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Digital colorimetric analysis of the Turin Shroud

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By using the data collected in previous colorimetric studies, a quantitative digital image with ± 4% uncertainty relative to the color values, has been made. This goal was achieved by colors correction of a digitalized photograph performed through comparison with some published measurements in CIE XYZ color space. Starting from that image construction, a simply color measurement method was performed by using a common photographic software, and consequently allowing the construction of a colorimetric database of the main observable details of the Turin Shroud (TS). With this tools some analysis on TS colors were performed and interesting results were found: for example, it has been quantitatively demonstrated that the background cloth colors, gradually and continuously changes toward the typical shades of body image. From this work it has been also possible to distinguish colors differences between blood stains and the other stains which have proved to have of different origins.
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Digital colorimetric analysis of the Turin Shroud
Christian Privitera
CRIS (Committee for Engineering Research on the Turin Shroud), via G.L. Bernini 108/1, Mira, Venice, Italy,
christian.privitera@gmail.com
Abstract. By using the data collected in previous colorimetric studies, a quantitative digital
image with ± 4% uncertainty relative to the color values, has been made. This goal was
achieved by colors correction of a digitalized photograph performed through comparison with
some published measurements in CIE XYZ color space. Starting from that image construction,
a simply color measurement method was performed by using a common photographic
software, and consequently allowing the construction of a colorimetric database of the main
observable details of the Turin Shroud (TS). With this tools some analysis on TS colors were
performed and interesting results were found: for example, it has been quantitatively
demonstrated that the background cloth colors, gradually and continuously changes toward the
typical shades of body image. From this work it has been also possible to distinguish colors
differences between blood stains and the other stains which have proved to have of different
origins.
1 Introduction
The Turin Shroud (TS) is believed by many to be the burial cloth of Jesus of Nazaret h when he
had been put in a tomb in Palestine about 2000 years ago. TS has generated considerable controversy
but, beyond all the innumerable widely debated questions, it is a matter of fact that the TS exists as an
archaeological object: thus it can be directly and objectively observed [1]. The results of the studies
carried out on the TS can be analyzed by scientific methods.
The TS is a linen sheet about 4.4 m long and 1.1 m wide, in which the complete front and back
body images of a man are impressed. The cloth is hand-made and each yarn (diameter about 0.25 mm)
is composed of 70-200 linen fibers [2]. It has been shown by many scientists that the linen sheet
enveloped the corpse of a man who had been scourged, crowned with thorns, crucified with nails, and
stabbed by a lance in the side. Many other marks due to blood, fire, water and folding, are also
impressed which have greatly damaged the double body image.
The TS has a front and a back image separated by a non-image zone of 0.18 m; the images show
an adult male, nude, well proportioned and muscular, with beard, mustache and long hair.
Many hypotheses and experimental tests have been carried out on linen fabrics to explain the
formation of the body image, in favor of both authenticity and the other way around [2]. Despite some
macroscopic results with resemblance to the TS image which have often been achieved limited to the
face, none of them has come close to reproduce all the TS image characteristics. In other words, even
if at first sight, many image copies are similar to that of the TS, until now no experimental test has
been able to reproduce all the characteristics found on the original.
DOI: 10.1051/
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Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2015
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From this brief description it is easy to understand how studies on the TS must be conducted wide-
ranging in many fields of human knowledge, but given the current difficulty to directly perform
analysis on the Relic, the studies are performed on materials collected by the STURP (Shroud of Turin
Research Project) in 1978 and during other rare occasions.
Colorimetric analysis can be a way to solve some questions, but the works on this research field
are few and too approximate because they have been performed on not calibrated image or didn't use a
repeatable measurement method.
To perform colorimetric analysis a calibrated quantitative image of the TS was built and a standard
measurements procedure has been determined on it [3,4]: with these tools many researchers will be
able to perform colorimetric analysis on TS. This paper integrates with new content what has been
already published [4].
2 Measurement instrument and procedure
2.1 The quantitative image
The aforementioned image was created starting from an image taken by photographer G. Durante in
2002. This picture with sizes of 6996×24197 pixel with a resolution of 300 dpi was used as the base
image.
In 1978 researchers Soardo et al. performed color measurements on various details of the TS and
expressed the results in CIE XYZ color space [5].
For calibrating the Durante's image, 18 points were chosen on it with a certain correspondence to
the measurements points reported in Soardo's paper. By using a circular mask of a common
photographic software with a diameter of 68 pixel (corresponding to the 13 mm of Soardo's
colorimeter sampling spot) the statistical values of the single RGB color channel (values range 0 -
255) were read by means of the histogram function.
The color data, acquired by using Paint Shop™ Pro©, were converted from their sRGB color
space representation to CIE XYZ space [6] and the CIE D55 type illuminant (used by G.Durante to
realize his photographic work) was converted into CIE A type (used by Soardo et al. for colorimetric
measurements) by using the Bradford matrix [7]. The acquired RGB values were converted by the
application of the followings matrix operations (subscript A and D55 identify color values expressed
in CIE type A and type D55 illuminant):
(1)
Where:
(2)
- [T1] is the Bradford matrix for illuminant conversion fro m CIE D55 to CIE type A;
- [T2] is the conversion matrix from sRGB to CIE XYZ color space;
- [T] is the transformation matrix, the resulting matrix product of [T1] and [T2].
