ArticlePDF Available

Sexual Behaviour and Practices Among Secondary School Adolescents in Anambra State, Nigeria

Authors:
  • Imo State University/Teaching hospital Owerri Imo State Nigeria

Abstract

Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), adolescents are persons aged 10 to 19 years. Adolescence is the progression from appearance of sexual characteristics to sexual and reproductive maturity; development of adult mental processes and adult identity and a period of transition from total socioeconomic dependence to relative independence. Their sexual behaviour is an issue of global public health concern. Objective: TThis study is to assess the sexual behaviour and practices among secondary school adolescents in Anambra State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 384 in-school adolescents in Anambra State, Nigeria, selected using a multi stage random sampling technique was done. Data was collected using pre-tested, semi-structured self administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 13 computer software. Results: One hundred and twenty (34.3%) out of 384 respondents have had their first sexual exposure and are sexually active. Seventy eight (65.0%) were males while 42 (35.0%) were females. The mean, modal and youngest ages of initiation into sexual activity were 15.08 + 0.2, 15+ 0.2, and 10+ 0.2 years respectively. About 49 (40.8%) have multiple sexual partners. Contraceptive awareness was 52.0%, while contraceptive uses at first and last sexual intercourse were 35 (29.2%) and 108 (75.0%) respectively. The most commonly used contraceptive methods were condom 90.0% (108) and pills 8.20% (10), while the most common reasons for having premarital sex were peer group pressure 50.0% (60) and monetary gains 27.5% (33). Conclusion: Risky sexual behaviour is high among this age group. Efforts to promote sexuality education and contraceptive awareness should be intensified.
Original Article_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Sexual Behaviour and Practices
A m o n g S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l
Adolescents in Anambra State,
Nigeria
Duru CB, Ubajaka C, *Nnebue CC, Ifeadike CO, Okoro
OP
ABSTRACT
Ba ck gr ou nd : According to th e World Health
Organization (WHO), adolescents are persons aged 10 to 19
years. Adolescence is the progression from appearance of
sexual characteristics to sexual and reproductive maturity;
development of adult mental processes and adult identity
and a period of transition from total socio-economic
dependence to relative independence. Their sexual
behaviour is an issue of global public health concern.
Objective: TThis study is to assess the sexual behaviour
and practices among secondary school adolescents in
Anambra State, Nigeria.
Methods: A cross -sectional descriptive study of 384 in-
school adolescents in Anambra State, Nigeria, selected
using a multi stage random sampling technique was done.
Data was collected using pre-tested, semi-structured self
administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed with SPSS
version 13 computer software.
Results: One hundred and twenty (34.3%) out of 384
respondents have had their first sexual exposure and are
sexually active. Seventy eight (65.0%) were males while 42
(35.0%) were females. The mean, modal and youngest ages
of initiation into sexual activity were 15.08 + 0.2, 15+ 0.2,
and 10+ 0.2 years respectively. About 49 (40.8%) have
multiple sexual partners. Contraceptive awareness was
52.0%, while contraceptive uses at first and last sexual
intercourse were 35 (29.2%) and 108 (75.0%) respectively.
The most commonly used contraceptive methods were
condom 90.0% (108) and pills 8.20% (10), while the most
common reasons for having premarital sex were peer group
pressure 50.0% (60) and monetary gains 27.5% (33).
Conclusion: Risky sexual behaviour is high among this
age group. Efforts to promote sexuality education and
contraceptive awareness should be intensified.
Key words: sexual behaviour, secondary schools,
adolescents, Nigeria.
Afrimedic Journal 2010; 1(2)22-27
1Department of Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nnewi North LGA, Anambra State. *E-mail: C/O nnebnons@yahoo.com
INTRODUCTION
Adolescents and young people comprise nearly half of
the world's population of 6.2 billion people and 85% of
1
them are from developing countries. Current estimates
put the population of adolescents at 1.2 billion
1
worldwide, 1 in every 5 people is an adolescent.
Secondary sexual growth, changes in hormonal
secretion, emotional, cognitive and psychosocial
development occur around puberty, resulting in sexual
2
curiosity and experimentation. These biological and
psychological changes result in awareness of sexuality
in adolescents; thus they frequently negotiate and
adjust to increased demands for a more autonomous
3
lifestyle. Responses to societal sexual norms and
expectation can be seen as a key task of adolescents.
Traditional norms in most Nigerian cultures demand
premarital sexual abstinence until entry into marital
union; nevertheless, the norms have almost
4
disappeared in all ethnic groups.
By 13 years, 5% of girls and 20% of boys have had their
sexual debut. By age 16 years, 30% of girls & 75% of
1
boys report having sexual intercourse. Knowledge of
risks of pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections
(STIs) and AIDS do not consistently control behaviour.
Few use contraception at first intercourse and by age
17 -1 8 ye ars, there is r ed uction in sexual
1
experimentation. Data from several parts of Nigeria
point to sexual activity in single adolescent of both
sexes with progressively decreasing age of initiation. A
country wide survey revealed that 9 out of every 10
males and females out of school adolescent are
5
sexually active. A survey in South West Nigeria shows
that older women are more likely to be virgins till the
6
time of marriage than younger women. A study in
Lagos State reported that 40% of secondary school
students had already had sexual intercourse, while
most adolescents have had their first sexual intercourse
1, 7
between the ages of 10 and 16 years. The mean age
1
of sexual activity is 14.8 years. The picture is similar in
many urban and rural areas in the country. In Calabar,
54% of female and 52% of male adolescents had sex
8
before age 15. Studies in rural and urban areas of
Enugu, Kaduna, Lagos, Onitsha and Zaria show that
sexual activity among adolescents is high. Forty percent
of female and 50% of male adolescents have already
9
had their first sexual contacts. The study shows that
greater proportion of urban female compared to their
male counterparts frequently engage in sexual
9
relationships.
