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SPECIAL REPORT - The KC EMPOWER Project: Designing More Accessible STEM Learning Activities

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Abstract

The overall purpose of the Kinetic City (KC) Empower project was to examine how informal science activities can be made accessible for students with disabilities. The premise of this project was that all students, including those with disabilities, are interested in and capable of engaging in science learning experiences, if these experiences are accessible to them. Drawing on resources from Kinetic City, a large collection of science experiments, games, and projects developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the project researched and adapted five afterschool science activities guided by universal design for learning principles.
K-12 STEM Education
Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016, pp.1-49
SPECIAL REPORT
The KC EMPOWER Project
Designing More Accessible STEM Learning Activities
BOB HIRSHON1
LAUREEN SUMMERS1
BABETTE MOELLER2
WENDY MARTIN2
1
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
2
Center for Children and Technology
Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC)
E-mail: bhirshon@aaas.org
KC Empower is a project of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Directorate
for Education and Human Resources Programs
This material was based upon work supported by
the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DRL-1223822.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s)
and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
BLAMING THE LEARNER
Imagine listening to a lecture during which the speaker used technical jargon you
couldn’t begin to understand; Or playing a computer game with seemingly arbitrary rules
that resulted in your avatar dying so quickly that you could barely get started; Or trying to
gain access to a product through packaging that could withstand a bomb blast.
Most of us regard these as problems of
accessibility
: the speaker or designer had a
fundamental misunderstanding of the audience and therefore placed unrealistic expectations
on them.
But imagine if someone were to offer an alternative explanation: you are the
problem. You are broken and incapable of understanding language, playing a game or
opening a package. In that case, you would probably be offended and argue that there was
nothing wrong with you. However, if other people agreed with this alternative explanation,
suggesting that the problem was not the lecture/game/package, but rather
you
, and your
feeble brain, slow reflexes and weak body, you might eventually accept this explanation.
Would you then be eager to engage in new learning opportunities and take on new
challenges? Or would you default into a state of disengagement with a world that seemingly
didn’t need or even tolerate your participation?
This exercise gives you just a taste of the challenges endured by people we might
call the “disabled labeled.” Even though the frustrations of inaccessibility are familiar to all of
us, we nonetheless create a dividing line separating people we consider “able” and those
who are not. But in reality, there is no such line. There is no “disability” and “ability”there
is just variability. Each of us accesses, understands and shares knowledge differently.
Hirshon, B., Summers, L., Moeller, B. and Martin, W.
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K-12 STEM Education
It’s bad enough when poor design excludes people from public events, computer
games and packaged products, but it’s worse when such inaccessibility is found in
educational activities, thereby excluding many children from rich learning experiences. It’s
worse still when those activities focus on STEM understanding, an area critical for success in
the workplace and for navigating an increasingly complex world. Missing out on such
learning opportunities can be catastrophic for individuals and detrimental to society as a
whole.
This paper is about our effort to examine how STEM resources could be made more
accessible for students, regardless of what abilities they bring to the table. We looked at a
small selection of afterschool STEM activities taken from 80 that we developed 15 years ago,
through a previous National Science Foundation grant (Award # 0104671,
Kinetic City After
School: An On-line Adventure
). Though the original project revolved around a story that was
told online, most of the activities were hands-on. Our new look at the activities included one
computer game and four off-line activities. Supplementing our discussion of the project in
this article is a formal report on the work, included as an appendix (Moeller and Martin,
2015.
Kinetic City Empower: Research Report
).
UNIVERSAL DESIGN IN
STEM LEARNING
The term
Universal Design
has been in use since the 1980s to refer to architecture
and product design fostering accessibility for the widest range of people. The emphasis is on
designing accessibility into the product or building right from the start, rather than adding
accommodations for users with particular needs.
Since the 1990s, David Rose and colleagues from the Center for Applied Special
Technology (CAST) and others applied the concept to education, with the
Universal Design
for Learning
(UDL) framework. UDL is not focused on creating sets of new resources
designed specifically for people with particular disabilitiesa sort of “separate but equal”
solution. Instead, it focuses on how to create learning activities for everyone. Key principles
are that the activities should provide multiple means through which learners engage with
the activity, ensure that any materials and/or knowledge required to participate in the
activity is presented in a variety of ways (including alternative representations of auditory
and visual material) and that learners are allowed different ways to demonstrate and share
their knowledge.
The vision is that all learners can participate in UDL-based activities without requiring
significant additional assistance from human or technological helpersjust as all people
should be able to access ADA-compliant buildings without the need for assistants to hoist
visitors out of their wheelchairs to carry them upstairs, or the purchase of expensive stair-
climbing wheelchairs.
However, few learning activities now employ UDL. The emphasis is on special
education specialists, who must take restrictive activities and environments and wrestle
them into a form that will allow children with special needs to use them. This is much less
effective than designing activities and spaces to be inclusive from the start. To be clear, we
are not suggesting that UDL-based activities replace or diminish the role of educators, but
rather that they provide educators with resources free of unnecessary barriers to learning.
KC EMPOWER
As part of a two-year NSF Advancing Informal STEM Learning (AISL) Pathways project, we
examined what UDL would mean for developers of science activities. These are the
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3
thousands of games, demonstrations, hands-on science activities, art/music/social studies
“blended learning” resources, and other educational activities, often developed through
grants from NSF and other public and private funders, and shared widely through a variety
of STEM education web portals.
The vast majority of these activities require that children see, walk and read visual
text. To the extent that they can be used by children who are blind, or who use wheelchairs,
or who have other differences, they require adaptation by educatorsthis despite over a
decade of research showing that learning activities can be designed to be accessible to a
wide range of learners, and that all students benefit from activities designed in this way.
There are many possible reasons why UDL principles are so rarely implemented.
Perhaps incorporating them is simply too difficult under the tight time and money
constraints of activity developers. Perhaps they are particularly difficult to implement in a
STEM learning environment, possibly because of unique attributes of STEM-based activities.
After all, STEM, more than other content areas, requires precise measurements, careful
observations and the use of specialized tools, instruments and materials. It’s possible that
these factors make STEM UDL-proof. That could explain the paucity of UDL-compliant STEM
resources.
For this project, we wanted to see how difficult it would be to develop activities that
followed UDL principles, and whether making those changes would make the activities
better or worse for general use. Therefore, the
KC Empower
project staff, advisors and
researchers selected sample activities, tested them with kids that had different special
needs, got feedback from the kids and the adults who worked with them, and then reviewed
what we discovered with our advisory board, consisting of some of the top experts in
accessibility and learning issues.
Then, based on these tests and recommendations, we made changes to the activities
and tested them again with our target populations to see if the changes made them more
accessible and effective. We took special note of overarching issues and design ideas that
could prove useful for others working in the field.
While UDL was originally developed with an emphasis on new technologies and how
they could broaden access to learning, our goal was to use technology only as one of many
routes to improve access, and then only if the technology is widely available, easy to use
and inexpensive. We didn’t want to erect new walls of cost and lack of availability in our
effort to remove walls related to usability and access.
Throughout the work, we strove to be respectful of all the work that had gone into
creating the large library of STEM resources now available. Before concluding that an activity
had to be completely redesigned or replaced, we’d look into less drastic changes that would
provide a solid return for a small investment in time, energy and money. In an ideal world,
every resource would be designed for wide accessibility right from the start. In the real
world, NSF and many other funders have made an enormous investment in the creation of
tens of thousands of activities, and it behooves us to look first into how those resources can
be improved, rather than replaced.
THE FIVE TEST ACTIVITIES
We focused on five sample activities, which we took from our Kinetic City After
School project. This was an NSF-supported program that took 16 different science content
areas from
Benchmarks for Science Literacy
(AAAS, 1992) and offered five informal science
activities for each: a computer game or simulation (called a
Mind Game
), a traditional
hands-on science activity (
Fab Lab
), a phys ed style activity (
Move Crew
), an art activity
(
Smart Art
) and a creative writing activity (
Write Away
).
Hirshon, B., Summers, L., Moeller, B. and Martin, W.
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ALL SYSTEMS ARE GO
All Systems Are Go
is a
Kinetic City Mind Game
in which a regularly occurring Kinetic
City character, Arnold Rutabega, has lost his internal organs. Students are asked to retrieve
them, one system at a time. A “Learn More” button brings up a text essay on the major
systems of the human body, describes the organs and other parts in each system, and
explains how they work together to accomplish a job. Arnold asks for his organs back not
individually, but by system, as in “I feel breathless and heartless! Find my circulatory and
respiratory system!” and “Now I feel like nothing’s holding me up; find some important parts
of my skeletal system.” A timer runs during game play for children who want to play
repeatedly to improve their time, but there are no points or time limits.
Like many computer games designed in the early 2000s,
All Systems Are Go
was
created in Adobe Flash, the early versions of which had few accessibility options. Specific
issues identified during our testing included lack of any accessibility features for blind users
and strong reliance on fine motor coordination using a mouse interface. In addition, some
children were confused or displeased with the lack of object permanence: organs correctly
selected and placed in Arnold’s body would reappear as potential selections in subsequent
screens. This was originally done so that the screen didn’t gradually run out of selections,
such that the final body system had no “wrong” organs left. However, in our testing, some of
the children objected to this lack of logic, as well as Arnold’s ability to engage in conversation
despite missing vital organs.
SUGGESTED REVISIONS:
After reviewing the results of our play testing with children and input from teachers
and parents, our advisory board and staff had a long list of potential changes to
All Systems
Are Go
, focused primarily on accessibility issues. Some of these issues are native to the
Flash platform and, since creating a new game in a different platform was beyond the scope
of our project, we weren’t able to perform that subset of the suggestions as optimally as we
could have in a completely new game.
In addition, there were suggestions of basic changes to the game design itselffor
example, making the player an actual doctor diagnosing a patient. These would have
entailed creating a new game as well.
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The revisions that we undertook for this activity were:
Make the game fully keyboard accessible, in addition to mouse accessible, so blind
children and children unable to control a mouse can play;
Add audio for all buttons and selections; add narration for “How to Play” and
“Learn More”;
Make all possible selections into buttons that can be accessed by the tab button
and selected with the spacebar or enter key;
Use “shift-tab” to move through selections backwards;
Start game with cursor at top; spacebar should trigger “Start Game”;
Add a visual indication of keyboard focus;
For game play, put keyboard focus on any body part, beginning with top one; then
use tab or arrow keys to highlight each organ and play audio;
Return key or space bar selects organ highlighted;
Add a way to show large versions of each organ selection, for low-vision players;
Enhance screen contrast for low-vision players;
Give the organs in the game “object permanence”for example, when an organ
was dragged from one screen to another, there was never a re-occurrence of that
organ in the screen from which it was dragged.
ALL SYSTEMS ARE GO REVISED
We were able to implement all the changes in the bulleted list, except for adding the
two low-vision enhancements (large versions of each selection appearing and screen
contrast changes), which weren’t complete until after our site tests due to technical issues
with the old Flash code. The new version of this activity, which will replace the current
version now in use, has all of the enhancements.
DISCUSSION:
Overall, the adaptations we made to this activity improved both access and
engagement for children.
The key changes that were made in the game (offering an alternative to the drag
and drop feature for moving the organs, providing audio labels for the organs, changing the
Hirshon, B., Summers, L., Moeller, B. and Martin, W.
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K-12 STEM Education
response that students got when they make a mistake, removing organs that have been
placed from the right side of the screen) were successful for improving the physical
accessibility of the game and students’ cognitive engagement with it.
EDC CCT “Kinetic City Empower Research Report” (See Appendix)
It should be noted that audio features of the game did not trigger unless a player
first attempted to play using keyboard control, indicating low vision. Since we found that
many sighted users also appreciated the narration, and we know that many students
struggle with reading, future versions of the game should include a toggle switch to turn
audio on and off. Also, since so few games allow full keyboard control, and educators in
many settings are not aware of computer accessibility options, the game should add
information for educators, telling them about the game’s accessibility features, and also
about the importance of activating the Universal Access option in their computer preferences
or control panel.
Changing the game such that each object on screen occurred in just one place at a
time meant that as players progress, there were fewer and fewer organs from which to
select, and by the time players reach the last system, all of the selections are correct
selections. In future versions of the game, we could add more distractor items and/or vary
the order in which the organ systems are requested. Also, we found that when children play
the game rapidly, the audio files play on top of each other. Future versions should cut off
each audio file more quickly when the player changes the focus of the cursor.
We were surprised at how easily and inexpensively the accessibility features could be
added to
All Systems Are Go
, especially since they weren’t original to Flash, and had to be
programmed into the game. We were also surprised how well and how seamlessly they
worked. Like many educational game designers, we were skeptical about the feasibility of
making such a visual game accessible to blind users, and concerned that providing the
option of tab- and click-based play, as well as drag and drop, would make the game too
easy. But students can self-select the mode that works best for them, and know enough to
choose based on how much fun it is, rather than how quickly it allows them to finish the
screens.
We were also surprised to discover that the changes enhance the game for children
who are not blind and who do not have difficulty with the computer mouse, as well as for
those who do. All children benefit from having the game’s text augmented with narration,
especially since the game has several hard-to-pronounce names and terms. None of the
changes stand out to the player as accessibility modifications; they just make the game
experience richer.
The Flash animator who worked on the graphical changes had never experienced a
Flash game with full keyboard control, despite having worked in the business for over fifteen
years. Regarding the project, he wrote, “I would never have imagined that this type of
educational game could be adapted for full keyboard control, but have been amazed by the
result. It would be difficult to approach my future work without taking the possibility into
account.” The fact that
All Systems Are Go
could be so easily converted, despite being a
purely visual game, highlights the potential for this sort of retrofitting for virtually all
learning games.
It should be noted that we did not make story-based changes to the game suggested
by some children in our learning disability group, partly because they were more extensive
than we could afford, and also because we were unsure whether they would improve the
game. The children pointed out that Arnold should, by all accounts, be not merely dead, but
like the Wicked Witch of the East, really, most sincerely dead. And how was he able to talk if
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he had no organs? Further research could look into whether or not games requiring
“suspension of disbelief” impede engagement with this user population.
As a follow up to this work we will disseminate a step-by-step guide to making
learning games fully keyboard accessible, and outline additional design options to enhance
accessibility without degrading game play.
WHERE THE WEIRD THINGS ARE (YOUR CREATURES FEATURES)
Where the Weird Things Are
is a writing activity in which students are shown
pictures of six strange beasts and asked to make up a story about one of them that
describes where the creature lives and how its strange features help it survive there.
SUGGESTED REVISIONS:
Our Advisory Board suggested the following revisions:
Render the beast drawings in raised ink or 3D, so low-vision kids can feel them;
Add words to describe them, too, like “has two short horns on its head and a long
tail shaped like a corkscrew” along with audio descriptions;
Consider adding speech recognition software so that kids can dictate their
responses rather than write them;
Have some plastic realistic animals on hand so that kids can look at their
adaptations and consider where those animals might live;
Consider changing the name of the activity, since some children might be put off
by the term “weird.”
WHERE THE WEIRD THINGS ARE REVISED:
We made major changes to this activity to make it more accessible for low vision
users, and more engaging overall. The original activity had just black and white line art. For
the revised activity, we contracted with the Touch Graphics company to re-create the
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K-12 STEM Education
artwork as a book of 3D raised images, with colors and textures. In addition, each creature
was divided into parts, like “head,” “body” and “tail” and each of these parts had a text
description, e.g., “This creature has a long tail with a spike at the end.” The descriptions are
provided in both letters and braille. Talking pens were programmed to read the descriptions
out loud when a user holds the pen over a creature or a particular feature. Finally, we did
change the title, per advisory board request: it is now called
Your Creature’s Features
.
When presenting the activity to children, we put an assortment of plastic animals like
porcupines and walruses on the worktable, and talked about how these real animals’
features helped them survive in their environments.
We looked into acquiring speech to text software so that children could dictate their
stories to their computers and have the computers save them as text files, but the available
software required clear speech from a single user in a quiet environment, and therefore
wasn’t suitable for our team-based after school program. So we put this feature on the back
burner until the technology improves.
DISCUSSION:
Your Creature’s Features
was a significant improvement over the original activity.
The students with learning disabilities said that they liked the Creature’s Features
book. They said that they got a better sense of the creatures because they are in color and
had some descriptions. The students also liked that they could access the descriptions
through audio or by reading.
EDC CCT “Kinetic City Empower Research Report” (See Appendix)
However, with the addition of technology came some new problems, since some
students had difficulty activating the talking pen, which sometimes remained silent if
students didn’t move it laterally, as opposed to tapping it on a feature. The manufacturer
says they can make changes to the graphics that will make the pen more responsive.
Your Creature’s Features
is a great example of an activity that is much better as a
result of our re-design process. When we approach a product with a new perspectivefor
example, from that of a blind child, or a child who prefers multisensory optionswe come
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up with ideas we wouldn’t imagine otherwise. Rather than adding constraints, the process
unearths new possibilities. Many kidsnot just blind onesprefer tactile graphics. And
adding audio opens up whole new options for humor and creativity.
In this case, we significantly increased the cost of producing the activity materials:
design and production was $6000US, and included ten books and four programmed pens.