The x, y, z chromatic coordinates (values range 0 -1) can be obtained by using eq.3:
(3)
02002-p.2
The acquired data were compared with the Soardo's measurements, finding that the mean
differences were caused by an additive systematic effect. So additional constants δx, δy, δz were
calculated by the difference between the arithmetic mean of the 18 converted RGB data acquired on
Durante’s photography and the corresponding arithmetic mean of the 18 reference measurements
made by Soardo. The calculated constants δx, δy, δz have been added algebraically to the colorimetric
values obtained by conversion of the RGB values to eliminate the additive systematic effect (Fig. 1
and 2).
Figure 1. X coordinate value before correction. It can be seen the addictive systematic effect.
Figure 2. X coordinate value after correction with the additional constant.
After colors correction in CIE XYZ color space, the image was reconverted to sRGB standard by
using the inverse color space transformation. The image built in such a manner turned out to be
characterized by a calculated uncertainty on color values of ± 4%.
2.2 Measurement instrument and method
It was determined a measuring procedure starting from the method used for the quantitative image
construction. As was done for the image calibration, the measurement instrument was "built" with
masks and histogram functions of a common photographic software (Fig.3), through which were
possible to read out the R, G, B channel value of a determinate area: the shape and the dimension of
that area are fundamental elements, so it was important to investigate it.
The shape of the chosen selector was the circle, first of all for its wide availability in all the
software's mask lists, then for its curved contours and because only center coordinates are needed for
positioning it.
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Figure 3. Histogram function of common photographic software. With this tool it can be readed the average
value of a single color channel in selected area
The size of the sampling area was determined by evaluating:
the amount of pixels on which the program executes the average values of the individual channels,
because it determines the sensitivity of the variations; the capability in balancing the tonal differences
derived from the weft of the fabric. In fact the TS image is composed by an alternance of clear and
dark fibers, so for balancing this effect the dimension of the measurement area must include equal
number of fibers; the capability to test very small details.
The diameter of the circular mask was chosen equal to 12 pixels (in metric scale d= 2.3 mm)
(Fig.4).
Figure 4. Shape and size of the sampling area used in the image processing. Diameter dimension comparison: A)
12 pixel B) 20 pixel C) 40 pixel.
Robustness analysis was performed in order to verify the stability of the RGB measurements to
variation of the shape and the dimension area of the measurement mask.
Original image was splitted in two parts (front and back image) with precise dimension. Then, for
each part a coordinate system was defined (Fig. 5): (h, k) coordinates corresponding to the pixel
position, so they can be detected directly from the software used for measurements.
The color measurement procedure can be summarized as follows: to open the histogram function,
to choose a circular selection mask with 12 pixel diameter, to apply the mask on selected features, to
read the RGB values by means values using the histogram function.
02002-p.4
The measurement method can be applied to the Durante's photography by using a data-sheet for
color conversion to obtain XYZ colors values and then to compare the results with the follow
database.
Figure 5. The splitted image and the (h, k) coordinate system origin corner and axis orientation or for
measurements.
3 Colorimetric analysis of details
3.1 Colorimetric measurements
Once calibrated the quantitative image, the following measurement has been performed on it:
54 samples both on the front side and the dorsal of the body image (Fig. 6-7 and tab. 1-2);
54 samples both on the front side and the dorsal of the bloodstains (Fig. 8-9 and tab. 3-4);
54 samples both on the front side and the dorsal of the background cloth (Fig. 10-11 and tab. 5-6);
30 samples, 16 on the front side and 14 on the dorsal side of the water stains areas (Fig. 12-13 and tab.
7-8);
30 samples, 16 on the front side and 14 on the dorsal side of the burns areas (Fig. 12-13 and tab. 7-8).
For database and plots, chromatic coordinates in CIE XYZ color space were used because they are
directly comparable with photometric measurements. So from the tables, for each measurement point
reported in figures, the coordinates of the center of the sampling area (h, k), the chromatic coordinates
obtained from RGB channel values conversion (x, y, z) and the dimensionless chromatic ratios used
also for the plots construction (x/y, x/z, y/z) can be readed.
In table 9 the values range and their arithmetical average of the analyzed TS features were
reported.
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Figure 6. Measurement points on BODY IMAGE front.
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Table 1. Reference table of the position in the (h, k) coordinate system of the measurement points in fig. 6 and
related color values and dimensionless ratios.
