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Status of water quality of Mini river, Vadodara

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STATUS OF WATER QUALITY OF MINI RIVER, VADODARA
*
Gavali
Gujarat Ecology Society, 3rd
Floor, Synergy House, Subhanpura, Vadodara
ARTICLE INFO
ABSTRACT
Fresh water
drinking, community water supply,
of industrial waste sewage and human activities which affect the quality of river water. In the present
study an attempt has been made to study water quality parameters and pollution statu
of Vadodara region (Gujarat).
sampling stations during December to March 2015 and important physico
as Temperature, Conductivity, pH, DO, BOD, COD,
Nitrite
-
The values of COD at all stations was within Permissible limits prescribed by CPCB. The value of
salinity and DO
concluded that water of Mini River is moderately polluted due to discharges of industrial waste,
domestic sewage and agricultural run
river.
Copyright©2016, Gavali et al. This
is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Att
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
INTRODUCTION
Industrial development results in the generation of industrial
effluents, and the release of untreated or treated effluents result
in water, sediment and soil
pollution (Fakayode and Onianwa
2002, Fakayode 2005). High level of pollutants mainly organic
matter in river water cause an increase in biological oxygen
demand (Kulkarni 1997), chemical oxygen demand, total
dissolved solids, total suspended solids and fe
These make water unsuitable for drinking, irrigation or any
other use (Hari 1994). In India, Central Pollution Control
Board have identified about 150 polluted stretches along
various rivers based on Bio-
Chemical Oxygen Demand levels
(a key
indicator of organic pollution). Of those 150 stretches,
28 are in Maharashtra, 19 in Gujarat, 12 in Uttar Pradesh, 11 in
Karnataka and 9 in Tamil Nadu.
In China, over the last 50
years, there has been a 73% increase in pollution levels from
hundreds of ci
ties, in the main stream of the Yangtze River.
The annual discharge of sewage and industrial waste in the
Yangtze River has reached about 25 billion tons, which is 42%
of the country’s total sewage discharge, and 45% of its total
industrial discharge. Pollution and indu
strial development goes
together. Though there are steps initiated to reduce
*Corresponding author: Gavali, D. J.
Gujarat Ecology Society, 3rd
Floor, Synergy House, Subhanpura, Vadodara
390023, Gujarat, India.
ISSN: 0975-833X
Article History:
Received 03rd May, 2016
Received in revised form
16th June, 2016
Accepted 28th July, 2016
Published online 31st August, 2016
Citation: Gavali, D. J., Patel, T. R. and Mitali Patel
(08), 36757-36762.
Key words:
Chlorides,
pH , DO,
BOD, TDS.
RESEARCH ARTICLE
STATUS OF WATER QUALITY OF MINI RIVER, VADODARA
Gavali
, D. J., Patel, T. R. and Mitali Patel
Floor, Synergy House, Subhanpura, Vadodara
390023, Gujarat, India
ABSTRACT
Fresh water is essential for healthy living. River water is used for various purposes such as bathing,
drinking, community water supply, irrigation etc. This natural resource is being polluted by disposal
of industrial waste sewage and human activities which affect the quality of river water. In the present
study an attempt has been made to study water quality parameters and pollution statu
of Vadodara region (Gujarat). For this study the water samples were collected from pre
sampling stations during December to March 2015 and important physico
as Temperature, Conductivity, pH, DO, BOD, COD, Salinity, TSS, TDS, Phosphate, Nitrate
-N, Total nitrogen, Silicates, Sulphate, Flouride, Dissolved Petro
The values of COD at all stations was within Permissible limits prescribed by CPCB. The value of
salinity and DO were beyond permissible limits in some samples. On the basis of this study it was
concluded that water of Mini River is moderately polluted due to discharges of industrial waste,
domestic sewage and agricultural run
-
off and required more efficient managem
is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Industrial development results in the generation of industrial
effluents, and the release of untreated or treated effluents result
pollution (Fakayode and Onianwa
2002, Fakayode 2005). High level of pollutants mainly organic
matter in river water cause an increase in biological oxygen
demand (Kulkarni 1997), chemical oxygen demand, total
dissolved solids, total suspended solids and fe
cal coli form.