In Benin City, 77% of adolescent school girls are
9
sexually active. In Ilorin, 62% of in-school adolescents
are sexually active of which 30% of females and 58% of
10
males had sex at the age of 19 years. Also, in Niger
State, 32.7% (36% females and 64% males; 55% out
of school and 45% in-school), of respondents had
already had their first sexual intercourse before the age
11
of 19 years. A slightly lower proportion was reported to
be sexually active in a survey among in-school
12
adolescents in the Southeastern parts of the country.
Several studies have reported multiple sexual
partnerships among adolescents in various parts of the
7,9,11,13.
country. Fifty four percent of sexually active
adolescents in Niger State reported having more than
one sexual partner. Most of them were males (66%)
than females (44%), more in school adolescents (55%)
than out-school adolescents (53%) and the frequency
of the respondents' sexual intercourse per week ranged
11
between 0 and 13 times. In Lagos, thirty five percent of
female adolescents and a higher proportion of males
(65%) reported that they maintained more than one
13
sexual partner in non-marital relationships. Similarly in
Benin, 35% of adolescent school girls said they had
9
multiple sexual partners , while in another report in
Lagos, 75% of sexually active adolescent students
7
indicated that they had more than two sexual partners.
Among adolescent university students in Ibadan, 48%
14
reported having many sexual partners.
The brief review in this paper suggests that most
adolescents in the country are sexually experienced,
with a tendency for multiple sex partnerships. Such
risks as unwanted pregnancy, teenage births and
induced abortions, often by quacks, are however
15-18
associated with their sexual practice Life threatening
complications, maternal deaths, and prolonged
15-17
morbidity in survivors result. Sexually transmitted
diseases occur in both sexes and when inadequately
treated, chronic reproductive tract infections and
19-21
infertility follow. Adequate health education and
contraceptive use remain low among adolescent as in
22-25
older age group.
This study was carried out to assess aspects of sexual
behaviour and practice among adolescent secondary
school students in Nnewi Metropolis, one of the
commercial nerve centres of Anambra State, Nigeria.
METHODS
The study was conducted in Nnewi town, among
secondary school students of adolescent age group
(10-19 years). Nnewi is one town in Nnewi North Local
Government Area. The land mass has an area
2
dimension of 72km and an approximate total
population of 157,569 people by the population census
of 2006. From this, an average population density of
2.189 people per square kilometer can easily be
26
appreciated. Nnewi is the second biggest commercial
town in Anambra State. It is a town famed for
industrialization, with raw materials mainly imported
from outside the country.
This was a cross sectional descriptive study. The level of
confidence was specified as 95% and the tolerable
error margin was 5%. Three hundred and eighty four
adolescents were selected from four secondary school
within Nnewi metropolis, comprising of 192 boys and
192 girls using a multi stage random sampling
technique. First step involved the selection of one local
government area from the 21 local government areas of
Anambra State by simple random sampling technique.
The second step involved the selection of 4 secondary
schools comprising of one girls' school, one boys’ school
and two mixed secondary schools out of the 23
secondary schools in Nnewi Metropolis. The third and
final step involved the selection of respondents from
the selected schools using stratified sampling
technique, thus 96 students were interviewed in each of
the schools. Semi-structured questionnaires, with
questions on demographic characteristics, sexual
behaviour, knowledge, practices and contraceptive use
were self administered by the researchers. Out of this,
only 350 questionnaires were correctly filled,
completed and retrieved giving a response rate of
91.1%.The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS
version 13 computer software, and frequencies and
tables were generated.
Participation in the study was voluntary and informed
verbal consent was obtained from each respondent
prior to the administration of the questionnaire. Ethical
approval was obtained from the Department of
Community Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University
before proceeding for this study. The study period was
one month.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________Original Article
AFRIMEDIC Journal Volume 1, No. 2 July - December, 2010.
23
RESULTS
Demographic characteristics (Table I): One
hundred and ninety two females (54.0%) and 158
males (45.1%) were thus studied. They ranged from 12
to 18 years with mean age of 14.9 + 1.5 years. The
majority of them 60.0% (210) were from the senior,
classes, while 40.0% (140) were from the junior
secondary classes. About 95.6% (335) of the
respondents were Christians with only 4.4 %( 15) of
them being Moslems, and the majority of them 90.2 %
(316) currently living with either parents or guardians.
Sexual Behaviours, Practices and Knowledge:
Sixty percent of the respondents (210), did not have
formal education about sexual issues and out of the
numbers that have heard about it formally, 85.7% (300)
were able to mention at least one sign of female sexual
maturation and 60.0% (210) mentioned at least one
sign of male maturation. Most of the respondents,
47.2% (165) got information about sexual issues from
their friends and peer group. This was followed by
television, 30.0% (105) parents, 10.4% (36),
newspapers and magazines, 7.4% (350) and school
5.0% (17.5). (Fig. 1). Fifty two percent (182) of
respondents were aware of contraception and about
50.2% (176) were able to mention at least one or more
contraceptive methods. The most common methods
mentioned by respondents were abstinence 46.3%
(207), male condom, 41.2% (182), oral contraceptive,
2.0% (2) and IUCD 5.6.% (25), while none of the
respondents mentioned diaphragm, surgical methods,
breast feeding or any form of traditional methods.
Among those who are aware of contraception, 45.9%
(192) mentioned that it could be used to prevent
teenage pregnancy, 25.9% (108) mentioned that it
could prevent sexually transmitted disease, 23.4% (98)
said it prevents HIV/AIDS, while 4.8% (20) could not
remember its importance. About one third of the
respondents, 120 (34.37%) were sexually active as at
the time of this survey with 65.7% (230) being males
and 34.3% (120) being females.
The mean age at initiation of sexual activity was 15.08
years (+1.2 S.D.) while modal age was 15 years. The
youngest age at initiation of sexual activity was 10
years.