But in large quantities, the cost of the tactile books was reduced substantially (to about
$40US per book and $90US per talking pen). In the U.S., government subsidies are available
for products that meet the needs of children with disabilities, making this technology more
affordable. We would encourage any group designing activities with flat graphics to consider
making them tactile and adding an audio component, especially if the program already
includes physical objects and therefore already includes a means of distribution beyond the
internet. In addition, with the cost of 3D printing dropping rapidly, a STEM program
delivered via only the web could consider distributing files for 3D printing relevant objects,
so that both sighted and blind children can hold and feel them.
One unmet challenge with this activity is the lack of effective means to help children
create and share their creature story. Few children wrote anything in the supplied journal
pages, preferring to simply describe out loud what their creature ate, how it used its unusual
features, and how it survived in its environment. Even during the original incarnation of
these activities within
Kinetic City After School
groups, children wrote only sparingly.
One possible solution would be to add more scaffolding to our journal page, to help
children structure their stories. We could also go further, turning the activity into more of a
Mad Lib
-style exercise, in which children fill in blanks in a story with words or phrases that
demonstrate understanding and also allow creativity and humor.
Another, more ambitious, solution would be to create new digital interfaces that
allow children to record ideas and observations and to produce documents and/or other
means of communication without having to type on a keyboard. Such interfaces could work
with computers, tablets or mobile phones. Many research laboratories at companies, federal
laboratories and universities are exploring such interfaces for both business and military
applications, and work has progressed sufficiently that it might prove worthwhile to explore
the potential for UDL-inspired educational interfaces as well.
BLUEPRINT FOR A BEAST
Blueprint for a Beast
is a
Kinetic City Smart Art
activity, and is a sort of companion
activity to
Your Creature’s Features
. But instead of being given a creature and asked to
consider what sort of environment it might inhabit, students are given a habitat, and asked
to invent a creature that could survive there. The environments provided are challenging:
inside a volcano; 35,000 feet above the ground (where airplanes fly); on an iceberg in the
middle of the ocean; under the hood of a car; or in your nose. Creatures must be able to
move, drink and eat, and protect themselves from any dangers their environment presents.
Students draw their creatures in a journal page with whatever art supplies are at hand.
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K-12 STEM Education
SUGGESTED REVISIONS:
Our Advisory Board suggested the following:
Add pictures of the environments to the instructions;
Provide real life or fictitious examples of animals and their adaptations, possibly
with a picture book like Eric Carle’s
The Mixed Up Chameleon
;
Rather than just draw the beast, maybe have them make it out of modeling clay or
other easy to mold material;
Have kids draw with something that adds dimensionality, like puff paint or Wikki
Stix;
Consider including animal parts, like tails, wings, fins, and horns that students can
select from;
Have the students create something they can take home with them.
BLUEPRINT FOR A BEAST REVISED:
For
Blueprint for a Beast
, we opened up the creative options with modeling clay,
Wikki Stix, and a variety of other art supplies and papers, and had the students show and
describe their creatures for the group. For one of our sites that included younger children,
we began the activity by reading
The Mixed Up Chameleon
to the group, stopping to ask
them about different characteristics described in the book and what each animal did with its
adaptation. At both sites, students could take their creatures home with them.
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DISCUSSION:
Neither the original
Blueprint for a Beast
, nor the revised version, were as effective
as we expected.
The changes made in this activity (the use of the Eric Carle book, the supply of a
greater variety of arts materials, asking students to share their animals with the group) met
with mixed success. The greater variety of materials increased the physical accessibility of
the task, but did not appear to increase the cognitive engagement with it. Girls appeared to
be more attracted to both versions of the activity than boys.
EDC CCT “Kinetic City Empower Research Report” (See Appendix)
We thought the creative, open-ended nature of this activity would make it the most
accessible and easy to adapt of the five activities. The activity didn’t explicitly require sight,
hearing, or mobility. However, we had limited success in achieving engagement among our
test groups. The most likely reason is that our groups all had a significant number of
students with learning disabilities. Unlike
All Systems Are Go
and
Your Creature’s Features
,
this activity has no attention-getting graphics, audio, colorful objects or game playit’s
purely creative and open-ended. Simply posing a challenge and offering an array of creative
expression materials didn’t sufficiently engage these children in the science content of the
activity. It took effort by the educators in the room to motivate them.
Future work on the use of artistic expression to enable children to share STEM-
related ideas could look into creative assembly of objects, rather than creation from raw
materials. This would add enticing, novel elements to the activity, offer students a quicker
entry point, and could be especially useful for children who have difficulty working with
standard art supplies.
For example, one of our contractors suggested creating a kit with a large number of
magnetic creature parts that children could assemble, including heads, bodies, limbs and
tails. Children would build a creature suitable for a particular environment. Technology might
enhance this activity: the parts could interact with computer tablets, such that an
environment could appear on screen, and players could assemble physical body parts on the
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screen surface. As with several products now on the market, these physical pieces would
interact with the tablet, which would provide audio and visual feedback to the child. Rather
than guide children to a particular answer, the information would encourage creativity and
exploration. Developing such a product is one of several spin-off projects we are
considering.
DUNK AND FLIP
Dunk and Flip
is a
Fab Lab
, or hands-on activity, consisting of two demonstrations
that focus on showing children that air has mass and takes up space. In one
demonstrationthe “dunk” portion of the activitychildren secure a crumpled up paper
towel into the bottom of a disposable cup, tip it over so that the open side faces down, and
submerge it in a plastic tub of water. Before conducting the demonstration, they are asked
to predict what will happen to the paper towel. Most students predict that it will get wet.
Ideally, after conducting the demonstration, they see that the towel stays dry and suggest
various explanations for the result, leading to the conclusion that air was already in the cup,
taking up space, and prevented the water from entering. Therefore, air is not “nothing:” it
can fill a space and its presence can preclude other stuff, like water, from taking up that
same space.
The second demonstration involved placing a meter stick on a table with more than
half of the meter stick extending beyond the edge. The kids cover the portion of the meter
stick on the table with a large sheet of newspaper and predict what will happen when they
press down sharply on the extending portion of the meter stick. They generally predict that
the paper will fly up into the air. After trying it, they find that the paper is harder to push up
than they predicted. They suggest various explanations, one of which could be that the
paper is heavier than they thought. They then have the option of trying the same
demonstration with a crumpled up sheet of newspaper on the end of the meter stick. It flies
up into the air easily, as they originally predicted. They conclude that it is something about
the newspaper lying flat and taking up a large area that makes it seem heavier. They learn
that air has mass and is pushing down on everything; the flat newspaper has a larger
surface area than the crumpled newspaper, so there’s more air pressure acting on it. That
pressure makes the meter stick harder to push.
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Children in our study group had some issues completing the hands-on activities.
Securing the paper towel inside the cup and then turning the cup over and submerging it
into the tub required considerable dexterity. If the paper towel wasn’t sufficiently crumpled
and jammed into the cup, it didn’t always stay in place. Furthermore, since the cup was
opaque, children couldn’t see that the paper towel wasn’t secured properly. The
newspaper/meter stick demonstration posed a difficulty for children who use wheelchairs,
who couldn’t stand over the newspaper and smooth it down evenly. If the newspaper wasn’t
completely flat, the demonstration wasn’t effective.
Overall, it should be noted that demonstration activities like these depend on
facilitators to engage children and help them perform the activity. The children showed little
interest in the materials until the facilitator jumped in energetically to engage their attention
and demonstrate the procedure.
SUGGESTED REVISIONS:
Our Advisory Board suggested the following:
Use all clear parts for dunk portion of activity, rather than paper cup and
translucent tub;
Consider replacing tub and cup with large soda bottle, cut in half;
Secure paper towel with the bottle cap;
Add food coloring to allow children to see more clearly;
Replace newspaper “flip” portion of activity with something else that demonstrates
that air has “substance”;
Possible replacement: place table on plastic bags or balloons and inflate to lift
table.
DUNK PORTION OF DUNK AND FLIP REVISED:
We implemented and tested the suggested changes. The resulting soda-bottle based
apparatus was a bit larger and easier to manipulate, was clear, so that children could
observe what was happening in the cup, and would allow children to secure the paper towel
with the bottle cap, so it wouldn’t fall into the water. In practice, we found the 2-liter bottle
needed to be cut above the halfway pointright above where the bottle starts to taper, to
make it easy for the top portion to fit into the bottom portion. We also added a bit of food
coloring to the water, so sighted students could more easily differentiate water and air. We
pre-inserted a crumpled paper towel into the cup portion of the bottle, and secured it with
the bottle cap. This lets students see the full apparatus, ready to go, to make it easier for
them to replicate on their own.
Another wrinkle we added was the suggestion to repeat the demonstration, but this
time with the cap loosened, so that air could be displaced from the cup.
We noted that using cold water rather than room temperature water makes it easier
to tell whether the paper towel has gotten wet or not when feeling it with the fingertips.
FLIP PORTION OF DUNK AND FLIP REVISED:
We decided to replace the activity using the meter stick and the sheet of newspaper
entirely. Even when done carefully, it can be difficult to smooth the sheet of newspaper
perfectly flat so that air doesn’t get underneath it from the sides. If the newspaper wasn’t
flat, the demonstration wasn’t as effective. On the other hand, when the demonstration is
Hirshon, B., Summers, L., Moeller, B. and Martin, W.
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done well, the force on the paper is so strong that smacking the meter stick causes it to cut
through the paper or even snap in half itself.
We tried two replacement activities: in one, we take a long tube of plastic, similar to
the tubular plastic bags used to protect newspapers when they’re delivered, but much
longer. These tubes are sold as Wind Bags by science supply companies. They have a
volume of 45 liters. Students try to blow them up like balloons and make little progress even
after quite a few lungs full of air. But if they lay the tubes flat and blow toward them from a
foot away, the bags quickly fill with airthe stream of air they blow into the bag entrains
much more air from the room and carries it into the bag. The demonstration is attention-
getting and helps children visualize the fluid dynamics of a room full of air, as opposed to a
room full of nothing. On the other hand, it’s not ideal for demonstrating the stated goal of
showing that air has mass.
The other replacement activity is simply to weigh some air, using a standard 1-liter
or 2-liter soda bottle fitted with a special cap that has a bicycle tire-style air valve. These
caps can be made with inexpensive or free parts, using valves from discarded bicycle tires,
or purchased for under $10US. Children weigh the bottle on a digital scale (under $10US)
and write down the result. Then they take the bottle off the scale, attach it to a bicycle
pump and add more air into it (ideally, to a pressure of about 50 psi). Then they weigh the
bottle with the extra air and find that it’s significantly heavierconcrete evidence that air
has mass and weight.
DISCUSSION:
Our researchers found that the revisions improved access and engagement:
The changes that were made in the dunk activity were very successful in increasing
cognitive engagement of students with both learning and multiple disabilities.
The two alternatives for the flip activity were also well received. Students found the
balloon activity amusing. Students were also engaged in the “air in the bottle” activity,
although access barriers remained for students
with physical disabilities.
EDC CCT “Kinetic City Empower Research Report” (See Appendix)
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Taken together, these activities were very useful at allowing children to investigate
properties of air without the need for detailed instruction. The soda bottle apparatus in the
“Dunk” portion of the activity clearly shows the air chamber in the upper part of the
apparatus, and the flat surface of water underneath and not moving up into the upper
portion.
The wind bags that are impossible to blow up like balloons, yet easy to fill if a child
blows into them from a distance, may not lead directly to an understanding of entrainment
and fluid dynamics, but the mystery does prompt children to consider evidence and advance
their own hypotheses to explain what’s happeningeven with little or no encouragement
from the facilitator.
Weighing the soda bottle fitted with the tire valve, adding more air with a bicycle
pump, and then discovering that the added air increased the weight considerably and
reliably, led children to conclude that air has weight.
However, there were some accessibility issues: the standard bicycle pump used for
the activity posed a challenge for children who use wheelchairs or with
strength/coordination deficits. It might be possible to offer additional tools to add air
pressure, including a hand pump and/or a canister of compressed air.
The small digital scale used to weigh the bottle is difficult to read at an oblique
angle or from a few feet away (or at all, if the student is blind.) Therefore, we recommend
that the activity should be done with a talking digital scale, which can be purchased for
about $25US from The National Federation for the Blind Independence Market online. Not
only does the talking scale provide audio feedback for blind or low vision learners, but it
makes the data available instantly to all hearing learners within earshot, and solves the
problem of our original scale being difficult to read by children who use wheelchairs.
Another solution would be to use a digital scale that feeds into a computer, which allows
display of the results on a computer monitor, smartboard, or projected image. Once in the
computer, results can easily be read out via text-to-speech generation, so blind children
can hear them. However, these scales cost $100US or morenot a huge sum as scientific
equipment goes, but expensive for inclusion in most after school kits.
Finally, filling up the “Dunk” apparatus with water to just the right level can be
challenging for all students, but especially so for low vision or blind students. A one-liter or
one-quart vessel will provide the correct amount of water for a two-liter apparatus;
students can fill the smaller vessel and empty into the bottom portion of the apparatus. In
addition, a low-cost EZ Fill Liquid Level Indicator sounds a loud alarm when a fluid is one
inch below the top of a vessel. This is too high a level for the Dunk apparatus itself, but the
EZ fill can be used with the correct-sized graduated cylinder or beaker to allow students to
get the right amount of water to add to the apparatus.
RESPIRATION STATIONS
Respiration Stations
, also known as
Respiration Relay
, is a
Kinetic City Move Crew
activity, meaning it’s meant to be a physical activity, played in a gym, playground, or large
classroom space.
Move Crews
are generally based on dances, races or physical games like
tag. In
Respiration Stations
, children model the cardio-respiratory system, with different
children playing the roles of the lungs, heart, leg muscle, and one or more red blood cells,
whose job it is to ferry oxygen molecules through the body. If there’s just one red blood
cell at a time, the game is
Respiration Stations
; if there’s a team of red blood cells who
take turns and play against the clock, the game is called
Respiration Relay
. Students learn
how the different parts of the body work together to do an important job: deliver vital
oxygen to a muscle and take away the waste gas, carbon dioxide.
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Students playing the roles of the lungs and heart stand a few feet from each other,
while the student playing the leg muscle stands far away (distance depending on play
space and on students ability to traverse distances). The student playing the role of “lungs”
has a basket full of red balls marked “O2” for oxygen molecules, and the student playing
the leg muscle has a basket of blue balls marked CO2, for carbon dioxide molecules. Each
player wears a placard indicating her/his role with words and a colorful graphic: Lungs,
Heart, Muscle, Red Blood Cell.
To begin play, a child playing the role of the red blood cell goes to the lung, the
lung takes a deep breath and hands the red blood cell a red oxygen molecule. The red
blood cell then goes to the student playing the heart, who makes a “thump-thump” sound
and pushes (“pumps”) the red blood cell gently towards the leg muscle. Upon arrival, the
red blood cell gives the leg muscle the oxygen molecule, the leg muscle jumps energetically
and discards the oxygen molecule into the basket and gives the blood cell a blue CO2
moleculethe waste product from burning the fuel needed to jump.
The red blood takes the CO2 and runs back to heart, who again goes “thump-thump”
and pushes the red blood cell to the lungs. The lungs take the CO2, let a out a deep breath
and discard the CO2; then they inhale again, pulling out another oxygen molecule. The red
blood cell can then take the new oxygen molecule and repeat the earlier steps or, if the
game is being played as a relay, a new red blood cell will accept the new oxygen molecule
and run the course. The goal is to get all the oxygen molecules to the leg muscle, and all
the carbon dioxide molecules out.
At the conclusion of the game, the players are usually winded from the exertion,
providing a good opportunity to discuss the theme of the game. Students are asked to feel
their hearts; are they beating faster than usual? Are they breathing harder than usual? What
might explain that? Is there any reason to think their muscles might have recently been
working hard? What carries oxygen to hard-working muscles? Direct observation of these
phenomena lead players to discuss the key points that they modeled during the game.
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SUGGESTED REVISIONS:
Our testing of the original activity with our students and teachers went better than
expected. Children with mobility and/or vision issues had help from another child or adult
facilitator while playing the role of red blood cell, but still were engaged and excited. The
field of play could be easily expanded or contracted to accommodate different players. The
most common difficulty was reminding players of their roles, especially when they first
started. Red blood cells sometimes insistently handed their oxygen or carbon dioxide
molecules to the heart, rather than holding on to them to give to the muscle and lungs,
respectively.
The original choice of a leg muscle that jumped when receiving the oxygen molecule
was, of course, problematic for players who use wheelchairs or who otherwise had difficulty
jumping. During testing, we ad libbed new muscle activities, like arm waving or wiggling,
and these seemed to work well.
Many of the suggestions from our advisors actually related to making the activity
more complex and closer to the actual cardio-respiratory system. For example, they
suggested adding chambers to our model heart, and having four children model it together.
They also suggested replacing the red and blue foam balls with actual models of the two
molecules. Not only would this be more accurate, but blind children would be able to feel
the difference between the two.
The advisors also suggested adding sound for each of the three stations (lungs,
heart and leg muscle), to make it easier for blind children to navigate. Overall, their
suggestions were to:
Add audio to each station (lungs, heart and muscle);
Make heart consist of four chambers, adding to the route that the red blood cells
run;
Differentiate between O2 and CO2 molecules using differences other than just
color;
Instead of having the muscle be a leg muscle, which jumps when it receives the
oxygen, make it more general, so anyone can play, even if they can’t jump.
RESPIRATION STATIONS REVISED:
Regarding adding complexity/fidelity to the activity, we couldn’t envision a way to
model all four chambers of the heart and still have the activity adaptable enough to fit in a
smaller classroom space. But at one of our sites, where students were high functioning from
a cognitive perspective, we did pair two children to represent the heart’s two ventricles, so
that one child pushed the red blood cell toward the leg muscle, and the other pushed the
red blood cell back to the lungs.