These make water unsuitable for drinking, irrigation or any
other use (Hari 1994). In India, Central Pollution Control
Board have identified about 150 polluted stretches along
Chemical Oxygen Demand levels
indicator of organic pollution). Of those 150 stretches,
28 are in Maharashtra, 19 in Gujarat, 12 in Uttar Pradesh, 11 in
In China, over the last 50
years, there has been a 73% increase in pollution levels from
ties, in the main stream of the Yangtze River.
The annual discharge of sewage and industrial waste in the
Yangtze River has reached about 25 billion tons, which is 42%
of the country’s total sewage discharge, and 45% of its total
strial development goes
together. Though there are steps initiated to reduce
the
Floor, Synergy House, Subhanpura, Vadodara
pollution be it water or air, but would take some time before
the signs of improvement in the nature is visible. There are
trends in developing countries to use sewage effluent as
fertilizer as it is considered a source of organic matter and
plant nutrient
s and serves as good fertilizer (Riordan 1983,Patil
et al., 2012).
There is regular monitoring of the major rivers, but the smaller
ones are gene
rally not monitored, that are equally important
source of water for the residents along its course. Further, t
small rivers end up draining into the major river before
entering into the sea. The present paper tried to enumerate the
status of one of the small and lesser known rivers, Mini river
located in north-
west of Vadodara city. The river passes from
Savl
i, industrial areas of Ranoli, GSFC and Nandesari
Industrial Estate. Currently, the Nandesari Industrial Estate has
250 small scale industries that produce organic and inorganic
chemical compounds, pharmaceuticals and drugs (Misra,
2002). Previously water
quality in the mini river was anlysed
for the locations adjoining the industrial area (Patel
2013), but the entire stretch was not done. The present study
was done for the entire riverine
entry into the Mahi river.
Available online at http://www.journalcra.com
International Journal of Current Research
Vol. 8, Issue, 08, pp.36757-36762, August, 2016
INTERNATIONAL
Gavali, D. J., Patel, T. R. and Mitali Patel, 2016.
“Status of water quality of mini river, Vadodara”,
International Journal of Current Research
z
s of Mini River
-selected
-chemical parameters such
-N,
-Hydrocarbon were analyzed.
ent to conserve this
permits unrestricted use,
hese
et al.,
stretch from its beginning till it
INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL
OF CURRENT RESEARCH
International Journal of Current Research
, 8,
Study area
The river originates in the Savli taluka and traverses a total
length of 35 Km before draining into River Mahi. Rainfall in
this area ranges from 850 to 1050 mm. The region is
characterized by the moderate subtropical monsoonal type of
climate (Srivastava et al.,
2011). A total number of 8 stations
were considered for sampling and the details of each station
are shown in the map. Stations 1 to 3 represent the upstream.
Station 4 to 8 passes through the industrial cluster, first
through the Manjusar Industri
al area and then Nandesari
Industrial estate. There are small towns along the course of the
river that release untreated sewage directly into the river. Due
to this, the water at station 1 to 3 is blackish in colour. After
station 4 onwards, there is relea
se of treated industrial effluents
directly into the river and fishy odour is reported. At station 6,
mortality of fish was reported which is indicative of highly
stress condition.
Figure 1.
Location map of study area
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A total
of 18 water parameters were analysed
methods (APHA)
. Surface water samples were collected from
each location in the morning hours in triplicates during the
month of January 2015. For analysis of DO, the water samples
were collected in a 300
ml BOD bottle and fixed on site using
MnSO4 and Alkaline Iodide-
Azide solution. For rest of the
parameters, water samples were collected in one litre plastic
bottle and brought to the laboratory. All the parameters were
analysed within 4 hours of sample c
ollection using the
standard methods (APHA).
For statistical analysis of the data,
Pearson correlation coefficient and cluster analysis was
performed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The temperature of Mini River water ranged between 15.5°C
to 19.5°C. There was steady increase in the water temperature
36758 Gavali et al. Status of water quality of Mini river, Vadodara
The river originates in the Savli taluka and traverses a total
length of 35 Km before draining into River Mahi. Rainfall in
this area ranges from 850 to 1050 mm. The region is
characterized by the moderate subtropical monsoonal type of
2011). A total number of 8 stations
were considered for sampling and the details of each station
are shown in the map. Stations 1 to 3 represent the upstream.
