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This contribution relates to the experiences of applied research for the construction of three-dimensional models relative to landscape complexes through the use of so-called three-dimensional photogrammetry. Survey expeditions for studying historical architecture are increasingly in demand today and methods for producing metric data able to meet the descriptive requirements of drawings of buildings are constantly evolving. Many programmes have come and gone in recent years in an attempt to generate automatic 3D models to manage the complexity of real space; when the object of the survey is a multi-composition system covering different levels of investigation and scales of representation, the landscape needs to be broken down and recomposed using techniques for the discretization of architectural forms and images.
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SC Ie nt if ic RESea rch and Info rmati on Technology
Ri ce rca Scie ntifica e Tec no lo gi e de ll'I nformazione
Vo l 4, I ssue 2 (2014), 29-42
e- IS SN 2 23 9- 43 03 , DO I 10.2 423/i 22 394303v4n2p29
© CA SPUR -CIBER Publishing, http://caspur- ciberpublishing. it
RECOMPOSING THE LANDSCAPE USING STRUCTURE FROM MOTION SURVEY IN
THE VILLAGE OF KORZA, KARELIA (RUSSIA)
Sandro Parrinello*, Francesca Picchio**
*DICAr, Department of Civil Engeenering and Architeture University of Pavia, Italy.
**Dida, Department!of Architecture University of Florence, Italy.
Abstract
This contribution relates to the experiences of applied research for the construction of three-dimensional models relative to
landscape complexes through the use of so-called three-dimensional photogrammetry. Survey expeditions for studying
historical architecture are increasingly in demand today and methods for producing metric data able to meet the
descriptive requirements of drawings of buildings are constantly evolving. Many programmes have come and gone in recent
years in an attempt to generate automatic 3D models to manage the complexity of real space; when the object of the survey
is a multi-composition system covering different levels of investigation and scales of representation, the landscape needs to
be broken down and recomposed using techniques for the discretization of architectural forms and images.
Keywords
SFM Survey, reality based survey, wooden architecture, GIS 3D
1. Expression between photography and drawing
The research contribution reported here
attempts to expose the difficulties tackled in the
approach of how to represent the landscape. In
seeking a solution within this sphere the need
emerges to give a common sense to our
surroundings, a unique representation to the
chaos of the scenario which the city or urban
space analysed is immersed in. The problems
related to the conservation and maintenance of
many traditional centres, both urban, and small
peripheral settlements, stimulates a desire to
experiment survey and representation methods
which, in the attempt to leave the sterile
mechanism of self-reference behind, are able to
activate a sense of awareness greater than the
transversal nature of their spheres of application.
In other words able to trigger multidisciplinary
collaboration aimed at recognising the sense of
the dignity of a given landscape within the
complexity of the urban environment.
To recognize the qualities of a complex space,
a place, and to be able to interpret, analyse it, to
transfer its contents, enhancing those features
which might hold meanings of social, cultural and
symbolic significance, it needs to be considered
from a dual perspective. A first perspective
involves an aseptic approach to the place,
dissecting it, breaking it down, decoding it and
thus facilitating its interpretation on the basis of
the formal relations linking its parts.
A second perspective instead, in collaboration
with those areas dealing more with the social and
anthropological aspects, aims to reconstruct in a
single, qualitative image, very hard to represent,
the intrinsic spirit of that place, those qualities
which lead to its universal perception as a
landscape full of values and identity. Faced with a
view, a subject, one tries to identify the angle
from which as many of the meanings present in
that space can be transferred, that is, to grasp the
typicality of the scene which determines its
character
1
. For this type of analysis, art
photography and art in general, have helped to
give the image of the landscape its own dignity,
offsetting aseptic planners and local governments
who have always exploited the quantitative
aspects at the expense of quality. However, the
photographic image, since its invention, has
become part of documentation and surveying
activities, making a decisive contribution to
1
Character is referred to as the constituent quality of the
place, according to the theories of CN Schultz. Cfr. Genius
Loci. Paesaggio, ambiente, architettura, Documenti di
architettura, Milan, Electa, 1992.
