ArticlePDF Available

Improving athletic performance of basketball student team with the classical yoga exercises

Authors:

Abstract

The results of the study of the effect of yoga exercises on the preparedness of the student basketball team. The study involved 25 athletes aged 17-20 years. The experimental group consisted of 13 players dealt in accordance with the proposed set of yoga exercises, which were used in the introductory, preparatory and final part. In the main part of the problem solved basketball directions. Classes in both groups were conducted 4 times a week for 2 hours for 9 months. Found that the use of exercises yoga pose direct impact on the physical indicators of preparedness players. Found an increase in the level of indicators: vertical jump, speed endurance, speed, retention of equilibrium (balance), free throw, with the movement, three-point shots, free throws, tactical execution.
3
IMPROVING ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE OF BASKETBALL STUDENT TEAM WITH
THE CLASSICAL YOGA EXERCISES
Brynzak S.S., Burko S.V.
National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Annotation. The results of the study of the effect of yoga exercises on the preparedness of the student basketball team. The
study involved 25 athletes aged 17-20 years. The experimental group consisted of 13 players dealt in accordance with the
proposed set of yoga exercises, which were used in the introductory, preparatory and final part. In the main part of the
problem solved basketball directions. Classes in both groups were conducted 4 times a week for 2 hours for 9 months. Found
that the use of exercises yoga pose direct impact on the physical indicators of preparedness players. Found an increase in the
level of indicators: vertical jump, speed endurance, speed, retention of equilibrium (balance), free throw, with the movement,
three-point shots, free throws, tactical execution.
Keywords: basketball, college students, yoga, training, physical.
Introduction1
In any kind of sports there is a lot of basic variants of sport training (physical, technical, tactic, integral and so
on). There appears a question to what extent these kinds of sportsmen’s of team’s training can be effective with the help
of yoga.
Yoga exercises and methods can directly influence on optimization of all kinds of sportsman’s or team’s
training 1]. Distinctive feature of yoga, which is of great interest for sport specialists [1, 2, 6, 10], is detail development
of sportsmen’s perfection techniques for mastering of muscular relaxation art, techniques of reasonable breathing and
concentration of attention.
It is important for sportsman and his coach to understand what is to be taken from ancient science about self
development for increasing of sport results and improvement of training process’s quality, because yoga exercises can
be used in sport practice in rather different way.
As domestic and foreign specialists think [3, 7, 8, 10-12], yoga can give increasing of strength, endurance, pure
consciousness, calmness and more sound sleep to basketball players. Some researches [1, 2, 6 ] specify, that regular
practice of different yoga postures (asanas) as well as breathing exercises (pranayama) help to strengthen muscles,
develop qualitatively new power and improve muscular elasticity and mass. As a result strength and endurance of
organism in general are improved, but not only of separate muscular groups and it renders additional effectiveness in
trainings and competitions.
For basketball players it is very important to control body. Owing to yoga practice, one can develop excellent
balance, which facilitates better control of movements, its position in space and, in its turn, improves technique and
coordination of movements [1].
One of the most known pluses of yoga is development of profound and steady flexibility that is very important
for basketball. Good flexibility helps to avoid traumas, increases amplitude of movements (i.e. improves technique),
makes muscular work more energy saving and effective owing to increased muscular elasticity [3, 7].
Thus, it is assumed that physical training for maintaining optimal physical condition, technical training for
improvement of sportsmanship and tactic training, oriented on development of strategic and tactic skills can be
improved with the help of yoga exercises, which, at the same time, harmoniously influence on mind and body.
The present work makes urgent the problem of yoga exercisesintroduction in training process of student
team’s basketball players, while study of yoga influence on sport preparedness would help to solve this problem.
Purpose, tasks of the work, material and methods
The purpose of the research is to determine influence of yoga exercise on preparedness of student team’s
basketball players.
Methods and organization of the research. In the research we used such methods as study,, analysis and
generalization of literature and documentation, dealing with the problem of our research, pedagogic observation, testing
of physical and technical-tactic preparedness.
The research was organized on the base of National University of bio-resources and nature utilization of
Ukraine. The research involved 25 players of student’s combined basketball team, of 17-20 years old age. For
determination of preparedness level of the players we used commonly known test exercises (see table 1).
