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Abstract

Transport policy is one of the most crucial sectors in the process of adaptation of contemporary cities to the challenge of sustainable development. For its close relation with social habits and people behaviors, in fact, innovation in transports play a strategic role both in the decreasing of the environmental impact of mobility and in the improvement of the quality of the built environment. To do so, however, cities need to reach a more effective integration between transport policy and land-use planning, as well as taking full advantage by the spreading of new technologies. In this context, this paper discusses the challenges provided by the reshaping of the transport system in the metropolitan area of Palermo, the second larger city in Southern Italy. It attempts to explore, particularly, the potential connections between the future “hard factors” of the transport policy – as a result of the programme of infrastructural improvement under realization in the urban area –, with other “soft factors”, such as the practices of social innovation in the field of mobility with the help of ICTs and other opportunities for urban regeneration linked to the reshaping of the transport system.
Smart
City
planning
far
energy,
transportation
an
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sustainability
of
the
urban
system
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
SMART CITY
PLANNING FOR ENERGY, TRANSPORTATION AND
SUSTAINABILITY OF THE URBAN SYSTEM
Special Issue, June 2014
Published by
Laboratory of Land Use Mobility and Environment
DICEA - Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering
University of Naples "Federico II"
TeMA is realised by CAB - Center for Libraries at “Federico II” University of Naples using Open Journal System
Editor-in-chief: Rocco Papa
print ISSN 1970-9889 | on line ISSN 1970-9870
Lycence: Cancelleria del Tribunale di Napoli, n° 6 of 29/01/2008
Editorial correspondence
Laboratory of Land Use Mobility and Environment
DICEA - Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering
University of Naples "Federico II"
Piazzale Tecchio, 80
80125 Naples
web: www.tema.unina.it
e-mail: redazione.tema@unina.it
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
TeMA. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment offers researches, applications and contributions with a unified approach to planning
and mobility and publishes original inter-disciplinary papers on the interaction of transport, land use and environment. Domains include
engineering, planning, modeling, behavior, economics, geography, regional science, sociology, architecture and design, network science,
and complex systems.
The Italian National Agency for the Evaluation of Universities and Research Institutes (ANVUR) classified TeMA as scientific journals in the
Areas 08. TeMA has also received the Sparc Europe Seal for Open Access Journals released by Scholarly Publishing and Academic
Resources Coalition (SPARC Europe) and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). TeMA is published under a Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 License and is blind peer reviewed at least by two referees selected among high-profile scientists by their competences.
TeMA has been published since 2007 and is indexed in the main bibliographical databases and it is present in the catalogues of hundreds
of academic and research libraries worldwide.
EDITOR- IN-CHIEF
Rocco Papa, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
Luca Bertolini, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Netherlands
Virgilio Bettini, Università Iuav di Venezia, Italy
Dino Borri, Politecnico di Bari, Italy
Enrique Calderon, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
Roberto Camagni, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Robert Leonardi, London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom
Raffaella Nanetti, College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs, United States
Agostino Nuzzolo, Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy
Rocco Papa, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
EDITORS
Agostino Nuzzolo, Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy
Enrique Calderon, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
Luca Bertolini, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Netherlands
Romano Fistola, Dept. of Engineering - University of Sannio - Italy, Italy
Adriana Galderisi, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
Carmela Gargiulo, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
Giuseppe Mazzeo, CNR - Istituto per gli Studi sulle Società del Mediterraneo, Italy
EDITORIAL SECRETARY
Rosaria Battarra, CNR - Istituto per gli Studi sulle Società del Mediterraneo, Italy
Andrea Ceudech, TeMALab, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
Rosa Anna La Rocca, TeMALab, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy
Enrica Papa, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
This special issue of TeMA collects the papers presented at the 8th International Conference
INPUT 2014 which will take place in Naples from 4th to 6th June. The Conference focuses on one
of the central topics within the urban studies debate and combines, in a new perspective,
researches concerning the relationship between innovation and management of city changing.
CONFERENCE COMMITTEE
Dino Borri, Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy
Arnaldo Cecchini, University of Sassari, Italy
Romano Fistola, University of Sannio, Italy
Lilli Gargiulo, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Giuseppe B. Las Casas, University of Basilicata, Italy
Agostino Nuzzolo, University of Rome, Italy
Rocco Papa, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Giovanni Rabino, Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy
Maurizio Tira, University of Brescia, Italy
Corrado Zoppi, University of Cagliari, Italy
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
Emanuela Abis, University of Cagliari, Italy
Nicola Bellini, Institute of Management, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Pisa, Italy
Mariolina Besio Dominici, University of Genoa, Italy
Ivan Blecic, University of Sassari, Italy
Dino Borri, Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy
Grazia Brunetta, Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy
Roberto Busi, University of Brescia, Italy
Domenico Camarda, Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy
Michele Campagna, University of Cagliari, Italy
Arnaldo Cecchini, University of Sassari, Italy
Donatella Cialdea, University of Molise, Italy
Valerio Cutini, University of Pisa, Italy, Italy
Luciano De Bonis, University of Molise, Italy
Andrea De Montis, University of Sassari, Italy
Filippo de Rossi, University of Sannio (Dean of the University of Sannio), Italy
Lidia Diappi, Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy
Isidoro Fasolino, University of Salerno, Italy
Mariano Gallo, University of Sannio, Italy
Lilli Gargiulo, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Roberto Gerundo, University of Salerno, Italy
Paolo La Greca, University of Catania, Italy
Giuseppe B. Las Casas, University of Basilicata, Italy
Robert Laurini, University of Lyon, France
Antonio Leone, Tuscia University, Italy
Anna Loffredo,Institute of Management, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Pisa, Italy
Silvana Lombardo, University of Pisa, Italy
Giovanni Maciocco, University of Sassari, Italy
Giulio Maternini, University of Brescia, Italy
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
Francesco Domenico Moccia, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Bruno Montella, University of Naples “Federico II” (Director of DICEA), Italy
Beniamino Murgante, University of Basilicata, Italy
Agostino Nuzzolo, University of Rome, Italy
Sylvie Occelli, IRES Turin, Italy
Rocco Papa, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Maria Paradiso, University of Sannio, Italy
Domenico Patassini, IUAV, Venice, Italy
Michele Pezzagno, University of Brescia, Italy
Fulvia Pinto, Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy
Giovanni Rabino, Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy
Giuseppe Roccasalva, Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy
Bernardino Romano, University of L’Aquila, Italy
Francesco Russo, Mediterranean University Reggio Calabria, Italy
Michelangelo Russo, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Ferdinando Semboloni, University of Firenze, Italy
Agata Spaziante, Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy
Michela Tiboni, University of Brescia, Italy
Maurizio Tira, University of Brescia, Italy
Simona Tondelli, University of Bologna, Italy
Umberto Villano,University of Sannio (Director of DING), Italy
Ignazio Vinci, University of Palermo, Italy
Corrado Zoppi, University of Cagliari, Italy
LOCAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
Rosaria Battarra, ISSM, National Research Council, Italy
Romano Fistola, DING, University of Sannio, Italy
Lilli Gargiulo, DICEA, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Adriana Galderisi, DICEA, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Rosa Anna La Rocca, DICEA, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Giuseppe Mazzeo, ISSM, National Research Council, Italy
Enrica Papa, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
LOCAL ADMINISTRATIVE TEAM
Gennaro Angiello, TeMA Lab, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Gerardo Carpentieri, TeMA Lab, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Stefano Franco, TeMA Lab, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Laura Russo, TeMA Lab, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Floriana Zucaro, TeMA Lab, University of Naples Federico II, Italy

TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE INPUT 2014
SMART CITY. PLANNING FOR ENERGY, TRANSPORTATION AND SUSTAINABILITY OF THE
URBAN SYSTEM
This special issue of TeMA collects the papers presented at the Eighth International Conference INPUT, 2014,
titled "Smart City. Planning for energy, transportation and sustainability of the urban system" that takes place in
Naples from 4 to 6 of June 2014.