Station 4 to 8 passes through the industrial cluster, first
al area and then Nandesari
Industrial estate. There are small towns along the course of the
river that release untreated sewage directly into the river. Due
to this, the water at station 1 to 3 is blackish in colour. After
se of treated industrial effluents
directly into the river and fishy odour is reported. At station 6,
mortality of fish was reported which is indicative of highly
Location map of study area
of 18 water parameters were analysed
using standards
. Surface water samples were collected from
each location in the morning hours in triplicates during the
month of January 2015. For analysis of DO, the water samples
ml BOD bottle and fixed on site using
Azide solution. For rest of the
parameters, water samples were collected in one litre plastic
bottle and brought to the laboratory. All the parameters were
ollection using the
For statistical analysis of the data,
Pearson correlation coefficient and cluster analysis was
The temperature of Mini River water ranged between 15.5°C
to 19.5°C. There was steady increase in the water temperature
from station 1 to station 8. The water temperature is in
optimum range (Mishra and
Patel 2001; Yadav 2003) and due
to sampling in winter
season the water temperature recorded
was below 20°C.
The pH values in the present study varied
from 7.64 to 8.56 and the values were within permissible limits
as per CPCB. The pH values declined downstream of station 6.
Previous study (Patel and Parikh,
the range of 6.5 to 8.5 of Mini river. Thus, the present study
indicates improvement
in the pH levels attributed to steps
taken for industrial discharges.
stations was in the range of 467.5µS (s
(station 8). The highest conductivity value was recorded
downstream to station 5 viz
., station 6, 7 and 8 (Table 1). There
is positive correlation (P significant at 0.5 level) between
conductivity, salinity,
TDS and these have contribu
positive ions resulting in high conductivity value. This
indicates influence of sea at stations downstream of station 5.
The chlorides levels was also high at station 6 (1038.67 mg/l),
station 7 (2034.88 mg/l) and station 8 (2298.5 mg/l). Higher
lev
els of chloride indicate influx of sea water during the high
tide. A close look into the map would reveal that the Mini river
drains into the Mahi river, which is at a distance of 40 km from
the sea. The tidal amplitude of Gulf of Khambhat is high about
11 m (Mishra et al., 2014)
. Due to construction of barrage
across Mahi river, there is intrusion of sea water upto station 6
of Mini river. The TDS values recorded minimum 258 mg/L at
station 1 and maximum 1551 mg/L at station 8. As per the
Indian standards,
the permissible limit of TDS in fresh water is
1000 mg/L (Deshkar et al
., 2014). I
values were above the permissible limits at station 6, 7 and 8.
Attributed to sea water intrusion as mentioned above.
values ranged from 4 mg
/L (station 2) to 9.84 mg/L (station 4).
Low DO value at station 2 is attributed to high TSS value due
to discharge of domestic sewage. A drop in DO value was
recorded at station 2, which is related with high discharges as
inferred from higher TSS value in
6 also, drop in the DO levels was reported which coincided
with the sighting of dead fish at this station. As per the Indian
standard DO prescribed in warm water is 6 mg/L to 9.5 mg/L
in cold water for survival of various aqua
et al.,
2014). In this case the DO levels were too low at station
2 and 6 resulting in death of fish at the latter stations.
BOD values recorded at all stations were in the range of 12.8
mg/L (station 2) to 136.4 mg/L (station 3).
exceeds the water quality standards limits of GPCB ie., 30
mg/L. BOD level indicates higher contamination at site 3
w
hich keeps on decreasing as on
to dilution factor. COD values were well within the
permissibl
e limits and ranged from 40 mg/L at station 5 and 7
to 120 mg/L at station 8. The COD levels of station 6 (100
mg/l) was recorded higher than station 7 (40 mg/l). This
clearly indicates presence of organic pollution at all the
locations across the Mini riv
er. The nearby villages and human
settlement
dischrage the domestic effluents directly into the
stream adding to pollution. The nitrite values recorded
minimum 0.03 mg/L at station 5. The maximum values was
recorded at station 6 (0.158 mg/L) and at station 7 (0.192
mg/L).Higher values of nitrite ind
and higher microbial activity in the water. The nitrate values
found ranged from 0.02 mg/L (station 6) to 0.165 mg/L at
station 8.