Table 1
Testing program for basketball players
Preparedness
Test exercises
Unit of measurement
1
Physical
Т1
No-step Vertical Jump)
cm
Т2
Shuttle run 2x40 s
m
Т3
3/4 Court sprint, 20 м
sec
© Brynzak S.S., Burko S.V., 2013
doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.775314
4
Т4
Laneagility test)
sec
Т5
Curl
Quantity of repetitions
Т6
Flexibility (Sit and reach test)
cm
Т7
Standing Balance Test
sec
2
Technical-tactic
Т8
Free throws per 1 min.
Trials/hits
Т9
Throws in movements per 1 min.
Trials/hits
Т10
3 scores throws per 1 min.
Trials/hits
Т11
Penalty throws per 1 min.
Trials/hits
Т12
Fulfillment of tactic task in game (per 10 min)
Trials/ correct fulfillment
At first stage of our research we tested basketball players for their physical and technical-tactic preparedness.
Results are presented in table 2.
By the results of preliminary study of basketball players preparedness level we formed two identical groups
(determined differences were not statistically significant Р > 0.05).
Table 2
Indicators of basketball readiness for experiment
Control group
Experimental group
Р
х
S
Level
х
S
61,4
0.6
Middle
62
0.7
Middle
>0.05
375.3
0.2
Low
377
0.5
Low
>0.05
3.32
0.2
Low
3.2
0.2
Low
>0.05
13.2
0.6
Low
13.5
0.4
Low
>0.05
45.1
1.4
Middle
44.8
0.8
Middle
>0.05
15.3
0.3
Middle
15
0.4
Middle
>0.05
15.8
0.7
Low
16.3
0.7
Low
>0.05
15/11
1.2
Middle
15/10
1.0
Middle
>0.05
16/10
0.3
Middle
15/11
0.4
Middle
>0.05
25/15
0.5
Low
25/14
0.7
Low
>0.05
16/13
0.4
Middle
16/12
0.4
Middle
>0.05
5/1
0.3
Low
4/1
0.2
Low
>0.05
Control group, 12 players, was trained as per requirements of classical training program for basketball team.
Trainings consisted of introductory, main and final parts. There were used commonly known exercises, which
corresponded to task of every part [4, 5, 9].
Experimental group, 13 players, was trained as per offered complex of yoga exercises, which were used in
introductory and final parts. In main part tasks of basketball orientation were solved. Trainings in both groups were
conducted 4 times a week, 2 hour every training, during 9 weeks.
Considering specificity of basketball there were proposed the following complexes of yoga exercises:
1. Complex of yoga exercises for introductory and final parts;
Crossed-legged posture and meditation during 3-5 minutes;
Forward bend from sitting position;
“cobra”, “locusts”, “bow”, “plough”;
Turn;
Shoulder stand;
“fish”;
Abdomen draw-in;
Meditation in sitting position with breathing exercises, “immovable posture”;
Relaxation posture;
Re-activation, including several deep inhales, straightening in sitting or standing position, arm exercises.
2. Asanas postures of preparatory part for balance and concentration:
“Tree” posture;
“dancing posture:
“balance”;
“crow”;
“T” posture;
Bending knees posture;
Tip-toes posture;
Legs’ stretching standing;
“eagle” posture;
“triangleposture;
“Dog” posture with head downward;
5
“Crescent” posture
With selection of yoga exercises, recommendations of A. Kolger were considered [1].
Results of research and its discussion
The carried out research permitted to obtain substantial experimental data. Results of influence of classical
basketball exercises on sport indicators of control group players are given in table 3.
Table 3
Results of testing of control group basketball players
Results of testing
Р
Before experiment
After experiment
х
S
Level
х
S
Level
61.4
0.6
Middle
64
0.5
High
<0.05
375.3
0.2
Low
388
0.8
Middle
<0.05
3.32
0.2
Low
3.04
0.3
Middle
<0.05
13.2
0.6
Low
13.0
0.4
Low
>0.05
45.1
1.4
Middle
48
1.1
Middle
>0.05
15.3
0.3
Middle
16.1
0.6
Middle
>0.05
15.8
0.7
Low
21.3
0.4
Middle
<0.05
15/11
1.2
Middle
15/13
0.9
Above middle
<0.05
16/10
0.3
Middle
16/14
0.4
Above middle
<0.05
25/15
0.5
Low
25/17
0.7
Middle
<0.05
16/13
0.4
Middle
16/15
0.4
Above middle
<0.05
5/1
0.3
Low
7/3
0.2
Middle
<0.05
Comparing results of testing initial and final stages of control group we noticed that from indicators of 12 test
exercises, not all were changed. Indicators of vertical jump, speed endurance, quickness, balance, free throws, throws
in movement, 3-scores throws, penalty throws and fulfillment of tactic task – improved (р < 0.05). There were no
changes in indicators, which characterize movements in defense, power endurance of abdomen muscles, flexibility. In
this case we can conclude that using of traditional exercises at trainings does not solve all required tasks.
