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Antiviral and Immunostimulant Activities of Andrographis paniculata

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Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees is a medicinal plant which was reported to have anti HIV, anti pathogenic bacteria and immunoregulatory activities. The research purpose was to investigate the activity of Andrographis paniculata ethanol extract as antiviral and immunostimulant. A. paniculata leaves oven-dried, then grinded and macerated with ethanol 90%, and the extract then analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine the content of active compounds andrographolide. The antiviral activity of the extract was determined by observing its ability on inhibiting virus load in A549 cells transfected with Simian Retro Virus (SRV) by Real Time – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The immunostimulant activity of extract was determined by its ability to induce lymphocytes cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Our result indicated that the A. paniculata ethanol extract inhibited the SRV virus titer similar to the positive control Lamivudine, and it was not toxic to the A459 cell line. Furthermore, low concentration (1 μg/mL) of A. paniculata extract could stimulated lymphocyte cell proliferation about 38% compared to the control lymphocyte cell without any treatment.
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... Andrographolide inhibits the replication of DENV and reduces infection in human HepG2 and HeLa cells [47]. Ethanol extracts of A. paniculate containing andrographolide inhibit the activity of the simian retrovirus in human A549 cells [48]. Andrographolide reduces CHIKV infection in human HepG2 cells by interfering with viral protein synthesis [49]. ...
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... The plant is referred to as the next big immune booster because of its various medicinal properties and the presence of active principles. It has shown immune-boosting (Churiyah et al., 2015), antioxidant (Polash et al., 2017;Mussard et al., 2019;Puri et al., 2019), anti-inflammatory (Yen et al., 2018;Weng et al., 2018) andantiviral (Angamuthu et al., 2019;Li et al., 2020;Paemanee et al., 2019;Ali-Seyed and Vijayaraghavan, 2020) properties. There was also some evidence of treating the patients with andrographis (Kan Jang, Swedish Herbal Institute) prove better results than amantadine drugs which are approved by the FDA in the treatment of Asian flu and influenza A (https://www.rxlist.com/ ...
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Andrographis paniculata Burm.f. Nees is a medicinal plant of huge pharmaceutical value, having antiviral, anti-inflammatory properties and it was also referred to as a wonder drug in the Spanish Flu pandemic during 1918 for arresting the viral growth or spread. Due to the lack of proper available vaccine and side effects of the drugs, we need an effective alternative strategy for the COVID-19 treatment and management. Bioactive secondary metabolites from this plant were docked to various targets of SARS-CoV-2 and the binding energies were compared with two reference drugs, nelfinavir and hydroxychloroquine. In silico pharmacophysical properties and toxicity predictions revealed out of 17 compounds from A. paniculata, 9 compounds, namely; andrographolide, andrographic acid, neoandrographolide, 14-deoxyandrographolide, 14-deoxy 11, 12-didehydroandrogra-pholide, onysilin, 14-deoxy 14, 15-dehydroandrographolide, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid and isoandrographolide have shown higher inhibition at multiple targets. Further, they have shown superior permeability, bioavailability properties and low levels of toxicity. Hence, the bioactive compounds from A. paniculata could be effective candidates for drug designing and could be the choice of traditional therapeutic option against COVID-19. Use of A. paniculata active constituents for the patients in the initial stages of infection may prevent its transition into severe symptoms.
... Our result also shows a similar pattern with nearby binding values of andrographolide binding to NF-κB protein (Supplementary Table 1). Furthermore, many scientific reports have demonstrated that andrographolide has also important pharmacological activities like an anti-inflammatory response to attenuate the innate immune response in various diseases [99,100]. On that basis, our in silico study with andrographolide reveals that this phytocompound possesses strong binding affinity against IL-6 as well as TLR4-MD2 protein. ...
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