(2014), n. 2 S. Parrinello, F. Picchio
30
Fig 1: The selection process triggered when, interpreting an
urban or suburban space, one tends to break it down and
select some elements over others, is based on cognitive and
representative structures specific to each culture, added to
which are those of the individual. These pictures show the
selection process of western culture which tends to simplify
the complexity of the metropolis (left) into simple volumes.
The central drawing is taken from a design by the architects
Reinard & Hofmeister made for the Rockefeller Center
project in New York.
Fig 2: A picture from “Simboli suburbani convenzionali”,
from the planning course held by Robert Venturi and Denise
Scott Brown Learning from Levittown, Yale University, 1970.
changing the way of interpreting space not only in
the sphere of works of art and visual
communication, but also and above all in the
measurement and research operations of
qualitative and formal similarity to the real
object. The need to identify and transmit the
characteristics of the space (both those for which
it is recognized an aesthetic value and those
apparently degrading the image of the place)with
a view to facilitating the understanding of how it
is perceived, make the camera a preferred means
of acquisition, able to capture all that information
able to describe the environmental qualities of
the space, depicted as fully and in as non-
impersonal a manner as possible.
2
Photography,
by integrating increasingly sophisticated
programming and multimedia communication
systems, sets out to clearly express the relations
between the individual photograph and its
orientation within a structure of the place, made
increasingly simple and schematic.
1.1 Experimentation on a Karelian village
The survey work on the landscape and
traditional wooden architecture in Karelia is part
of the European research project entitled
"Wooden Architecture. Traditional Karelian
Timber Architecture and Landscape" deveoped by
the Seventh Framework Programme, Marie Curie
Actions, aimed at promoting international
scientific research and at increasing scientific
exchange between universities in different
countries.
3
Karelian history and culture have
resulted, over time, in natural and urban
landscapes, unique of their kind, where old
villages and new aggregates, monuments and
archaeological sites coexist with the natural
system of the imposing Scandinavian continuous
forest albeit in a context of great transformation.
4
The local traditions of the peoples who
inhabited these lands, like the Karelians, the
Vepsians, the Livvick and many other ethnic
groups who in some way defined their own
customs and architectural models as well as
autonomous linguistic forms, blended with
2
Cfr. Fred Ritchin, Dopo la fotografia, Piccola Biblioteca
Einaudi, 2012, pag XVII.
3
The project, coordinated by Sandro Parrinello and
conducted by Francesca Picchio, Sara Porzilli, Petri Vuojala,
Kari Niskasari, Anna-Maija Ylimaula, Alexey Borisof and
Alexandre Kosenkov, relates to the development of
documentation methods of historic Karelian architecture so
as to develop survey instruments for the planning and
safeguarding of the historic architectural heritage. During the
three years of the project numerous research and surveying
campaigns were conducted at the villages of Karelia, during
which sample landscape contexts were investigated for the
study of historical settlements. In addition to the research
activities, two international summer schools were organised,
attended by students with an in-depth knowledge of
surveying systems of wooden architecture.
4
For a discussion of the research developed within the
European project see. Parrinello Sandro, Picchio Francesca,
Porzilli Sara: Architettura tradizionale lignea e paesaggio in
Carelia. (Traditional wooden architecture and landscape in
Karelia.) Considerazioni metodologiche per l’analisi ed il
censimento. (Methodological considerations for its analysis
and census). Disegnarecon, numero speciale DoCo 2012
Documentazione e Conservazione del Patrimonio
Architettonico ed Urbano
(2014), n. 2 Recomposing the landscape using Structure From Motion survey...
31
Fig 3: Picture of the study area in Karelia.
the Soviet models and administrative structures
which radically changed the this landscape, as
well as the individual architecture, at every level
of human activity, from perceptual and
behavioural impulses to planning and
conservation dynamics.
Undertaking an analysis of the cultural
resources and the architectural heritage and
landscape existing in Karelia appears necessary
today to test the formulation of an ad hoc system
of regulations to address, in an informed manner,
the changes and developments which are daily
corroding the historical image of a landscape so
loved by the entire Russian population.