In experimental group all indicators of all test exercises improved (see table 4) (р < 0.05).
Table 4
Results of testing of control group basketball players
Results of testing
P
Before experiment
After experiment
х
S
Level
х
S
Level
62
0.7
Middle
65
0.5
High
<0.05
377
0.5
Low
407
1.2
High
<0.05
3.2
0.2
Low
3.01
0.3
Middle
<0.05
13.5
0.4
Low
10.9
0.4
Middle
<0.05
44.8
0.8
Middle
54.7
0.9
High
<0.05
15
0.4
Middle
21.3
0.6
High
<0.05
16.3
0.7
Low
51.6
0.4
High
<0.05
15/10
1.0
Middle
15/13
0.5
Above middle
<0.05
15/11
0.4
Middle
17/15
0.7
High
<0.05
25/14
0.7
Low
25/19
0.9
Middle
<0.05
16/12
0.4
Middle
17/15
0.4
Above middle
<0.05
4/1
0.2
Low
7/4
0.2
Middle
<0.05
Comparing results of control and experimental groups we can note positive changes of the studied indicators in
both groups (see table 5). It proves effectiveness of traditional exercises in basketball (control group) and additional
yoga exercises (experimental group. However, it should be noted that indicators, obtained in experimental group are
higher to some extent than those, registered in control group, and results of such test exercises as speed endurance,
movements in defense, raising from sitting position (power endurance of abdomen muscles), flexibility and balance are
confidently different (р < 0.05).
Table 5
Indicators of basketball players’ preparedness after experiment
Control group
Experimental group
Р
х
S
Level
х
S
Level
64
0.5
High
65
0.5
High
>0.05
388
0.8
Middle
407
1.2
High
<0.05
3.04
0.3
Middle
3.01
0.3
Middle
>0.05
13.0
0.4
Low
10.9
0.4
Middle
<0.05
48
1.1
Middle
54.7
0.9
High
<0.05
16.1
0.6
Middle
21,3
0.6
High
<0.05
6
21.3
0.4
Middle
51.6
0.4
High
<0.05
15/13
0.9
Above middle
15/13
0.5
Above middle
>0.05
16/14
0.4
Above middle
17/15
0.7
High
>0.05
25/17
0.7
Middle
25/19
0.9
Middle
>0.05
16/15
0.4
Вище серед.
17/15
0.4
Above middle
>0.05
7/3
0.2
Middle
7/4
0.2
Middle
>0.05
Conclusions:
Summarizing the above presented we may state that the used yoga exercises directly influence not on all
indicators of basketball players’ preparedness, but only on physical, especially on flexibility and balance. Alongside
with it, we can say that yoga exercises can be widely used in training process of basketball players that was proved by
improving of indicators of experimental group players in comparison with control group, where yoga exercises were not
applied. However, for better effect it is necessary to select exercises, which would facilitate certain tasks of training
process.
Thus, perspective direction of our researches is selection of yoga exercises, capable to improvement of ball
throws from the spot and in movement, accuracy of passes, dribbling.
References:
1. Aladar Kogler. Joga dlia sportsmenov [Yoga for athletes], Moscow, FAIR PRESS, 2001, 304 p.
2. Ajengar G. S. Joga v dejstvii [Yoga in action], Moscow, 2007, 120 p.
3. Gomel'skij V. NBA [NBA], Moscow, Gorodets, 2007, 224 p.
4. Kozina Zh.L. Pedagogika, psihologia ta mediko-biologicni problemi fizicnogo vihovanna i sportu [Pedagogics,
psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports], 2007, vol.2, pp. 47-53.
5. Korneev R.A. Teoriia i praktika fizicheskoj kul'tury [Theory and practice of physical culture], 2004, vol.3, pp.
51–54.