INPUT (Innovation in Urban Planning and Territorial) consists of an informal group/network of academic
researchers Italians and foreigners working in several areas related to urban and territorial planning. Starting
from the first conference, held in Venice in 1999, INPUT has represented an opportunity to reflect on the use of
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) as key planning support tools. The theme of the eighth
conference focuses on one of the most topical debate of urban studies that combines , in a new perspective,
researches concerning the relationship between innovation (technological, methodological, of process etc..) and
the management of the changes of the city. The Smart City is also currently the most investigated subject by
TeMA that with this number is intended to provide a broad overview of the research activities currently in place
in Italy and a number of European countries. Naples, with its tradition of studies in this particular research field,
represents the best place to review progress on what is being done and try to identify some structural elements
of a planning approach.
Furthermore the conference has represented the ideal space of mind comparison and ideas exchanging about a
number of topics like: planning support systems, models to geo-design, qualitative cognitive models and formal
ontologies, smart mobility and urban transport, Visualization and spatial perception in urban planning innovative
processes for urban regeneration, smart city and smart citizen, the Smart Energy Master project, urban entropy
and evaluation in urban planning, etc..
The conference INPUT Naples 2014 were sent 84 papers, through a computerized procedure using the website
www.input2014.it . The papers were subjected to a series of monitoring and control operations. The first
fundamental phase saw the submission of the papers to reviewers. To enable a blind procedure the papers have
been checked in advance, in order to eliminate any reference to the authors. The review was carried out on a
form set up by the local scientific committee. The review forms received were sent to the authors who have
adapted the papers, in a more or less extensive way, on the base of the received comments. At this point (third
stage), the new version of the paper was subjected to control for to standardize the content to the layout required
for the publication within TeMA. In parallel, the Local Scientific Committee, along with the Editorial Board of the
magazine, has provided to the technical operation on the site TeMA (insertion of data for the indexing and
insertion of pdf version of the papers). In the light of the time’s shortness and of the high number of contributions
the Local Scientific Committee decided to publish the papers by applying some simplifies compared with the
normal procedures used by TeMA. Specifically:
Each paper was equipped with cover, TeMA Editorial Advisory Board, INPUT Scientific Committee,
introductory page of INPUT 2014 and summary;
Summary and sorting of the papers are in alphabetical order, based on the surname of the first author;
Each paper is indexed with own DOI codex which can be found in the electronic version on TeMA website
(www.tema.unina.it). The codex is not present on the pdf version of the papers.
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
SMART CITY
PLANNING FOR ENERGY, TRANSPORTATION AND
SUSTAINABILITY OF THE URBAN SYSTEM
Special Issue, June 2014
Contents
1. The Plan in Addressing the Post Shock Conflicts 2009-2014.
A First Balance Sheet of the Reconstruction of L’Aquila 1-13
Fabio Andreassi, Pierluigi Properzi
2. Assessment on the Expansion of Basic Sanitation Infrastructure.
In the Metropolitan Area of Belo Horizonte - 2000/2010 15-26
Grazielle Anjos Carvalho
3. Temporary Dwelling of Social Housing in Turin.
New Responses to Housing Discomfort 27-37
Giulia Baù, Luisa Ingaramo
4. Smart Communities. Social Innovation at the Service of the Smart Cities 39-51
Massimiliano Bencardino, Ilaria Greco
5. Online Citizen Reporting on Urban Maintenance:
A Collection, Evaluation and Decision Support System 53-63
Ivan Blečić, Dario Canu, Arnaldo Cecchini, Giuseppe Andrea Trunfio
6. Walkability Explorer. An Evaluation and Design Support Tool for Walkability 65-76
Ivan Blečić, Arnaldo Cecchini, Tanja Congiu, Giovanna Fancello, Giuseppe Andrea Trunfio
7. Diachronic Analysis of Parking Usage: The Case Study of Brescia 77-85
Riccardo Bonotti, Silvia Rossetti, Michela Tiboni, Maurizio Tira
8. Crowdsourcing. A Citizen Participation Challenge 87-96
Júnia Borges, Camila Zyngier
9. Spatial Perception and Cognition Review.
Considering Geotechnologies as Urban Planning Strategy 97-108
Júnia Borges, Camila Zyngier, Karen Lourenço, Jonatha Santos
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
10. Dilemmas in the Analysis of Technological Change. A Cognitive Approach
to Understand Innovation and Change in the Water Sector 109-127
Dino Borri, Laura Grassini
11. Learning and Sharing Technology in Informal Contexts.
A Multiagent-Based Ontological Approach 129-140
Dino Borri, Domenico Camarda, Laura Grassini, Mauro Patano
12. Smartness and Italian Cities. A Cluster Analysis 141-152
Flavio Boscacci, Ila Maltese, Ilaria Mariotti
13. Beyond Defining the Smart City.
Meeting Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches in the Middle 153-164