BODY IMAGE chromatic values FRONT
h
k
x
y
z
x/y
x/z
y/z
A
3305
662
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.87
4.26
2877
805
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.72
4.16
C
3097
846
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.74
4.17
D
3472
945
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.15
5.23
4.56
E
3730
966
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.55
4.02
F
3280
1038
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.73
4.17
G
3122
1039
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.71
4.14
H
2806
1059
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.66
4.11
I
3449
1059
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.80
4.24
J
3057
1300
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.79
4.22
K
3286
1317
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.15
5.25
4.56
L
3504
1393
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.78
4.22
M
3119
1426
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.15
5.10
4.45
N
3714
1438
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.71
4.16
O
3088
1508
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.91
4.30
P
3088
1700
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.15
5.25
4.57
Q
3371
1711
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.15
5.18
4.51
R
3821
2482
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.69
4.14
2541
2539
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.75
4.19
T
2830
2824
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.58
4.05
3862
2845
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.73
4.17
2884
4121
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.70
4.17
W
4413
4188
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.60
4.06
X
2183
4224
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.68
4.11
Y
4513
4349
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.62
4.08
2943
4367
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.93
4.32
AA
2257
4400
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.83
4.24
AB
4051
4438
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.64
4.11
AC
3582
4452
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.63
4.09
AD
4241
4460
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.64
4.11
AE
4009
4695
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.68
4.13
AF
2587
4751
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.74
4.18
AG
2906
5173
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.77
4.21
AH
3087
5233
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.89
4.28
AI
3274
5271
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.81
4.22
3220
5482
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.83
4.25
AK
2685
5662
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.74
4.18
2978
5689
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.82
4.25
2453
5692
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.78
4.20
AN
3484
5922
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.69
4.15
AO
2528
6016
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.67
4.11
3447
6059
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.53
4.01
AQ
2744
6346
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.88
4.29
AR
3436
8545
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.79
4.22
AS
2734
8801
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.79
4.22
AT
3377
8950
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.74
4.19
AU
2889
9033
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.81
4.25
AV
2936
10122
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.55
4.02
AW
2992
10140
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.67
4.11
AX
3285
10207
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.62
4.08
AY
3274
10221
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.63
4.09
AZ
3148
10379
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.70
4.15
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Figure 7. Measurement points on BODY IMAGE front.
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Table 2. Reference table of the position in the (h, k) coordinate system of the measurement points in fig. 7 and
related color values and dimensionless ratios.
BODY IMAGE chromatic values BACK
h
k
x
y
z
x/y
x/z
y/z
A
3997
783
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.92
4.30
3373
935
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.77
4.22
C
3543
1007
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
5.06
4.44
D
3277
1179
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.75
4.19
E
4040
1209
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.57
4.05
F
3548
1266
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.89
4.31
G
3745
1299
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.91
4.32
H
3633
1315
0.48
0.42
0.09
1.14
5.11
4.48
I
3762
1627
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.54
4.00
J
3581
1650
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.75
4.20
K
3824
2028
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.61
4.07
L
3515
2488
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.67
4.13
M
3202
2665
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.58
4.03
N
3853
3018
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.48
3.97
O
4339
3025
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.54
4.00
P
3560
3074
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.48
3.97
Q
3920
3372
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.42
3.91
R
3316
3902
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.41
3.91
4040
3921
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.49
3.97
T
3752
4190
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.44
3.93
3832
4698
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.48
3.97
3052
4909
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.46
3.97
W
4185
4987
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.63
4.08
X
3832
4999
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.62
4.08
Y
3186
5016
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.42
3.93
3837
5589
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.46
3.95
AA
3580
6080
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.51
4.00
AB
4168
6198
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.51
4.00
AC
3522
6360
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.54
4.01
AD
4124
6693
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.43
3.93
AE
3946
8069
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.86
4.26
AF
3425
8325
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.12
4.56
4.06
AG
3423
8389
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.51
4.00
AH
4061
8552
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.63
4.09
AI
4249
8696
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.61
4.08
3967
8838
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.58
4.06
AK
3425
8979
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.50
3.99
3410
9084
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.66
4.12
3932
9084
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.53
4.01
AN
4067
9160
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.38
3.90
AO
4046
9205
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.53
4.00
3527
9896
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.46
3.97
AQ
4096
10082
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.51
4.00
AR
3619
10328
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.53
4.01
AS
3993
10339
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.65
4.11
AT
3984
10477
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.48
3.98
AU
4319
10684
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.60
4.06
AV
3729
10719
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.55
4.03
AW
4072
10722
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.41
3.92
AX
3436
10768
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.48
3.97
AY
4174
10981
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.33
3.84
AZ
3505
11179
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.61
4.06
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Figure 8. Measurement points on BLOOD front.
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Table 3. Reference table of the position in the (h, k) coordinate system of the measurement points in fig. 8 and
related color values and dimensionless ratios.