6. Lajdell L., Rabinovich N., Rabinovich G. Novaia kniga po joge [New book on yoga], Moscow, FAIR PRESS,
2004, 192 p.
7. Platonov V.N. Sistema podgotovki sportsmenov v olimpijskom sporte [The system of preparation of sportsmen in
Olympic sport], Kiev, Olympic Literature, 2004, 808 p.
8. Poplavskij L. Iu. Basketbol [Basketball], Kiev, Olympic Literature, 2004, 447 p.
9. Sokolov A. M. Podgotovka basketbolistov massovykh razriadov v nefizkul'turnykh vuzakh s uchetom
osobennostej fizicheskogo razvitiia studentov [Training basketball players in not athletic universities allowing for
the physical development of students], Cand. Diss., Moscow, 2003, 137 p.
10. Fershtajn G. Enciklopediia jogi [Encyclopedia of yoga], Moscow, FAIR PRESS, 2002, 768 p.
11. Cherrington J., Watson B. Shooting a diary, not just a hoop: using video diaries to explore the embodied everyday
contexts of a university basketball team. Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise. 2010, vol.2(2), pp. 267–281.
doi:10.1080/19398441.2010.488036.
12. Oudejans R.R.D., Heubers S., Ruitenbeek J.-R.J.A.C., Janssen T.W.J. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair
Basketball Shooting. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2012, vol.83(3), pp. 464–469.
doi:10.1080/02701367.2012.10599881.
... The practice of yoga produces a physiological state opposite to that of the flight-or-fight stress response and with that interruption in the stress response, a sense of balance and union between the mind and body can be achieved [3]. Yoga is practiced in sports for injury prevention [4] as well as to enhance the performance [5,6] through achieving the peak level of physical fitness. It has been documented through several researches that yoga intervention improves the athletic performance in different sports by enhancing their flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular performance [5,[7][8][9], physiological health factors such as heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, immune function and muscle soreness [7,8,[10][11][12] and mental fitness [13][14][15].Yoga increases flexibility and the effects are seen as early as six weeks, even if the participants are only training once a week [16][17][18]. ...
... Yoga practice also improved muscle torque and decreased lower back pain. Bi-weekly yoga practice for eight weeks was associated with increases in ankle flexibility (13%), knee extension (28%), shoulder elevation (155%), trunk extension (188%), and trunk flexion (14%) [6]. Asana practice increases core stability, which is essential for both sport performance and injury prevention [33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Yoga is increasingly being incorporated into the training regimes of athletes. The aims of the present study were to understand the effects of practicing yoga for four weeks on selective physical and body composition variables on healthy young Indian male athletes participating in track and field events.
... The practice of yoga originates from 5000 BCE in India to combine specific posture (asana), breathing techniques ( pranayama), meditative techniques (dhyana) chants (mantras) and wisdom teachings (sutras) to encourage union with body and mind (Sengupta, 2012). Brynzak and Burko (2013) reported that the use of exercises yoga pose directly impacts the physical indicators of preparedness among young basketball players (Brynzak & Burko, 2013). ...
... The practice of yoga originates from 5000 BCE in India to combine specific posture (asana), breathing techniques ( pranayama), meditative techniques (dhyana) chants (mantras) and wisdom teachings (sutras) to encourage union with body and mind (Sengupta, 2012). Brynzak and Burko (2013) reported that the use of exercises yoga pose directly impacts the physical indicators of preparedness among young basketball players (Brynzak & Burko, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Overtraining syndrome is accompanied by changes of some neurotransmitters and an increase in mood disturbances. This study aimed to describe changes of plasma levels of serotonin and mood state, after a period of yoga training in well-trained wrestlers. Twenty-four volunteered well-trained wrestlers divided randomly into 2 equal groups: control and experimental. The experimental group completed 8 weeks of yoga training concurrent with wrestling training, 3 sessions per week, with each session lasting 60–75 min. Blood samples were collected from all participants, before and after yoga training. Plasma levels of serotonin and mood state were evaluated using standard commercial ELISA kits and Brunel questionnaire (BRUMS), respectively. Statistical comparisons were made using covariance analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient (p < .05). There is a significant difference between groups in serotonin levels (p = .0001) and mood disturbance scores (p = .0001), although there is no significant relation between serotonin levels and mood disturbance scores (r = 0.19; p = .54). It seems that doing yoga training concurrent with heavy wrestling training in the precompetition phase of competition season may be affected some psychological indices contributed with overtraining syndrome. Yoga as a safe intervention during heavy wrestling training may lead to prevention of overtraining syndrome.