Jonas Breuer, Nils Walravens, Pieter Ballon
14. Resilience Through Ecological Network 165-173
Grazia Brunetta, Angioletta Voghera
15. ITS System to Manage Parking Supply:
Considerations on Application to the “Ring” in the City of Brescia 175-186
Susanna Bulferetti, Francesca Ferrari, Stefano Riccardi
16. Formal Ontologies and Uncertainty. In Geographical Knowledge 187-198
Matteo Caglioni, Giovanni Fusco
17. Geodesign From Theory to Practice:
In the Search for Geodesign Principles in Italian Planning Regulations 199-210
Michele Campagna, Elisabetta Anna Di Cesare
18. Geodesign from Theory to Practice:
From Metaplanning to 2nd Generation of Planning Support Systems 211-221
Michele Campagna
19. The Energy Networks Landscape.
Impacts on Rural Land in the Molise Region 223-234
Donatella Cialdea, Alessandra Maccarone
20. Marginality Phenomena and New Uses on the Agricultural Land.
Diachronic and Spatial Analyses of the Molise Coastal Area 235-245
Donatella Cialdea, Luigi Mastronardi
21. Spatial Analysis of Urban Squares. ‘Siccome Umbellico al corpo dell’uomo’ 247-258
Valerio Cutini
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
22. Co-Creative, Re-Generative Smart Cities.
Smart Cities and Planning in a Living Lab Perspective 2 259-270
Luciano De Bonis, Grazia Concilio, Eugenio Leanza, Jesse Marsh, Ferdinando Trapani
23. The Model of Voronoi's Polygons and Density:
Diagnosis of Spatial Distribution of Education Services of EJA
in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil 271-283
Diogo De Castro Guadalupe, Ana Clara Mourão Moura
24. Rural Architectural Intensification: A Multidisciplinar Planning Tool 285-295
Roberto De Lotto, Tiziano Cattaneo, Cecilia Morelli Di Popolo, Sara Morettini,
Susanna Sturla, Elisabetta Venco
25. Landscape Planning and Ecological Networks.
Part A. A Rural System in Nuoro, Sardinia 297-307
Andrea De Montis, Maria Antonietta Bardi, Amedeo Ganciu, Antonio Ledda,
Simone Caschili, Maurizio Mulas, Leonarda Dessena, Giuseppe Modica,
Luigi Laudari, Carmelo Riccardo Fichera
26. Landscape Planning and Ecological Networks.
Part B. A Rural System in Nuoro, Sardinia 309-320
Andrea De Montis, Maria Antonietta Bardi, Amedeo Ganciu, Antonio Ledda,
Simone Caschili, Maurizio Mulas, Leonarda Dessena, Giuseppe Modica,
Luigi Laudari, Carmelo Riccardo Fichera
27. Sea Guidelines. A Comparative Analysis: First Outcomes 321-330
Andrea De Montis, Antonio Ledda, Simone Caschili, Amedeo Ganciu, Mario Barra,
Gianluca Cocco, Agnese Marcus
28. Energy And Environment in Urban Regeneration.
Studies for a Method of Analysis of Urban Periphery 331-339
Paolo De Pascali, Valentina Alberti, Daniela De Ioris, Michele Reginaldi
29. Achieving Smart Energy Planning Objectives.
The Approach of the Transform Project 341-351
Ilaria Delponte
30. From a Smart City to a Smart Up-Country.
The New City-Territory of L’Aquila 353-364
Donato Di Ludovico, Pierluigi Properzi, Fabio Graziosi
31. Geovisualization Tool on Urban Quality.
Interactive Tool for Urban Planning 365-375
Enrico Eynard, Marco Santangelo, Matteo Tabasso
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
32. Visual Impact in the Urban Environment.
The Case of Out-of-Scale Buildings 377-388
Enrico Fabrizio, Gabriele Garnero
33. Smart Dialogue for Smart Citizens:
Assertive Approaches for Strategic Planning 389-401
Isidoro Fasolino, Maria Veronica Izzo
34. Digital Social Networks and Urban Spaces 403-415
Pablo Vieira Florentino, Maria Célia Furtado Rocha, Gilberto Corso Pereira
35. Social Media Geographic Information in Tourism Planning 417-430
Roberta Floris, Michele Campagna
36. Re-Use/Re-Cycle Territories:
A Retroactive Conceptualisation for East Naples 431-440
Enrico Formato, Michelangelo Russo
37. Urban Land Uses and Smart Mobility 441-452
Mauro Francini, Annunziata Palermo, Maria Francesca Viapiana
38. The Design of Signalised Intersections at Area Level.
Models and Methods 453-464
Mariano Gallo, Giuseppina De Luca, Luca D’acierno
39. Piano dei Servizi. Proposal for Contents and Guidelines 465-476
Roberto Gerundo, Gabriella Graziuso
40. Social Housing in Urban Regeneration.
Regeneration Heritage Existing Building: Methods and Strategies 477-486
Maria Antonia Giannino, Ferdinando Orabona
41. Using GIS to Record and Analyse Historical Urban Areas 487-497
Maria Giannopoulou, Athanasios P. Vavatsikos,
Konstantinos Lykostratis, Anastasia Roukouni
42. Network Screening for Smarter Road Sites: A Regional Case 499-509
Attila Grieco, Chiara Montaldo, Sylvie Occelli, Silvia Tarditi
43. Li-Fi for a Digital Urban Infrastructure:
A Novel Technology for the Smart City 511-522
Corrado Iannucci, Fabrizio Pini
44. Open Spaces and Urban Ecosystem Services.
Cooling Effect towards Urban Planning in South American Cities 523-534
Luis Inostroza
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
45. From RLP to SLP: Two Different Approaches to Landscape Planning 535-543
Federica Isola, Cheti Pira
46. Revitalization and its Impact on Public.
Space Organization A Case Study of Manchester in UK,
Lyon in France and Łódź in Poland 545-556
Jarosław Kazimierczak
47. Geodesign for Urban Ecosystem Services 557-565
Daniele La Rosa
48. An Ontology of Implementation Plans of Historic Centers:
A Case Study Concerning Sardinia, Italy 567-579
Sabrina Lai, Corrado Zoppi
49. Open Data for Territorial Specialization Assessment.
Territorial Specialization in Attracting Local Development Funds:
an Assessment. Procedure Based on Open Data and Open Tools 581-595
Giuseppe Las Casas, Silvana Lombardo, Beniamino Murgante,
Piergiuseppe Pontrandolfi, Francesco Scorza
50. Sustainability And Planning.
Thinking and Acting According to Thermodinamics Laws 597-606
Antonio Leone, Federica Gobattoni, Raffaele Pelorosso
51. Strategic Planning of Municipal Historic Centers.
A Case Study Concerning Sardinia, Italy 607-619
Federica Leone, Corrado Zoppi
52. A GIS Approach to Supporting Nightlife Impact Management:
The Case of Milan 621-632
Giorgio Limonta
53. Dealing with Resilience Conceptualisation. Formal Ontologies as a Tool
for Implementation of Intelligent Geographic Information Systems 633-644
Giampiero Lombardini
54. Social Media Geographic Information:
Recent Findings and Opportunities for Smart Spatial Planning 645-658
Pierangelo Massa, Michele Campagna
55. Zero Emission Mobility Systems in Cities.
Inductive Recharge System Planning in Urban Areas 659-669
Giulio Maternini, Stefano Riccardi, Margherita Cadei
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
56. Urban Labelling: Resilience and Vulnerability
as Key Concepts for a Sustainable Planning 671-682
Giuseppe Mazzeo
57. Defining Smart City.
A Conceptual Framework Based on Keyword Analysis 683-694
Farnaz Mosannenzadeh, Daniele Vettorato
58. Parametric Modeling of Urban Landscape:
Decoding the Brasilia of Lucio Costa from Modernism to Present Days 695-708
Ana Clara Moura, Suellen Ribeiro, Isadora Correa, Bruno Braga
59. Smart Mediterranean Logics. Old-New Dimensions and
Transformations of Territories and Cites-Ports in Mediterranean 709-718
Emanuela Nan
60. Mapping Smart Regions. An Exploratory Approach 719-728
Sylvie Occelli, Alessandro Sciullo
61. Planning Un-Sustainable Development of Mezzogiorno.
Methods and Strategies for Planning Human Sustainable Development 729-736
Ferdinando Orabona, Maria Antonia Giannino
62. The Factors Influencing Transport Energy Consumption
in Urban Areas: a Review 737-747
Rocco Papa, Carmela Gargiulo, Gennaro Angiello
63. Integrated Urban System and Energy Consumption Model:
Residential Buildings 749-758
Rocco Papa, Carmela Gargiulo, Gerardo Carpentieri
64. Integrated Urban System and Energy Consumption Model:
Public and Singular Buildings 759-770
Rocco Papa, Carmela Gargiulo, Mario Cristiano
65. Urban Smartness Vs Urban Competitiveness:
A Comparison of Italian Cities Rankings 771-782
Rocco Papa, Carmela Gargiulo, Stefano Franco, Laura Russo
66. Urban Systems and Energy Consumptions: A Critical Approach 783-792
Rocco Papa, Carmela Gargiulo, Floriana Zucaro
67. Climate Change and Energy Sustainability.
Which Innovations in European Strategies and Plans 793-804
Rocco Papa, Carmela Gargiulo, Floriana Zucaro
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
68. Bio-Energy Connectivity And Ecosystem Services.
An Assessment by Pandora 3.0 Model for Land Use Decision Making 805-816
Raffaele Pelorosso, Federica Gobattoni, Francesco Geri,
Roberto Monaco, Antonio Leone
69. Entropy and the City. GHG Emissions Inventory:
a Common Baseline for the Design of Urban and Industrial Ecologies 817-828
Michele Pezzagno, Marco Rosini
70. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies 829-840
Fulvia Pinto
71. Urban Gaming Simulation for Enhancing Disaster Resilience.
A Social Learning Tool for Modern Disaster Risk Management 841-851
Sarunwit Promsaka Na Sakonnakron, Pongpisit Huyakorn, Paola Rizzi
72. Visualisation as a Model. Overview on Communication Techniques
in Transport and Urban Planning 853-862
Giovanni Rabino, Elena Masala
73. Ontologies and Methods of Qualitative Research in Urban Planning 863-869
Giovanni Rabino
74. City/Sea Searching for a New Connection.
Regeneration Proposal for Naples Waterfront Like an Harbourscape:
Comparing Three Case Studies 871-882
Michelangelo Russo, Enrico Formato
75. Sensitivity Assessment. Localization of Road Transport Infrastructures
in the Province of Lucca 883-895
Luisa Santini, Serena Pecori
76. Creating Smart Urban Landscapes.
A Multimedia Platform for Placemaking 897-907
Marichela Sepe
77. Virtual Power Plant. Environmental Technology Management Tools
of The Settlement Processes 909-920
Maurizio Sibilla
78. Ecosystem Services and Border Regions.
Case Study from Czech – Polish Borderland 921-932
Marcin Spyra
79. The Creative Side of the Reflective Planner. Updating the Schön’s Findings 933-940
Maria Rosaria Stufano Melone, Giovanni Rabino
TeMA Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and
Environment
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
80. Achieving People Friendly Accessibility.
Key Concepts and a Case Study Overview 941-951
Michela Tiboni, Silvia Rossetti
81. Planning Pharmacies: An Operational Method to Find the Best Location 953-963
Simona Tondelli, Stefano Fatone
82. Transportation Infrastructure Impacts Evaluation:
The Case of Egnatia Motorway in Greece 965-975
Athanasios P. Vavatsikos, Maria Giannopoulou
83. Designing Mobility in a City in Transition.
Challenges from the Case of Palermo 977-988
Ignazio Vinci, Salvatore Di Dio
84. Considerations on the Use of Visual Tools in Planning Processes:
A Brazilian Experience 989-998
Camila Zyngier, Stefano Pensa, Elena Masala
TeMA
Journal of
Land Use, Mobility and Environment
TeMA INPUT 2014
Print ISSN 1970-9889, e- ISSN 1970-9870
SPECIAL ISSUE
DOI available on the online version
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution
Non Commercial License 3.0
www.tema.unina.it
Eighth International Conference INPUT
Smart City - Planning for Energy, Transportation and
Sustainability
of the Urban System
Naples, 4-6 June 2014
DESIGNING MOBILITY IN
A
CITY IN TRANSITION
CHALLENGES FROM THE CASE OF PALERMO
IGNAZIO VINCIa, SALVATORE DI DIOb
aUniversity of Palermo, Department of Architecture and Polytechnic School
e-mail: ignazio.vinci@unipa.it
URL: www.unipa.it/ignazio.vinci
bUniversity of Palermo, Department of Energy, Information Engineering and
Mathematical Models
e-mail: totididio@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Transport policy is one of the most crucial sectors in the process of adaptation of contemporary cities to the challenge of
sustainable development. For its close relation with social habits and people behaviors, in fact, innovation in transports play a
strategic role both in the decreasing of the environmental impact of mobility and in the improvement of the quality of the built
environment. To do so, however, cities need to reach a more effective integration between transport policy and land-use
planning, as well as taking full advantage by the spreading of new technologies.
In this context, this paper discusses the challenges provided by the reshaping of the transport system in the metropolitan area of
Palermo, the second larger city in Southern Italy. It attempts to explore, particularly, the potential connections between the
future “hard factors” of the transport policy – as a result of the programme of infrastructural improvement under realization in the
urban area –, with other “soft factors”, such as the practices of social innovation in the field of mobility with the help of ICTs and
other opportunities for urban regeneration linked to the reshaping of the transport system.
KEYWORDS
Urban planning, Smart mobility, Urban regeneration
I. Vinci, S. Di Dio – Designing mobility in a city in transition. Challenges from the case of Palermo
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
Smart City - Planning for Energy,
Transportation and Sustainability of the Urban System
1 INTRODUCTION
A common character in the most recent debate on sustainability is not only recognising cities and urban
communities as crucial scales to adapt our pattern of development to the challenge of reducing the impact
on the environment of human activities, but also the strategic role in this process given to technological and
organisational innovation (UN-Habitat, 2011; World Bank, 2011). In fact, while the human settlements are
still recognised as the places of greater consumption of non-renewable resources, it is also recognised that a
fundamental step towards sustainability is removing the dysfunctions and increasing the “network effect”
between existing and planned infrastructures. It means, in other words, conceiving every single
transformations in a given urban areas as part of a complex process of adaptation in which every change in
the factors composing the system can provide a broader range of resources and opportunities for the urban
system as a whole1.
It is widely agreed that a modern conception of transport policy can constitute a fundamental ingredient in
the process of cities’ adaptation to the challenges of sustainability. On the one hand, transport planning has
been increasingly influenced by the goals of reducing the impact on the environment together with the aim
of making urban areas (through diversified transport networks and policies) better and more livable places.
On the other, the spreading of “transit oriented” planning experiments in several western countries – to be
intended as a paradigm to rethink urban development under the impulse of the creation of sustainable
transport networks (Cervero, 1998; Curtis et al., 2009; Bertolini, 2012; Suzuky et al., 2013) – is providing
new basis for the integration of different planning rationales towards in the perspective of combining
efficiency of the networks with the quality of environment.
The relation between transport policy and urban development, however, is highly differentiated on the basis
of several factors, including the adaptivity of urban form, the extent and efficiency of the existing transport
networks, the capacity of local governance to create links between different visions of urban development.
Beside to the urban areas whose development has been historically thought in relation to the development
of public transit, in fact, there is a much larger group of cases including still car-dependent metropolis and
cities with consolidated divergences between urban growth, functional structure and transport system. This
reality makes the application of a transport oriented approach to urban planning and design an experimental
field in which infrastructural development must be combined with a broader range of policies and
interventions, not necessarily with material impact on the built environment, marked by flexibility and
creativity. For example, the diffusion of smart technologies (including GPS applications) in the everyday life
of people and communities is giving a new set of opportunities for the transport policy within urban areas
and providing new bases for a convergence between conventional planning practices and processes of social
innovation2.