We got slightly larger blue balls with a different texture to represent the CO2
molecules, so that children could feel the different between them and the O2 molecules.
Standard audio beacons for use with blind children were too loud and non-specific
(making beeps rather than the heart/lung sounds we wanted) for this game. We tested
various wearable audio devices that played ten-second samples of recorded sounds and
recorded the sound of breathing (for the lungs), thumping (for the heart) and a bouncing
sound to represent jumping for the leg muscles. The audio produced by these devices was
too distorted and quiet for game use. In addition, the devices had to be re-triggered every
ten seconds, which would be annoying in actual game play. Therefore, we had the kids who
were playing the roles make their own sounds.
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We made the leg muscle into just a generic muscle that made a “boing” sound, like a
cartoon spring, and moved energetically in whatever way it wanted.
DISCUSSION:
This physical activity fared differently with learning disability kids and multiple
disability kids:
CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES:
Most of the changes that were made in the activity (using different size balls to
represent the oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules, using two students to represent
different ventricles of the heart, and having students who act as organs make sounds)
worked well for the higher functioning students with learning disabilities. While the change
in the size of the balls representing the oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules did not appear
to change or improve their involvement with the activity compared to the original activity, it
did not distract from it. Having two students serve as different parts of the heart appeared
to increase their cognitive engagement with the activity, and to help them make connections
to the circulatory system. Having students make sounds for the organs did not work as well,
as students seemed to struggle with keeping a rhythm and were a little embarrassed by
having to do this.
CHILDREN WITH MULTIPLE DISABILITIES:
Students with multiple disabilities demonstrated a high level of engagement with the
adapted version of the activity. With sufficient space and some of the their teachers’
assistance, they were able to physically engage in it. Their level of cognitive engagement
was high as well, and due to a teacher’s facilitation (she assigned students to serve as the
different organs), students participated more in this version of the game than in the original
version in which teachers served as the organs. However, students needed frequent
reminders and directions about what they had to do (which organ the red blood cell had to
move to next, what each organ had to do), and even their teachers where confused at
times. It was not clear how much students knew about the circulatory system and whether
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and how they connected the activities to whatever level of knowledge they had. The change
in the size of the balls representing the oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules did not appear
to change or improve their engagement in the activity. (See Appendix)
During testing, we spontaneously began performing the activity to a rap beat and
that seemed to have a focusing effectespecially when we had the lungs, heart and leg
muscle produce their sounds in beat with the music. This suggests a possible future change
to the activity: record a song that could be included as a sound file included with the
activity. A side benefit of this enhancement would be that it can be recorded with sounds
representing the lungs and heart in one audio channel and the sounds representing the leg
muscle in the other channel. By using two speakers, teachers could set up the activity so
that blind students could participate by following the direction of the two primary sounds.
The advent of powerful, low-cost Bluetooth speakers would allow educators to set up the
system wirelessly, indoors or out.
Other ideas that came from our second round of testing, which had been overlooked
in our initial round of testing, were to add guidepostsphysical indicators for blind players
and/or color-coded arrows for sighted playersto indicate the path for oxygenated red
blood cells going out to muscles and deoxygenated blood cells returning, and make the
identification placards worn by each player dimensional and enhanced with braille, so that
blind students can feel the difference.
OVERALL OBSERVATIONS
Our intent in working on five afterschool learning activities, representing five general
types of activities (computer games, hands-on demonstrations, physical games, art activities
and writing activities) was to see how effective we could be at enhancing accessibility with a
reasonable level of effort.
We started out with a high level of skepticism, especially regarding highly visual
activities, like the
All Systems Are Go
computer game, and those for which effective
engagement seemed to rely on mobility and coordination, like
Respiration Relay
. Overall,
however, we were pleasantly surprised that we could expand the accessibility of all five
games substantially with changes that were not difficult to implement and that enhanced
the activity for all children, regardless of ability level.
This stands in contrast to the low percentage of informal learning STEM activities
now available that are accessible. Of the thousands of STEM activities that we found online,
only a small percentage were listed as usable by blind/low vision children, and most of these
activities related specifically to the senses, like discerning objects using touch, or
echolocation like a bat, rather than about basic science like geology or chemistry.
A quick review of the activities reveals that many, if not most, could be made
significantly more accessible with just a small amount of effort. Furthermore, had
accessibility been a concern when the activities were designed, they could have been made
accessible for virtually no additional cost.
Some of the most broadly useful enhancements include:
Adding audio narration to accompany screen text for web pages and games
In our case, this was a matter of recording narration for each button, object and text
field in the game, and then adding each one into the Flash game program. This allowed us
to use our own voices to match our game environment. For pages that are viewed in a
browser, there are native voice systems in modern operating systems that users can
activate in the computer’s control panel or system preference screen under “Universal
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Access”. In addition, there are now text-to-speech programs for websites that are free for
non-commercial use, instantly creating human-sounding speech from screen text when the
user selects the “Play” button. The programs are embedded right into the code for the web
page, work with most modern browsers, and allow more voices and other features than may
be available via the Universal Access features of a computer. These features not only allow
blind and low vision students to participate more fully, but help students learn to read by
pairing speech to text, assist language learning efforts, and make the game or web page
more engaging. For cases where the audio is distracting, e.g.,, if the educator is speaking
while students are accessing the page or game, the audio can be toggled off, or the audio
volume can be reduced.
Adding “Full Keyboard Control” to games and instructional web pages
For our Flash game, this required about 20 hours of computer programming, but
would take less time if it had been specified when the game was originally designed. Many
web-based informal education games are quite simple, consisting of textual information
screens with decorative graphics, followed by multiple-choice quizzes. For these, allowing
players to use the tab button to move through selections and the space bar to trigger a
selection is easily implemented and useful for many participants, including children who may
have difficulty positioning the mouse over the tiny multiple-choice bubbles. Other computer
games might require more ingenuity, but most of them could be made better and more
accessible with minor changes. For regular web pages, the ability to use the tab button to
move through targets on a web page, and use the space bar to select or trigger targets
like Start and Back buttonsis already included in modern operating systems. In a
computer’s control panel or preference window, users need only select Full Keyboard Access
to activate these features
.
The games or webpages themselves should be designed to take
full advantage of this feature, so that users tab through items in a logical manner.
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Making flat graphics tactile
There are many ways to make line art and other graphical material tactile, including
simply outlining the art with waxy Wikki Stix strips, using pens that produce raised lines,
using printers that produce raised-line output or contracting with companies that create
artwork specifically for this purpose. Artwork can also be drawn or printed on heavy paper
or card stock and then cut out, so students can feel the shapes. As with the other suggested
changes, providing tactile as well as visual input may enhance the resource for sighted
students as well as those who are blind or have low vision.
Providing multiple modes of expression
Just as adding a tactile element can enhance educational resources, so, too, can
providing multiple opportunities for expression. Our original activities required students to
demonstrate their understanding through one specific method, like writing a story or
drawing a picture. Encouraging students to share what they’ve learned in any of a variety of
ways is more inclusive and can inspire curiosity. Instead of drawing a creature, why not
mold it out of modeling clay, make it out of pipe cleaners, or assemble it from a box of
animal parts? Or even act it out, describing how your creature lives in its environment?
Including active educator participation
New technologies and design enhancements do not reduce the need for active,
engaged instructors to mediate the learning activities, especially for students with more
severe disabilities. Teachers, program leaders, and other adults working with students with
disabilities need instructions for how to effectively facilitate the activities for students in
ways that encourage their independence and that promote physical, cognitive, and social
engagement.
Promising New Technologies
Our work is in its early, exploratory phase, and we have not conducted an exhaustive
study of new tools to enhance accessibility. However, two promising areas that we have
identified are:
Computer interfaces that allow multiple modes of input and output, leading to a
Universal Workstation for students
. While the addition of keyboard control to our
game interface was a big improvement, computer interfaces could be improved
significantly for all students, through Universal Design principles, to help them
save, interpret and share what they learned. Such workstations would provide all
students multiple means of data input (including keyboard, voice and
handwriting/drawing), guided methods of data and document organization, and
guided means of expression. Students would then be empowered to share their
findings and ideas in many ways, including essays, formal papers, audio, video,
various modes of presentation, and posters.
A standardized audio and tactile interface and development platform for computer
tablets
. This would allow creation of tactile, 3D overlays for tablets that interact
with mobile apps, with both audio and video triggered by touch. These sheets can
allow both blind and sighted students to explore circuit design, topography, charts
and graphical material. Manufactured or 3D-printed objects can also interact with
the tablets, allowing, for example, creation of creatures suited to an environment,
constructed from various parts, like heads, bodies, appendages, etc. The computer
tablet could provide feedback, e.g., “How will your creature use those flippers in
this environment?” While the technology already exists, it hasn’t yet been
standardized and optimized. Once mature, this interface would allow UDL
implementation in a variety of novel learning resources.
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K-12 STEM Education
Bob Hirshon
is Program Director for Technology and Learning
at the American Association for the Advancement of Science
(AAAS) and host of the daily radio show and podcast
Science
Update
. He is Principal Investigator on the NSF-funded project
KC Empower
, which examines how informal science activities
can be made more accessible to children with disabilities. He
oversees the
Science NetLinks
project for K-12 science teachers
(www.sciencenetlinks.com). Hirshon’s Qualcomm Wireless
Reach project,
Active Explorer
, allows educators to create
mobile phone and tablet explorations for children, called
Quests
.
Hirshon also heads up
Kinetic City
, including the Peabody
Award-winning children’s radio drama, McGraw-Hill book series
and Codie Award- winning website and education program. He
is a member of the Education and Public Outreach team for
NASA’s MESSENGER project to planet Mercury, and hosts the
annual
AAAS Science Film Showcase
event, featuring the year’s
best science films and videos and the producers who created them. He can be heard on XM/Sirius
Radio’s
Kids Place Live
as “Bob the Science Slob,” where he discusses science and answers call in
questions from kids. Hirshon is a Computerworld/ Smithsonian
Hero for a New Millennium
laureate.
Prior to working at AAAS, Hirshon was a producer and correspondent at WGBH-TV for the weekly
television show
Science Gazette
.
Laureen Summers
is a Project Director at the American
Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and
has worked on disability-related projects at AAAS since
1992. Since 1996, she has worked onand now directs
the Entry Point! internship program for undergraduate and
graduate college students with disabilities. She has
supported interns through multiple summer opportunities,
degree completion, and career placement. Entry Point! is
the signature program of the AAAS Project on Science,
Technology and Disability. Summers studied Liberal Arts at
Cazenovia College in New York, at the College on the
Potomac, in Washington, DC, and has taken additional
coursework in Special Education at the George Washington University. Summers, a woman with cerebral
palsy, is passionate about bringing disability into conversations about diversity and issues of self-efficacy.
She has contributed to several publications and has worked in the disability field for 30+ years.
Babette Moeller
, Ph.D. is a Distinguished Scholar at the
Center for Children and Technology of the Education
Development Center. Her work focuses on the development of
and research on educational programs across the curriculum
that help ensure elementary, secondary, and post-secondary
students with disabilities are included in and benefit from
educational reform efforts. As project director of numerous
EDC research and development projects, she contributes her
extensive experience designing and implementing technology-
supported programs in both general and special education,
providing professional development for teachers and
administrators in a variety of settings, and conducting
formative and summative evaluation research. She is the lead
author of the
Math for All
program published by Corwin
Press.
Math for All
is a professional development program
that assists districts as they aim to implement standards-based
math education with a wide range of learners, including those
with disabilities, in grades K5.
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Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016
23
Dr. Wendy Martin
is a research scientist at EDC|CCT.
Dr. Martin has worked on many projects that use
collaborative co-design to adapt informal STEM programs
and materials for formal education settings. She is Principle
Investigator on the NSF-funded
Digital Games as Analogical
Sources for Science Learning,
which explores how middle-
school science teachers can integrate games into
instruction to support STEM learning. She was lead
evaluator on both the NSF-funded
ScratchEd
, in which
educators, researchers, and program developers co-
designed assessments of computational thinking, and on
the NSF-funded
Work-based Learning
, which uses
innovative methods for preparing incumbent workers for
advanced technology careers, and was an evaluator for
NSF-funded
KC Empower,
which redesigned science
activities for students with disabilities. She also was project
manager on
Possible Worlds,
funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education
Science, which used a collaborative co-design process to create digital games and resources to
address science misconceptions held by middle-school students.
KC Empower
is a project of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
(AAAS) Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs
Head:
Shirley M. Malcom, Ph.D.
Principal Investigator:
Bob Hirshon
Co-Principal Investigator:
Laureen Summers
Research and Evaluation:
Babette Moeller, Ph.D. and Wendy Martin, Ph.D.
Center for Children and Technology,
Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC)
Advisory Board:
Jerry Bell, Ph.D.American Chemical Society (retired)
Philip Bell, Ph.D.University of Washington
Jason GrievesMicrosoft
Brett HumphreyMicrosoft
Sami Kahn, J.D., Ph.D.Collegiate School, NYC
David Rose, Ed.D.CAST
Greg Stefanich, Ed.D.University of Northern Iowa (retired)
Maryann StimmerEEC@AED
Special thanks to the many students, teachers, parents and administrators who participated in this project.
Activity photos taken by Bob Hirshon.
Hirshon, B., Summers, L., Moeller, B. and Martin, W.
24
K-12 STEM Education
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Kinetic!City!Empower!
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Research!Report!!
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Submitted)to:)
American)Association)for)the)Advancement)of)Science!
!
Prepared)by)
Babette)Moeller,)Ph.D.)
Wendy)Martin,)Ph.D.)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
August)2015)
APPENDIX
Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 25
!
!
B)
Introduction
D3')*4'-/::)6"-6*1')*2)&3')E%0'&%.)F%&7)GEFH)I$6*J'-)6-*K'.&)J/1)&*)'L/$%0')3*J)%02*-$/:)
1.%'0.')/.&%4%&%'1)./0)#')$/(')/..'11%#:')2*-)1&"('0&1)J%&3)(%1/#%:%&%'1<)D3')6-'$%1')*2)&3%1)
6-*K'.&)J/1)&3/&)/::)1&"('0&1;)%0.:"(%0?)&3*1')J%&3)(%1/#%:%&%'1;)/-')%0&'-'1&'()%0)/0()./6/#:')*2)
'0?/?%0?)%0)1.%'0.'):'/-0%0?)'L6'-%'0.'1;)%2)&3'1')'L6'-%'0.'1)/-')/..'11%#:')&*)&3'$<)=-/J%0?)
*0)-'1*"-.'1)2-*$)E%0'&%.)F%&7,"/):/-?').*::'.&%*0)*2)1.%'0.')'L6'-%$'0&1;)?/$'1;)/0()6-*K'.&1)
('4':*6'()#7)&3'),$'-%./0),11*.%/&%*0)2*-)&3'),(4/0.'$'0&)*2)!.%'0.')G,,,!H;)&3')6-*K'.&)
-'1'/-.3'()/0()/(/6&'()2%4')/2&'-1.3**:)1.%'0.')/.&%4%&%'1)?"%('()#7)"0%4'-1/:)('1%?0)2*-)
:'/-0%0?)6-%0.%6:'1<))
)
D3')2*."1)%0)&3%1)6-*K'.&)J/1)*0)2%4')E%0'&%.)F%&7)/.&%4%&%'1)&3/&)J'-').3*1'0)#'./"1')&3'7)
-'6-'1'0&'()(%22'-'0&)?'0-'1)*2)/.&%4%&%'1+)/).*$6"&'-M#/1'()/.&%4%&7;)/)N%0'1&3'&%.)/.&%4%&7;)/)1'&)
*2)&J*)3/0(1M*0)/.&%4%&%'1;)/)J-%&%0?)/.&%4%&7;)/0()/)(-/J%0?)/.&%4%&7<)!6'.%2%./::7;)EF)I$6*J'-)
%04'1&%?/&'()&3')2*::*J%0?)2%4')/.&%4%&%'1<)
)
All!Systems!Are!Go)%1)/)O:/13M#/1'()?/$')%0)J3%.3)6:/7'-1)3/4')&*)/11'$#:')&3')%0&'-0/:)*-?/01)
2*-)/).3/-/.&'-;),-0*:()P"&/#'?/;)J3*)3/1):*1&)/::)3%1)*-?/01<)D3')*-%?%0/:)?/$')6-'1'0&1)6:/7'-1)
J%&3)/).*::'.&%*0)*2)*-?/01;)J3%.3)&3'7)3/4')&*)(-/?)/0()(-*6)*0&*)&3')*"&:%0')*2),-0*:(Q1)#*(7)
&*)/11'$#:')2*"-)$/K*-)171&'$1)*2)&3')3"$/0)#*(7+)&3').%-.":/&*-7R-'16%-/&*-7;)1N':'&/:;)
(%?'1&%4';)/0()0'-4*"1)171&'$1<),)S'/-0)9*-')#"&&*0)#-%0?1)"6)/)&'L&)'11/7)*0)&3')$/K*-)
171&'$1)*2)&3')3"$/0)#*(7;)('1.-%#'1)&3')*-?/01)/0()*&3'-)6/-&1)%0)'/.3)171&'$;)/0()'L6:/%01)
3*J)&3'7)J*-N)&*?'&3'-)&*)/..*$6:%13)/)K*#<))
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Dunk!and!Flip!%1)/)1'&)*2)&J*)3/0(1M*0)/.&%4%&%'1)&3/&)%::"1&-/&')&3/&)/%-)3/1)$/11)/0()&/N'1)"6)
16/.'<)T0)&3')("0N)/.&%4%&7)/)6/6'-)&*J':)%1)6"13'()%0&*)&3')#*&&*$)*2)/)6/6'-)."6;)/0()&3%1)."6)
%1)1"#$'-?'(;)2/.')(*J0;)%0)/)&"#)*2)J/&'-<)>3'0)&3')."6)%1)-'$*4'()2-*$)&3')J/&'-;)1&"('0&1)
0*&%.')&3/&)&3')6/6'-)&*J':)1&/7'()(-7<)D3%1)%1)#'./"1')/%-)J/1)/:-'/(7)%0)&3')."6;)&/N%0?)"6)
16/.')/0()N''6%0?)&3')J/&'-)*"&)*2)&3')."6<)T0)&3')2:%6)/.&%4%&7;)/)7/-(1&%.N)%1)6:/.'()*0)/)&/#:')
1&%.N%0?)*"&)/#*"&)3/:2J/7)2-*$)&3')'(?'<)D3')6*-&%*0)*2)&3')7/-(1&%.N)&3/&)%1)*0)&3')&/#:')%1)
.*4'-'()J%&3)/):/-?')13''&)*2)0'J16/6'-;)16-'/()*"&)2:/&<)!&"('0&1)/-')/1N'()&*)6"13)(*J0)*0)
&3')7/-(1&%.N)/0()*#1'-4')J3/&)3/66'01<)D3'7)*#1'-4')&3/&)&3')7/-(1&%.N)%1)4'-7)3/-()&*)6"13)
"6<)D3'7)/-')&3'0)/1N'()&*)-'6'/&)&3%1)/.&%4%&7;).-"$6:%0?)"6)&3')0'J16/6'-)/0()6"&&%0?)%&)*0)
&3')7/-(1&%.N<)!&"('0&1)(%1.*4'-)&3/&)&3')0'J16/6'-)0*J)2:%'1)"6)%0)&3')/%-)4'-7)'/1%:7)J3'0)&3'7)
26 K-12 STEM Education
!