Specifically, it will be challenging, in the definition
Fig 4: Picture of Korza, traditional Karelian village street
Fig 5: Map of the village of Korza. The basic maps dating
back to the early '50 s were updated using direct drawing
techniques.
of a vast area, to see at all levels, from the general
to the most detailed, what small changes can help
to avoid jeopardising the preservation and
valorisation of the landscape and historic and
architectural heritage.
During the period defined by the project a
series of programmatic investigations, research
missions and exchanges between researchers
were planned to acquire a better understanding
of the existing systems, including administrative.
Specifically, survey campaigns of the villages, the
most distinctive landmarks and in particular of
the landscape were conducted by making
drawings and considerations relative to the
morphological and perceptive aspects of the
places.
During these three years of work, over which
the acquisition phase was performed in several
field missions to Karelia (2012-2014), the
instruments used in the research project were
progressively refined with increasingly
satisfactory results in the application areas of the
various case studies tackled.
(2014), n. 2 S. Parrinello, F. Picchio
32
The method of survey expeditions based on
the acquisition of images and aimed at processing
the data to create three-dimensional models
and/or virtual prototypes able to describe and
summarise the surveys and the information
obtained, proved able to meet the time and
reliability requirements in terms of
reconstructing the actual layout of the Karelian
village.
Fig 6: Structure from motion survey systems used during the
missions for the documentation of Karelian villages.
Fig 7: 3D model of the village of Sierghilachta. The
photographic campaign was carried out at high altitude
using a motorised hang glider. Using this it was possible to
fly over the whole village and take photographs from
various viewpoints to cover the entire area. The uniform
exposure of the various fronts and absence of clear-cut
shadows made for a model without omissions, providing a
valid basis for studies related to understanding the
morphology of the landscape.
The ease of transport, reduced costs and the
speed with which it is possible to acquire all the
necessary information made the camera the
benchmark survey tool for the research carried
out on Karelian territory.
It was therefore decided to apply the
structure from motion method over a large
enough portion of a sample village, verifying to
what extent and within what limits the tool might
be able to describe the complexity of the levels of
investigation from the macro scale down to the
smallest construction detail of the traditional,
historic architecture .
5
1.2 Features of the territory and choice of the
acquisition instrument
The village of Korza, located near lake
Siamozero, is part of a territory with a massive
presence of birch , spruce and pine forests. This
area immediately appeared of extreme interest
for the co-presence of historic villages of various
types subject to a decidedly rapid process of
substitution and transformation capable of
jeopardising their identity over the course of a
decade. During the research the village was
compared with a wide range of "case studies"
offering a detailed description of the cultural,
5
The framework of the structure from motion experiment
gave surprising results in the documentation and
restoration spheres. Many of these results relate to
applications performed on Italian and foreign archaeological
sites. For a more in-depth treatises on the subject of the
acquisition, producing, management and use of three-
dimensional digital models whithin cultural heritage context
see Pompeii case study in Benedetti, Gaiani and Remondino
(2010).
(2014), n. 2 Recomposing the landscape using Structure From Motion survey...
33
social and natural situation of Karelia.
Unlike the villages analysed in previous years,
the village of Korza extends along one of the main
roads of the area. Its most obvious feature is the
almost entirely historic nature of the buildings,
spattered with a few examples of new
constructions which blend in formally but not
typologically with traditional Karelian style.
The area chosen for the systematic testing of
the three-dimensional photogrammetry method,
influenced by the accessibility to the area and the
effective possibility of filming at various levels of
the system (access to the inside of the fences or
possibility of covering the entire outer perimeter
of the lot), is part of the north-east area of the
village, bordering the physical limit of the now
fallow fields and forest. The architecture in this
portion is in traditional style, entirely wooden
(except for roof coverings in sheet metal or
asbestos), and some of them have decorations
and inlays of great value. Coloured fences define
the perimeters of the properties inside which
there are saunas, toilets, outbuildings, sheds and
warehouses, on flat ground which borders the
forest without any unbuilt space between them.
Fig 8: Identification of obstacles to the visibility of the
façades, needed for the organization of the photographic
campaign.
However, the primary use of such homes for
the holidays, alters the formal characteristics of
the village, transforming the specific qualities of
historic architecture and increasing, in the
absence of constant maintenance, the process of
decay to which these buildings are subject.