With this conceptual framework on the background, this paper discusses the challenges given by the
reshaping of the transport system in the metropolitan area of Palermo, the second larger city in Southern
Italy. In particular, it attempts to explore the potential connection between the “hard factors” of the
transport policy – mainly given by the huge programme of infrastructure redevelopment under realisation in
the city –, with some “soft factors” provided by the ongoing projects in the field of social innovation and
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1 See, for example, the recent concept of “urban retrofit” as an approach that look at urban areas as
contexts requested to systemically reengineer their built environment and urban infrastructure in
response to climate change and resource constraints (Eames et al., 2013).
2 For the impact of new technologies on mobility and social innovation see, among others, Urry, 2007;
Kingsley and Urry, 2009; Grieco and Urry, 2012.
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TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
Smart City - Planning for Energy,
Transportation and Sustainability of the Urban System
mobility with the help of smart applications. Beside that, it tries to highlight the impact of the transport
redevelopment on the built environment, with a critical discussion on the planning and governance
conditions required in order to make it an opportunity for urban regeneration.
The paper, whose approach is mainly descriptive and proposes to constitute the cognitive base for further
analysis, is structured as follows: in the following section the main infrastructural projects in progress at the
urban scale will be described for their impact on the transport system and the built environment; in the third
section it is made an overview of the attempts to innovate the practice and policy of mobility both from
public and private initiatives; in the conclusive paragraphs it is attempted to draw some future challenges for
the city given by the interaction of the “hard” and “soft” factors described in the previous sections.
2 THE CHANGING LANDSCAPE OF THE TRANSPORT SYSTEM
Despite the demographic size of the city and the metropolitan area (inhabitated respectively by around
700,000 and 1 millions of resident) Palermo has been affected for decades by underdeveloped transit system
and a cronic lack of investments on infrastructures. Public transport has been mainly based on the road
system, while the rail system – conceived in the XIX century to serve primarily regional connections – has
been only marginally reshaped to support urban and metropolitan mobility. In contrast, as it is better
explained in the next paragraph, private movements by cars have assumed a dominant role with growing
impact on city’s environment in terms of congestion and pollution.
A sharp change of direction is given in 2002 with the approval of the “Integrated Plan for Mass Public
Transport”3, which provided a wide programme of redevelopment of the transit system mainly based on the
rail networks. This Plan, which can be considered an integration of pre-existing projects promoted by several
public authorities including RFI (the national owner of the rail system), the province of Palermo and the
municipality, was based on the interconnection of four major infrastructural projects:
the completion of the Railway ByPass (Passante ferroviario);
the completion of the Railway Ring (Anello ferroviario);
the realisation of a Tram system and;
the realisation of a Light Underground (Metropolitana leggera automatica).
The Railway ByPass is expected to be the project with greater impact on the metropolitan area. It consists
on the redevelopment of around 30 kilometers of existing rail lines between the South-East gate of the city
(Roccella) and the international airport (Punta Raisi) that is located 25 kilometers North-West the city centre.
The logic of the intervention is to transform the existing line into an urban rail to serve the city’s major
functional nodes and commuting in the metro area. For this purpose the project includes the doubling of the
line for its entire route, the undergrounding of 7 kilometers in order to avoid conflicts with the built
environment and the creation of 10 new stations, most of which in underground. Some of this new stations
are about to be opened in proximity of places and urban functions that catalyse a huge amounts of workers
and city-users, such as the hospital district “Civico-Policlinico”, the University campus, the historic centre, the
district of regional government and the courthouse. For two sections of its route the completion of the
Railway ByPass (started in 2008) is scheduled for 2015, while the whole infrastructure is expected to enter
in service in 2018.
The Railway Ring, as well as the Railway ByPass, is a reconfiguration of an existing – partly underground –
rail line that linked the Central station and the harbour area. After being dedicated for decades exclusively to
the freight traffic, in 1990 the line has been reconverted to metropolitan service with the opening of four
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3 The original name is “Piano Integrato del Trasporto Pubblico di Massa” (2002) (Romano, 2006).
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new stations. The project under realisation (started at the beginning of 2014) provides the extension of the
line up to 6,5 kilometers with the closure of its route until the rail hub of Palermo Notarbartolo. It includes
the opening of three new underground stations (Libertà, Porto and Piazza Politeama) which will cover central
areas up to now touched only by bus routes. The Piazza Politeama station, particularly, will bring the rail
system within the commercial and touristic core of the city, connecting it (through the link with the station
Palermo Notarbartolo) with the Railway ByPass and the airport. This extension, together with the opening of
the new stations, is expected to enter in service in 2018.
Fig. 1 Transport networks under construction in the core area of Palermo
The Tram system is a project launched at the beginning of the nineties which has faced several problem of
financing before its implementation started in 2007. It is composed of three lines for a total extension of
around 15,5 kilometers in response to the general aim of connecting the most remote and populated
suburbs with the central area of the city in coincidence with the two rail hubs of Palermo Centrale e and
Palermo Notarbartolo. The line 1, through 16 stops, connects the Central Station with the industrial suburb
of Brancaccio, with a termination in correspondence of the ByPass station of Roccella and a major shopping
districts (the Forum) opened in 2010. The lines 2 and 3 (with 12 and 26 stops, respectively) run between the
popular neighborhoods of Borgo Nuovo and CEP and the north-western transit hub of Palermo Notarbartolo.
A section of the line 3 departs from the common route with the line 2 to touch several neighborhoods along
the highway (Circonvallazione) surrounding the urban area in the west side. There is a project (currently
without funding) to extend the line 3 until the University campus and the Central station in order to better
link the Tram system with the rail system.
The fourth project, the Light Underground, is currently that with less technical and financial definition. The
broader and most ambitious version of the project provides a line running from the southern gate of the city
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I. Vinci, S. Di Dio – Designing mobility in a city in transition. Challenges from the case of Palermo
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
Smart City - Planning for Energy,
Transportation and Sustainability of the Urban System
(Svincolo Oreto) to the coastal district of Mondello, a touristic attraction located north to the urban area. It is
extended for approximately 17 kilometers, with 23 stations touching all the central districts along the main
axis of urban development (south-north). The adopted technology is that of driverless trains, with a capacity
of around 210 persons in the peak hours and a travel time of around 12 minutes among the two terminals
(Romano, 2006). The lack of a full coverage of costs has pushed the municipality to develop an update of
the project only for a first section between the south terminal and the rail hub of Palermo Notarbartolo. This
section – including 10 stations for an extension of around 7 kilometers – is expected anyway to cover the
busiest area of the city ensuring the links with the two rail hubs and the other modes of transport under
implementation (Railway ByPass, Railway Ring and Tram system).
The above described four project in a few years will completely reshape the city’s transport system at
different territorial scales. On the one hand, they will impact significantly on the mobility of all users
attracted for various reasons by the core city, currently served only by an inefficient and outdated bus
network; on the other, the new network will ensure a linkage between the main transport nodes at
metropolitan level, such as the airport, the port and the two rail hubs within the urban area. Moreover, the
new linkages between the suburbs and the main metropolitan functions located in the core city should
increasingly shift the mode of transport of commuters towards public transit.
