. Thopi, T. Naro, W. Tsuhah, N.
Dahanukar & P.B. Molur (2015).     

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 October 2015 | 7(12): 7862–7869
Acvity budget of post released Eastern Hoolock Gibbon Roy et al.
7869
Journal of Threatened Taxa

Reddy, C.S., S. Babar, A. Giriraj, K.N. Reddy & K.T. Rao (2008).
       

Asian Journal of Scienc Research
Remis, M.J. (1994).      
   Gorilla gorilla gorilla   

Sayers, K. & M.A. Norconk (2008).Semnopithecus entellus
        
Internaonal Journal of Primatology
Seddon, P.J. (1999).    
Trends in Ecology & Evoluon

Seddon, P.J., D.P. Armstrong & R.F. Maloney (2007). 
Conservaon Biology

Singh, M., H.N. Kumara, M.A. Kumar & A.K. Sharma (2001).
Macaca silenus) to
  
Folia Primatologica 
Srivastava, A. (2006).
Primate Conservaon
Strum, S.C. (2005).      
 American Journal of Primatology 

Takahashi, H. (2002).     
       
American Journal of Primatology
Tickell, S.R. (1864).Hylo bates lar
Journal of the Asiac Society of Bengal 
Tilson, R., U.S., Seal, K. Soemarna, W. Ramono, E. Sumardja, S.
Poniran, S.C. van Schaik, M. Leighton, H. Rijksen & A. Eudey
(1993).  
      

Was, D.P. (1988).
American Journal of Primatology
Was, D.P. (1996).  
 Great Apesociees

Was, D.P. (1998).Gorilla
gorilla beringei      
Internaonal Journal of Primatology
Wich, S.A., G. Fredriksson & E.H.M. Sterck (2002).  
 Primates

Zimmerman, J.K., S.J. Wright, O. Calderon, M.A. Pagan & S. Paton
(2007).  
Journal of Tropical
Ecology
Threatened Taxa
Author Details:      
          
     
            
          
     
   
        
        
       
  
   
          

Author Contribuon:      



           

Hindi Abstract:
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Hunting is suggested as a major threat to Indian wildlife, especially in the northeastern states. In Nagaland hunting has a traditional and cultural significance, which should be taken into consideration by conservation efforts. Limited information is available on this issue, and in order to establish a baseline for efforts aimed at education and implementation of conservation programmes, in this study we investigated various aspects of hunting practices in Chizami Village, Nagaland. Our study involved general voting by 868 people and detailed interviews of 80 hunters, and explores the demography of hunters, hunting areas, hunting preference for season and animals, methods of hunting, reasons for hunting and willingness to cease hunting. Our results indicate that education could be an important primer for initiating biological conservation efforts in Chizami and other areas.
Article
Full-text available
Mountain gorillas are highly folivorous. Food is abundant and perennially available in much of their habitat. Still, limited research has shown that single gorilla groups heavily used areas where food biomass and quality were relatively high and where they met daily nutritional needs with relatively low foraging effort. Also, ecological factors influenced solitary males less than groups with females. Long-term data on habitat use by multiple mountain gorilla social units and more extensive data on variation in food distribution, presented here, confirm that food distribution influences areal occupation densities across groups and over time. These data also confirm the group/solitary male distinction and show that food distribution became more important for one male once he acquired females. Groups used ≤25 km 2, and inter-annual home range and core area overlap was often low. Annual home range and core area size varied considerably within groups and across years. It bore no simple relationship to group size and estimated group biomass. Core areas were biased samples of total home ranges and were relatively good foraging areas. One group abruptly shifted its home range in response to male mating competition. Home ranges of two others expanded from 1981 to 1987, though at a decreasing rate. Data on one such group, which varied considerably in size, are consistent with arguments that costs of scramble competition are low except in unusually large groups. Low site fidelity, low scramble costs, and high home range overlap should decrease the ecological costs of female transfer.
Article
Data from Barro Colorado Island on the size of howler monkey feeding aggregates seen in different-sized Trichilia cipo fruit trees are applied to test the hypothesis that: food patch size limits the sizes of feeding aggregates. This hypothesis is supported by demonstrating a positive correlation between howler feeding aggregate size and Trichilia DBH (diameter at breast height), since DBH, in turn, predicts accurately both the spatial sizes and crop sizes (numbers of ripe fruits) of Trichilia patches. Some observations support the explanation that howlers were sensitive to the densities and abundances of ripe fruits within patches and not to the spatial size of patches per se. Small feeding aggregates were underrepresented in large patches, indicating that feeding aggregate size is adjusted to and not merely limited by patch size. To account for this, a hypothesis is proposed that howler feeding aggregates are often part of larger foraging units (the group of animals maintaining contact while ranging) which travel between clumps of food patches; reaching a clump, the monkeys apportion themselves among the patches according to the sizes of the patches. That howlers were seen feeding more frequently in Trichilia that are near to Quararibea asterolepsis trees (the other major food source at this time) supports this explanation. Groups of animals can thus maintain cohesion while using patches too small for the entire foraging unit. -from Authors
Article
Seven major types of sampling for observational studies of social behavior have been found in the literature. These methods differ considerably in their suitability for providing unbiased data of various kinds. Below is a summary of the major recommended uses of each technique: In this paper, I have tried to point out the major strengths and weaknesses of each sampling method. Some methods are intrinsically biased with respect to many variables, others to fewer. In choosing a sampling method the main question is whether the procedure results in a biased sample of the variables under study. A method can produce a biased sample directly, as a result of intrinsic bias with respect to a study variable, or secondarily due to some degree of dependence (correlation) between the study variable and a directly-biased variable. In order to choose a sampling technique, the observer needs to consider carefully the characteristics of behavior and social interactions that are relevant to the study population and the research questions at hand. In most studies one will not have adequate empirical knowledge of the dependencies between relevant variables. Under the circumstances, the observer should avoid intrinsic biases to whatever extent possible, in particular those that direcly affect the variables under study. Finally, it will often be possible to use more than one sampling method in a study. Such samples can be taken successively or, under favorable conditions, even concurrently. For example, we have found it possible to take Instantaneous Samples of the identities and distances of nearest neighbors of a focal individual at five or ten minute intervals during Focal-Animal (behavior) Samples on that individual. Often during Focal-Animal Sampling one can also record All Occurrences of Some Behaviors, for the whole social group, for categories of conspicuous behavior, such as predation, intergroup contact, drinking, and so on. The extent to which concurrent multiple sampling is feasible will depend very much on the behavior categories and rate of occurrence, the observational conditions, etc. Where feasible, such multiple sampling can greatly aid in the efficient use of research time.