Article
Background Cricket is one of the prominent global team sports. With an emergence of Twenty20 tournaments, the physical preparation of elite cricket players has become complex with high match injury incidence. Yoga as a body-mind training is associated with having positive effects on a person's physical and psychological conditions, bringing in better mind-body equilibrium. Objectives Evaluating the impact of yoga in facilitating muscular functioning and mindfulness among asymptomatic male cricket players. Method First-class domestic male cricket players in the age group of 18-35 years were randomized into yoga group n=42 and wait-list control group n=40. Players received the yoga module for five days per week for a duration of six weeks. Primary outcome measures of muscular functioning were core stability, flexibility, range of motion, static balance, dynamic balance and proprioception of the ankle. Assessments were held at baseline, immediate post-intervention, and a follow-up after six months of intervention. Results A statistical significance with p<.001 was observed for most of the variables at T2 and T3. Comparison of the model fit shows a highly significant p<0.001 difference between the model as compared to the baseline model among most of the variables. Conclusion This yoga module was appropriate for enhancing muscular functioning variables of this study. Continuous practice of this yoga module can reinforce sustainable benefits for male cricket players.
Article
Full-text available
Readers should also refer to the journal's website at http://www.informaworld.com/rqrs and check volume 2, issue 2 to view the accompanying video clips. This will appear as ‘Supplementary Content’ to this article.This paper examines video diaries as creative, visual methods and considers their value as a complementary and innovative method in qualitative, social science based, research on sport. Data are presented from a university basketball team and live links to video diaries are incorporated to contextualise and illustrate three key themes of the everyday, identity and the body. Evidence suggests that the players embody varying levels of ‘visual capital’ that inform their understanding and ‘production’ of these visual, ethnographic representations. Video diaries are assessed as a potential response to a crisis of representation facing researchers, demonstrating how this form of narrative data, in the context of visual methodology, is an interesting development for qualitative research in sport.
Article
Full-text available
We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible. Participants drove under a large screen that initially blocked the basket. As soon as they saw the basket they shot. When training with the screen, shooting percentages increased. We conclude that visual control training is an effective method to improve wheelchair basketball shooting. The findings support the idea that perceptual-motor learning can be enhanced by manipulating relevant constraints in the training environment, even for expert athletes.
Sistema podgotovki sportsmenov v olimpijskom sporte [The system of preparation of sportsmen in Olympic sport
  • V N Platonov
Platonov V.N. Sistema podgotovki sportsmenov v olimpijskom sporte [The system of preparation of sportsmen in Olympic sport], Kiev, Olympic Literature, 2004, 808 p.
Podgotovka basketbolistov massovykh razriadov v nefizkul'turnykh vuzakh s uchetom osobennostej fizicheskogo razvitiia studentov [Training basketball players in not athletic universities allowing for the physical development of students
  • A M Sokolov
Sokolov A. M. Podgotovka basketbolistov massovykh razriadov v nefizkul'turnykh vuzakh s uchetom osobennostej fizicheskogo razvitiia studentov [Training basketball players in not athletic universities allowing for the physical development of students], Cand. Diss., Moscow, 2003, 137 p.
Novaia kniga po joge
  • L Lajdell
  • N Rabinovich
  • G Rabinovich
Lajdell L., Rabinovich N., Rabinovich G. Novaia kniga po joge [New book on yoga], Moscow, FAIR PRESS, 2004, 192 p.
psihologia ta mediko-biologicni problemi fizicnogo vihovanna i sportu [Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports
  • . L Kozina Zh
  • Pedagogika
Kozina Zh.L. Pedagogika, psihologia ta mediko-biologicni problemi fizicnogo vihovanna i sportu [Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports], 2007, vol.2, pp. 47-53.
Joga dlia sportsmenov
  • Aladar Kogler
Aladar Kogler. Joga dlia sportsmenov [Yoga for athletes], Moscow, FAIR PRESS, 2001, 304 p.
Teoriia i praktika fizicheskoj kul'tury [Theory and practice of physical culture
  • R A Korneev
Korneev R.A. Teoriia i praktika fizicheskoj kul'tury [Theory and practice of physical culture], 2004, vol.3, pp. 51-54.