In this context, however, what it is worth to highlight is also the impact of these massive infrastructural
interventions on the physical and functional shape of the city.
The Tram system is changing the face of several kilometers of urban roads, most of which characterised by
urban decay and low economic activity. The route of the line 1, particularly, which is aimed to reduce the
remoteness of one of the most deprived district of the city (Brancaccio), is littered of abandoned urban
spaces. The sites interested by the construction of the Railway ByPass with its stations cover several
hectares of spaces which were, before intervention, largely underused despite their closeness to the core
city. Most of these spaces are places without any consolidated identity or function, whose role, however, is
going to change rapidly under the impulse of the reshaping of urban mobility. Until now, there is no
deliberate strategy to design the future development of these new urban centralities: infrastructural
interventions are carried out by operators (RFI, AMAT4) with no interest/competence towards the quality of
the built environment; the municipality still lacks of an updated strategy of urban development (a new
master plan is expected for the next year) which considers the local impact of infrastructural change.
3 INNOVATING MOBILITY THROUGH PLANNING AND SOCIAL INNOVATION
3.1 THE STARTING POINT
According to the TomTom
Traffic Index
(2013) – computed upon the percent of time spent in car for a same
length trip – Palermo is the 5th city in the world for traffic issues (the former are, in order, Moscow,
Istambul, Rio de Janeiro, Warsaw). Furthermore, according to the 2012 ISTAT data, Palermo has almost
3500 cars per squared km, the fourth vehicle density in Italy after Naples, Milan, and Turin (Aosta, the first
with 4050 vehicles per square km, is an improper confrontation for its size). Almost 5 times over the italian
average (725,9) and considering that the emission standards average of those vehicles is the one of the
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4 RFI – Rete Ferroviaria Italiana is the state-owned operator of the national rail network. In the case of
Palermo it is responsible for the implementation of the Railway ByPass and the Railway Ring and it will
be the transit operator of the new networks once they will be completed. AMAT - Azienda Municipalizzata
Auto Trasporti is owned by the muncipality of Palermo. It is the operator of the urban bus network and
will be the operator of the future Tram system.
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worst in Italy and it records bad performances mainly regarding particulate matter concentration although
it’s a well ventilated sea shore city. This data are probably enough to draw a first sketch of the complex
scenario we are dealing with.
Rome Milan Turin Naples Palermo Genova
Vehicular density
(cars per sqm) 1.964,7 5.313,5 5.248,0 6.323,2 3.488,0 1.879,4
Euro 0,1,2,3 cars per
1000 inhabitants 333,9 256,5 294,9 411,0 358,2 234,8
Euro 0,1,2,3
motorbikes per
1000 inhabitants 97,3 75,8 58,5 97,6 130,3 148,9
Days of PM10 limits
overcoming due to
vehicles traffic 69,0 132,0 158,0 53,0 66,0 13,0
Tab. 1 Private vehicles impact (source: ISTAT, 2012)
The Palermo public transport system consists mainly in the bus service. The city, is covered by 341 km bus
network (AMAT 2010) and served by one of the oldest bus float in Italy. The city has a good distribution of
bus stations (14,7 stations per squared km – 3,6 points more than the 15 biggest cities average) but the
offer (sits km per inhabitants) is broadly under the italian average. According to AMATs data, recently
released as open data, the busses float on road is only the 51% of the busses available (in the 2010 only
287 busses circulated among 560 available) and by the way in the 2010 the number of passengers is +18%
increased (the data is related to the previous year). Moreover it is significant to underline how besides those
huge limitations, the monthly and the yearly subscription cost for the public bus service is still the most
expensive in Italy.
Rome Milan Turin Naples Palermo Genova
Bus lanes km (2009) 2208 415 600 418 335 744
Metro lanes km (2012) 41,6 87,4 13,4 34,8 - 7,1
Bus/tram stops distribution per
squared km (2007) 6,5 16,3 29,1 22,4 14,4 10,6
Euro 0,1 busses (2007) 28,5% 27,1% 43,0% 45,3% 51,3% 33,3%
LPT passengers per inhabitants 2012 528,2 699,2 217,3 227,3 46,0 254,8
Tab. 2 Public transport impact (source: elaboration on ISTAT 2012 and Comune di Palermo)
Palermo, according to the other mobility systems opportunities given by the administration, is experimenting
only the car sharing system (the bike sharing is expected for the next year). The data available show how
this policy should be considered more as a showcase attempt than a real and concrete investment for the
city transport management. After five years, with just 35 cars, 29 parking areas and 755 users is one of the
less impacting in Italy.
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The other policies to improve private sustainable mobility systems were never concretely pushed by the city
government. Although the city is warm at least for nine months per year and also orographically flat Palermo
is below the italian average (15,4) and stays still since 2009.
Rome Milan Turin Naples Palermo Genova
Bike lanes (km per 100 skm) 9,6 41 134 - 13,3 -
TLA (sqkm per 100 sqkm) 0,6 4,9 2,1 3,1 4,8 3,1
Pedestrians areas
(sqm per 100 inh.) 14,4 27,2 44 28,5 7,3 5,1
Payable parking lots on streets
(n. per 1000 vehicles on road) 38,4 43,9 89 39,7 46,7 71
Tab. 3 No-oil areas (source: ISTAT, 2012)
Until the 2007 the city was the worst (among the 15 metropolitan cities) in Italy for territorial density of
traffic limited and no-cars zones. Recent data show a very quick increase of the square metres of the TLA
but, effectively, the limitations, are really few (for example for the commercial vehicles there are no
restrictions). Civic administrators are using the parking lots’ pricing policies as a tool to face the mobility
problems. Actually parking lots pricing seem to be the only tool administrators adopted in these last ten
years. As shown by data, the number of payable lots increase vertically (the variation from 2007 to 2010
was higher than 1500%) with the double clear aim: calming the use of car and bring some money to the city
wallet. But this strategy seems not working, the payable parking areas are mainly inside the congested city
center, and interchange modality parkings are few and far to be effective. This situation, obviously, doesn’t
foster people to use other public transport services.
This scenario helps to explain one of the evidence of the Palermo urban condition. Years and years of no
local transport policies pushed the city in a worrying paradox: although daily distances traveled are short
(one of the shortest in Italy) and horrible traffic jams are daily routine, citizens still prefer moving by cars
and they dream a future with more parking lots and less public transports. This means that urban traffic,
besides being an infrastructural problem, is, primarily, a big social and cultural issue.
Rome Milan Naples Turin Palermo Genova
Cars 28% 17% 19% 27% 37% 21%
Urbano bus/tram/filobus 14% 16% 14% 16% 9% 19%
Metro 13% 16% 15% 7% - 5%
Extraurban bus 2% 3% 6% 3% 2% 3%
Motorbikes/scooter 8% 6% 10% 3% 12% 12%
Bicycles 2% 8% 3% 7% 3% 2%
Taxi 2% 2% 3% 3% 2% 1%
Train 4% 3% 5% 3% 4% 6%
Walking 27% 27% 25% 31% 31% 33%
Tab. 4 Modal split (source: Cittalia, 2009, elaborated by the authors)5
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5 Palermo hasn’t a metro transport system yet, a train lane is now working as a metro service provided by
Ferrovie dello Stato.