1.3 Decoding and breakdown into levels of inquiry
Before undertaking and building an analysis
framework a first decoding process of the main
elements had to be performed, selecting the
unique aspects of each rural aggregate and
beginning a process of discretization and
synthesis of the information collected. To
understand and represent the complexity of the
place the area of intervention first had to be
broken down into levels of investigation. These
levels, including both the formal structure of the
place and the set of specific descriptive features
of each subset, are defined through the
structuring of a drawing capable of describing the
sphere of interest that generated them. The
drawing must thus include the physical limits
between the different systems of relations, both
at the macro-scale, setting the limits between
clearings and forest, and at a smaller scale, going
to define individual portions of building units to
investigate further. To this end the choice of
instrument for the acquisition of the elements
(2014), n. 2 S. Parrinello, F. Picchio
34
constituting these levels was crucial. The choice
of an instrument taking advantage of image based,
acquisition methods, able to develop a three-
dimensional model closely corresponding to
reality from a photographic sequence, in some
ways constrained the organisation of the phase
during which the data acquired was broken down
and managed.
Fig 9: Images of the elements present. The photographic
campaign, both for the documentation, and for the three-
dimensional photogrammetric acquisition, was performed
using a digital SLR Nikon D90.
Unlike a laser scanner survey, the shape from
motion method, if applied over a large area,
provides for the movement of the camera around
each of the elements in the scene: only by means
of a proper photographic campaign will these
elements be acquired and prove complete with
the information required. The amount of
information that can be recorded during the
photographic acquisition campaign is vast.
The purpose of the survey is to determine the
degree of accuracy, i.e. the final quantity of useful
data which the model will need to generate for
the description of that particular object or spatial
context.
Given that such information is generated from
images, the minimum unit of reference is thus the
pixel, the result will depend on the number and
quality of photographs taken and therefore the
intrinsic characteristics of the camera and of
external factors, such as the question of colour,
light, geometry etc.
Having acquired an awareness of the
characteristics, the instrumentation and the
framework of analysis as regards defining the
structure of the place, according to the survey
object, the operations were then organised so as
to capture each single object present in the
residential unit.
Filming was conducted following the logic of
the investigation framework, trying to include the
reference points around the object so as to be
able to relate and contextualise it in the general
model (system).
A photographic campaign was planned for the
acquisition of each individual element from the
general level to the details of the elements, using
the drawing of the floor plan.
Each building unit was broken down into two
broad sets defined by the residential unit and by
the external contextual elements of the home but
inside the fence. Where it was part of a larger and
complex system, each element was broken down
again, so as to acquire it separately and
independently.
The photographic campaign was thus divided
into two concurrent phases: the surveying at the
various levels of detail of each residential unit,
and the overall filmingable, through the use of a
camera only, to spatially determine the entire
area, identify the relative position of the
individual building units, and integrate them
using a subsequent merging operation of the
(2014), n. 2 Recomposing the landscape using Structure From Motion survey...
35
Fig 11: Acquisition by pairs of elements, to obtain a model
able to represent the right spatial proportion between two
macro sets and to capture the context, where, during filming,
part of the fronts of the buildings were filmed in order to
find points in common with the previous model.
Fig 10: Identification of the physical limit within which all
the characteristic elements of each unit were found.
various chunks (or groups) which the survey
campaign was divided into.
6
The acquisition phase threw up a number of
problems: the presence of trees, the different
exposure of the façades on the road, differently
illuminated by the sunlight, and the difficulty of
access inside some units, made it necessary to
arrange a time schedule of acquisitions during the
day.
This organisation was crucial for trying to get
a uniformity of exposure between the various
façades of the houses. In addition, to optimise the
colour balance, a reference panel (ColorChecker
24 notches), able to balance the whites and
optimise the material component of the 3D model
was used to carry out the sequence for the
residential units.
7
6
The decision to use this approach to the structure from
motion process was also influenced by an awareness of the
potential of the software used. Agisoft PhotoScan makes it
possible, using homologous points, to join up various chunks
on the same file and thus obtain a complete model of an
object or a portion of land.