Gavali et al. Status of water quality of Mini river, Vadodara
et al., 2013) reported pH in
The conductivity recorded at all
tation 2) to 2080 µS
ted to
n the present study, the
The DO
the same station. At station
tic species (Deshkar
The
The levels of BOD
moves downstream attributed
icate reduced state of nitrates
Table 1. Result of water quality Parameters
No. Parameters CPCB Limits Stations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Temperature (°C) - 16.5
(16-17)
18.5
(18-19)
15.5
(15-16)
17.5
(18-17)
17.5
(18-17)
16
(16-16)
19.5
(20-19)
19.5
(19-20)
2 pH 5.5-9.0 8.26
(8.6-7.91)
8.04
(8.19-7.89)
8.05
(7.94-8.15)
8.56
(8.46-8.67)
8.53
(8.68-8.38)
7.77
(7.8-7.73)
7.64
(7.7-7.58)
7.69
(7.83-7.54)
3 Conductivity (µS) 2000 515
(570-460)
467.5
(445-490)
677.5
(655-700)
600
(700-500)
630
(630-630)
1217.5
(1425-1030)
1970
(2350-1590)
2085
(2550-1610)
4 Salinity (mg/L) 1000 161.6
(149.8-173.3)
152.6 (95.7-
209.4)
220.3
(169.7-270.9)
197.8
(186.0-209.5)
206.7
(167.9-245.61)
1876.3
(3330.1-422.5)
3676
(6532.1-819.9)
4152.2 (7556.7-
747.6)
5 TDS (mg/L) 1.5 0.26 (0.27-
0.24)
0.28
(0.25-0.30)
0.43
(0.38-50.38)
0.35
(0.38-0.30)
0.36
(0.32-0.39)
0.76
(0.82-0.69)
1.28
(1.48-1.06)
1.55
(1.69-1.40)
6 DO (mg/L) - 9.7
(9.6-9.8)
4.0
(0-8)
9.22
(8.64-9.8)
9.84
(10.7-8.9)
9.22
(8.64-9.8)
4.72
(4.32-5.12)
7.84
(9.1-6.5)
7.36
(12.6-2.0)
7 BOD (mg/L) 30 72.4
(51.2-93.6)
12.8
(18.4-147.2)
136.4
(92.8-180)
83.2
(99.2-67.2)
67.6
(38.4-96.8)
67.2
(86.4-48)
72
(86.4-57.6)
57.6
(73.6-41.6)
8 TSS (mg/L) 100 0.05
(0.042-0.059)
0.020
(0.035-0.048)
0.004
(0.0011-0.0073)
0.019
(0.00025-0.038)
0.008
(0.0005-0.015)
0.012
(0.0045-0.02)
0.010
(0.004-0.015)
0.009
(0.0101-0.0089)
9 Nitrites (mg/L) - 0.017
(0.015-0.018)
0.016
(0.015-0.016)
0.056
(0.065-0.046)
0.028
(0.031-0.025)
0.030
(0.029-0.03)
0.068
(0.107-0.208)
0.079
(0.131-0.252)
0.086
(0.15-0.022)
10 Nitrates (mg/L) 100 0.138
(0.18-0.07)
0.128
(0.17-0.05)
0.229
(0.26-0.19)
0.197
(0.22-0.12)
0.174
(0.22-0.07)
0.175
(0.2-0.2)
0.245
(0.22--0.249)
0.249
(0.29-0.23)
11 Total Nitrogen (mg/L) - 0.135
(0.13-0.14)
0.136
(0.13-0.14)
0.129
(0.12-0.14)
0.133
(0.13-0.4)
0.13
(0.13-0.13)
0.131
(0.131-0.13)
0.134
(0.131-0.136)
0.135
(0.132-0.137)
12 Phosphate (mg/L) - 0.074
(0.072-0.078)
0.096
(0.07-0.11)
0.08
(0.07-0.08)
0.11
(0.11-0.12)
0.09
(0.08-0.11)
0.13
(0.10-0.16)
0.31
(0.38-0.23)
0.32
(0.38-0.27)
13 Total Phosphate (mg/L) - 0.126
(0.12-0.132)
0.160
(0.164-0.156)
0.162
(0.144-0.18)
0.160
(0.18-0.14)
0.17
(0.173-0.178)
0.28
(0.24-0.32)
0.60
(0.66-0.53)
0.67
(0.76-0.59)
14 Silicates (mg/L) - 0.034
(0.033-0.035)
0.031
(0.03-0.031)
0.026
(0.029-0.023)
0.029
(0.029-0.028)
0.023
(0.025-0.021)
0.024
(0.025-0.023)
0.052
(0.057-0.047)
0.039
(0.055-0.023)
15 Sulphates (mg/L) 400 2.86
(2.89-2.83)
2.64
(2.63-2.66)
4.71
(4.39-5.03)
3.44
(3.8-3.08)
3.52
(3.39-3.66)
8.02
(8.26-7.78)
10.71
(8.44-12.98)
11.02
(9.06-12.98)
16 COD (mg/L) 250 60 100
(0-0)
80
(0-80)
60
(0-60)
40
(0-40)
100
(60-100)
40
(0-40)
120
(0-120)