!
@)
6"13)*0)&3')7/-(1&%.N<)D3%1)/.&%4%&7)('$*01&-/&'1)&3/&)/%-)%1)6"13%0?)(*J0)*0)'4'-7&3%0?<)D3')2:/&)
0'J16/6'-)3/1)/)$".3):/-?'-)1"-2/.')/-'/)&3/0)&3').-"$6:'()"6)0'J16/6'-)/0()&3'-'2*-')$*-')
/%-)$/11)%1)6"13%0?)*0)%&<)
)
)
)
Respiration!Stations!%1)/)N%0'1&3'&%.)/.&%4%&7)&3/&)1%$":/&'1)&3').%-.":/&*-7R-'16%-/&*-7)171&'$<)
5:/7'-1)/11"$')&3')-*:'1)*2)&3')3'/-&;):"0?;):'?)$"1.:';)/0()*0')*-)$*-')-'()#:**().'::1<)D3')-'()
#:**().'::)3/1)&*)$*4')2-*$)&3'):"0?)&*)&3')3'/-&)&*)&3'):'?)$"1.:')&*)(':%4'-)/0)*L7?'0)
$*:'.":')G-'6-'1'0&'()#7)/)-'()#/::H;)/0()6%.N)"6)/)./-#*0)(%*L%(')$*:'.":')G-'6-'1'0&'()#7)/)
#:"')#/::H;)&*)&-/016*-&)%&)#/.N)&*)&3')3'/-&)/0()&3'):"0?;)J3'-')%&)'L.3/0?'1)&3')./-#*0)(%*L%(')
$*:'.":')G#:"')#/::H)2*-)/0)*L7?'0)$*:'.":')G-'()#/::H<)D3')-'()#:**().'::)&3'0)-'6'/&1)&3')/#*4')
1&'61<!!&"('0&1):'/-0)3*J)&3')(%22'-'0&)6/-&1)*2)&3')#*(7)J*-N)&*?'&3'-)&*)(*)/0)%$6*-&/0&)K*#<))
)
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!
Where!the!Weird!Things!Are!%1)/)J-%&%0?)/.&%4%&7)%0)J3%.3)1&"('0&1)/-')/1N'()&*)('1.-%#')&3')
'04%-*0$'0&1)%0)J3%.3).-'/&"-'1)J%&3)4/-%*"1)2'/&"-'1)$%?3&):%4'<!!&"('0&1)/-')13*J0)6%.&"-'1)
*2)1%L)2/0&/17).-'/&"-'1)/0()/-')/1N'()&*)$/N')"6)/)1&*-7)/#*"&)&3'$)&3/&)('1.-%#'1)J3'-')&3')
.-'/&"-'1):%4')/0()3*J)&3'%-)1&-/0?')2'/&"-'1)3':6)&3'$)1"-4%4')&3'-'<))
)
Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 27
!
!
U)
)
)
Blueprint!for!a!Beast!%1)/)(-/J%0?)/.&%4%&7)J3%.3)'0?/?'1)1&"('0&1)%0)&3%0N%0?)/#*"&)3*J)&3')
2'/&"-'1)*2)/).-'/&"-')-':/&')&*)&3')'04%-*0$'0&)%&):%4'1)%0<)T0)&3%1)/.&%4%&7;)1&"('0&1)/-')/1N'()&*)
(-/J)/).-'/&"-')&3/&)./0):%4')%0)*0')*2)&3'1')"0"1"/:)'04%-*0$'0&1+)%01%(')/)4*:./0*V)UC;AAA)
2''&)/#*4')&3')?-*"0()GJ3'-')/%-6:/0'1)2:7HV)*0)/0)%.'#'-?)%0)&3')$%((:')*2)&3')*.'/0V)"0('-)&3')
3**()*2)/)./-V)*-)%0)7*"-)0*1'<)T0)('1%?0%0?)&3'%-).-'/&"-';)1&"('0&1)/-')&/1N'()&*)&3%0N)/#*"&)
3*J)%&)$*4'1;)(-%0N1)/0()'/&1;)/0()6-*&'.&1)%&1':2)2-*$)/07)(/0?'-1)%&1)'04%-*0$'0&)6-'1'0&1<))
)
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!
D3')EF)I$6*J'-)6-*K'.&)J/1)./--%'()*"&)%0)&3-'')$/K*-)63/1'1<)T0)53/1')B;)J').*0(".&'()
-'1'/-.3)J%&3)1&"('0&1)J%&3)(%1/#%:%&%'1)&*)'L/$%0')J3/&)/..'11)#/--%'-1)1&"('0&1)'L6'-%'0.')/1)
&3'7)'0?/?')J%&3)&3')*-%?%0/:)2%4')E%0'&%.)F%&7)/.&%4%&%'1<)T0)53/1')@;)&3')/.&%4%&%'1)J'-')-'4%1'()
#/1'()*0)%02*-$/&%*0)?/&3'-'()&3-*"?3)&3')%0%&%/:)-'1'/-.3)/0()%06"&)2-*$)/)0/&%*0/:)/(4%1*-7)
#*/-(<)D/#:')B)G6/?'1)C)/0()W;)#':*JH)1"$$/-%X'1)&3')-'4%1%*01)&3/&)J'-')$/(')%0)&3')/.&%4%&%'1<)
T0)53/1')U;)J')&'1&'()&3')/(/6&'()/.&%4%&%'1)&*)'L/$%0')%2)&3').3/0?'1)J'-')1"..'112":)%0)
%$6-*4%0?)&3')/..'11%#%:%&7)*2)&3')/.&%4%&%'1)2*-)1&"('0&1)J%&3)/)-/0?')*2)(%22'-'0&)(%1/#%:%&%'1<)D3')
2*."1)%0)&3%1)6-*K'.&)J/1)*0)1&"('0&1)%0)?-/('1)UYB@)J%&3)6371%./:;)1'01*-7;).*?0%&%4';)/0()
('4':*6$'0&/:)(%1/#%:%&%'1<)D3%1)-'6*-&)1"$$/-%X'1)&3')-'1'/-.3)&3/&)J/1).*0(".&'()/1)6/-&)*2)
&3%1)6-*K'.&<)
Methods!
D3')6"-6*1')*2)&3')-'1'/-.3)J/1)&*)*#&/%0)%02*-$/&%*0)/#*"&)&3')/..'11%#%:%&7)*2)&3')2%4')E%0'&%.)
F%&7)/.&%4%&%'1)"0('-)%04'1&%?/&%*0)&*)?"%(')&3'%-).*0&%0"/:)%$6-*4'$'0&<)D3')-'1'/-.3)J/1)
('1%?0'()&*).*::'.&)%02*-$/&%*0)/#*"&)&3')/..'11)#/--%'-1)&3/&)&3')*-%?%0/:)/.&%4%&%'1)6*1'()&*)
1&"('0&1)J%&3)/)4/-%'&7)*2)(%1/#%:%&%'1;)/0()&*)/11'11)3*J)&3')/(/6&%*01)&3/&)J'-')$/(')&*)&3')
28 K-12 STEM Education
!
!
Z)
/.&%4%&%'1)/22'.&'()&3'%-)/..'11%#%:%&7)2*-)&3'1')1&"('0&1<)["-)*#1'-4/&%*01)J'-')?"%('()#7)&3')
2-/$'J*-N)2*-)%0.:"1%*0)%0)%02*-$/:)1.%'0.')'("./&%*0)GP'%.3;)P%.3;)P"#%0;)\)!&'%0'-;)@ABAH;)/0()
2*."1'()*0)&3')2*::*J%0?)]"'1&%*01<)
1.!Physical!Interaction!with!the!Activity!
,-')&3')/.&%4%&%'1)('1%?0'()%0)1".3)/)J/7)&3/&)%0(%4%("/:1)J%&3)(%4'-1')/#%:%&%'1)./0)
%0&'-/.&)J%&3)&3'$^))
T1)&3')%02*-$/&%*0)%0)&3')/.&%4%&7).*04'7'()%0)/)4/-%'&7)*2)2*-$/&1)1*)&3/&)%0(%4%("/:1)J%&3)
(%4'-1')/#%:%&%'1)./0)6'-.'%4')%&^))
F/0)%0(%4%("/:1)J%&3)(%4'-1')/#%:%&%'1)$/0%6":/&')*-)./"1')&3%0?1)&*)3/66'0)J%&3%0)&3')
/.&%4%&7^)
2.!Cognitive!Engagement!with!the!Activity!!
T1)&3')%02*-$/&%*0).*04'7'()"1%0?)/)-/0?')*2)$'(%/)&*)/::*J)%0(%4%("/:1)J%&3)(%4'-1')
/#%:%&%'1)&*)'0?/?')J%&3)&3')$/&'-%/:1^)
=*)&3')$/&'-%/:1)&/N')%0&*)/..*"0&)%0(%4%("/:1)J%&3)/)-/0?')*2):'/-0%0?)/0().*?0%&%4')
1N%::1^)
=*)&3')$/&'-%/:1)&/N')%0&*)/..*"0&)%0(%4%("/:1)J%&3)-/0?'1)*2)'L6'-%'0.'1)/0()4/-7%0?)
1'&1)*2)#/.N?-*"0()N0*J:'(?'^)
3.!Social!Interaction!
,-')&3')/.&%4%&%'1)1'&)"6)&*).*$2*-&/#:7)/0()1/2':7)2*1&'-)/0()2/.%:%&/&')'0.*"0&'-1)/0()
'0?/?'$'0&)/$*0?)%0(%4%("/:1)J%&3)(%4'-1')/#%:%&%'1^)
,-')&3')/.&%4%&%'1)('1%?0'()&*)6-*4%(')$'/0%0?2":)-'/1*01)&*)2*1&'-)/0()2/.%:%&/&')
%0&'-/.&%*01)/0()(%1."11%*01)/$*0?)%0(%4%("/:1)J%&3)(%4'-1')/#%:%&%'1^)
Participants!
D3')6/-&%.%6/0&1)%0)&3')-'1'/-.3)J'-')1&"('0&1)J%&3)/)-/0?')*2)(%1/#%:%&%'1;)/0()&3'%-)&'/.3'-1;)
2-*$)&J*)1.3**:1)%0)>/13%0?&*0;)=F<)D3')2%-1&)?-*"6).*01%1&'()*2)BZ)1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)
(%1/#%:%&%'1)G%0.:"(%0?)(71:'L%/;)/&&'0&%*0)('2%.%&)(%1*-('-;)/&&'0&%*0)('2%.%&)376'-/.&%4%&7)(%1*-('-;)
/0()/0L%'&7H)2-*$)/)1$/::)6-%4/&')1.3**:<)D3'1')1&"('0&1)-/0?'()%0)/?')2-*$)_)&*)B@)7'/-1)/0()
J'-')6-'(*$%0/0&:7)$/:'<)D3')1'.*0()?-*"6).*01%1&'()*2)/#*"&)UC)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')
(%1/#%:%&%'1)G%<'<;).*?0%&%4';)6371%./:;)16''.3;)4%1"/:;):'/-0%0?;)/0()('4':*6$'0&/:)(%1/#%:%&%'1)/0()
*&3'-)3'/:&3)%$6/%-$'0&1H)J3*)/&&'0('()/)16'.%/:)'("./&%*0)6"#:%.)1.3**:<)D3')1&"('0&1)%0)&3%1)
?-*"6)-/0?'()%0)/?')2-*$)BA)&*)@@)7'/-1)/0()/#*"&)3/:2)*2)&3'$)J'-')$/:')/0()3/:2)J'-')
2'$/:'<)O'J)*2)&3')1&"('0&1)J'-')/#:')&*)-'/()*-)J-%&';)/0()1'4'-/:)J'-')0*04'-#/:<)9*1&)
1&"('0&1)-'.'%4'()*0'M*0M*0')1"66*-&)2-*$)/)&'/.3'-)*-)/%('<!
)
Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 29
!
!
C)
Table!1:!Revisions!in!the!Five!Kinetic!City!Activities!
All!Systems!Are!Go!
9/(')&3')?/$')N'7#*/-()/..'11%#:';)%0)/((%&%*0)&*)$*"1')/..'11%#:'<)
o 9/N%0?)/::)6*11%#:')1':'.&%*01)%0&*)#"&&*01)&3/&)./0)#')/..'11'()#7)&3')&/#)
#"&&*0)/0()1':'.&'()J%&3)&3')16/.'#/-)*-)'0&'-)N'7<))
o !3%2&)D/#)13*":()&/#)&3-*"?3)1':'.&%*01)#/.NJ/-(1<)
o `/$')13*":()1&/-&)J%&3)."-1*-)/&)&*6V)16/.'#/-)13*":()&-%??'-)a!&/-&)`/$'<b)
o ,(()/)4%1"/:)%0(%./&%*0)*2)N'7#*/-()2*."1<))
o E'7#*/-().*$$/0(1)13*":()2"0.&%*0)*0)/::)1.-''01;)%0.:"(%0?)&3')5:/7)!.-''0;)
&3')c*J)D*)5:/7)1.-''0;)/0()&3')S'/-0)9*-')1.-''0<)
o O*-)?/$'6:/7;)6"&)N'7#*/-()2*."1)*0)/07)#*(7)6/-&;)#'?%00%0?)J%&3)&*6)*0'V)
&3'0)"1'):'2&;)-%?3&;)"6;)/0()(*J0)/--*J)N'71<)E'7#*/-()2*."1)13*":()3%?3:%?3&)
6/-&)/0()6:/7)/"(%*<)
o >3'0)3%?3:%?3&'(;)'0&'-)N'7)*-)16/.')#/-)1':'.&1<)
)
,(('()/"(%*)2*-)/::)#"&&*01)/0()1':'.&%*01V)/(('()0/--/&%*0)2*-)c*J)&*)5:/7)/0()S'/-0)
9*-'<)
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`/4')&3')*-?/01)%0)&3')?/$')a*#K'.&)6'-$/0'0.'bd2*-)'L/$6:';)J3'0)/0)*-?/0)J/1)
(-/??'()2-*$)*0')1.-''0)&*)/0*&3'-;)&3'-')J/1)0'4'-)/)-'*.."--'0.')*2)&3/&)*-?/0)%0)
&3')1.-''0)2-*$)J3%.3)%&)J/1)(-/??'(<))
Respiration!Stations!
D3')#/::1)-'6-'1'0&%0?)./-#*0)(%*L%(')/0()*L7?'0)$*:'.":'1)J'-')-'6:/.'(;)1*)&3/&)&3')
#/::1)-'6-'1'0&%0?)&3')./-#*0)(%*L%(')$*:'.":'1)J'-')1:%?3&:7):/-?'-)/0()3/()/)(%22'-'0&)
&'L&"-')&3/0)(%()&3')#/::1)-'6-'1'0&%0?)&3')*L7?'0)$*:'.":'1<)
)
!&"('0&1)J3*)6:/7'()&3')-*:'1)*2)&3')3'/-&;):"0?;)/0():'?)$"1.:')J'-')/1N'()&*)$/N')
1*"0(1)&*)-'6-'1'0&)&3'%-)*-?/0<)
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T0)/)4/-%/&%*0)*2)&3')?/$';)&J*)1&"('0&1)J'-')/1N'()&*)-'6-'1'0&)&3')3'/-&Q1)&J*)
4'0&-%.:'1;)1*)&3/&)*0').3%:()6"13'()&3')-'()#:**().'::)&*J/-()&3'):'?)$"1.:';)/0()&3')
*&3'-)6"13'()&3')-'()#:**().'::)#/.N)&*)&3'):"0?1<)
)
Dunk!and!Flip!