The method of sexual intercourse commonly practiced
by respondents were vaginal/penile sex which
accounted for 74.1% (89) of intercourse, this was
followed by masturbation 16.7% (20), while none of
the respondents had practiced lesbianism nor
homosexuality. Only 29.2% (35) of respondents had
used any form of contraceptive method at their first
sexual intercourse.
The disparity in contraceptive use between the first and
the last sexual encounter was statistically significant
(P<0.05.). Forty nine (40.8%) of sexually active
respondents in this survey have multiple sexual
partners ranging from 2-8 partners. Of this number,
(49.4%) have had casual sex with someone who was
not their regular partner. Ninety percent (108) of those
that use contraception, claimed to have used male
condom in most cases followed by oral contraceptives,
8.2% (emergency contraception) and the remaining
1.8% used other methods. The main reasons for the
use of contraceptives is to prevent infection (42.5%)
and unwanted teenage pregnancy (40.0%). The
reasons given by respondents for engaging in
premarital sex were peer group pressure (50.0%),
monetary gain (27.5%), personal satisfaction (16.7%),
curiosity (4.2%) and lack of home guidance from
parents and relative (1.7%).
Original Article_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
AFRIMEDIC Journal Volume 1, No. 2 July - December, 2010.
24
Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age group
10 12
13 15
16 19
Sex
Male
Female
Educational level
JSS 3 SS 1
SS 2 SS 3
Religion
Christians
Moslems
Others
N=350
Frequency
5
234
111
158
192
141
209
335
15
0
%
1.4
66.9
31.7
45.1
54.9
40.30
59.7
95.6
4.4
0
DISCUSSION
The socio-demographic characteristics of respondents
in this study are similar to those of previous studies
3-13
conducted in Nigeria. The majority of the respondents
were Christians. This is not surprising, since the study
was conducted in the Southeastern part of the country
with a predominant Christian religious faith. The study
showed that only about 40% of the respondents have
been formally thought about sexual issues. Of this
number, 50% received the information from their
friends and peers and 37.0% from mass media. Those
who received the information from their parents and
schools were low, 10.4% and 5.0%, respectively. This
trend is consistent with results of most studies
22-25
reviewed.
Contraceptive awareness was 52.1% and about 50.2%
of respondent were able to mention at least one or
more methods of contraception, this is consistent with
27
findings in Port Harcourt (56%), and Ilorin, Nigeria
(37% - 63%) but lower than that of sexually active
Nigerian adolescents in 2008 national demographic and
28
health statistics (NDHS). The most commonly known
contraceptive method was male condom (41.2%), and
the main reasons mentioned for the use were; to
prevent teenage pregnancy (45.9%) and to prevent
sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS
(49.3%). This pattern is similar to findings in Port
21,26
Harcourt and Ilorin, Nigeria. The knowledge about
abstinence and male condom is likely to be connected
with widespread information globally on their ability to
prevent HIV/AIDS including other STI's using these
methods of contraception which are mainly spread
through the mass media and school seminars.
About one third of the respondents (34.3%) have had
their first sexual exposure and were sexual active with
60% of them being males and about 35% being
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________Original Article
AFRIMEDIC Journal Volume 1, No. 2 July - December, 2010.
25
Variables
Ever had than first sexual contact/
sexually active (n = 350)
Yes
No
Unavailable
Age of first sexual intercourse
(n = 120)
10 - 12
13 - 16
17 - 19
method of sex commonly practiced
(N =120)
vaginal/penile
masturbation
Oral
Anal
Lesbianism
Homosexuality
Use of contraceptive method at first
sexual intercourse ( n = 120)
Yes
No
Unavailable
Use of contraceptive at the last sexual
intercourse preceding survey (n = 120)
Yes
No
Had sex with more than one person
( n = 120)
Yes
No
Frequency
120
225
5
12
82
26
89
20
8
3
0
0
35
77
7
108
12
49
71
%
34.4
64.3
1.4
10.0
68.3
21.7
74.1
16.7
6.7
2.5
0
0
29.2
64.2
6.6
90.0
10.0
40.8
59.2
Table 3: Percentage distribution of respondents by sexual behaviour
6
females. This result is lower than that from Lagos
which revealed that 40% of adolescents have had
sexual intercourse; 62% of in-school adolescents in
9
Ilorin and 55% in-school adolescents in many
12
Southeastern parts of the country. This shows that
many adolescents in this survey are sexually active,
while few have correct information about sexual issues.
The findings are consistent with reports from Port
26 11
Harcourt , and another survey in Ilorin. Also,
consistent with reports of 40% female and 50% male
adolescents in rural and urban areas of Enugu, Kaduna,
Lagos, Onitsha, and Zaria, who had already had their
9
first sexual contact.
The survey found that about 40.8% of adolescents who
had already had first sexual experience also reported
that they had more than one sexual partner and almost
half of them have had sexual intercourse with a non
regular partner. The findings are consistent with reports
in Benin (35%), higher than reports from Port Harcourt,
(27.7%) and lower than reports from Ilorin, (54%) and
13,26,29.
Ibadan, (48%). Similarly, the present findings
show that the mean age of initiation of sexual activity
was 15.08 years with the youngest age at initiation of
sexual activity being 10 years. Though this reveals
decreasing age of sexual activity among in-school
adolescent, the reports are consistent with findings in
Port Harcourt which stood at 15.04 and 12 years
27
respectively. Rapid urbanization with poor parental
control, exposure to pornographic materials, and peer
group pressure are factors that have been advanced to
explain the decreasing age of initiation and indulgence
in sexual activity by single adolescent girls, many of
whom are neither biologically mature for childbirth, nor
financially or psychologically capable of coping with the
11 ,1 5, 18 ,2 6
co nsequences of se xu al ac ti vi ty. Th e
aforementioned factors are probably operative in
Nnewi, the site of this survey as it is in most other urban
centres in Nigeria, having rapid urbanization and
increased commercial activity. Contraceptive use
among the sexually active respondent was 29.2 percent
at their first sexual exposure but rose to 75% at their
last sexual exposure preceeding this survey, and the
most commonly used contraceptive methods were
male condom (90%) and oral contraceptive (8.2%).