BLOOD chromatic values FRONT
h
k
x
y
z
x/y
x/z
y/z
A
2877
662
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.18
5.15
4.38
2954
683
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.20
4.43
C
2947
696
0.50
0.42
0.09
1.19
5.55
4.67
D
2953
696
0.50
0.42
0.09
1.19
5.49
4.62
E
3222
746
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.08
4.35
F
3564
803
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.17
4.41
G
3591
818
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.24
4.43
H
3195
846
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.44
4.61
I
3209
860
0.49
0.41
0.10
1.19
5.07
4.28
J
3222
869
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.39
4.58
K
3718
883
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.26
4.51
L
2975
900
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.31
4.52
M
2950
906
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.21
4.44
N
2980
924
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.29
4.50
O
3173
928
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.43
4.61
P
3163
945
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.51
4.68
Q
2839
2436
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.56
4.77
R
2671
2505
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.16
5.09
4.41
4092
3099
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.02
4.29
T
4002
3107
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.92
4.19
3970
3155
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.97
4.23
4045
3162
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.15
4.40
W
4045
3169
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.17
4.41
X
4054
3197
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.07
4.32
Y
2226
4161
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.14
4.38
2230
4167
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.08
4.33
AA
2230
4168
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.01
4.28
AB
2227
4179
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.79
4.13
AC
2189
4267
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.85
4.17
AD
4332
4270
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.53
4.71
AE
4156
4411
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.04
4.33
AF
4091
4478
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.91
4.24
AG
4043
4510
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.02
4.29
AH
2514
4539
0.49
0.41
0.10
1.18
4.88
4.14
AI
2515
4539
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.86
4.14
2485
4572
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.87
4.19
AK
4042
4598
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.44
4.63
3975
4613
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.97
4.27
3966
4614
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.89
4.21
AN
3886
4701
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.08
4.36
AO
3781
4835
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.85
4.18
3780
4895
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.16
5.19
4.46
AQ
2751
4972
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.18
5.07
4.29
AR
2910
5045
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.07
4.34
AS
2915
5049
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.99
4.29
AT
2797
5052
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.18
5.12
4.34
AU
2966
5101
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.81
4.14
AV
3526
10546
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.96
4.24
AW
3502
10655
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.82
4.14
AX
3292
10707
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.82
4.14
AY
3277
10727
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.77
4.09
AZ
3799
10862
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.91
4.20
WOPSAS 2015
02002-p.11
MATEC Web of Conferences
Figure 9. Measurement points on BLOOD back.
02002-p.12
Table 4. Reference table of the position in the (h, k) coordinate system of the measurement points in fig. 9 and
related color values and dimensionless ratios.
BLOOD chromatic values BACK
h
k
x
y
z
x/y
x/z
y/z
A
3551
876
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.37
4.60
3665
1003
0.50
0.42
0.09
1.19
5.60
4.72
C
3821
1025
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.28
4.49
D
3937
1033
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.21
4.43
E
3819
1058
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.18
5.11
4.34
F
3820
1058
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.18
5.09
4.32
G
3762
1077
0.50
0.42
0.09
1.19
5.55
4.68
H
3747
1077
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.25
4.46
I
3476
1123
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.44
4.64
J
3720
1127
0.49
0.41
0.10
1.18
4.88
4.14
K
3727
1128
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.97
4.23
L
3875
1131
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.31
4.49
M
3522
1162
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.18
5.02
4.25
N
3710
1232
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.16
4.40
O
4155
2641
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.24
4.49
P
3519
2693
0.50
0.42
0.09
1.19
5.60
4.73
Q
4171
2848
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.47
4.65
R
3395
2928
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.61
4.78
3336
3337
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.70
4.88
T
3940
4306
0.50
0.42
0.09
1.19
5.38
4.51
3940
4311
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.19
5.41
4.55
4118
4336
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.53
4.70
W
3321
4386
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.39
4.62
X
3484
4419
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.44
4.66
Y
3432
4450
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.89
4.21
4059
4453
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.25
4.47
AA
3647
4481
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.18
4.42
AB
3662
4486
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.53
4.70
AC
3107
4701
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.28
4.52
AD
3336
7537
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.58
4.76
AE
3182
8386
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.16
5.19
4.49
AF
3460
8427
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.15
5.03
4.36
AG
4176
8484
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.16
5.00
4.32
AH
4187
8486
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.16
5.25
4.53
AI
4163
8563
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.16
5.53
4.75
4207
10337
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.01
4.30
AK
4191
10345
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.97
4.29
3487
10391
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.08
4.34
4309
10391
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.10
4.36
AN
4272
10402
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.00
4.27
AO
3487
10421
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.23
4.44
3434
10469
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.88
4.17
AQ
4275
10523
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.97
4.27
AR
4297
10567
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.16
4.88
4.20
AS
2926
10570
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.44
4.60
AT
3459
10600
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.91
4.22
AU
3052
10625
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.17
5.19
4.42
AV
3620
10965
0.49
0.41
0.10
1.19
5.10
4.30
AW
3623
10971
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.21
4.41
AX
3595
11009
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.92
4.23
AY
3508
11048
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.07
4.33
AZ
3506
11055
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
4.94
4.23
WOPSAS 2015
02002-p.13
MATEC Web of Conferences
Figure 10. Measurement points on BACKGROUND front.
02002-p.14
Table 5. Reference table of the position in the (h, k) coordinate system of the measurement points in fig. 10 and
related color values and dimensionless ratios.