1.#Dunk#Activity#
D3')6:/1&%.)&"#)/0()6/6'-)."6)J'-')-'6:/.'()J%&3)/)@M:%&'-)1*(/)#*&&:';)."&)%0)3/:2)&*)
$/N')/)J/&'-)&"#)G&3')#*&&*$)3/:2)*2)&3')#*&&:'H)/0()/)."6)G&3')"66'-)3/:2)*2)&3')
#*&&:'H<)O**().*:*-%0?)J/1)/(('()&*)&3')J/&'-;)1*)1&"('0&1).*":()$*-')'/1%:7)
(%22'-'0&%/&')J/&'-)/0()/%-<))
) )
30 K-12 STEM Education
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2.#Flip#Activity#
,,,!)('4':*6'()&J*)-'6:/.'$'0&)/.&%4%&%'1<))
!&"('0&1)J'-')?%4'0)/):*0?)6:/1&%.)&"#')J%&3)/)4*:"$')*2)ZC):%&'-1)/0()/1N'()&*)#:*J)%&)
"6):%N')/)#/::**0<)D3'7)0*&%.'()&3/&)&3'7)$/('):%&&:')6-*?-'11)'4'0)/2&'-)1'4'-/:)#:*J1)*2)
/%-<)D3'7)J'-')&3'0)/1N'()&*):/7)&3')&"#')2:/&)/0()#:*J)&*J/-()%&)2-*$)/)2**&)/J/7<)D3'7)
0*&%.')&3/&)%&)]"%.N:7)2%::1)J%&3)/%-d&3')1&-'/$)*2)/%-)&3'7)#:*J)%0&*)&3')&"#')'0&-/%01)
$".3)$*-')/%-)2-*$)&3')-**$)/0()./--%'1)%&)%0&*)&3')&"#'<)D3')('$*01&-/&%*0)3':61)
1&"('0&1)4%1"/:%X')&3')2:"%()(70/$%.1)*2)/)-**$)2"::)*2)/%-;)/1)*66*1'()&*)/)-**$)2"::)*2)
0*&3%0?<))
)
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/)16'.%/:)./6)&3/&)3/1)/)#%.7.:')&%-'M1&7:')/%-)4/:4'<)!&"('0&1)J'%?3)&3')#*&&:')*0)/)1./:')
/0()J-%&')(*J0)&3')-'1":&<)D3'0)&3'7)&/N')&3')#*&&:')*22)&3')1./:';)/&&/.3)%&)&*)/)#%.7.:')
6"$6;)/0()/(()$*-')/%-)%0&*)%&)G%('/::7;)&*)/)6-'11"-')*2)/#*"&)CA)61%H<)D3'0)&3'7)J'%?3)
&3')#*&&:')J%&3)&3')'L&-/)/%-)/0()0*&%.')&3/&)%&)%1)1%?0%2%./0&:7)3'/4%'-<)
)
Where!the!Weird!Things!Are!
D3')*-%?%0/:)/.&%4%&7)3/()K"1&)#:/.NM/0(MJ3%&'):%0')/-&)&*)13*J)&3').-'/&"-'1<)O*-)&3')
-'4%1'()/.&%4%&7;),,,!).*0&-/.&'()J%&3)/).*$6/07)./::'()D*".3)`-/63%.1)&*)-'.-'/&')&3')
/-&J*-N)/1)/)#**N)*2)U=)-/%1'()%$/?'1;)J%&3).*:*-1)/0()&'L&"-'1<))
)
T0)/((%&%*0;)'/.3).-'/&"-')J/1)(%4%('()%0&*)6/-&1;):%N')a3'/(;b)a#*(7;b)/0()a&/%:;b)/0()
'/.3)*2)&3'1')6/-&1)3/()/)&'L&)('1.-%6&%*0;)%<'<;)aD3%1).-'/&"-')3/1)/):*0?)&/%:)J%&3)/)16%N')
/&)&3')'0(<b)D3')('1.-%6&%*01)/-')?%4'0)%0)#*&3):'&&'-1)/0()#-/%::'<)D/:N%0?)6'01)J'-')
6-*?-/$$'()&*)-'/()&3')('1.-%6&%*01)*"&):*"()J3'0)/)"1'-)3*:(1)&3')6'0)*4'-)/)
.-'/&"-')*-)/)6/-&%.":/-)2'/&"-'<))
)
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/0%$/:1;)1".3)/1)6*-."6%0'1)/0()J/:-"1'1;)/0()&3')2/.%:%&/&*-)'0?/?'()1&"('0&1)%0)/)
(%1."11%*0)*2)3*J)&3'1')-'/:)/0%$/:1Q)2'/&"-'1)3':61)&3'$)1"-4%4')%0)&3'%-)'04%-*0$'0&1<))
)
D3')&%&:')*2)&3')/.&%4%&7)J/1).3/0?'()&*)ae*"-)F-'/&"-'Q1)O'/&"-'1<b)
)
Blueprint!for!a!Beast!
T0)/((%&%*0)&*)#'%0?)6-*4%('()J%&3)/)4/-%'&7)*2)/-&)1"66:%'1)/0()6/6'-1;)1&"('0&1)/:1*)3/()
/..'11)&*)$*(':%0?).:/7)/0()J%N%)1&%.N1)&*)'0/#:')&3'$)&*).-'/&')&3'%-).-'/&"-'1)%0)U=<)
)
D3')2/.%:%&/&*-)%0&-*(".'()&3')/.&%4%&7)#7)-'/(%0?)The"Mixed-Up"Chameleon)#7)I-%.)F/-:';)
1&*66%0?)&*)/1N)1&"('0&1)/#*"&)(%22'-'0&).3/-/.&'-%1&%.1)('1.-%#'()%0)&3')#**N)/0()J3/&)
'/.3)/0%$/:)(%()J%&3)%&1)/(/6&/&%*0<))
)
!&"('0&1)J'-')/1N'()&*)13*J)/0()('1.-%#')&3'%-).-'/&"-'1)2*-)&3')?-*"6<))
)
!&"('0&1)J'-')?%4'0)&3')*6&%*0)*2)&/N%0?)&3'%-).-'/&"-'1)3*$')J%&3)&3'$<)
)
Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 31
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f)
Procedure!
D3')6-*.'("-'1)2*-)/11'11%0?)&3')/..'11%#%:%&7)*2)&3')*-%?%0/:)/.&%4%&%'1)/0()&3')/(/6&'()/.&%4%&%'1)
J'-')&3')1/$'<)D3')1&"('0&1)6/-&%.%6/&'()%0)?-*"61)J%&3)&3'%-)&'/.3'-1;)'%&3'-)("-%0?)
/2&'-1.3**:)3*"-1)*-)("-%0?):'/-0%0?).'0&'-)&%$'<),)2/.%:%&/&*-)2-*$),,,!)2%-1&)%0&-*(".'()/0()
('$*01&-/&'()'/.3)/.&%4%&7;)/0()&3'0)1&"('0&1)3/()&3')*66*-&"0%&7)&*)'0?/?')%0)&3')/.&%4%&7)
&3'$1':4'1)%0)1$/::)?-*"61)*-)%0(%4%("/::7;)J%&3)&3')3':6)*2)&3'%-)&'/.3'-)*-)/%(')J3'-')0''('(<)
`%4'0)&3')1%X')*2)&3')?-*"61)%0)&3')&J*)1.3**:1;)&3')/.&%4%&%'1)J'-')./--%'()*"&)%0)1']"'0.')J%&3)
&3')1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1<)O*-)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1;)J*-N1&/&%*01)J'-')
1'&)"6)2*-)'/.3)*2)&3')2%4')/.&%4%&%'1d1%$%:/-)&*)/)1.%'0.')2/%-d/0()1&"('0&1).%-.":/&'()&3-*"?3)
&3'1')J*-N1&/&%*01)%0(%4%("/::7)*-)%0)1$/::)?-*"61<)P'1'/-.3'-1)*#1'-4'()1&"('0&1)/0()&'/.3'-1)
/1)&3'7)'0?/?'()%0)&3')/.&%4%&%'1;)/0().*0(".&'()%02*-$/:)%0&'-4%'J1)J%&3)1&"('0&1)/0()&'/.3'-1)
J3'0'4'-)2'/1%#:'<)[#1'-4/&%*01)/0()%0&'-4%'J1)J'-')-'.*-('()&3-*"?3)'&30*?-/63%.)0*&'1<)
D3')-'1'/-.3'-1)/:1*).*::'.&'()1/$6:'1)*2)1&"('0&1Q)J*-N<)
Analysis!
I&30*?-/63%.)2%':()0*&'1)/0()J*-N)1/$6:'1)J'-')/0/:7X'()&3'$/&%./::7;)"1%0?)&3')2-/$'J*-N)2*-)
%0.:"1%*0)%0)%02*-$/:)1.%'0.')'("./&%*0)GP'%.3;)P%.3;)P"#%0;)\)!&'%0'-;)@ABAH)/1)/)?"%('<)
Findings!
[4'-/::;)J')2*"0()&3/&)4%-&"/::7)/::)1&"('0&1)J'-')/#:')&*)6/-&%.%6/&')%0)&3')/.&%4%&%'1;)'%&3'-)
%0('6'0('0&:7)*-)J%&3)&3')3':6)*2)&3'%-)&'/.3'-1;)/0()$*1&;)%2)0*&)/::;)*2)&3')1&"('0&1)/66'/-'()
&*)#')'0?/?'()J%&3)&3')/.&%4%&%'1<)8':*J;)J')-'6*-&)2%0(%0?1)2*-)'/.3)*2)&3')2%4')/.&%4%&%'1)"0('-)
%04'1&%?/&%*0)%0)&"-0<)
1.!All!Systems!Go!
Students’!and!Teachers’!Responses!to!the!Original!Activity!
Physical#Interaction#with#the#Activity#
g)D3')(-/?M/0(M(-*6)2'/&"-')./0)#').3/::'0?%0?;)'16'.%/::7)2*-)1&"('0&1)J%&3)2%0')$*&*-)
.**-(%0/&%*0)%11"'1<)
g)D3')"1')*2)&3')!$/-&)8*/-()G"1%0?)/)&'00%1)#/::)*0)/)1&%.N)/1)&3')%06"&)('4%.'H)$/(')%&)'/1%'-)2*-)
1*$')1&"('0&1)J%&3)6371%./:)(%1/#%:%&%'1)&*)%0&'-/.&)J%&3)&3')?/$'<)
g)D'/.3'-1)1"??'1&'()6-*4%(%0?)/)3/0(1M*0)*6&%*0)*2)&3')?/$')G%0)UM=)*-)@M=H<)
Cognitive#Engagement#with#the#Activity##
g)!&"('0&1)?-/4%&/&'()&*)&3%1)/.&%4%&7)/0()J'-')4'-7)'0?/?'(<)
g)!&"('0&1)(%()0*&)6/7)$".3)/&&'0&%*0)&*)&3').:*.N<)
g)!*$')*2)&3')?/$')$'.3/0%.1)J'-').*02"1%0?)2*-)1&"('0&1)G'<?<;)J3'0)&3'7)$/(')/)$%1&/N';)/::)
&3')*-?/01)6-'4%*"1:7)/11'$#:'()J'0&)#/.N)&*)&3')-%?3&)1%(')*2)&3')1.-''0)J3%:')1%$":&/0'*"1:7)
#'%0?)(%16:/7'()*0)&3'):'2&V)J3'0)&3'7)2%0%13'()*0')171&'$;)&3')#*(7)6/-&1)/:-'/(7)/11'$#:'()
*0)&3'):'2&)1%(')*2)&3')1.-''0)-'/66'/-'()*0)&3')-%?3&H<)
g)!&"('0&1)2*"0()%&)4%1"/::7).*02"1%0?)&3/&)#*(7)171&'$1)J'-')1"6'-%$6*1'()*0&*)'/.3)*&3'-<)
g)!*$')*2)&3')1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)(%()0*&):%N')&3')1*"0()*2),-0*:(Q1)4*%.'<)
32 K-12 STEM Education
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g)!*$')1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)]"'1&%*0'()&3'):*?%.)*2),-0*:()&/:N%0?)J3%:')a#'%0?)%0)
1"-?'-7<b)
g)!*$')1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)J/0&'()&*)1'')/::)&3')#*0'1<)
g)h'-7)2'J)1&"('0&1)'L6:*-'()#/.N?-*"0()&'L&<)
g)D'/.3'-1)*22'-'()1'4'-/:)1"??'1&%*01)2*-)%$6-*4%0?)1&"('0&1Q).*?0%&%4')'0?/?'$'0&)J%&3)&3')
/.&%4%&7+)
o ,(():/#':1)/0()3/4').*$6"&'-1)-'/()&3'$<)
o !%$6:%27)J3/&Q1)*0)&3')1.-''0)G"1')1'6/-/&')1.-''01)2*-)(%22'-'0&)171&'$1H<)
o =*0Q&)3/4')*-?/01)-'/66'/-)*0)&3')-%?3&)1%(')*2)&3')1.-''0)J3'0)1&"('0&1)$/N')
/)$%1&/N'<)
o `%4')2''(#/.N)J3'0)1&"('0&1)?'&)%&)-%?3&<)
o P'%02*-.')171&'$1)J%&3)1*0?1)G'<?<;)(-"$#'/&)&*)?*)J%&3)&3')3'/-&H<)
o I:%$%0/&')&3')&%$')':'$'0&<)
Social#Interaction##
g)D3')"1')*2)&3')!$/-&)8*/-()2/.%:%&/&'()1&"('0&).*::/#*-/&%*0<)
Students’!Responses!to!the!Adapted!Activity!
Physical#Interaction#with#the#Activity#
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')/#:')&*)%0&'-/.&)J%&3)&3')/(/6&'()?/$')$*-')
1$**&3:7;)J%&3*"&)&3')2-"1&-/&%*0)&3/&)&3')(-/?M/0(M(-*6)2'/&"-')3/().-'/&'(<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1):%N'()&3')/"(%*)('1.-%6&%*01R:/#':1)2*-)&3')*-?/01<)[0')
1&"('0&)J%&3)/):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&7)'L6:*-'()&3')/"(%*):/#':1)2*-)&3')*-?/01<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)1"??'1&'()"1%0?)4*%.').*0&-*:)&*)1':'.&)/0)*-?/0)G1':'.&%0?)%&)
#7)1/7%0?)%&1)0/$'H<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)1"??'1&'()"1%0?)&3')/--*J)N'71)G-/&3'-)&3/0)&3')&/#)N'7)/0()
16/.')#/-H)&*)$*4')&3')*-?/01<)
g)!*$')1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)2*"0()&3')0/--/&*-Q1)4*%.')a/00*7%0?<b)
g)[0')1&"('0&)J%&3)/):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&7)%0(%./&'()&3/&)3').*":()0*&)3'/-)&3')/"(%*)0/--/&%*0)
4'-7)J'::<)
g),)1&"('0&)J%&3)2%0')$*&*-)%11"'1)"1'()(-/?M/0(M(-*6)&*)%0&'-/.&)J%&3)&3')/.&%4%&7)/0()1&-"??:'()
J%&3)%&<)c')(%()0*&)&-7)%0&'-/.&%0?)J%&3)&3')?/$')"1%0?)&3')&/#)N'7R16/.')#/-<)c%1)&'/.3'-1)
1"??'1&'()&3/&)/)$*"1')J*":()3':6)3%$)%0&'-/.&)#'&&'-)J%&3)&3')?/$'<))
Cognitive#Engagement#with#the#Activity##
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)(%()0*&)?'&)2-"1&-/&'()J3'0)&3'7)$/(')/)$%1&/N')%0)&3')
/(/6&'()4'-1%*0;)#'./"1')&3')*-?/01)&3/&)&3'7)3/()/:-'/(7)1"..'112"::7)6:/.'()(%()0*&)
(%1/66'/-<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1):%N'()&3/&)&3')*-?/01)&3/&)&3'7)6:/.'()?*&)-'$*4'()2-*$)&3')
1.-''0)*0)&3')-%?3&<)
g)[0')1&"('0&)J%&3)/):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&7)6:/7'()&3')?/$')/?/%01&)&%$')/0()J/1)/#:')&*)2%0%13)%&)%0)
:'11)&3/0)@)$%0"&'1<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)(%()0*&)6/7)/&&'0&%*0)J3'0)&3')/"(%*)0/--/&%*0)J/1)6:/7'(<)
g)[0')1&"('0&)J%&3)/):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&7)"1'()&-%/:)/0()'--*-)&*)6:/.')*-?/01)2*-)&3')
.%-.":/&*-7R-'16%-/&*-7)171&'$1;)/0()&3')0'-4*"1)171&'$)G&*J/-()&3')'0()*2)&3')?/$'H<)
Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 33
!
!
i)
Social#Interaction#
g)5:/7%0?)&3')?/$')*0)&3')!$/-&)8*/-()*-)J%&3)/0)*4'-3'/()6-*K'.&*-)2/.%:%&/&'()1&"('0&)
.*::/#*-/&%*0<)
Summary!