17 Flourides (mg/L) 2.0 1.007
(0.94-1.07)
0.992
(0.96-1.03)
0.846
(0.94-0.75)
1.153
(1.11-1.19)
1.106
(1.06-1.154)
0.949
(0.78-1.11)
1.085
(0.86-1.31)
1.107
(0.9-1.28)
18 Dissolved Petro-Hydrocarbon (mg/l) - 2.94 3.18 3.18 3.48 3.55 3.67 3.67 5.21
36759 International Journal of Current Research, Vol. 08, Issue, 08, pp.36757-36762, August, 2016
Parameters
Temperature
pH Conductivity
Salinity
Temperature 1
pH -.351 1
Conductivity .619 -.793
*
1
Salinity .646 -.811
*
.996
**
1
TDS .633 -.786
*
.994
**
.992
**
DO -.194 .556 -.170 -.224
BOD .318 .609 -.169 -.166
TSS -.274 .224 -.319 -.285
Nitrite .303 -.800
*
.914
**
.888
**
Nitrate .327 -.464 .754
*
.701
TotalNitrogen .655 -.246 .211 .287
Phosphate .062 -.096 .117 .151
TotalPhosphate .725
*
-.760
*
.986
**
.988
**
Silicate .733
*
-.576 .700 .712
*
Sulphate .503 -.834
*
.987
**
.978
**
COD .039 -.489 .226 .275
Flouride .682 .262 .283 .292
DissolvedPetrohydr
ocarbon
.583 -.483 .795
*
.802
*
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
36760
Table 2. Correlation between water quality parameters
TDS DO BOD TSS Nitrite Nitrate Total
Nitrogen
Phosphate Total
Phosphate
Silicate
1
-.175 1
-.165 .670 1
-.334 .338 .453 1
.910
**
-.156 -.443 -.453 1
.763
*
.282 -.126 -.486 .841
**
1
.231 -.299 .315 .351 -.136 -.230 1
.103 .309 .466 .899
**
-.088 -.155 .514 1
.990
**
-.163 -.081 -.317 .857
**
.737
*
.310 .129 1
.672 .018 .189 .073 .460 .474 .589 .437 .747
*
.976
**
-.217 -.303 -.356 .958
**
.760
*
.107 .057 .950
**
.627
.303 -.625 -.554 -.200 .299 .024 .250 -.129 .234 -
.155
.282 .259 .723
*
-.083 -.018 .145 .391 .100 .352
.342
.847
**
-.134 -.016 -.394 .716
*
.625 .191 -.040 .820
*
.310
Figure 2. Cluster analysis of Sampling Stations of Mini River
Gavali et al. Status of water quality of Mini river, Vadodara
Silicate
Sulphate
COD Flouride Dissolved
Petrohydrocarbon
1
.627
1
.155
.264 1
.342
.167 -.308 1
.310
.757
*
.500 .427 1
These values were within the permissible range of GPCB (50
mg/l). The higher nitrate values at the downstream stations are
due to addition of pollution and its magnification as the river
flows. The total nitrogen values ranged from 0.13 mg/L
(station 1) to 0.364 mg/L at station 8 respectively. Overall the
nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen values increased as one moved
downstream of the river. This is due to increase in pollution
load across the gradient. The phosphate values recorded ranged
from 0.075 mg/L at station 1 to 0.326 mg/L at station 8. There
is clear increase in the inorganic phosphates four times as one
moves down the river. The major source of inorganic
phosphates is the industrial effluents and input of effluent from
the industrial area. The recommended maximum value of the
Total Phosphate in the river is 0.1 mg/L (Water Quality
Criteria, Environmental Studies Board, National Academy of
Sciences, 1972). The observed value of the phosphate in the
present study is high and unfit for agriculture purpose as well.