BACKGROUND chromatic values FRONT
h
k
x
y
z
x/y
x/z
y/z
A
1539
257
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.21
3.74
3910
466
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.17
3.73
C
4329
496
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.30
3.83
D
2293
600
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.11
3.66
E
1455
614
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.22
3.74
F
2551
629
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.37
3.88
G
2452
692
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.13
3.68
H
4068
706
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.22
3.77
I
2479
757
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.16
3.71
J
2218
789
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.18
3.72
K
2705
810
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.31
3.83
L
4157
924
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.27
3.82
M
2379
1163
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.27
3.80
N
3927
1190
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.23
3.78
O
4147
1535
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.40
3.91
P
2550
1763
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.45
3.94
Q
2142
1874
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.40
3.91
R
5448
1967
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.44
3.93
5685
2295
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.27
3.81
T
1006
2298
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.14
3.69
933
2449
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.26
3.79
5641
2557
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.46
3.96
W
5720
3520
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.18
3.73
X
1239
3906
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.28
3.81
Y
5441
4413
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.40
3.91
5093
4517
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.23
3.78
AA
1378
4582
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.23
3.77
AB
5284
4600
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.21
3.77
AC
1438
4603
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.10
3.65
AD
5231
5726
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.22
3.76
AE
1127
5757
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.43
3.93
AF
1282
6277
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.47
3.95
AG
5138
6398
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.37
3.90
AH
5480
8927
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.55
4.04
AI
5515
9333
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.55
4.04
1494
9373
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.25
3.80
AK
1001
9621
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.39
3.89
1151
9667
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.42
3.92
2283
9721
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.35
3.86
AN
3905
9755
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.25
3.79
AO
5325
9801
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.42
3.94
2115
9875
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.53
4.01
AQ
5613
10137
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.56
4.03
AR
5048
10156
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.52
4.01
AS
3725
10157
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.28
3.81
AT
2280
10198
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.47
3.95
AU
1130
10234
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.49
3.98
AV
5391
10294
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.32
3.85
AW
1374
10372
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.86
4.26
AX
4971
10401
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.76
4.19
AY
2699
10991
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.15
5.02
4.37
AZ
5993
10991
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.26
3.80
WOPSAS 2015
02002-p.15
MATEC Web of Conferences
Figure 11. Measurement points on BACKGROUND back.
02002-p.16
Table 6. Reference table of the position in the (h, k) coordinate system of the measurement points in fig. 11 and
related color values and dimensionless ratios.
BACKGROUND chromatic values BACK
h
k
x
y
z
x/y
x/z
y/z
A
4320
500
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.53
4.00
2840
630
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.24
3.79
C
2415
639
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.51
4.00
D
2957
804
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.51
4.00
E
4520
812
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.40
3.89
F
2967
924
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.26
3.80
G
4494
951
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.39
3.91
H
4765
1111
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.33
3.84
I
1263
1419
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.39
3.92
J
1743
1441
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.21
3.76
K
5582
1443
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.17
3.72
L
5930
1954
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.15
3.70
M
5759
2147
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.28
3.80
N
1095
2174
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.55
4.04
O
931
2395
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.57
4.04
P
5961
2927
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.44
3.94
Q
1209
2989
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.34
3.86
R
1352
2996
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.10
3.66
1566
3402
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.24
3.78
T
1094
4650
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.29
3.82
1600
4883
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.19
3.73
5542
5079
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.24
3.77
W
5316
5437
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.33
3.84
X
5801
5572
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.38
3.88
Y
1555
6257
0.47
0.42
0.12
1.12
4.08
3.64
5269
6490
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.15
3.71
AA
1993
6586
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.22
3.77
AB
4763
6738
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.22
3.76
AC
1870
7112
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.29
3.83
AD
4767
7134
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.15
3.70
AE
5371
7221
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.12
3.68
AF
1870
7518
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.18
3.73
AG
5121
7574
0.47
0.42
0.12
1.12
4.05
3.61
AH
2030
7594
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.29
3.82
AI
1394
8765
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.28
3.80
2612
8885
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.23
3.77
AK
2570
9441
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.25
3.79
5572
9645
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.15
3.69
5473
9774
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.11
3.67
AN
5330
10381
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.25
3.77
AO
5319
10559
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.22
3.75
1463
10703
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.24
3.78
AQ
1607
10770
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.29
3.82
AR
5684
10820
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.15
3.69
AS
2520
11124
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.27
3.81
AT
5132
11127
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.37
3.87
AU
2764
11361
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.24
3.78
AV
2399
11395
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.16
3.71
AW
2608
11492
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.12
4.20
3.75
AX
5572
11676
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.32
3.82
AY
1085
11709
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.76
4.19
AZ
4241
11752
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.21
3.74
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Figure 12. Measurement points on WATER STAINS and BURNS front.
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Table 7. Reference table of the position in the (h, k) coordinate system of the measurement points in fig. 12 and
related color values and dimensionless ratios.