The difference in use between the first exposure and
the last exposure was statistically significant (P<0.05).
This could likely be as a result of ignorance due to poor
knowledge about sexual issues as revealed in this
study. The findings were consistent with reports in Port
11,26
Harcourt and Ilorin. The majority of the respondents
in this survey practiced vaginal/penile sex (74.1%) and
the main reasons given by respondents for having
premarital sex were peer group pressure (50%),
monetary gain, (27.5%) and personal satisfaction,
(16.7%). This trend is similar to that found in some
10,11,27
surveys in Nigeria.
This shows that peer group influence on adolescent is
quite enormous and urgent actions are needed to
address the issue. Many of them get wrong information
from their peers which might be greatly misleading
coupled with economic hardship in the country which
pushes these adolescents especially young girls to have
sex primarily for financial gain not minding the
consequences.
Friends and other peer groups have been consistently
shown to be sources of information on reproductive
health issues especially among young persons. They
are likely to spread wrong information and so it is
necessary that these people are especially targeted in
awareness campaigns. In view of evidence suggesting
widespread sexual activity and its subsequent
consequences among Nigerian adolescents, we
recommend that efforts should be intensified to
promote sexuality education and contraceptive
awareness in this age group. Parents, teachers,
guardians and even the clergy should be involved.
Adolescent health issues are emerging problems of
public health concern and so funds should be made
available by the government at all levels to tackle this
problem including funds for evidence based on
research which is lacking in the country. They are the
future adults of the country and should be properly
taken care of.
REFERENCES
1. World Health Organization 2004, Adolescent
Health and Development, Department of Child and
Adolescent Health and Development.
2. The Guttmacher Institute Report, Young Women's
Sexual and Reproductive Right in a New World.
W w w . s e x u a l - r e p r o d u c t i v e r i g h t /
newworld/mtcintr.htn. assessed 29th July, 2009.
3. Connel JP. Context, Self and Action: A Motivational
Analysis of Self System Processes Across the Life
Span. In: Dchichetti and M Beeghly (Eds). The self
in Transition: Infancy to childhood Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1990, 61-97.
Original Article_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
AFRIMEDIC Journal Volume 1, No. 2 July - December, 2010.
26
AFRIMEDIC Journal Volume 1, No. 2 July - December, 2010.
27
4. Orubuloye IO, Cardwell J, Cardwell P. Sexual
Networking in the Ekiti District of Nigeria. Stud.
Fam. Plan. 1991; 22:61-73.
5. Nichols D, Ladipo OA, Paxman JM, Otolori EO.
Sexual Behaviour, Contraceptive Practice and
Reproductive Health among Nigerian Adolescents.
Stud. Fam. Plan. 1986; 17(2):100 -106.
6. Renne EP, Changes in Adolescent Sexuality and
Perception of Virginity in a Southwestern Nigerian
Village. Health Trans. Rev 1993; 3(suppl): 121-33.
7. Oloko BA, Omoboyo AO. Sexual Networking among
some Lagos State Adolescents Yoruba Students.
Health Trans Rev. 1993; 3(suppl):151-7.
8. Ogbuagu SC., Charles JO. Survey of Sexual
Networking in Calabar. Health Trans. Rev. 1993;
1993 (suppl): 105-120.
9. Markinwa-Adebuso ye P. Sexual Behav iour,
Reproductive Knowledge and Contraceptive use
among young urban Nigerians. Inter Fam. Plann.
Persp. 1992; 18:66-70.
10. A raoye MO, Fakey e OO. Sex ua lity and
Contraception among Nigerian Sdolescents and
Youth Afr. J. Reprod. Health, 1998; 2:142-150.
11. Adegbenga MS, Morenike D, Sunday B, and
Adebayo DO. Reproductiv e, S ex ual and
Contraceptive Behaviour of Adolescents in Niger
State, Nigeria. Afr J. Reprod. Health 2002; 6(3):82-
9.
12. Amazigo U, Silva N, Kaufman J, Obikeze D. Sexual
Activity and Contraceptive Knowledge and use
among In-School Adolescents in Nigeria. Inter.
Fam. Plann. Persp. 1997; 23(1):28-33.
13. Odujinrin OM. Sexual Activity, Contraceptive
Practice and Abortion among Adolescents in Lagos,
Nigeria. Inter. J. Gynaecol Obstet 1991; 34(4):361-
366.
14. Oladepo O, Brieger WR. AIDS Knowledge, Attitude
and behaviour Patterns among University Students
in Ibadan Nigeria. Afr J. Med Medical Sci 1994;
23:119-25.
15. Briggs ND. Adolescent Sexuality and its Problems in
an African Society. Nigeria FIGO concept paper
1991 Adolescent Gynaecology 235-39.
16. Okpani AOU, Ikimako J, John CT, Briggs ND.
Teenage Pregnancy. Trop. J. Obstet Gynaecol.
1995; 12 suppl. 1:34-6.
17. Okonofua FE, Ilumoka A. Prevention of Morbidity
and Mortality from Unsafe Abortion in Nigeria. In
critical issues in reproduction health. The Robert II
Ebert Program New York: The Population Council,
1992.
18. Harrison KA. Childbearing, Health and Social
Priorities; a survey of 22,774 consecutive hospital
births in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Br. J. Obstet
Gynaecol 1985; 95:23-39.
19. Wasserbeit J. The significance and scope of
reproductive tract infection among third world
women. Int. J. Gynaecol Obstet 1989; 33:145-68.
20. Adelusi B. Sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic
inflammatory disease and reproductive failure.
Nig. Med. J. 1989; 19(2):84-7.