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3.2 ATTEMPTS OF INNOVATION
For many years, the cities of Palermo and Catania were the only cities among the major Italian metropolitan
areas without an urban mobility plan. This gap has been overcome only in March 2013, when the
municipality adopted a new general urban traffic plan (the original name is Piano Generale del Traffico
Urbano, PGTU). This tool, whose process of implementation is still ongoing, is based on four main strategic
objectives: (a) improving of the traffic conditions (moving and parking); (b) improving of the street safety (a
reduction of incidents); (c) reduction of GHG substances in atmosphere and the caustic noise; (d) energy
saving. The PGTU also defined four action plans that will focus on specific mobility issues:
plan to improve the pedestrian mobility (it foresees the definition of squares, streets, itineraries,
pedestrian areas and traffic limited areas);
plan to improve urban and suburban local public transport (it provides the definition of specific lanes,
interchange nodes, existing lines and frequency reorganization);
plan to re-organize urban and suburban private transport circulation (it will focus on a general traffic
scheme, the issues due to the city crossing and the road types priorities);
plan for the rationalization of parking areas (it will point out the parking streets also defining the fare
system).
The planning process has been stimulated over time by a set of bottom-up initiatives in the wake of well
known experiments made at international level, such as Nuride, Zimride in the USA or Moovel, Mo-bility,
Moovit in Europe. “B.I.C. Bici in città” and iMove, for example, are local examples of smart community
projects that encourage and organise people to be critical mass in terms of sustainable transports. A very
popular web portal called “Mobilita Palermo” allows people to share informations about ongoing projects and
policies focused on mobility, as well as sharing information about the traffic conditions via the most followed
social networks.
The most relevant ongoing initiatives in this direction are probably the three innovative projects on Palermo
funded with almost 4 millions euros by the Italian Ministry of University and Research in the framework of
the competition "Smart Cities and Communities and Social Innovation”. The projects aim to stimulate local
communities to change their habits fostering more responsible mobility behaviours with the help of
smartphone applications. The three groups that won the fellowship are young multidisciplinary teams with a
“social entrepreneurs” approach to the theme. They are working on different softwares – Muovity, CityFree
and TrafficO2 – that will provide services of carpooling logistic (mostly focused on short distance commuters)
and inter modality logistic to foster sustainable mobility values.
Muovity
aims to give a contribution to the empowerment of the social and technological networks to improve
sustainable and energy efficient transports in the sicilian territory. The mobile application offers a platform
where is possible to easily plan carpooling trips and having real time information about the city mobility. The
team – who is currently testing the main features of the application – is mostly the same who is leading the
urban mobility blog “Mobilita Palermo” and is working inside Palermo University incubator “ARKA”.
Cityfree
is developing an application which main feature will be an easy way to plan dates to reach the
Universities facilities through the local public transport system. The application will not give to the user
another social network platform but instead wants to be a mobility information system that supports the
already exited social networks. The main goal is reaching the critical mass able to change college students
behaviors. Currently the group activities are focused on the creation of the mobile application and on
disseminating actions of carpooling concepts to the Palermo University community.
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TrafficO2 is an info mobility decision supporting system that tries to foster a modal split through gaming
policies and giving tangible incentives for each sustainable choice. The idea is to match the interests of two
complementary actors on the city traffic scene: communities workers (communities that already need a
mobility manager) and local business communities (places on the community workers daily-paths). The goal
is to decrease traffic and pollution creating an equal agreement for both communities: prizes in exchange for
a respectful behaviour towards the environment. So, all of the local businesses that belongs to platform (as
sponsors) became the stations of a new kind of transport system that foresee only moving by foot, by
bicycle, by local public transport and by carpooling. Each trip from station to station gives O2 points to the
user, those points are the system virtual money users can collect to get prizes from the sponsors. The aim of
the project is to generate a “win-win” situation that creates new city development opportunities just
matching the right needs. A first test of the mobile application (an alpha version) has started during
December 2013 with 30 students selected through a workshop from three different Palermo University
departments: computer science, design and marketing.
Regarding this last project, a first survey of the testers behaviors confirms widely the 2009 ISTAT data about
the modal split. It also shows how most of the times, despite over the 75% of the interviewed are less then
10 km far from the University, they prefer use the car to get there and just the 20% carpool regularly.
Moreover it’s interesting to underline that just the 10% of the interviewed has a local public transport
subscription and no one joined the car sharing project.
Cityfree Muovity TrafficO2
Events logistic management x x -
Intermodality system logistic - - x
Infomobility x x -
Extra-urban scale x x -
Payment service x x -
Benefits for users - x x
Sponsors x x x
Social network - x x
Feedbacks x x -
Gaming - x x
Testing x x x
Tab. 5 Comparative analysis of the main features of the mobility social innovation projects
All of the funded projects, as we see, will involve firstly the big urban community of the Palermo University.
This decision, taken individually by the teams, is motivated by the target selected to address their products:
young and curious students are probably the first best social community where experiment behaviors’
changing project driven by social media technologies. But all of these proposals, than the difficulties given
by controversial structural, social and cultural aspects of the city itself, have also to overcome other
constrains that belong broadly to all these kind of projects. Probably the bigger limits of those approaches
are the constraints given by the chosen technologies itself. These kind of apps need powerful smartphones
always connected to the web and this means an high consume of the battery and of the personal band
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connectivity (Palermo has not yet a public service for internet connectivity). All of those factors (with many
others) could discourage users to use one of the systems they’re delivering and, moreover, the presence of
the three could be confusing for the little target they’re approaching.
4 FUTURE CHALLENGES: TOWARDS A TRANSIT ORIENTED URBAN COMMUNITY?
As we have described in sections 2 and 3 of this paper, the physical and functional context of transport in
Palermo is going towards a rapid process of change under the impulse of infrastructural projects, a new
phase of planning and the spreading of social innovation practices. The city resulting from this process will
be the outcome of the interaction between some “hard factors” for mobility – infrastructures with their
material impact on the built environment – and a much more flexible and uncertain group of “soft factors”
including the management of the networks, the interaction between transport policy and urban policy as
whole, a better governance and a new propensity of people to change.
In this paragraph we try to focus on a series of open questions related to this interaction, in order to explore
the potential benefits for city’s development of an increased integration between transport policy and urban
regeneration. These questions can be summarised into the following three challenges:
a challenge of effectiveness of the transport system;
an urban regeneration challenge;
a governance challenge.
The first challenge arises from the basic step to complete the ongoing projects and provide the city of the
first potentially integrated transport system. Its future effectiveness derives from the capacity to create
functional connections between the different modes of transport, which are based on networks that have
been planned separately and will be under the management by different operators. The creation of a new
governance of the transport system, consequently, seems to be a first problem to be solved in on order to
overcame the gap of effectiveness that could be given by the different rationales of the transit operators. An
investment on the ICT resources, in the short term, could significantly help to increase the added value
given by the intersections of the different modes of transport, as well as in reducing the negative impact of
the missing links existing in the networks.