WATER STAINS chromatic values FRONT
h
k
x
y
z
x/y
x/z
y/z
A
2957
247
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.89
4.29
B
5937
497
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.16
5.80
5.00
C
5983
589
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
5.10
4.47
D
5818
2698
0.49
0.42
0.08
1.16
5.89
5.07
E
1073
2751
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.62
4.06
5872
3930
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.99
4.37
G
1176
6586
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.15
5.14
4.47
1174
6589
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.15
5.13
4.46
I
1289
6704
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.67
4.11
J
4108
6840
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
5.00
4.39
2486
6861
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.85
4.26
L
3914
7625
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
5.06
4.45
5957
8033
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.15
5.22
4.55
N
4040
10583
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.84
4.26
O
1112
10705
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.17
5.11
4.39
P
5565
10768
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.16
5.36
4.63
BURNS chromatic values FRONT
h
k
x
y
z
x/y
x/z
y/z
1895
494
0.50
0.41
0.09
1.22
5.34
4.40
4747
718
0.49
0.41
0.10
1.20
4.95
4.11
1931
1023
0.50
0.41
0.09
1.21
5.89
4.87
AD
4718
1944
0.50
0.41
0.10
1.20
5.20
4.32
AE
1922
2165
0.49
0.41
0.11
1.19
4.40
3.68
AF
1277
2245
0.45
0.41
0.14
1.12
3.24
2.90
AG
4760
2932
0.49
0.41
0.10
1.21
4.87
4.02
1912
3125
0.49
0.41
0.10
1.21
4.91
4.05
5319
3254
0.45
0.41
0.14
1.11
3.26
2.95
2500
3369
0.47
0.40
0.13
1.18
3.73
3.16
4685
7260
0.50
0.41
0.10
1.22
5.06
4.16
5194
7434
0.50
0.42
0.08
1.17
5.92
5.05
AM
1444
7469
0.50
0.42
0.09
1.20
5.57
4.65
4204
7515
0.48
0.41
0.11
1.20
4.31
3.61
1875
10497
0.48
0.41
0.11
1.18
4.50
3.81
AP
5257
10854
0.47
0.40
0.13
1.16
3.71
3.19
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Figure 13. Measurement points on WATER STAINS and BURNS back.
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Table 8. Reference table of the position in the (h, k) coordinate system of the measurement points in fig. 13 and
related color values and dimensionless ratios.
WATER STAINS chromatic values BACK
h
k
x
y
z
x/y
x/z
y/z
A
3082
93
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.94
4.35
B
5951
953
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.85
4.26
C
1196
970
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
5.02
4.41
D
1119
3022
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.81
4.23
E
6008
3204
0.49
0.42
0.10
1.15
5.13
4.46
F
1188
4430
0.48
0.42
0.09
1.14
5.17
4.54
G
1254
6339
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.70
4.13
H
5850
6461
0.47
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.33
3.85
I
5668
6604
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.42
3.90
J
5854
7762
0.48
0.42
0.11
1.13
4.46
3.95
K
1167
7796
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
5.07
4.44
L
1107
8322
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.70
4.14
M
1169
8760
0.48
0.42
0.09
1.14
5.19
4.54
N
2678
9647
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.13
4.61
4.09
O
3082
93
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.94
4.35
5951
953
0.48
0.42
0.10
1.14
4.85
4.26
BURNS chromatic values BACK
h
k
x
y
z
x/y
x/z
y/z
AA
2632
214
0.50
0.42
0.08
1.21
6.01
4.99
1797
514
0.50
0.41
0.09
1.20
5.32
4.42
5103
1653
0.49
0.41
0.09
1.20
5.29
4.43
AD
2158
1695
0.49
0.41
0.10
1.20
4.91
4.09
5118
1989
0.50
0.42
0.09
1.20
5.82
4.85
4801
2779
0.50
0.41
0.10
1.20
5.22
4.34
2536
3704
0.49
0.41
0.11
1.19
4.61
3.87
2238
3716
0.50
0.42
0.08
1.20
6.20
5.17
5158
8019
0.50
0.41
0.09
1.21
5.38
4.43
4406
8115
0.46
0.41
0.13
1.12
3.42
3.05
2098
8244
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.45
4.61
AL
4890
10349
0.49
0.41
0.10
1.21
4.75
3.92
5234
11741
0.48
0.41
0.11
1.16
4.47
3.84
2236
11774
0.49
0.42
0.09
1.18
5.33
4.51
2632
214
0.50
0.42
0.08
1.21
6.01
4.99
AP
1797
514
0.50
0.41
0.09
1.20
5.32
4.42
Table 9. Dimensionless ratio range and averages of the analyzed features.
x/y
min
x/y
max
x/z
min
x/z
max
x/y
average
x/z
average
x/y
min
x/y
max
Body image
1.12
1.15
4.32
5.25
1.13
4.73
1.12
1.15
Background
1.11
1.13
3.87
4.54
1.12
4.21
1.11
1.13
Blood
1.15
1.19
4.77
5.70
1.17
5.16
1.15
1.19
Waterstains
1.12
1.16
4.33
5.88
1.14
4.96
1.12
1.16
Burns
1.10
1.21
3.23
6.20
1.18
4.90
1.10
1.21
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3.2 Results on body image
It can be seen from the plot in Figure 14 that the body image points, placed close to the area of blood,
are characterized by x/z values greater than 5. Those points were found on the face and on the neck:
the areas in question can be interpreted as typical of body image soaked with blood resulting from
injuries on TS man's face and derived from the crown of thorns.
There are, as lower extreme, a series of feature points (ratio x/y goes from 1.12 to 1.13, and ratio
x/z goes from 4.32 to 4.58) which overlap with the values area determined for the background: many
of the image points that falling in the above mentioned value ranges, are located in the feet, the legs
and lower back areas of the TS man.
Figure 14. Plot of chromatic values ratio of all TS details.