7
In digital photography ColorChecker X-Rite is used to
balance the white using Raw converter software. A
ColorChecker was positioned on site and a double image
taken in raw format of the same scene, one with and one
(2014), n. 2 S. Parrinello, F. Picchio
36
Fig 12: Summary of the operations performed on two areas:
above, the surrounding roads, below the individual
residential units.
without the panel; in the converter the white balance was
set on the second notch of the last row (corresponding to a
light neutral grey).
After the acquisition phase, namely the
transition from an understanding of the overall
complexity by breakdown into levels of lesser and
more manageable complexity , the reconstruction
phase of the overall picture of the lot followed,
surveyed by means of a single model in which the
qualitative and quantitative characteristics of all
the separately acquired elements in the scene
could be recognised.
Using the Agisoft PhotoScan programme it was
possible to align the sequence of each single
chunk, or each of the smaller units into which the
residential units had been organised. The product
thus generated, describing on the one hand the
elements inside the fences, and on the other the
pieces of furniture, made it possible to obtain a
model in which all the complexities at various
levels of investigation of the entire area, were
reproposed spatially, and the relations between
Fig 13: Breakdown of the general system into micro areas.
Each of these contains all the detailed elements to be
acquired individually
(2014), n. 2 Recomposing the landscape using Structure From Motion survey...
37
Fig 14: Photographic acquisition of the individual object and
macro systems of the structure constituting the lot.
the spatial elements and colour tones of the scene
represented.
8
The reliability to the centimetre of this
surveying method is difficult to verify except with
laser scanner or topographical surveys with
which to compare the product obtained. However
in this case study, direct drawing of the façades of
the individual residential units was performed
and integrated with an experimental
topographical method using 360° panoramic
photographs.
9
By aligning homologous points in
three panoramic images the spatial position in a
vector of such points can be traced. The
topographic points obtained using the Sphera
software were used to verify the correctness of
the mutual relations between the façades facing
the street.
8
The purpose of the 3D model must be established before
starting the acquisition campaign. The amount of data which
the shape from motion method is able to convey is vast and
only by establishing the scope and purpose of the model in
advance is it possible to optimise and make the data
produced easily utilisable on different scales and for
different types of users.
9
This method has been developed and extensively tested in
several case studies by Prof. Gabriele Fangi (University of
Ancona). Thanks to the cooperation offered by the
department of civil engineering at the University of Ancona
with the Joint Landscape, Survey & Design Laboratory of the
University of Florence we were able to apply the non-
commercial software Point Records and Sphera to Karelian
territory.
Thanks to the development of
photogrammetric software such as 'Autodesk
123DCatch' or 'Agisoft PhotoScan'
10
and their
integration for documenting the landscape, the
relationship between the real image and
photographic image seems to seek a renewed
confrontation: the space of representation
becomes virtually three-dimensional, and the
photograph is modelled in this space, describing
each surface, to make it as similar as possible to
the reality perceived.
11
With a view to digitalising the architectural
heritage and safeguarding the territory to ensure
its proper management, the 3D model has proved
an effective support for documenting and
investigating the transformations of an object to
facilitate its diffusion in the community.
The 3D model generated, as well as offering a
useful aid to the qualitative understanding of the
spatial development of the elements present in
the area, develops a new approach to education,
to the image, and thus to new forms of
representation aimed at more conscious
landscape management. The complexity is
acquired, processed and interpreted in a single
three-dimensional object, with all the quantitative
and qualitative information needed for its
complete configuration.
The output of this application ranges from
virtual navigation to the realisation of GIS
systems, with which to draw thematic maps
essential for the understanding of the different
natural and human systems in the area,
identifying possible intrinsic dynamics of the
areas that have determined unusual
developments or specific urban phenomena;
investigations of systems for the restoration,
conservation and valorisation of the architectural
heritage and landscape; analysis and studies of
the formation, development and current structure
of villages and urban centres; censuses and
profiling systems of urban aggregates,
architectural elements, environmental systems
for the production of atlases to aid the analysis of
the areas studied.
10
For a treatise on the development of the software see.