D3')N'7).3/0?'1)&3/&)J'-')$/(')%0)&3')?/$')G*22'-%0?)/0)/:&'-0/&%4')&*)&3')(-/?)/0()(-*6)
2'/&"-')2*-)$*4%0?)&3')*-?/01;)6-*4%(%0?)/"(%*):/#':1)2*-)&3')*-?/01;).3/0?%0?)&3')-'16*01')&3/&)
1&"('0&1)?*&)J3'0)&3'7)$/N')/)$%1&/N';)-'$*4%0?)2-*$)&3')-%?3&)1%(')*2)&3')1.-''0)*-?/01)&3/&)
3/4')#''0)6:/.'(H)J'-')1"..'112":)2*-)%$6-*4%0?)&3')6371%./:)/..'11%#%:%&7)*2)&3')?/$')/0()
1&"('0&1Q).*?0%&%4')'0?/?'$'0&)J%&3)%&<)
)
O"-&3'-).3/0?'1).*":()#')$/(')&*)%$6-*4')&3')]"/:%&7)*2)&3')/"(%*)0/--/&%*0)/0()&*)6-*4%(')
/:&'-0/&%4')J/71)&*).*04'7)&3')%02*-$/&%*0)%&)&-/01$%&1<)F"--'0&:7;)&3')/.&%4%&7)%1)('1%?0'()2*-)/)
1%0?:')6:/7'-<),:&'-0/&')4'-1%*01).*":()#')('4':*6'()&*)1"66*-&)1*.%/:)%0&'-/.&%*0)/$*0?)
$":&%6:')6:/7'-1<)["-)*#1'-4/&%*01)&3/&)1*$')1&"('0&1)(%()0*&)$/N')"1')*2)&3')%$6-*4'()
2'/&"-'1)/:1*)-/%1')&3')]"'1&%*0)*2)3*J)1&"('0&1)/0()&'/.3'-1)J%::)#')$/(')/J/-')*2)&3')
(%22'-'0&)*6&%*01)2*-)%0&'-/.&%0?)J%&3)&3')?/$';)1*)&3'7)./0)$/N').3*%.'1)/#*"&)J3/&)J*-N1)
#'1&)2*-)&3'$<)
!
2.!Dunk!and!Flip!
Students’!and!Teachers’!Responses!to!the!Original!Activities!
Physical#Interaction#with#the#Activities#
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)(%()0*&)'0?/?')%0)&3')/.&%4%&%'1)3/0(1M*0<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')/&)2%-1&)/):%&&:')&'0&/&%4')&*)(*)&3')/.&%4%&%'1)3/0(1M*0V)
&3'7)?*&)$*-')%04*:4'()J%&3)&3')("0N)'L6'-%$'0&)&3/0)J%&3)&3')2:%6)'L6'-%$'0&<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)3/()1*$')(%22%.":&7)J%&3)-'6:%./&%0?)&3')("0N)'L6'-%$'0&)
'L/.&:7)G1*$')/%-)'1./6'()J3'0)&3'7)%$$'-1'()&3')."61;)1*)&3'%-)6/6'-)&*J':1)?*&)J'&H;)J3%.3)
$/(')&3'$)J*0('-)J37)&3%1)3/66'0'(<)
g),)&'/.3'-)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)1"??'1&'()?%4%0?)1&"('0&1)6'-$%11%*0)&*)
$/0%6":/&')&3%0?1)3/0(1M*0<)
Cognitive#Engagement#with#the#Activities#
g)O'J)*2)&3')1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')(-/J0)&*)&3'1')/.&%4%&%'1)*0)&3'%-)*J0;)#"&)
1*$')*2)&3'$)?*&)'0?/?'()J3'0)&3')2/.%:%&/&*-)('$*01&-/&'()&3')/.&%4%&%'1<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1;)J3%:')%0&'::'.&"/::7)'0?/?'()/0()."-%*"1;)J'-')/&)2%-1&)/)
:%&&:')&'0&/&%4')&*)(*)&3')/.&%4%&%'1)3/0(1M*0<)D3')1&"('0&1)1&/7'()%0)&3'%-)1'/&1)&*)J/&.3<)D3'7)
J'-')1*$'J3/&)$*-')'0?/?'()%0)&3')("0N)/.&%4%&7)&3/0)%0)&3')2:%6)/.&%4%&7<)
g),&):'/1&)1*$')*2)&3')1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)3/()/0)"0('-1&/0(%0?)*2)&3').*0.'6&1)
*2)/%-)&/N%0?)"6)16/.'<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')/#:')&*)$/N')6-'(%.&%*01)/#*"&)J3/&)J*":()3/66'0)&*)
&3')6/6'-)&*J':)J3'0)&3')."6)J/1)%$$'-1'()%0)&3')J/&'-<)
g)D'/.3'-1)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)*22'-'()1'4'-/:)1"??'1&%*01)2*-)%$6-*4%0?)
1&"('0&1Q).*?0%&%4')'0?/?'$'0&)J%&3)&3')/.&%4%&%'1+)
o O%0()/)J/7)&*)$/N')/%-)4%1%#:')G'<?<;)"1')1$*N'H<)
o `%4')1&"('0&1)/0)*66*-&"0%&7)&*)2'':)&3')/%-)/1)%&)'1./6'1<)
34 K-12 STEM Education
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!
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o c':6)1&"('0&1)1'')&3').*00'.&%*0)#'&J''0)&3')("0N)/0()2:%6)/.&%4%&%'1<)
o c':6)1&"('0&1)1'')&3').*00'.&%*0)#'&J''0)&3')/.&%4%&%'1)/0()&3'%-)-'/:):%2'<)
Social#Interaction#
g)='$*01&-/&%*0)*2)&3')/.&%4%&7)#7)/0)/(":&)%0.-'/1'()1&"('0&1Q)'0?/?'$'0&)J%&3)%&<)
g)D'/.3'-1)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)1"??'1&'()&3/&)%&)J*":()#')%$6*-&/0&)2*-)/)
&'/.3'-)&*)('$*01&-/&')/0()2/.%:%&/&')&3')/.&%4%&%'1<)
Students’!Responses!to!the!Adapted!Activities!
Physical#Interaction#with#the#Activities#
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')$*-'):%N':7)&*)%0&'-/.&)J%&3)&3')/(/6&'()4'-1%*01)*2)
&3')/.&%4%&%'1)%0)/)3/0(1M*0)$/00'-)G&3'7)J/0&'()&*)2'':)&3')6/6'-)&*J':)/0()&3')6:/1&%.)&"#'H<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1):%N'()&3')/(/6&'()4'-1%*0)*2)&3')("0N)/.&%4%&7)$*-')#'./"1')
&3'7).*":()1'')#'&&'-)J3/&)J/1)?*%0?)*0<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)(%()0*&)%0&'-/.&)J%&3)&3')("0N)/.&%4%&7)3/0(1M*0<)
g)D3-'')1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')/#:')&*)"1')&3')/%-)6"$6)/0()1./:')&*)$'/1"-')
/0()-'.*-()&3')J'%?3&)*2)/%-)%0)&3')@M:%&'-)#*&&:'<)
g)[0')1&"('0&)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1;)%0.:"(%0?)2%0')$*&*-).*0&-*:)%11"'1;)3/()(%22%.":&7)J%&3)
6"&&%0?)&3')#*&&:')J%&3)/%-)*0)&3')1./:'<)c')/:1*)3/()(%22%.":&7)-'/(%0?)&3')1./:')2-*$)/)1%&&%0?)
6*1%&%*0)G&3')1&"('0&)"1'()/)J3'':.3/%-H<)D3')&'/.3'-)/11%1&'()J%&3)-'/(%0?)&3')J'%?3&)*0)&3')
1./:'<)D3')1&"('0&)/:1*)3/()(%22%.":&7)J%&3)6"13%0?)(*J0)&3')6"$6)&*)6"&)$*-')/%-)%0&*)&3')
#*&&:'<)D3')2/.%:%&/&*-)3':6'()J%&3)&3')6"$6%0?<)
Cognitive#Engagement#with#the#Activities#
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')$*-')'0?/?'()%0)&3')/(/6&'()4'-1%*0)*2)&3')("0N)
/.&%4%&7<)!*$')1&"('0&1)?*&)*"&)*2)&3'%-)1'/&1)/0()$*4'().:*1'-)&*)&3')('$*01&-/&%*0)&*)#'&&'-)
*#1'-4')J3/&)J/1)3/66'0%0?<)!&"('0&1)6/11'()/-*"0()&3')&*6)&*)2'':)&3')6/6'-)&*J':<)
g)[0')1&"('0&)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)J/1)/#:')&*)*22'-)/%-)/1)/0)'L6:/0/&%*0)2*-)J37)&3')6/6'-)
&*J':)(%()0*&)&/N')*0)&3')?-''0).*:*-<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)2*"0()&3')6:/1&%.)&"#')('$*01&-/&%*0)/$"1%0?<)D3'7)?*&)*"&)
*2)&3'%-)1'/&1)/0()J/0&'()&*)2'':)&3')6:/1&%.)&"#')
Social#Interaction#
g)='$*01&-/&%*0)*2)&3')/.&%4%&7)#7)/0)/(":&)%0.-'/1'()1&"('0&1Q)'0?/?'$'0&)J%&3)%&<)
Summary!
D3').3/0?'1)&3/&)J'-')$/(')%0)&3')("0N)/.&%4%&7)J'-')4'-7)1"..'112":)%0)%0.-'/1%0?).*?0%&%4')
'0?/?'$'0&)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)#*&3):'/-0%0?)/0()$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1<)j1%0?)&3')1*(/)#*&&:')
3':6'()1&"('0&1)&*)1'')$*-').:'/-:7)J3/&)J/1)3/66'0%0?)J%&3)&3')6/6'-)&*J':;)/0()&3'7)J'-')
#'&&'-)/#:')&*).*00'.&)&3')/.&%4%&7)&*)&3')6-'1'0.')*2)/%-<)D3')1"..'11)*2)&3%1)/.&%4%&7)/66'/-1)&*)
-':7)*0)&3')('$*01&-/&%*0)#7)/)&'/.3'-<)I4'0)J%&3)&3')/(/6&'()4'-1%*0;)1&"('0&1)J'-')
1*$'J3/&)3'1%&/0&)&*)'0?/?')%0)&3')/.&%4%&7)%0)/)3/0(1M*0)$/00'-<)D3')&J*)/:&'-0/&%4'1)2*-)&3')
2:%6)/.&%4%&7)/:1*)J'-')J'::)-'.'%4'(<)!&"('0&1)2*"0()&3')6:/1&%.)&"#')/.&%4%&7)/$"1%0?<)!&"('0&1)
J'-')/:1*)'0?/?'()%0)&3')a/%-)%0)&3')#*&&:'b)/.&%4%&7;)/:&3*"?3)/..'11)#/--%'-1)-'$/%0'()2*-)
1&"('0&1)J%&3)6371%./:)(%1/#%:%&%'1<)
)
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$/(')&*)6-*4%(')?"%(':%0'1)2*-)&'/.3'-1)/1)&*)3*J)&*)('$*01&-/&')&3')/.&%4%&%'1;)3*J)&*)1./22*:()
Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 35
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BB)
1&"('0&1Q)&3%0N%0?)#7)/1N%0?)]"'1&%*01;)3*J)&*)'0.*"-/?')1&"('0&1)&*)2*::*J)/:*0?)%0)&3')
/.&%4%&%'1)%0)/)3/0(1M*0)$/00'-;)3*J)&*)1"66*-&)1&"('0&M&*M1&"('0&)%0&'-/.&%*0)/0()
.*::/#*-/&%*0)J%&3%0)&3')/.&%4%&%'1;)/0()3*J)&*)/11%1&)1&"('0&1)%0)./--7%0?)*"&)&3')/.&%4%&%'1)J3%:')
/&)&3')1/$')&%$')1"66*-&%0?)&3'%-)%0('6'0('0.'<)
)
3.!Respiration!Stations!
Students’!and!Teachers’!Responses!to!the!Original!Activity!
Physical#Interaction#with#the#Activity#
g),::)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)6/-&%.%6/&'(;)%0.:"(%0?)1&"('0&1)J%&3)J/:N'-1)/0()
J3'':.3/%-1<))
g)O*-)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1;)/(":&1)1'-4'()/1)3'/-&;):"0?;)/0()$"1.:';)/0()1&"('0&1)
/1)-'()#:**().'::1<))
g)9/07)*2)&3')1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)4*:"0&''-'()&*)1'-4')/1)3'/-&;):"0?;)/0()
$"1.:'1<)[&3'-)1&"('0&1)&**N)&"-01)1'-4%0?)/1)-'()#:**().'::1<))
g)[0')&'/.3'-)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)6*%0&'()*"&)&3/&)1"22%.%'0&)-**$)%1)-']"%-'()
&*)./--7)*"&)&3%1)/.&%4%&7<)
Cognitive#Engagement#with#the#Activity##
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')4'-7)'L.%&'()/#*"&)&3%1)/.&%4%&7<)9/07)1&"('0&1)J/0&'()
$":&%6:')&"-01<)
g)9*1&)*2)&3')1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')'L.%&'()/#*"&)&3%1)/.&%4%&7)/1)J'::<)D3'-')
J'-')&J*)1&"('0&1)J3*)/66'/-'()/)#%&)3'1%&/0&)&*)6/-&%.%6/&'<)
g),&):'/1&)1*$')*2)&3')1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)('$*01&-/&'()/0)"0('-1&/0(%0?)*2)&3')
.%-.":/&*-7)171&'$<)!*$')1&"('0&1)N0'J)&3/&)&3')3'/-&)3/1)2*"-).3/$#'-1<)
g)D'/.3'-1)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)/0()J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)2/.%:%&/&'()&3')
/.&%4%&7)#7)?%4%0?)4'-#/:)(%-'.&%*01)*-)?"%(%0?)1&"('0&1)/1)&*)J3/&)&*)(*)0'L&)G'<?<;)$"1.:')&*)
K"$6)J3'0)'L.3/0?%0?)#/::1;)(%-'.&%0?)-'()#:**().'::1)J3'-')&*)?*H<)
g)!'4'-/:)&'/.3'-1)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)J*0('-'()J3/&)1&"('0&1)?*&)*"&)*2)&3')
/.&%4%&7<)D3'7)2':&)&3/&)&3')/.&%4%&7)%1)"1'2":)&*)6-'6/-')1&"('0&1)2*-):'/-0%0?)/#*"&)&3').%-.":/&*-7)
171&'$)*-)&*)-'%02*-.')6-'4%*"1):'/-0%0?)/#*"&)%&<)
Social#Interaction#
g)D3')/.&%4%&7)-']"%-'1).**-(%0/&%*0)/$*0?)$":&%6:')6:/7'-1<)
Students’!and!Teachers’!Responses!to!the!Adapted!Activity!
Physical#Interaction#with#the#Activity#
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')/#:')&*)(*)&3')/.&%4%&7)/0()2*::*J)&3')1&'61)J%&3*"&)
6-*$6&%0?<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)1"??'1&'()%0.:"(%0?)*&3'-)#*(7)6/-&1)G0*&)K"1&)&3'):'?)
$"1.:'H)%0)&3')/.&%4%&7<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)1"??'1&'()"1%0?)$*(':1)*2)/.&"/:)*L7?'0)/0()./-#*0)(%*L%(')
$*:'.":'1;)-/&3'-)&3/0)-'6-'1'0&%0?)&3'$)J%&3)#/::1<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)-'6*-&'()&3/&)&3'7)2*"0()%&)3/-()&*)N''6)/)#'/&)J3'0)
$/N%0?)&3')*-?/0)1*"0(1V)&3'7)1"??'1&'()3/4%0?)1*$')#/.N?-*"0()-37&3$)&*)3':6)N''6)&3'$)
*0)&-/.N<)
36 K-12 STEM Education
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!
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g)D'/.3'-1)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)3':6'()&*)J/:N)&3')1&"('0&)J3*)J/1)/.&%0?)/1)
&3')-'()#:**().'::)2-*$)*0')#*(7)6/-&)&*)/0*&3'-;)/0()&*:()3%$)J3/&)3')3/()&*)(*<)
g)D3')1&"('0&1)J3*)/.&'()/1)3'/-&)/0()$"1.:')0''('()-'$%0('-1)/#*"&)J3/&)&*)(*<)
g),&)1*$')6*%0&;)&3')&'/.3'-1)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')1*$'J3/&).*02"1'()
/#*"&)&3')%01&-".&%*01)2*-)&3')/.&%4%&7<)
Cognitive#Engagement#with#the#Activity##
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')'0?/?'()/0()/66'/-'()&*)'0K*7)&3')/.&%4%&7<)
g)!*$')1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)/66'/-'()'$#/--/11'()&*)$/N')&3')1*"0(1)*2)&3')
*-?/01)*"&):*"(<)
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)6/-&%.%6/&'()%0)/::)/16'.&1)*2)&3')/.&%4%&7;)J%&3)/11%1&/0.')
2-*$)&3'%-)&'/.3'-1<)
Social#Interaction#
g)D3')/.&%4%&7)-']"%-'1).**-(%0/&%*0)/$*0?)$":&%6:')6:/7'-1<)
g)D'/.3'-1)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)2/.%:%&/&'()&3')/.&%4%&7)%0)$":&%6:')J/71<)D3'7)
/11%?0'()-*:'1)&*)1&"('0&1)G'<?<;)3'/-&;)$"1.:';):'?H;)?"%('()&3'$)2-*$)*0')#*(7)6/-&)&*)&3')
0'L&;)/0()-'$%0('()&3')#*(7)6/-&1)J3/&)&3'7)3/()&*)(*<)
Summary!