3.3 Results on body image
It can be observed from the plot in Figure 14 that there is a not clear colorimetric separation between
background and the body image: the color values change with continuity from the typical tone of the
body image to those of the background, with a zone of interpenetration between the two "clouds" of
data. This evidence is in agreement with some hypotheses of the body image formation that indicate it
as the result of a premature aging of the linen caused probably by an radiative effect. Under this
assumption, in fact, it is possible to hypothesize that the linen coloration occurred in a progressive
manner, with varying intensity depending by the distance body-cloth.
The partial overlap of the values obtained for both, the image and the background, indicates a
gradual color transition which extends along a narrow band of values, comparable for the two
discussed features.
In order to verify a possible correlation between the color change and the distance from between
cloth and body, some points close to the head of the TS man were taken where there is no apparently
trace of the body image.
The typical values of these points have a values range for x/y that goes from 1.12 to 1.13 with an
arithmetical average of 1.12, while for the x/z ratio the values range goes from 4.25 to 4.52 with an
arithmetical average of 4.39.
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The author assumed that the chromatic variation can be related to a radiative effect (the same that
could have originated to the body image), which has acted with variable intensity depending on the
distance from the emission generation point.
3.4 Results on blood stains.
The "cloud" of values resulting from the color sampling on the blood appears positioned in the upper
side of the plot used to represent the data (Fig. 14).
It is possible to identify the range of values within which scourge wounds are placed: the x/y
values ranging from 1.15 to 1.18 and the x/z ranging from 4.99 to 5.69.
In the lower part of the diagram (Fig. 15), characterized by x/z values of less than 5, the
measurements results of the blood spilled by the feet and by the pulse of the Man of the Shroud can be
seen.
Some color samplings have been performed on the chest's blood stain and on the visible blood
stains outside of the body image, especially near to the left arm and near both feet on the front and
back side of TS. A correlation between the blood of the chest and the one of the feet can be observed
(Fig. 16), but the outside-arm blood seems different, this is also confirmed from visual examination of
this feature.
Figure 15. Plot of blood chromatic ratio values.
3.5 Results on water stains.
The color results of sampling on the edges of the tracks that are supposed to have been left by the
water in a period prior to the Chambéry's fire, are mainly located in the area occupied by the values
ratio results obtained for body image (Fig. 14), overlapping the same.
Analyzing the results (Fig, 17), it appears evident how the traces left by water (or maybe by
another liquid) are comparable in colorimetric terms with the findings on the body image.
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3.6 Results on burns
The last series of color sampling, regards the colorimetric characterization of the burns left on the
Shroud by the Chambéry's fire. It can be seen from the plots (Fig. 14 and 17) that the results of the
dimensionless ratios place themselves mainly on the right side of the plots.
Figure 16. Blood stains comparison plot.
Figure 17. Plot of water stains and burns chromatic ratio values.
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4 An application
The created database has been useful for some study on TS features, performed by comparing new
color samplings with the database measurements. Considering that the colorimetric values of TS's
features are placed in "clouds", more than one measurement for the same TS detail is needed, because
must to be evaluated the data trend.
So some study on symmetrical spots (Fig. 18) present on the glutes Man of the Shroud were
conducted. These features, whose classification is still debated among researchers, appear located at
the vertices of two triangles placed symmetrically to the axis of the back. This traces have blood stains
appearance and some experts speculate that they may be traces of blood derived from the wounds
generated by a pair of "tridents" on which TS man was forced to sit during the crucifixion.
By a visual inspection, these details appear surrounded by circular halos that can be traced to the
serum which has been supposedly gathered around the wounds. For the author they appear too regular
in shape and too extended to make possible to assimilate the traces left by blood serum.
A careful observation of this features points out that the central part of the spots appears so
confused as to make the weave of the fabric not recognizable. This characteristic was not found in the
details related to the blood stains. It may also be noticed that the tone of the central part goes from a
very dark brown to a red-orange: also this feature has not been found on the blood stains. It can be
assumed that the analyzed details were not originated by blood spilled from wounds.
In order to have more indicative elements, the analysis was carried out by performing more
measurements on this circular stains. The results obtained on color value ratios can be observed in the
plot reported in Figure 19 and they can be traced back to the typical values found for the burns.
The analysis of the evidence gathered and the assessments made tend to rule out that the currently
analyzed details could be related to traces of blood, but rather to burns.
Figure 18. Position of analyzed unknown detail.
5 Conclusions
A colorimetric measurement process has been developed which allowed to obtain a TS calibrated
quantitative image with ± 4% uncertainty relative to the XYZ color values. This result was achieved
by comparison and correction of a digitalized photography made by G.Durante in 2002, with a
previous published color analysis performed in CIE XYZ color space by P. Soardo et al. in 1978. The
color samplings on digital image were made by using a common photographic software (Paint Shop™
Pro©) with which the values of the single RGB color channel were read by means of the histogram
function.
With the TS calibrated image, accurate color measurements were made possible and by properly
interpreting the obtained results it was possible to analyze and classify some features.
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The color characteristics of body image, background, blood stains, water stain and burns were
been investigated: the results give some information like the continuous color transition from
background to image.