21. Brabin L, Kemp J, Obunge OK. Reproductive Tract
Infection and Abortion among Adolescent Girls in
Rural Nigeria. Lancet 1995; 345, 300-304.
22. Gyepi-Garbrah B. Adolescent fertility in sub-
Saharan Africa. An over view (Boston MA: The
pathfinder fund 1995).
23. Odujirin OMT. Sexual Activity, Contraceptive
Practice and abortion among Adolescents in Lagos,
Nigeria. Int. J. Gynaecol Obstet 1991; 361-6.
24. Araoye MO, Fakeye OO, Jolayemi ET. Sexual
Behavioural Patterns and Contraceptive Choice,
Ilorin: University of Ilorin, 1994 (Report Submitted
to the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special
Programs of Research Development and Research
Training in Human Reproduction).
25. Ezimokhai A, Ajabor LN, Jackson A, Izilien MJ.
Re sponse of Un ma rried A do lesce nt s to
Contraceptive Advice. Trop. J. Obstet Gynaecol
1991; 9(2):27-30.
26. The profile of Nnewi North Local Government Area
2008 :1-2.
27. Okpani AOU, Okpani JU. Sexual Activity and
Contraceptive use among Female Adolescents. A
report from Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Afr Reprod.
Health 2000; 4(1):40-47.
28. Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) Abuja Nig.
National Demography.
29. Evelyn U., Osafu O. Sexual Behaviour Reproductive
Behaviour and Perception of AIDS among
Adolescent Girls in Benin City, Urban Nigeria. Afr J.
Reprod. Health 1999; 3:39-44.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________Original Article
... The study was conducted in Olorunda Local Government Area (LGA), one of the 30 LGAs in Osun State, South Western Nigeria. The ...
... The major religion of the inhabitants is Islam and Christianity and most of them are involved in farming, trading and commercial transportation. The study was conducted in Olorunda Local Government Area (LGA), one of the 30 LGAs in Osun State, South Western Nigeria. Olorunda LGA consists of eleven political units known as wards; three out of which are rural settlements while the remaining eight (8) are part of Osogbo metropolis. ...
... About four out of five sexually experienced respondents in this study ever used condom and the males significantly used condoms more than the females. This is similar to the findings of other studies conducted in South East and South-South of Nigeria [1], [30] but contrasts with that reported in Iran [31]. Ever use of condom does not proffer much benefit, consistency is the key. ...
... Osteoporosis is a chronic progressive disease. It has become a major public health problem of epidemic nature [10][11][12]. The aim of this research was to assess knowledge of OP among Nepalese older female population aged more than and equal to 60 years as well as identifying its relation with other variables. ...
... This finding is consistent with a cross-sectional study conducted in Egypt (2015) that reported level of knowledge on osteoporosis was found more than 50%, [10] whereas another finding was contradictory with a study done in similar setting [11]. In this study, association between level of knowledge and selected variables showed that level of knowledge with ethnicity and level of attitude with family history among older females. ...
... In this study, association between level of knowledge and selected variables showed that level of knowledge with ethnicity and level of attitude with family history among older females. A study done in Egypt reported education status and employment were significantly associated with level of knowledge [10][11][12]. Additionally, the knowledge score and attitude score regarding osteoporosis had significantly strong positive relationships. ...
Article
Full-text available
Osteoporosis is a global problem that is increasing in significance with rapid aging. Currently, it is estimated that over 200 million people worldwide suffer from the disease. One in three women and one in five men will sustain an osteoporotic fracture. It is referred to as a "silent disease", in which the balance between bone formation and bone reabsorption shifts in the favor of reabsorption as a result bone becomes progressively brittle and fragile and increases the risk for fracture. Therefore, this study was conducted to find out knowledge and attitude regarding osteoporosis among the older female population residing in Bharatpur, Nepal. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among the older female population (n=126) residing in Bharatpur-11, Chitwan District, Nepal. The setting was selected randomly among 6 municipalities of the Chitwan district. A non-probability, convenience sampling technique was used to select samples for this study. Data were collected during July to August, 20202 by using face to face interview schedule with a standard tool (OKAT and OHBS scale). Data were analyzed by using descriptive (frequency, percentage, mean, median, and SD) and inferential statistics (chi-square test & correlation coefficient). The result showed that (65.1%) of the respondents belonged to age group 60-70, (96.8%) were living with family, (76.2%) were from rural areas. More of them belonged to group Janajati (55.6%) and (50.8%) followed the Hindu religion, and the majority of the respondents (77.8%) were illiterate, (57.9%) belonged to joint family, (58.7%) have a family history of osteoporosis and (76.2%) had an absence of diabetes mellitus. Fifty-one percent of the respondents have adequate knowledge and 52.0% have a positive attitude regarding osteoporosis. There were significant associated factors between knowledge and ethnicity (p<0.001) and attitude and family history (p=0.006). Similarly, knowledge and attitude scores were highly correlated with each other which is statistically significant at p-value <0.005 level. It is concluded that knowledge and attitude of osteoporosis among the older female population could be considered suboptimal levels. Controlling the quality of health information providing through awareness program and motivation health care providers to play a pivotal role in organizing and implementing such program regarding osteoporosis is recommended especially in community area.
... This age is lower than 15.08±0.2-15.2±1 years reported in previous studies (15)(16). Early sexual debut is problematic because this practice increases the risk of incidence of multiple sexual partners, unprotected sex, sexually transmitted infections, cervical cancer, unintended pregnancies, and unsafe abortion (17). ...