9*1&)*2)&3').3/0?'1)&3/&)J'-')$/(')%0)&3')/.&%4%&7)G"1%0?)(%22'-'0&M1%X'()#/::1)&*)-'6-'1'0&)&3')
*L7?'0)/0()./-#*0)(%*L%(')$*:'.":'1;)"1%0?)&J*)1&"('0&1)&*)-'6-'1'0&)(%22'-'0&).3/$#'-1)*2)
&3')3'/-&;)/0()3/4%0?)1&"('0&1)J3*)/.&'()/1)*-?/01)$/N')1*"0(1H)J*-N'()J'::)2*-)&3')3%?3'-)
2"0.&%*0%0?)1&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1<)>3%:')&3').3/0?')%0)&3')1%X')*2)&3')#/::1)
-'6-'1'0&%0?)&3')*L7?'0)/0()./-#*0)(%*L%(')$*:'.":'1)(%()0*&)/66'/-)&*).3/0?')*-)%$6-*4')
&3'%-)%04*:4'$'0&)J%&3)&3')/.&%4%&7).*$6/-'()&*)&3')*-%?%0/:)/.&%4%&7;)%&)(%()0*&)(%1&-/.&)2-*$)%&<)
c/4%0?)&J*)1&"('0&1)1'-4')/1)(%22'-'0&)6/-&1)*2)&3')3'/-&)/66'/-'()&*)%0.-'/1')&3'%-).*?0%&%4')
'0?/?'$'0&)J%&3)&3')/.&%4%&7;)/0()&*)3':6)&3'$)$/N').*00'.&%*01)&*)&3').%-.":/&*-7)171&'$<)
c/4%0?)1&"('0&1)$/N')1*"0(1)2*-)&3')*-?/01)(%()0*&)J*-N)/1)J'::;)/1)1&"('0&1)1''$'()&*)
1&-"??:')J%&3)N''6%0?)/)-37&3$)/0()J'-')/):%&&:')'$#/--/11'()#7)3/4%0?)&*)(*)&3%1<)
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4'-1%*0)*2)&3')/.&%4%&7<)>%&3)1"22%.%'0&)16/.')/0()1*$')*2)&3')&3'%-)&'/.3'-1Q)/11%1&/0.';)&3'7)
J'-')/#:')&*)6371%./::7)'0?/?')%0)%&<)D3'%-):'4':)*2).*?0%&%4')'0?/?'$'0&)J/1)3%?3)/1)J'::;)/0()
("')&*)/)&'/.3'-Q1)2/.%:%&/&%*0)G13')/11%?0'()1&"('0&1)&*)1'-4')/1)&3')(%22'-'0&)*-?/01H;)1&"('0&1)
6/-&%.%6/&'()$*-')%0)&3%1)4'-1%*0)*2)&3')?/$')&3/0)%0)&3')*-%?%0/:)4'-1%*0)%0)J3%.3)&'/.3'-1)
1'-4'()/1)&3')*-?/01<)c*J'4'-;)1&"('0&1)0''('()2-']"'0&)-'$%0('-1)/0()(%-'.&%*01)/#*"&)J3/&)
&3'7)3/()&*)(*)GJ3%.3)*-?/0)&3')-'()#:**().'::)3/()&*)$*4')&*)0'L&;)J3/&)'/.3)*-?/0)3/()&*)(*H;)
/0()'4'0)&3'%-)&'/.3'-1)J3'-').*02"1'()/&)&%$'1<)T&)J/1)0*&).:'/-)3*J)$".3)1&"('0&1)N0'J)
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:'4':)*2)N0*J:'(?')&3'7)3/(<)D3').3/0?')%0)&3')1%X')*2)&3')#/::1)-'6-'1'0&%0?)&3')*L7?'0)/0()
./-#*0)(%*L%(')$*:'.":'1)(%()0*&)/66'/-)&*).3/0?')*-)%$6-*4')&3'%-)'0?/?'$'0&)%0)&3')/.&%4%&7<)
!
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&3%1)/.&%4%&7;)'16'.%/::7)2*-)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$*-')1'4'-')(%1/#%:%&%'1<)D3'1')?"%(':%0'1).*":()%0.:"(')
1"??'1&%*01)2*-)3*J)&*)3':6)1&"('0&1).*00'.&)&3')/.&%4%&7)&*)&3').%-.":/&*-7)171&'$)/0()3*J)&*)
/11%1&)1&"('0&1)%0)./--7%0?)*"&)&3')/.&%4%&%'1)J3%:')/&)&3')1/$')&%$')1"66*-&%0?)&3'%-)
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Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 37
!
!
BU)
!
4.!Where!the!Weird!Things!Are/Your!Creature’s!Features!
Students’!and!Teachers’!Responses!to!the!Original!Activity!
Physical#Interaction#with#the#Activity#
g)9*1&)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)J3*)6/-&%.%6/&'()%0)&3%1)/.&%4%&7)(%.&/&'()&3'%-)
-'16*01'1)&*)&3')&'/.3'-1<))
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)1&-"??:'()J%&3)J-%&%0?)&3'%-)%('/1)(*J0)*0)6/6'-<)D3'7)3/()
:*&1)*2)?**()%('/1)/#*"&)&3'%-).-'/&"-';)&3')'04%-*0$'0&)%&):%4'()%0;)/0()3*J)%&1)2'/&"-'1)3':6'()
%&;)#"&)&3'%-)J-%&%0?)J/1)%::'?%#:'<)
g)D'/.3'-1)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)*22'-'()1'4'-/:)1"??'1&%*01)2*-)%$6-*4%0?)&3')
/..'11%#%:%&7)*2)&3')/.&%4%&7+)
o I:%$%0/&')&3')J-%&%0?).*$6*0'0&<)
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'04%-*0$'0&1)&3/&)&3'7)./0).*$6*1'H<)
o j1')#%?)6%.&"-'1;)/0()/1N)1&"('0&1)J3/&)6/-&)*2)&3')6%.&"-')(*'1)&3').-'/&"-')
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o `%4')1&"('0&1)$*-')16'.%2%.)J-%&%0?)6-*$6&1)G'<?<;)/1N)&3'$)&*)'L6:/%0)3*J)&3')
2'/&"-'1)/-')J'::M/(/6&'()&*).'-&/%0)'04%-*0$'0&1H<)
Cognitive#Engagement#with#the#Activity##
g),)1$/::)0"$#'-)*2)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1)G/#*"&)CYWH)?-/4%&/&'()&*)&3%1)/.&%4%&7<))
g)!&"('0&1)J%&3):'/-0%0?)(%1/#%:%&%'1)J'-')0*&)4'-7)%0&'-'1&'()%0)&3%1)/.&%4%&7)G*0:7)/#*"&)3/:2)*2)
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38 K-12 STEM Education
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Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 39
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5.!Blueprint!for!a!Beast!
Students’!and!Teachers’!Responses!to!the!Original!Activity!
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40 K-12 STEM Education
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g)D'/.3'-1)1"??'1&'()2/.%:%&/&%0?)&3')/.&%4%&7)J%&3)?"%(%0?)]"'1&%*01)G'<?<;)>3/&)J*":()T)0''()%2)T)
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Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 41
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Bf)
Summary!and!Conclusions!
[4'-/::;)J')2*"0()&3/&)1&"('0&)6/-&%.%6/&%*0)/0()'0?/?'$'0&)%0)&3')2%4')E%0'&%.)F%&7)/.&%4%&%'1)
J/1)3%?3;)-'?/-(:'11)*2)1&"('0&1Q)(%1/#%:%&%'1<)D3')/(/6&/&%*01)&3/&)J'-')$/(')%0)&3')/.&%4%&%'1)
J'-')1"..'112":)%0)%$6-*4%0?)&3'%-)/..'11%#%:%&7;)/&):'/1&)2*-)1*$')1&"('0&1<)c*J'4'-;)1*$')
/..'11)%11"'1)-'$/%0'(<)O*-)%01&/0.';)&3')J-%&%0?)/.&%4%&7)-'$/%0'()%0/..'11%#:')&*)1&"('0&1)J%&3)
#*&3):'/-0%0?)/0()$":&%6:')(%1/#%:%&%'1<)T0)1*$')%01&/0.'1;)1&"('0&1)J'-')0*&)2"::7)/J/-')*2)&3')
'L%1&%0?)/(/6&/&%*01)G'<?<;)&3')/4/%:/#%:%&7)*2)N'7#*/-().*0&-*:1;)*-)3*J)&*)"1')&3')&/:N%0?)6'0)
J%&3)&3')aF-'/&"-'1)O'/&"-'1b)#**NH;)J3%.3):%$%&'()&3'%-)"1')*2)&3'1')/(/6&/&%*01<)T0)/0*&3'-)
%01&/0.';)J')*#1'-4'()&3/&)/0)/(/6&/&%*0)&3/&)%$6-*4'()/..'11)2*-)1*$')1&"('0&1).-'/&'()0'J)
*#1&/.:'1)2*-)*&3'-)1&"('0&1)G%<'<;)&3')(%?%&/:)1./:')"1'()%0)&3')-'4%1'()="0N)/0()O:%6)/.&%4%&7)J/1)
(%22%.":&)&*)-'/()2*-)1&"('0&1)%0)J3'':.3/%-1)#'./"1')*2)&3'%-)/0?:')*2)4%1%*0H<)D3'1')2%0(%0?1)
3%?3:%?3&)&3')%$6*-&/0.')*2).*0(".&%0?)$":&%6:')%&'-/&%*01)*2)"1'-)&'1&%0?;)&3')0''()2*-)$/N%0?)
1&"('0&1)/J/-')*2)/..'11)*6&%*01;)/0()&3')0''()2*-)$":&%6:')4'-1%*01)*2):'/-0%0?)/.&%4%&%'1<)
)
["-)*#1'-4/&%*01)/:1*)3%?3:%?3&)&3')%$6*-&/0.')*2)/(":&1)%0)$'(%/&%0?):'/-0%0?)/.&%4%&%'1;)
6/-&%.":/-:7)2*-)1&"('0&1)J%&3)$*-')1'4'-')(%1/#%:%&%'1<)D'/.3'-1;)6-*?-/$):'/('-1;)/0()*&3'-)
/(":&1)J*-N%0?)J%&3)1&"('0&1)J%&3)(%1/#%:%&%'1)0''()%01&-".&%*01)2*-)3*J)&*)'22'.&%4':7)2/.%:%&/&')
&3')/.&%4%&%'1)2*-)1&"('0&1)J%&3)(%22'-'0&)N%0(1)*2)(%1/#%:%&%'1)%0)J/71)&3/&)'0.*"-/?')1&"('0&1Q)
%0('6'0('0.')/0()&3/&)6-*$*&')6371%./:;).*?0%&%4';)/0()1*.%/:)'0?/?'$'0&<)
References!
P'%.3;)F<;)5-%.';)l<;)P"#%0;)I<;)\)!&'%0'-;)9<),<)G@ABAH<)Inclusion,"disabilities,"and"informal"science"
learning.">/13%0?&*0;)=F+)F'0&'-)2*-)&3'),(4/0.'$'0&)*2)T02*-$/:)!.%'0.')I("./&%*0)GF,T!IH<)
) )
42 K-12 STEM Education
!
!
18)
Appendices!
!
!
!
1.!Parental!Consent!Forms!
2.!Teacher!Consent!Forms!
3.!Teacher!Interview!Protocol!
!!
Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 43
!
!
19)
Appendix!1:!Parental!Consent!Forms!
!
!
!
!
Parent/Guardian Permission Form
Kinetic City Empower Research Study
The!Education!Development!Center,!Inc.!(EDC)!is!a!nonprofit!research!and!development!organization!dedicated!
to!improving!the!quality,!effectiveness,!and!equity!of!education.!The!American!Association!for!the!Advancement!
of!Science!(AAAS),!is!an!international!non-profit!organization!dedicated!to!advancing!science!around!the!world!
by!serving!as!an!educator,!leader,!spokesperson!and!professional!association.!
Purpose!of!the!study:!We!are!conducting!research!to!develop!Science,!Technology,!Engineering,!and!
Mathematics!activities!that!can!be!used!by!students!with!disabilities.!The!study!is!funded!by!the!National!Science!
Foundation.!!
Description!of!the!Research:!This!study!will!take!place!at!your!child’s!school.!Participants!will!try!out!five!
science!activities!developed!by!AAAS.!We!will!do!the!activities!over!two!two-hour!sessions.!To!understand!more!
about!students’!interests!in!science,!technology,!engineering,!and!mathematics;!and!to!learn!students’!opinions!
about!the!science!activities;!we!plan!to!do!interviews!or!ask!students!to!respond!in!writing!to!questions,!
whichever!format!they!prefer.!Each!interview!or!written!response!session!will!take!about!10!minutes!during!
each!of!the!four!sessions.!Interviews!will!be!audio!recorded!and!transcribed.!This!study!will!not!result!in!a!
decrease!in!instructional!time.!!
Benefits:!Your!child!may!benefit!by!enjoying!the!activities,!and!his!or!her!responses!will!contribute!to!efforts!to!
make!the!science!activities!more!accessible!for!students!with!disabilities.!
Risks!and!Confidentiality:!The!data!from!this!study!will!remain!confidential.!Participation!will!involve!minimal!
risk!associated!with!breach!of!confidentiality.!We!will!make!every!effort!to!minimize!this!risk.!Audio!recordings!
from!the!interviews!will!be!transcribed!and!audio!files!will!be!deleted!at!the!end!of!the!study.!Audio!recordings!
and!transcripts!will!not!contain!your!child’s!name,!and!will!be!accessible!to!research!staff!from!EDC!and!AAAS!
only.!Interview!statements!may!be!quoted!in!the!final!evaluation!report,!but!participants!will!not!be!identified!by!
name!or!described!in!such!a!way!that!they!can!be!identified.!The!results!of!the!study,!and!therefore!excerpts!of!
interviews,!may!be!presented!at!scientific!meetings!and!in!published!reports!for!educational,!policy!and!
scientific!purposes.!Upon!your!request,!you!will!be!informed!about!the!results!of!this!study.!
Costs!and!Compensations:!It!will!not!cost!your!child!anything!to!be!in!the!study.!Your!child!will!receive!a!$25!
gift!card!at!the!completion!of!the!four!sessions.!
Your!Rights:!Participation!in!this!research!is!strictly!voluntary.!Your!child!is!free!to!not!answer!any!question!
they!choose!not!to.!Should!your!child!choose!to!discontinue!his/her!participation!in!the!study,!he/she!can!
withdraw!at!any!time!without!penalty!or!loss!of!benefits!after!signing!this!form.!Parents!please!be!aware!that!
under!the!Protection!of!Pupil!Rights!Act.!20!U.S.C.!Section!1232(c)(1)(A),!you!have!the!right!to!review!a!copy!of!
the!questions!asked!of!or!materials!that!will!be!used!with!your!students.!If!you!would!like!to!do!so,!you!should!
contact!Babette!Moeller!at!(800)!225-4276!ext!4205!to!obtain!a!copy!of!the!questions!or!materials.!You!may!also!
use!this!number!to!contact!Babette!Moeller!if!you!have!any!other!questions!about!the!research.!If!you!have!any!
questions!regarding!your!rights!as!a!participant!in!or!concerns!about!this!research,!you!can!contact!EDC's!
Human!Protections!Administrator!at!1-800-225-4276!ext.!2971!or!HumanProtections@edc.org.!
You!will!receive!an!extra!copy!of!this!permission!form!for!your!records.!
______Yes,!I!agree!to!have!my!child!participate!
______No,!I!do!not!give!consent!for!my!child!to!participate!
!
___________________________________! ! ______________________________________!
Your!Child’s!Name!(please!print)! ! School!Name!(please!print)!
!
___________________________________!
Name!(please!print)!
!
____________________________________!__________________!
Signature!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Date!
Education Development Center, Inc.
96 Morton St. ! New York, NY 10014 ! Phone: 212.807.4200 ! Fax: 212.633.8804 ! www.edc.org
44 K-12 STEM Education
!
!
20)
!
!
!
!
!
Parent/Guardian Permission Form
Kinetic City Empower Research Study
The!Education!Development!Center,!Inc.!(EDC)!is!a!nonprofit!research!and!development!organization!dedicated!
to!improving!the!quality,!effectiveness,!and!equity!of!education.!The!American!Association!for!the!Advancement!
of!Science!(AAAS),!is!an!international!non-profit!organization!dedicated!to!advancing!science!around!the!world!
by!serving!as!an!educator,!leader,!spokesperson!and!professional!association.!
Purpose!of!the!study:!We!are!conducting!research!to!develop!Science,!Technology,!Engineering,!and!
Mathematics!activities!that!can!be!used!by!students!with!disabilities.!The!study!is!funded!by!the!National!Science!
Foundation.!!
Description!of!the!Research:!This!study!will!take!place!after!school!at!your!child’s!school.!Participants!will!try!
out!five!science!activities!developed!by!AAAS.!We!will!do!the!activities!during!two!one-hour!sessions.!To!
understand!more!about!students’!interests!in!science,!technology,!engineering,!and!mathematics;!and!to!learn!
students’!opinions!about!the!science!activities;!we!plan!to!do!interviews!or!ask!students!to!respond!in!writing!to!
questions,!whichever!format!they!prefer.!Each!interview!or!written!response!session!will!take!about!10!minutes!
during!each!of!the!two!sessions.!Interviews!will!be!audio!recorded!and!transcribed.!This!study!will!not!result!in!a!
decrease!in!instructional!time.!!