From a colorimetric point of view, the results on the blood stains have allowed to note that the area
occupied by the blood is separated from that generated both from the background and from the body
image. Differences between the color values of the blood derived from scourge wounds and the one
flowed out from the deepest wounds were also identified. A feature on which future studies can be
performed concerning the alleged blood outside the left arm: from colorimetric analysis it did not
seems to have the typical colorimetric features found on other bloodstains.
The water stains, are ranked in the plot (Fig. 14) above those determined for the body image,
extending also in a similar way: this result could suggest some possible correlation between body
image and water stains.
The verification made by new colorimetric measurements on features, not analyzed during
database construction, gave the expected results, also providing some additional information for
example on visible details on the glutes of the TS Man.
Figure 19. position of the glutes unknown stains color values in burns-blood values "cloud".
Acknowledgements
Special thanks goes to Prof. Giulio Fanti of Padua University: he stood by me in all phases of the
study and provided me valuable tips and insights scientific.
My thanks also goes to my colleague Pierandrea Malfi of CRIS, for his valuable advice on the
preparation of this report.
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The aim of this work is to summarize the important contribution furnished by Optics in the studies of the TS (Turin Shroud) made in more than a century of researches and tests. In the first section the very peculiar characteristics of the TS are presented and discussed showing that up to now the double body image impressed on it is not yet reproducible. Some body image formation hypotheses are presented and they will be tested by also means of optical means successively discussed. The second and third sections respectively present the most important optical researches done in the past and in the present in reference to the Relic and the fourth section discusses some possible optical studies that should be done on the TS to unveil some obscure points. It is also accounted for the conservation problems that are very important for the body image impressed in the linen Cloth in a very particular way. In any case the complexity of the studies related to the TS implies that the future analyses will not be given to a limited group as was done in 2002, but to a very wide commission composed of experts in each one of the many disciplines involved in the studies.
Article
The Turin Shroud is the most important and studied relic in the world. Many papers on it have recently appeared in important scientific journals. Scientific studies on the relic until today fail to provide conclusive answers about the identity of the enveloped man and the dynamics regarding the image formation impressed therein. This book not only addresses these issues in a scientific and objective manner but also leads the reader through new search paths. It summarizes the results in a simple manner for the reader to comprehend easily. Many books on the theme have been already published, but none of them contains such a quantity of scientific news and reports. The most important of them is the following: The result of the 1988 radiocarbon dating is statistically wrong and other three new dating methods demonstrate that the Shroud has an age compatible with the epoch in which Jesus Christ lived in Palestine. A numismatic analysis performed on Byzantine gold coins confirms this result. This book is, therefore, very important with respect to the Turin Shroud. It is unique in its genre and a very useful tool for those who want to study the subject deeply.
Chapter
The chemistry of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin is presented. The chemical conclusions were drawn from all the data and observations, both physical and chemical, collected by direct investigation of the Shroud in 1978. The conclusions are that the body image is made up of yellowed surface fibrils of the linen that are at more advanced stages of degradation than the non-image linen. The chromophore is a conjugated carbonyl. No evidence was found in the body image of any added substances that could have contributed to the yellow color of the fibrils that form the image. The blood images on the cloth are made of blood. The data, taken together, do not support the hypothesis that the images on the Shroud are due to an artist.
Article
Ever since 1898, when Pia took the first photographs of the Turin Shroud, many researchers have advanced hypotheses to account for the body image visible on the most important Relic of Christianity. Until now, many interesting hypotheses have been examined, but none of them can completely explain the mysterious image. This article considers the most important of these hypotheses and concludes that radiation was responsible for the formation of the image. Although this hypothesis is still incomplete, of the various sources of radiation phenomena, corona discharge is preferred. (C) 2011 Society for Imaging Science and Technology [DOI: 10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2011.55.6.060507]
Article
The front image of the Turin Shroud, 1.95 m long, is not directly compatible with the back image, 2.02 m long. In order to verify the possibility that both images were generated by the same human body, a numeric- anthropomorphous manikin was constructed by computer and wrapped in the digitized front and back images. The manikin was made to move, within the limits allowed by normal limb movements, with the aim of finding correspondences between predefined anthropometric points on the Shroud and on the manikin itself. Kinematic analysis showed the most probable position of the arms, which are not completely visible on the Shroud, due to damage during the fire of 1532. A part from the hands afterward placed on the pubic area, the front and back images are compatible with the Shroud being used to wrap the body of a man 175±2 cm tall, which, due to cadaveric rigidity, remained in the same position it would have assumed during crucifixion. The position of this Man was assessed in terms of the angles of the legs and arms and the forward tilt of the head.
Article
This report reviews and correlates results obtained from tests conducted on the Shroud of Turin during the October 1978 investigation. Several image formation hypotheses are addressed. Although no single theory adequately accounts for all of the observations, it is concluded that the image is the result of some cellulose oxidation—dehydration reaction rather than an applied pigment. The application or transfer mechanism of the image onto the cloth is still not known. Because many proposed mechanisms of image formation strongly depend upon historical considerations, a determination of the age of the Shroud by radiocarbon dating is necessary for further hypothesis testing. Available data from the “blood” areas are considered and the results show these to be blood stains.