... More than half of the respondents had experienced at least one form of SC. This figure is slightly higher than findings from previous studies conducted in southwestern Nigeria (Ibadan and Lagos States) in which SC prevalence ranged from 11% and 55% (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23). This difference in prevalence may reflect increase in the extent of the problem among the population studied. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual coercion (SC) is a major public health problem with short- and long term reproductive and mental health consequences among survivors. This study assessed the experience, help-seeking behaviour, and perceived self efficacy to prevent SC among female secondary school students in Akinyele Local Government Area (LGA), Oyo State, Nigeria. The descriptive cross-sectional survey involved 399 consenting students who were interviewed using a 43-item questionnaire that explored respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, experience of SC(physical,sexual, and psychological form), help seeking behaviour and perceived self-efficacy to prevent SC. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and Chi- square analysis. Respondents' mean age was 15+1.4 years. Ten percent of the respondents have had sex; the majority of those sexually experienced reported that their sexual debut was non-consensual. More than half (59.1%) of the entire students had experienced at least one form of SC, 16.4% had experienced the three forms of SC; 7.3% had been raped. Most survivors of SC revealed that the perpetrators were close persons (friends) and most incidents of SC occurred in schools. More than half of the survivors did not seek help either during (56.8%) or after (53.8%) the incident of coercion. The study also found an association between confidence level, and lifetime experiences of SC (p<0.05). SC is a common experience among secondary school students. Appropriate multiple interventions including training of students via peer, teacher and parent-led approaches as well as actions at policy levels are recommended to address this challenge.
... The engagement by adolescents in same sex intercoursegay and lesbianism was not reported in the various studies, the reason given for which is due to the fact that people do not openly acknowledge their preference for same sex, Baams et al. 7 Majority individuals had vagino-penal intercourse which was similar to the finding in an African review article and also in studies from various nations where vagino-penal intercourse was seen in 78% of the study population. 12,13 Indulging in drug abuse, smoking and alcohol consumption were reported in 39% participants the reason for which may be attributed to peer pressure, inquisitiveness to try out the new. Use of drugs/alcohol may reduce the inhibitory control thus leading to unsafe practices and risky behavior. ...
... et al, where the reason for non usage was 'it doesn't feel good in 33.2%, unavailability in 22.3% and unawareness in 21.8% individuals.13 Most of the young people who have sex do so with stable partners, at all the age levels. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Adolescence and young age is a time of opportunity and risk. During this time, attitudes, values and behaviours that forms a young person's future begin to develop and take shape. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 70% of health related issues in adults are largely due to behaviours initiated during adolescence. Age of sexual debut is generally low, yet there is dearth of knowledge on sexuality.Methods: This prospective study was conducted on adolescents and young people visiting the dermatology out patient department of a tertiary care centre in north India over 6 months duration with the help of a self administered questionnaire regarding sexual health and practices followed by imparting knowledge regarding safe sexual practices by the author.Results: Sexual debut is usually with an elder as noted in the study. Youngsters engage in unhealthy sexual behaviours, characterized by early age at sexual initiation, unsafe sex and multiple sex partners, Reasons given for this include curiosity, peer influence, pleasure and financial benefit, amongst others.Conclusions: Similar patterns of sexual behavior have been seen in all parts of the world, the findings being similar in developed as well as developing nations. Despite the ongoing programs and initiatives taken by the Indian government, this article points to the need of increasing sexual awareness by incorporating sexual education as a part of the early education curriculum, by helping and including parents to overcome the social and cultural barrier between them and their children. Encouraging contraceptive use and hence improving adolescent and young people’s reproductive and sexual health in the country.
... This finding was very low when compared to the Nnewi study, where contraceptive use among the sexually active respondents was 29.2% at their first sexual exposure, but it was at a rise to 75% at their last sexual exposure preceding the survey. [15] In contrast to the finding of the present study, majority of the participants were willing to use contraceptives due to its several benefits encouraging family planning which include adequately planned families with a smaller number of children as par the resources and as it enhanced both maternal and child health [16][17][18][19] Limitations of the study This study is based on a small migratory population, but we need to conduct this type of study on large migratory populations to assess the actual condition of this type of population. ...
Article
Background: Even though India was the first country in the whole world to introduce the national family planning policy, the acceptance rate of contraceptive methods has been unsatisfactory to date. Many women in their fertility period, who were ready to control their fertility and limit the number of unwanted children, were not aware of different methods of contraceptives available and their proper use and other benefits. Aim and objective: 1. To assess the socio-demographic status of the study participants. 2. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of contraceptive methods in Lohpeeta mobile tribe located in Shivpuri, central India. Methods: The present study was an observational cross-sectional survey conducted from 1st December 2019 to 28th February 2020 in Lohpeeta mobile tribe located in Shivpuri local; nonrandom convenience sampling method was used after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, so the total sample size was 209. Data were collected by a principal investigator with a predesigned, pretested, questionnaire by conducting face-to-face interview with the participants. Firstly, the data was administered in an excel sheet then it was analyzed and presented in the form of percentage, and a Chi-square test was applied to assess the level of significance. Result: The most common age group of participants was 18-30 year (37.3%) and most were married (97.6%); we found that the knowledge and attitude toward contraceptives of participants was very poor, most 185 (88.5%) of the participants had never used any contraceptive method and only a few participants were using it occasionally, and none of the participants were using any contraceptive methods regularly. Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude, and compliance towards contraceptives were poor in this group, we need to focus on this type of migrant population to increase their awareness and change their attitude towards contraceptives, so that they can use it without any fear.