The challenge of urban regeneration derives by the broader objective of making the nodes of the new
transport system as parts of future city’s development. There are some obstacles to this perspective
depending by the different planning rationales of which the projects under implementation are expression. A
first obstacle is the approach to design of the operators responsible for the implementation of the transport
projects: in the case of the Railway ByPass, particularly, the new stations have been placed in the urban
areas with less constrains to infrastructural development in order to reduce the conflicts with the built
environment and to lower the construction costs. The poor design of the new stations, together with the
state of decay characterising several of these empty urban spaces, will apparently provide no direct
contribution to the regeneration of the interested districts in the short term. As a consequence, an additional
challenge for the future of urban policy will be, on the one hand, to improve urban design around the
transport nodes and think them as places fully integrated in the surrounding urban environment and, on the
other, to target on these urban spaces additional policies (i.e. direct or indirect incentives to the private
sectors, new public functions) in order to revitalise them as new epicenters of urban development.
The two previous challenges are intimately bound by the need of a new and more effective governance at
different scales and dimensions of urban development. Firstly, from a more sectorial perspective, it will be
required a convergence in the planning and management activities of the two main operators of the
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I. Vinci, S. Di Dio – Designing mobility in a city in transition. Challenges from the case of Palermo
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
Smart City - Planning for Energy,
Transportation and Sustainability of the Urban System
transport system: the municipal corporation AMAT, which will be required to manage the future Tram
System (together with the bus system and the parking system); the national operator RFI, which is
responsible of the rail network, including the new and redeveloped Railway ByPass and Railway Ring. An
other relevant player in this new governance framework is the regional authority, if not for the relevant role
it exercises as the main financial provider in the field of local public transport. A more effective convergence
between the strategies of these players (together with others such as the Airport and the Port authorities)
appears as a crucial step, particularly, in the creation of an integrated transit system at the metropolitan
level.
Fig. 2 The redevelopment area of Imera-Tribunale, near the Cathedral and the Regional Government Palace
In this evolutionary context for local governance, an important stimulus might come from the innovative
projects on mobility under implementation at the urban and metropolitan scale. In fact, since the
environmental impact of transport and mobility is intimately related to social habits and people behaviours,
the networks established by bottom up initiatives like those described in this paper is a potential a resource
to improve the awareness on mobility issues, as well as establishing new forms of public-private
cooperation. This last, particularly, via the technological resources on which the social networks are based
(GPS, primarily), could help to better match demand and offer of transport and overcome the gaps of
missing modal integration due to governance problems. The municipality, in this process, is expected to play
a “melting role” between the different expectation of citizens and stakeholders, with the broader objectives
to anchor the immaterial resources in operation on a processes of urban regeneration which requires, in the
case in question, also drastic material changes and reshaping of urban places.
This case witnesses once again the “systematic nature” of urban mobility (Bertolini, 2012) and the
problematic role of urban planning when asked to cope with the integration of different (sectoral and
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I. Vinci, S. Di Dio – Designing mobility in a city in transition. Challenges from the case of Palermo
TeMA Journal of Land Use Mobility and Environment INPUT 2014 Eighth International Conference INPUT - Naples, 4-6 June 2014
Smart City - Planning for Energy,
Transportation and Sustainability of the Urban System
individual) views on city’s development. Adapting the rigidity of urban form to the changing pattern of the
transport networks and, by contrast, make mobility as flexible as the process of social change within urban
areas is a challenge that requires the recognition of a broad range of technical and political variables. The
extent of this challenge in several urban areas has meant a rapid change in the perception of the traditional
feedback between transport and land-use planning and a shift of urban policy towards a more strategic and
holistic approach to city’s development. Reorienting the urban agenda to this perspective seems an obvious
choice for a city in transition like Palermo.
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IMAGES SOURCES
Figg. 1 and 2: Elaboration by the authors on Google Earth data.
AUTHORS’ PROFILE
Ignazio Vinci is Assistant professor of Urban Planning at the Polytechnic School of the University of Palermo.
Salvatore Di Dio is Phd student in Models, Technologies and Systems for Energy and Information at the University of
Palermo.
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... The last decade has seen an enormous evolution of research on TE for sustainability, but at the level of specific application of these theories towards Sustainable Urban Mobility (SUM) [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14], there is still a long way to go, so it is pertinent to review the current state of the situation in this regard. ...
... In this context, and for our case study, there are researchers who have addressed the application of Transition Experiments towards Sustainable Urban Mobility [1- 14,30], in order to cope with the inertia, uncertainty, and complexity of the theme; they intuitively perceived the need to proceed with innovation management through the interaction between different actors, the same actors who, in turn, condition and influence the desirable systemic changes. ...
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... However, "hard" interventions alone, such as increased cost of cars through taxation and improving public transport system infrastructures, are not entirely effective in encouraging people to adopt sustainable behaviours (Stopher, 2004). City authorities, recognising this, actively consider implementing "soft" interventions, such as through the help of smart applications (Vinci & Dio, 2014), to reduce car usage by encouraging a shift towards sustainable transport modes (Di Dio et al., 2018;Gärling & Fujii, 2009;Sottile et al., 2020). ...
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Smart technology, such as mobile communication networks, and behaviour-based approaches to promote citizens’ engagement, both play a key role in making future living sustainable and tackling the persisting urban problems in cities and densely populated urban areas. In the context of Sharing Cities, a programme that aims to deliver smart cities solutions in Europe, one of the prominent interventions in the city of Milan (Italy) has been the deployment and monitoring of a Digital Social Market (DSM) tool, a smartphone app through which cities can engage with residents and encourage sustainable behaviours by offering non-monetary rewards. This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the DSM approach to promote active travel (cycling and walking) by analysing the data collected through the app as well as through participants’ surveys. Our model results show that a broader engagement with the DSM app (number of claps to posts, number of posts made, non-monetary rewards earned by participating in non-active travel events) is positively correlated with the monitored level of active travel. Furthermore, lifestyles, attitudes, behavioural controls, and social influence also significantly explain the variability in cycling or walking as measured by the app.
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... Apart the commuters, the other important categories involved in the project are sponsors and local business stations. By using the app, the commuter "knows" immediately (Vinci & Di Dio, 2014) what would be his/her total sustainable mobility improvement, and therefore will be more motivated to achieve it. Rewards are O 2 points, gained according to the chosen mode of transportation. ...
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Le città mobili: Rapporto Cittalia
  • Cittalia
Cittalia (2009), Le città mobili: Rapporto Cittalia 2009, Roma.
Il Piano integrato del trasporto pubblico di massa di Palermo
  • B Romano
Romano B. (2006), "Il Piano integrato del trasporto pubblico di massa di Palermo", Territorio, n. 38, pp. 96-99.
Transforming Cities with Transit: Transit and Land-Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development
  • H Suzuki
  • R Cervero
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Suzuki H., Cervero R., Iuchi K. (eds.) (2013), Transforming Cities with Transit: Transit and Land-Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development, The World Bank, Washington.
Cities and Climate Change: An Urgent Agenda, The World Bank
  • World Bank
World Bank (2011), Cities and Climate Change: An Urgent Agenda, The World Bank, Washington. IMAGES SOURCES
1 and 2: Elaboration by the authors on Google Earth data
  • Figg
Figg. 1 and 2: Elaboration by the authors on Google Earth data. AUTHORS' PROFILE