The total phosphate values ranged from 0.126 mg/l (station 1)
to 0.6795 mg/L (station 8). Here also the total phosphates
increased by 5 times at the last station as compared to first
station. This indicates presence of both domestic and industrial
discharges in the downstream stations especially station 7
onwards. Silicate values was noted in the range of 0.023 at
station 5 to 0.052 mg/L at station 7. The maximum values were
recorded at station 7 and 8 which was 0.052 and 0.042 mg/L
respectively. Sulphate values recorded in the range of 2.65
mg/L at station 2 to 11.02 mg/L at station 8.The standard for
the Sulphate concentration in the river water from effluent
discharge is prescribed as 100 mg/L (MOEF, 1993). Thus in
the present study the sulphate values were within the
permissible limits. The highest level was recorded at station 6,
7, 8 (8.02 mg/L, 10.71 mg/L, 11.02 mg/L respectively) which
are downstream stations. Fluoride levels was recorded high at
all stations in the ranged from 0.846 (Station 3) to 1.153 mg/L
(Station 4) which was within the permissible limits (1.9 mg/l).
The higher fluoride concentration leads to flourosis and the
water is unfit for drinking (Fawell et al., 2006). PHC values
observed were in the range of 2.94 mg/L (Station 1) to 5.21
mg/L (Station 8). The values of PHC increased downstream
indicative of hydro-carbon pollution. The presence of refinery
and its discharges have influenced the high PHC values.
Pearson’s correlation was performed to understand the
correlation between all physico-chemical parameters. Chloride
showed positive correlation with Total phosphate (P˂ 0.01),
nitrite and PHC content. This is due to the fact that there is
increase in the all above mentioned parameters as one moves
down the riverine system. High concentration of Total
nitrogen,Total phosphorous ion affect the conductivity which
influence the concentration of chlorinity (Deshkar et al., 2014).
Fluoride showed negatively correlation with Total suspended
solids (P< 0.05) and positively correlated with BOD levels (P<
0.05). There is no direct relation between fluoride content and
TDS or BOD levels. In this case it happens that there could be
some industry releasing fluoride into the waters that has
impacted and the relation was observed. PHC showed positive
correlation with chloride, Total dissolved solids and Total
phosphate (P<0.05). This may be due to influence of
industrialization which releases high amount of phosphate into
the water. Crude oil is used to make petroleum products, which
can contaminate the environment (Gustafson, 2007). PHC are
made up of a variety of organic compounds and the amount of
carbon availability to potential degrade the species in large.
This results in large microbial demand for inorganic nutrients
especially Nitrogen and Phosphorous. Nitrate gives significant
positive correlation (P<0.05) with nitrite values. The higher
nitrate values indicate conversion of nitrites, unstable form to
stable form which is also readily available for absorption to the
plants. Cluster analysis was performed for all the parameters
and the results showed classification of the stations in three
distinct categories A, B and C. Category A includes station 1
to 5 and the water quality in these stations are similar.
Category B includes station 6 which lies in between Category
A and C and therefore act more of ecotone zone. At this point
the tidal influence finishes and there is confluence of fresh
water and marine water. Category C includes station 7 and 8.
At these stations there is presence of sea influence and also the
nutrient status is almost 2-5 times compared to category A.
Therefore, category C is also distantly related with category A.
Conclusion
The Mini river is one of the polluted rivers and though is a
small tributary of Mahi river, the water finally reaches the
estuarine region. There is need to tackle the problem of
pollution not only in the large major rivers but also in the
smaller rivers that form part of the large riverine system. With
the expansion of village population and generation of sewage,
there is need to install STP at even village level to check the
pollution of major rivers and curtail the degradation of the
estuarine life.
Acknowledgment
The authors wish to thank staff of Gujarat Ecology Society for
providing the necessary support and inputs in the study.
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Assessment of Physico-Chemical properties and sewage pollution indicator bacteria in surface water of River Gomti in Uttar Pradesh
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  • S Srivastava
Srivastava, A. and Srivastava, S. 2011. Assessment of Physico-Chemical properties and sewage pollution indicator bacteria in surface water of River Gomti in Uttar Pradesh, International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2(1), 325-336.
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