... Selain itu, penelitian yang dilakukan Zulhaini dan Mayithah pada siswa kelas XI SMAN 9 Binjai mendapatkan hasil terhadap perilaku seks pranikah yang dilakukan antara lain, berpegangan tangan (38,77%), masturbasi/onani (26,60 %), kissing (53,61%), petting (32,70%), dan berhubungan seksual (51,22%) (Zulhaini & Masyithah, 2011). Penelitian lain yang dilakukan di Nnewi, Nigeria pada remaja SMA menunjukkah hasil (74,1%) pernah berhubungan seksual, (6,7%) oral seks, dan (2,5%) anal seks (Duru et al., 2010). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Latar belakang penelitian ini dilakukan karena masa-masa SMA merupakan masa terjadinya transisi kehidupan dan saat ini banyak siswa SMA yang sudah mulai tertarik dengan lawan jenisnya. Bahkan, tidak sedikit dari mereka yang sudah berpacaran. Oleh karena itu, peneliti ingin meneliti mengenai gambaran perilaku seksual pranikah yang terjadi pada siswa SMA. Peneliti menggunakan desain penelitian survei dan menggunakan skala guttman sebagai skala pengukuran. Skala Guttman digunakan untuk mengukur skala perilaku seksual pranikah remaja yang disusun sesuai dengan struktur hirarki atau tingkatan dari sikap perilaku seksual remaja. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian pada siswa SMA baik pernah maupun sedang berpacaran menunjukan presentasi yang kecil khususnya pada perilaku seksual bersetubuh dengan pasangannya, yaitu 0,83%. Sehingga, hasil yang didapatkan tidak sesuai dengan dugaan sementara. Kata kunci : Pacaran; Perilaku seksual pranikah; Siswa SMA; Skala Guttman.
... Selain itu, penelitian yang dilakukan Zulhaini dan Mayithah pada siswa kelas XI SMAN 9 Binjai mendapatkan hasil terhadap perilaku seks pranikah yang dilakukan antara lain, berpegangan tangan (38,77%), masturbasi/onani (26,60 %), kissing (53,61%), petting (32,70%), dan berhubungan seksual (51,22%) (Zulhaini & Masyithah, 2011). Penelitian lain yang dilakukan di Nnewi, Nigeria pada remaja SMA menunjukkah hasil (74,1%) pernah berhubungan seksual, (6,7%) oral seks, dan (2,5%) anal seks (Duru et al., 2010). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Latar belakang penelitian ini dilakukan karena masa-masa SMA merupakan masa terjadinya transisi kehidupan dan saat ini banyak siswa SMA yang sudah mulai tertarik dengan lawan jenisnya. Bahkan, tidak sedikit dari mereka yang sudah berpacaran. Sedangkan, harga diri merupakan kepribadian siswa SMA yang akan mempengaruhi sikap dan hasil interaksi siswa SMA dengan orang-orang disekitarnya. Salah satu faktor terjadinya perilaku seksual pranikah adalah harga diri. Oleh sebab itu, penelitian ini memiliki tujuan mengkaji hubungan perilaku seksual pranikah dengan harga diri yang terjadi pada siswa SMA. Peneliti menggunakan correlational research strategy karena terdapat dua variabel yang ingin dilihat hubungannya. Peneliti juga menggunakan desain penelitian survei dalam penelitiannya. Pada penelitian yang dilakukan digunakan 2 skala instrumen, yaitu skala perilaku seksual dan harga diri. Didapatkan korelasi dengan nilai r = 0,123. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa hasil ini sesuai dengan dugaan, yaitu terdapat hubungan atau korelasi yang positif namun, tidak signifikan pada perilaku seksual pranikah dan harga diri yang dilakukan siswa SMA baik yang pernah berpacaran maupun sedang berpacaran. Kata Kunci : Harga diri; Pacaran; Perilaku seksual pranikah; Siswa SMA; Skala Guttman
... This could likely be as a result of ignorance due to poor knowledge about sexual issues. According to the study by Duru, et al. (2010), friends and other peer groups had been consistently shown to be sources of ISSN 2311-6080 Multidisciplinary Journals www.multidisciplinaryjournals.com 49 information on reproductive health issues especially among young persons. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Background: Adolescence is a period of life marked by physical and psychological changes, experiences, desires, behavior, and sexuality. Globally, adolescents have been reported to engage in early sexual activities and at early age while many indulge in unprotected sex (Durowade, Babatunde,et al, 2017). Unprotected sex exposes adolescents to adverse outcomes such as unplanned pregnancy, pregnancy related risks, sexually transmitted illnesses, unsafe abortion and human immunodeficiency virus infection (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021). All these negative outcomes can be averted with the proper use of contraceptives. This study therefore intends to determine the knowledge and use of contraceptives among adolescents in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Methodology: Six hundred male and female adolescents aged 12 to 19 years and in- school students of Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria completed an anonymous survey that assessed their knowledge, sources of knowledge and attitudes towards contraception. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21.0. The results were presented in frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test of association was used to test knowledge of contraceptive use and other variables. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with contraceptive use with 95% confidence interval. Variables with ρ-value less than 0.05 were considered as significantly associated with contraceptive use. Findings: The mean age of participants was 15.2 years. Knowledge of contraceptive was statistically significant with age (0.004), type of school (0.006) and year of study (0.006). The sources of knowledge about contraception for the adolescents were mostly friends (38.7%), parents (25.8%) and mass media (14.8%). The most known contraceptive is the condom (82.5%). 41.7% of the adolescents have been involved in sexual activities out of which 53.2% did not use contraceptives during the last time of intercourse. Key words: Contraceptives, adolescents, unplanned pregnancy, sexual behaviour
Article
This study investigated the influence of Psychological Abuse and Self-Efficacy as predictors of Sexual Abstinence among Adolescents in Makurdi metropolis. The Cross-Sectional Survey design was employed where 208 adolescents in Makurdi metropolis consisting of 98 (47.12%) males and 110 (52.88%) females were used. Their ages ranged from 12-22years with a mean age of 17.54years (SD=3.78). Simple Random sampling technique was used to draw samples for the study. Three instruments were used for data collection; Child Abuse Scale, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale and the Sexual Abstinence Behaviour Scale. Three hypotheses were tested using Simple Linear and Multiple Regression. Findings indicated that there was a significant influence of psychological abuse on sexual abstinence among adolescents. Secondly, there was a significant influence of self-efficacy on sexual abstinence among adolescents. Lastly, psychological abuse and self-efficacy are significant joint predictors of sexual abstinence among adolescents. It was recommended that the society should desist from abusing adolescents since it was known to affect their sexual behaviour.