Benefits:!Your!child!may!benefit!by!enjoying!the!activities,!and!his!or!her!responses!will!contribute!to!efforts!to!
make!the!science!activities!more!accessible!for!students!with!disabilities.!
Risks!and!Confidentiality:!The!data!from!this!study!will!remain!confidential.!Participation!will!involve!minimal!
risk!associated!with!breach!of!confidentiality.!We!will!make!every!effort!to!minimize!this!risk.!Audio!recordings!
from!the!interviews!will!be!transcribed!and!audio!files!will!be!deleted!at!the!end!of!the!study.!Audio!recordings!
and!transcripts!will!not!contain!your!child’s!name,!and!will!be!accessible!to!research!staff!from!EDC!and!AAAS!
only.!Interview!statements!may!be!quoted!in!the!final!evaluation!report,!but!participants!will!not!be!identified!by!
name!or!described!in!such!a!way!that!they!can!be!identified.!The!results!of!the!study,!and!therefore!excerpts!of!
interviews,!may!be!presented!at!scientific!meetings!and!in!published!reports!for!educational,!policy!and!
scientific!purposes.!Upon!your!request,!you!will!be!informed!about!the!results!of!this!study.!
Costs!and!Compensations:!It!will!not!cost!your!child!anything!to!be!in!the!study.!Your!child!will!receive!a!$25!
gift!card!at!the!completion!of!the!four!sessions.!
Your!Rights:!Participation!in!this!research!is!strictly!voluntary.!Your!child!is!free!to!not!answer!any!question!
they!choose!not!to.!Should!your!child!choose!to!discontinue!his/her!participation!in!the!study,!he/she!can!
withdraw!at!any!time!without!penalty!or!loss!of!benefits!after!signing!this!form.!Parents!please!be!aware!that!
under!the!Protection!of!Pupil!Rights!Act.!20!U.S.C.!Section!1232(c)(1)(A),!you!have!the!right!to!review!a!copy!of!
the!questions!asked!of!or!materials!that!will!be!used!with!your!students.!If!you!would!like!to!do!so,!you!should!
contact!Babette!Moeller!at!(800)!225-4276!ext!4205!to!obtain!a!copy!of!the!questions!or!materials.!You!may!also!
use!this!number!to!contact!Babette!Moeller!if!you!have!any!other!questions!about!the!research.!If!you!have!any!
questions!regarding!your!rights!as!a!participant!in!or!concerns!about!this!research,!you!can!contact!EDC's!
Human!Protections!Administrator!at!1-800-225-4276!ext.!2971!or!HumanProtections@edc.org.!
You!will!receive!an!extra!copy!of!this!permission!form!for!your!records.!
______Yes,!I!agree!to!have!my!child!participate!
______No,!I!do!not!give!consent!for!my!child!to!participate!
!
___________________________________! ! ______________________________________!
Your!Child’s!Name!(please!print)! ! School!Name!(please!print)!
!
___________________________________!
Name!(please!print)!
!
____________________________________!__________________!
Signature!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Date!
Education Development Center, Inc.
96 Morton St. ! New York, NY 10014 ! Phone: 212.807.4200 ! Fax: 212.633.8804 ! www.edc.org
Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 45
!
!
21)
Appendix!2:!Teacher!Consent!Forms!
!
!
!
!
Teacher Interview Consent Form
KC#Empower:#Universal#Access#to#After#School#STEM#Research!Study#
The!Education!Development!Center,!Inc.!(EDC)!is!a!nonprofit!research!and!development!organization!dedicated!
to!improving!the!quality,!effectiveness,!and!equity!of!education.!The!American!Association!for!the!Advancement!
of!Science!(AAAS),!is!an!international!non-profit!organization!dedicated!to!advancing!science!around!the!world!
by!serving!as!an!educator,!leader,!spokesperson!and!professional!association.!
Purpose!of!the!study:!We!are!conducting!research!to!develop!Science,!Technology,!Engineering,!and!
Mathematics!activities!that!can!be!used!by!students!with!disabilities.!The!study!is!funded!by!the!National!Science!
Foundation.!!
Description!of!the!Research:!The!research!involves!interviews!with!teachers!of!children!with!disabilities!to!
learn!about!their!students’!interests!in!Science,!Technology,!Engineering,!and!Mathematics!(STEM),!and!about!
whether!adapted!versions!of!five!STEM!activities!are!accessible!for!youth!with!disabilities.!As!part!of!this!study,!
and!with!your!permission,!you!will!participate!in!up!to!two!brief!interviews!during!two!activity!sessions!that!will!
take!place!at!your!school.!Each!interview!will!take!about!15!minutes.!The!interviews!will!be!audio-recorded.!!
Benefits:!You!may!benefit!by!helping!to!make!the!STEM!activities!more!accessible!for!students!with!disabilities.!
Risks!and!Confidentiality:!The!data!from!this!study!will!remain!confidential.!Participation!will!involve!minimal!
risk!associated!with!breach!of!confidentiality.!We!will!make!every!effort!to!minimize!this!risk.!Audio!recordings!
from!the!interviews!will!be!transcribed!and!audio!files!will!be!deleted!at!the!end!of!the!study.!Audio!recordings!
and!transcripts!will!not!contain!your!name,!and!will!be!accessible!to!research!staff!from!EDC!and!AAAS!only.!
Interview!statements!may!be!quoted!anonymously!in!the!final!evaluation!report,!but!participants!will!not!be!
identified!by!name!or!described!in!such!a!way!that!they!can!be!identified.!The!results!of!the!study,!and!therefore!
excerpts!of!interviews,!may!be!presented!at!scientific!meetings!and!in!published!reports!for!educational,!policy!
and!scientific!purposes.!Upon!your!request,!you!will!be!informed!about!the!results!of!this!study.!
Costs!and!Compensations:!It!will!not!cost!you!anything!to!be!in!the!study.!Your!school!will!receive!a!$25!gift!
card!at!the!completion!of!the!four!sessions.!
Your!Rights:!Participation!in!this!research!is!strictly!voluntary.!You!are!free!to!not!answer!any!question!you!
choose!not!to.!Should!you!choose!to!discontinue!your!participation!in!the!study,!you!can!withdraw!at!any!time!
without!penalty!or!loss!of!benefits!after!signing!this!form.!If!you!have!any!questions!about!this!research,!you!can!
contact!Babette!Moeller!at!(800)!225-4276!ext.!4205!to!obtain!a!copy!of!the!questions!or!materials.!If!you!have!
any!questions!regarding!your!rights!as!a!participant!in!or!concerns!about!this!research,!you!can!contact!EDC's!
Human!Protections!Administrator!at!1-800-225-4276!ext.!2971!or!HumanProtections@edc.org.!
You!will!receive!an!extra!copy!of!this!consent!form!for!your!records.!
______Yes,!I!agree!to!participate!
______No,!I!do!not!wish!to!participate!
!
!
___________________________________! ! ______________________________________!
Name!(please!print)!!!School!Name!(please!print)!
!
!
____________________________________!__________________!
Signature!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Date!
) )
Education Development Center, Inc.
96 Morton St. ! New York, NY 10014 ! Phone: 212.807.4200 ! Fax: 212.633.8804 ! www.edc.org
46 K-12 STEM Education
!
!
22)
!
!
!
!
Teacher Interview Consent Form
KC#Empower:#Universal#Access#to#After#School#STEM#Research!Study#
The!Education!Development!Center,!Inc.!(EDC)!is!a!nonprofit!research!and!development!organization!dedicated!
to!improving!the!quality,!effectiveness,!and!equity!of!education.!The!American!Association!for!the!Advancement!
of!Science!(AAAS),!is!an!international!non-profit!organization!dedicated!to!advancing!science!around!the!world!
by!serving!as!an!educator,!leader,!spokesperson!and!professional!association.!
Purpose!of!the!study:!We!are!conducting!research!to!develop!Science,!Technology,!Engineering,!and!
Mathematics!activities!that!can!be!used!by!students!with!disabilities.!The!study!is!funded!by!the!National!Science!
Foundation.!!
Description!of!the!Research:!The!research!involves!interviews!with!teachers!of!children!with!disabilities!to!
learn!about!their!students’!interests!in!Science,!Technology,!Engineering,!and!Mathematics!(STEM),!and!about!
whether!adapted!versions!of!five!STEM!activities!are!accessible!for!youth!with!disabilities.!As!part!of!this!study,!
and!with!your!permission,!you!will!participate!in!up!to!two!brief!interviews!during!the!two!activity!sessions!that!
will!take!place!afterschool.!Each!interview!will!take!about!15!minutes.!The!interviews!will!be!audio-recorded.!!
Benefits:!You!may!benefit!by!helping!to!make!the!STEM!activities!more!accessible!for!students!with!disabilities.!
Risks!and!Confidentiality:!The!data!from!this!study!will!remain!confidential.!Participation!will!involve!minimal!
risk!associated!with!breach!of!confidentiality.!We!will!make!every!effort!to!minimize!this!risk.!Audio!recordings!
from!the!interviews!will!be!transcribed!and!audio!files!will!be!deleted!at!the!end!of!the!study.!Audio!recordings!
and!transcripts!will!not!contain!your!name,!and!will!be!accessible!to!research!staff!from!EDC!and!AAAS!only.!
Interview!statements!may!be!quoted!anonymously!in!the!final!evaluation!report,!but!participants!will!not!be!
identified!by!name!or!described!in!such!a!way!that!they!can!be!identified.!The!results!of!the!study,!and!therefore!
excerpts!of!interviews,!may!be!presented!at!scientific!meetings!and!in!published!reports!for!educational,!policy!
and!scientific!purposes.!Upon!your!request,!you!will!be!informed!about!the!results!of!this!study.!
Costs!and!Compensations:!It!will!not!cost!you!anything!to!be!in!the!study.!Your!school!will!receive!a!gift!card!at!
the!completion!of!the!study.!
Your!Rights:!Participation!in!this!research!is!strictly!voluntary.!You!are!free!to!not!answer!any!question!you!
choose!not!to.!Should!you!choose!to!discontinue!your!participation!in!the!study,!you!can!withdraw!at!any!time!
without!penalty!or!loss!of!benefits!after!signing!this!form.!If!you!have!any!questions!about!this!research,!you!can!
contact!Babette!Moeller!at!(800)!225-4276!ext.!4205!to!obtain!a!copy!of!the!questions!or!materials.!If!you!have!
any!questions!regarding!your!rights!as!a!participant!in!or!concerns!about!this!research,!you!can!contact!EDC's!
Human!Protections!Administrator!at!1-800-225-4276!ext.!2971!or!HumanProtections@edc.org.!
You!will!receive!an!extra!copy!of!this!consent!form!for!your!records.!
______Yes,!I!agree!to!participate!
______No,!I!do!not!wish!to!participate!
!
!
___________________________________! ! ______________________________________!
Name!(please!print)!!!School!Name!(please!print)!
!
!
____________________________________!__________________!
Signature!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Date!
) )
Education Development Center, Inc.
96 Morton St. ! New York, NY 10014 ! Phone: 212.807.4200 ! Fax: 212.633.8804 ! www.edc.org
Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 47
!
!
23)
Appendix!3:!Teacher!Interview!Protocol!
!
Teacher!Interview!Questions!
!
Goals:!!
1.!To!learn!about!your!students’!interests!and!preferences!for!afterschool!STEM!
activities.!
2.!To!obtain!input!about!the!appeal!and!accessibility!of!selected!KC!Empower!
activities.!
!
1.!Students’!Interest!and!Experiences!in!Afterschool!Science!Programs!
Have!you!engaged!in!STEM!activities!with!your!students!who!have!disabilities?!
What!are!your!thoughts!about!their!ability!to!fully!participate?!What!do!you!think!
would!make!STEM!more!exciting!for!students!with!disabilities!(probe!for!
content/topics,!types!and!level!of!activities)?!
!
What!interests!your!students,!especially!those!with!disabilities,!about!Science,!
Technology,!Engineering!and!Mathematics!(STEM)?!
!
What!topics/content!are!they!interested!in?!
!
What!STEM!activities!do!they!like?!
!
What!do!they!NOT!like?!
What!kinds!of!technology!do!your!students!like!to!use?!
!
What!are!barriers!that!may!get!in!the!way!of!your!students’!technology!use?!
!
What!are!your!suggestions!for!resolving!this!issue?!
!
What!kinds!of!difficulties!might!students!with!disabilities!come!across!in!afterschool!
or!summer!STEM!programs?!
!
What!suggestions!do!you!have!for!making!afterschool!or!summer!STEM!programs!
more!accessible!for!students!with!disabilities?!
!
2.!Students’!Responses!to!KC!Empower!Activities!!
!
How!did!you!like!the!activity?!How!do!you!think!students!will!like!it?!
!
How!would!you!use!the!activity!in!your!program?!
!
How!easy!or!difficult!do!you!think!it!will!be!for!students!with!disabilities!to!read!and!
follow!the!instructions?!
!
48 K-12 STEM Education
!
!
24)
How!easy!or!difficult!do!you!think!it!will!be!for!students!with!disabilities!to!do!the!
activity?!
!
What!do!you!think!students!will!learn!from!the!activity?!
!
How!could!the!activity!be!changed!to!make!it!more!interesting!for!students!with!
disabilities!(probe!for!presentation!of!the!activity,!content/topics,!types!and!level!of!
activities)?!
!
How!could!the!activity!be!changed!to!make!it!more!usable/accessible!for!students!
with!disabilities?!
!
!
)
Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2016 49
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Science notebooks can play a critical role in activity-based science learning, but the tasks of recording, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data create barriers that impede science learning for many students. This study (a) assessed in a randomized controlled trial the potential for a web-based science notebook designed using the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework to overcome the challenges inherent in traditional science notebooks, (b) explored how teacher characteristics and student use of supports in the digital environment were associated with productive inquiry science learning behaviors, and (c) investigated students' and teachers' perceptions of the key affordances and challenges of the technology to their learning. Use of the UDL science notebook resulted in improved science content learning outcomes (γ = .34, p < .01), as compared with traditional paper-and-pencil science notebooks, and positively impacted student performance to the same degree, regardless of reading and writing proficiency and motivation for science learning at pretest. Students of teachers with greater experience using science notebooks and students who more frequently used the contextual supports within the notebook demonstrated more positive outcomes. Students and teachers reported overall quite positive experiences with the notebook, emphasizing high levels of interest, feelings of competence, and autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relationship between emotional responses and reading performance in middle-school students. Although a large number of prior studies have investigated the relationship between emotion and reading, those studies have concentrated primarily on relatively static and distal measures of emotion. In this research, we measured 7th- and 8th-grade students' (n = 44) emotional responses more proximally: during the reading tasks themselves. To do this, we used a cardiovascular indicator, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), that has been used frequently in psychophysiological studies of emotion but not, to our knowledge, in studies of reading. Results showed that the pattern of physiological response during reading predicted reading comprehension performance. Students with the most successful reading comprehension performance showed an initial orienting physiological response, followed by a lower threat physiological state when actually starting to read. Verbal retelling performance related strongly to emotional responses during reading, but multiple-choice performance was not related. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Article
Full-text available
This paper posits that when new technologies in education move beyond their initial stages of development, innovations in curriculum design, teaching strategies, and policies will be driven by the needs of students "at the margin," those for whom present technologies are least effective, students with disabilities, and that all students will be the beneficiaries of these innovations. After discussing the present assistive technologies and their benefits for students with disabilities, the future of universal design for learning is discussed. New technologies are highlighted that are changing our concept of the nature of learning, of media, of the learner, of teaching and learning, and of assessment. The paper concludes that the particular benefits for students with disabilities are that the new technologies will, by necessity, recognize both the reality and virtue of diversity. The technologies of the future will be more, not less, diverse, and they will engage many kinds of learners. It is predicted that the implicit goals of education will change from homogenization to diversification--identifying and fostering the inherent diversity among all students, identifying new kinds of learning, new kinds of teaching, and new kinds of success. (CR)
Book
The print version is available through Amazon, etc. but a richer multimedia version (and one that is more accessible) is available freely at: http://udltheorypractice.cast.org/login
Inclusion, disabilities, and informal science learning
  • References Reich
  • C Price
  • J Rubin
  • E Steiner
References Reich, C., Price, J., Rubin, E., & Steiner, M. A. (2010). Inclusion, disabilities, and informal science learning. Washington, DC: Center for the Advancement of Informal Science Education (CAISE).
Benchmarks for Science Literacy
AAAS (1993). Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Universal design for learning in the classroom: Practical applications
  • E Ayala
  • H J Brace
  • S Stahl
Ayala, E., Brace, H.J., & Stahl, S. (2012). Preparing teachers to implement universal design for learning. In T. Hall, D. Rose, & A. Meyer (Eds.), Universal design for learning in the classroom: Practical applications. (pp. 135-151). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Literacy by design: A universal design for learning approach for students with significant intellectual disabilities
  • P Coyne
  • B Pisha
  • B Dalton
  • L A Zeph
  • N C Smith
Coyne, P., Pisha, B., Dalton, B., Zeph, L.A., & Smith, N.C. (2012). Literacy by design: A universal design for learning approach for students with significant intellectual disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 33(3), 162-172.