Parrinello Sandro, Picchio Francesca. 2013. Dalla fotografia
digitale al modello 3D dell’architettura storica, in Disegnare
con, a cura di Pablo Rodríguez-Navarro, Vol.6, n°12
11
For a more in-depth treatise of the topic See. De Luca,
2011
(2014), n. 2 S. Parrinello, F. Picchio
38
Fig 15: Subdivision of each building unit into solid elements
and open spaces. The acquisition mode is evaluated case by
case. Each of the elements of the unit 099 of the village of
Korza allowed complete photographic filming of the object.
Added to this more general filing was the filming of the
details, from the roofs to the foundation elements, the
angular and decorative system. The most obvious problems
can be seen in the filming of the open spaces: the presence of
sparse vegetation, the difficulty of surveying some portions
close to the fences separating them and the movement, albeit
minimal, of the vegetation at the moment of filming, led to
difficulties in aligning the pairs of photographs and in the
realisation of the photogrammetric model. Extended
portions used as meadows, dirt roads and decidedly globular
masses of trees and bushes were in any case recognised as
surfaces and processed by the programme, which produced a
qualitative three-dimensional model of the object.
(2014), n. 2 Recomposing the landscape using Structure From Motion survey...
39
Fig 16: Positioning of the spherical panoramic views,
alignment of the panoramic views with identification of
homologous points and creation of the model on sphera
software. Superposition in CAD of the map obtained from the
three-dimensional photogrammetric model and of the model
coordinates obtained from the panoramic views.
Fig 17: ArcGis software screens for the creation of 3D GIS
databases. The models obtained, appropriately reduced in
the number of polygons and optimized in the mesh, can be
used and interrogated, integrated by whole range of
information that in an instant can provide valuable support
to the operations of the documentation of the actual
architecture condition.
(2014), n. 2 S. Parrinello, F. Picchio
40
Fig 18: Zenith view of the 3D model. The individual buildings have been joined to the 3D model using reference markers,
identifying at least 4 common points between each pair of models.
Fig 19: View of the three-dimensional model obtained by joining two chunks: the street and contextual elements level and the
housing level.
(2014), n. 2 Recomposing the landscape using Structure From Motion survey...
41
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... Compared to the experiences of 2015 and 2016, the campaign conducted in 2018 has expressed a greater awareness and commitment in the evaluation of correspondence processes between survey databases and information modelling systems, designed on the territorial scale. The research has concerned the strategy of testing integrated digital survey methods, both terrestrial and aerial (Parrinello, Picchio, 2014), aimed at defining methodological protocols for the development of reliable 3D models and new operational programs. In these terms, the adoption of a metric surveying methodology implemented with Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) instrumentation presents itself as a strategy capable of providing an adequate dimensional basis for the structuring and certification of the metric database and of the supplementary photographic, critical and census data, acquirable on architectural and territorial components. ...
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The present paper illustrates the documentation activities developed since 2013 on Upper Kama territories, preliminary to an extensive and joint research action within the European project “PROMETHEUS” (2019–2021), which aims to produce digitized databases and models for the management of the main religious monuments present on this Russian area, nowadays endangered by risk of conservation. The project is funded by the EU program Horizon 2020 – R&I – RISE – Research & Innovation Staff Exchange Marie Skłodowska-Curie, and it is aimed at the definition of inter-sectoral collaboration protocols for the development and promotion of a new methodology for the development of reliable 3D databases and models of monumental complexes in Upper Kama region. The project, that involves the collaboration between three Universities (University of Pavia, Italy, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Russia) and two enterprises (EBIME, Spain, SISMA, Italy), aims to promote actions to develop interdisciplinary activities for the documentation, management and production of collaborative H-BIM models, for the start-up of monitoring and development activities on this specific Cultural Heritage. Researches and initiatives conducted in the previous years on Upper Kama territory highlight potentialities and opportunities of digital survey to define a basis of knowledge that is both scientific and technical, for future interventions on endangered architectural heritage, where academies, companies and administrations promote actions to develop interdisciplinary documentation activities through collaborative management H-BIM models and an intervention protocol on Cultural Heritage.