Article
To institute meaningful preventive measures for the control of HIV/AIDS, there is need for more information relating to the perception and knowledge of AIDS and the sexuality of our adolescent population, who form a significant at-risk group. A survey of the knowledge and perception of AIDS and sexual behaviour among 723 randomly selected secondary school adolescent girls, aged 13 to 18 years, was carried out in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Over 94% of the study population was aware of AIDS, while 64% rightly knew that AIDS can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Similarly, 9.1% and 3.9% wrongly ascribed AIDS transmission to casual kissing and sharing of utensils with AIDS patients. More than 77% of the girls were sexually active, and of this, 35% had multiple sexual partners and only 26.9% practised the use of condoms during sexual intercourse. This study re-echoes the urgent need for intensive and effective control programmes for HIV/AIDS. /// Afin d'instituer des mesures de prévention significatives dans le contrôle du VIH/SIDA, il est nécessaire de receuillir de plus amples informations concernant la perception et le niveau de connaissance de nos adoléscents qui forment un groupe à haut risque, sur le SIDA et la sexualité. Une enquête a ainsi été menée auprès de 723 adoléscentes élèves du sécondaire âgées entre 13 et 18 ans, afin d'en apprendre sur leurs connaissances et perceptions sur le Sida ainsi que sur leur comportement sexuel. L'enquête avait été menée dans la ville de Benin dans l'état de l'Edo du Nigéria. Plus de 94% de la population de l'étude était consciente du sida et 64% savait avec exactitude que le sida pouvait être transmis lors des rapports sexuels. De même, 9,1% et 3,9% des adoléscentes ont faussement attribué la transmission du SIDA à l'échange de simples baisers et au partage d'ustensiles avec des patients souffrant du SIDA. Plus de 77% des filles étaient sexuellement actives et de ces 77%, 35% avaient plusieurs partenaires sexuels et seulement 26,9% utilisaient des préservatifs durant le rapport sexuel. Cette étude fait écho au besoin de programmes poussés et efficaces en matière de VIH/SIDA.
Article
A high proportion of young urban Nigerians, both male and female, are currently sexually active--as many as 78% of males and 86% of females aged 20-24. According to the survey of more than 5,500 males and females aged 12-24, sexual intercourse appears to be sporadic and unstable; many of these young people, particularly males, have more than one sexual partner. Only around 15% of these young adults currently practice contraception. They also possess little information (or incorrect information) about reproductive biology: About three in five do not know that pregnancy is possible at first intercourse, and even fewer know that a woman's pregnancy risk varies during the menstrual cycle. Friends, schoolmates and the media are the most common sources of information about sexual or reproductive matters, while parents and guardians are the least common sources.
Article
This paper examines changes in the perception of virginity and pre-marital female sexuality over the past 60 years in a rural Ekiti Yoruba village, based on interviews with 95 women, aged 15-80. Formerly, virginity was considered an important part of arranged marriage and was believed to facilitate pregnancy. Now virginity is associated with antisocial behaviour, disease, and infertility by many younger women. This shift in attitudes illustrates how the perception of health and fertility relates to societal change, in this case the introduction of divorce and the end of arranged marriage. These women's remarks suggest that as the effects of HIV-AIDS become more evident, adolescent female sexuality may once again undergo a rapid reassessment as it did earlier in the century.
Article
Adolescent sexual behaviour was studied in order to provide more valid data on the onset of sexual experience and aspects of premarital sexual networking which may influence sexuality in later life. Yoruba students from five secondary schools were surveyed. Almost half the respondents were sexually active and most had more than two sexual partners. Despite this, most respondents favoured premarital chastity for girls. More students had heard of AIDS than STDs but, even so, knowledge of transmission was limited. Yet nearly one-third indicated that they knew of someone with AIDS. The evaluation, however, of premarital chastity as desirable suggests that subsequent sexual behaviour may be amenable to shaping through family-life education, a possible route for AIDS control campaigns.
Article
Calabar is known for its easy-going sexual morality. In such a setting HIV/AIDS could spread extremely rapidly. It was therefore decided to conduct a survey among the inhabitants to determine the nature and extent of sexual networking, and people's awareness of AIDS and STDs as health risks. At least one-quarter of respondents had their first sexual experience before the age of 14 and premarital sexual contact is widespread. Many residents have more than one sexual partner and sexual networking is widespread. While most respondents had heard of AIDS and were aware of condoms, very few used them for AIDS prevention or, indeed, at all. The study demonstrates that the city is a high-risk area for the transmission of HIV and STDs and an effective awareness campaign is urgently needed.
Article
Among 2,460 secondary school students surveyed in two southeastern Nigerian states, only 36% could correctly identify the most likely time for conception to occur. Female students were considerably more likely than males to understand the timing of conception (46% vs. 25%); less dramatic differences emerged by students' residence and grade in school. Among students who supplied information about their sexual activity, 40% had had intercourse; the proportion who were sexually experienced climbed from 26% of 14-year-olds to 54-55% of 18-19-year-olds. While 36% of the young women had had sexual partners who were roughly their age, 25% had been involved with older businessmen; the young women said they have intercourse more frequently and are less likely to restrict intercourse to the safe period of their cycle when they are involved with older partners than when they have boyfriends their own age. Only 17% of sexually active students had ever used a contraceptive method other than abstinence. In focus groups and in-depth discussions, students expressed a strong desire for better education about contraception and the consequences of sexual intercourse, and recommended that both schools and parents participate in educating young people about reproductive health.
Article
Nine hundred fifty randomly selected secondary school girls were surveyed. Sexual activity was claimed by 29%, the youngest age was 12 years and age had no influence on the frequency of sexual intercourse. Multiple sexual partners, a high risk behaviour for contracting STD including AIDS was demonstrated in 33.7% and only 20.3% used orthodox methods of contraception. Induced abortion was procured by 23.5% and most were procured from unskilled personnel and by dangerous methods.