... The first survey campaign, performed in June 2018 by the team of DAda Laboratory of DICAr, Department of Civile Engineering and Architecture of Pavia University, concerned the experimentation of digital tools, range-based and imagebased, on part of the urban areas around the complex of the Nativity Church. Because of the complexity systems of each historical neighborhoods, parallel to the TLS, photogrammetric close range operations from UAS (unmanned aerial systems) has been carried out, combined with the data acquisition from the ground level, to test the efficacy and the metric reliability of the SfM methodology on a territorial scale (Parrinello and Picchio, 2014). This procedures has been aimed to develop a fast digital reconstruction of the townscape, characterized by 3D models defined of different datas and informations. ...
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The present paper illustrates a part of the methodological process of image-based acquisition developed for the documentation of the historical city center of Bethlehem, in the Middle East territory. The first mission of research activities, developed inside the international cooperation project “Management and control of urban growth for the development of heritage and improvement of life in the city of Bethlehem” (2018–2021), coordinated by University of Pavia in collaboration with the Municipality of Pavia and financed with the contribution of AICS (Italian Agency for Cooperation and Development), has been carried on through combined application of digital instruments, TLS and UAV, with the aim of developing “smart”, low-cost and rapid execution procedures for the production of a reliable three-dimensional model of the historic city center. The paper shows the application of different photogrammetric survey campaigns in a portion of the historical town, acquisition problems and tests of morphometrical reliability of each output, in order to develop a general SfM database consisting of different definition levels of the photogrammetric models of historical city center.
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The protection and enhancement of places of cultural heritage in their contemporary context stand as major challenges in Euro-Mediterranean peri-urban areas, where heritage is vast and urbanization pressure is extremely high. This article refers to those historical and archaeological sites that are considered “minor” as they lack “exceptional character”, or they appear in the shadow of major monuments and, thus, fall marginally within the scope of mainstream cultural policy priorities to protect and enhance significant monuments and heritage sites. This study presents the results of exploratory qualitative research that addresses questions about the in situ actual future and potential role of “minor” sites in cultural heritage awareness-raising and management. In a sustainable perspective, this article discusses the value of heritage fragments and public involvement in their enhancement within their territory with the use of digital resources and ICT. This study focuses on the alienated Small Temple on the beach of Loutsa within the wider archaeological area of Vravrona on the east coast of the metropolitan area of Attica/Athens. It concludes that co-creation of shared narratives can create a dynamic interface and constructive involvement of stakeholders and local communities provided that smart applications are combined and adapted to the specificities and conditions of the wider context.
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Il presente volume raccoglie i primi esiti del progetto di cooperazione promosso dall’ AICS, Agenzia Italiana per la Cooperazione allo Sviluppo ed è stato realizzato con i fondi destinati al progetto 3D Bethlehem e cofinanziato dai fondi per la ricerca del Laboratorio sperimentale DAda LAB Drawing Architecture Document-Action Laboratory, del DICAr - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile ed Architettura dell’Università degli Studi di Pavia. DAda Lab_ Drawing and Architecture DocumentAction Laboratory. / This volume collects the first results of the cooperation project promoted by AICS, the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation and it has been implemented with funds for the 3D Bethlehem project and co-financed by the research funds of the experimental laboratory DAda LAB Drawing Architecture Document-Action Laboratory, of the DICAr - Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Pavia.
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The value of digital photogrammetry is being reassessed based on the use of automated methods which avoid the laborious production process and that meet the quality requirements photorealism demands. However, to what degree do its applications resemble the methods based on laser scanners? What are its strengths? What are its weaknesses? This article will attempt to answer these and other questions. Its approach is based on the comparison of process and result of two surveys performed using both systems, photogrammetric and laser scanner. The results of the comparative analysis will be shown, concentrating especially on matters such as the reduction of time and cost, the difficulty involved both in the data gathering phase and in post-production, the accuracy and quality of the result and its suitability of application.
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Traducción de: Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit Incluye bibliografía
Dalla fotografia digitale al modello 3D dell'architettura storica
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Parrinello, S., Picchio, F. (2013). Dalla fotografia digitale al modello 3D dell'architettura storica. Disegnare con, 6(12).
La Camera Chiara. Nota sulla fotografia
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