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Gender Differences in Risk Markers for Perpetration of Physical Partner Violence: Results from a Meta-Analytic Review

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Abstract

There is a lack of consensus on whether the use of intimate partner violence (IPV) is distinctly different between men and women, or if men and women share similar risk markers for perpetrating IPV. In this study, we compared 60 different risk markers for IPV perpetration for men and women using a meta-analysis. We found three out of 60 risk markers significantly differed between men and women. Our results suggest that there are more similarities between men and women than there are differences in risk markers for IPV perpetration.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Gender Differences in Risk Markers for Perpetration of Physical
Partner Violence: Results from a Meta-Analytic Review
Chelsea Spencer
1
&Bryan Cafferky
2
&Sandra M. Stith
3
Published online: 2 September 2016
#Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016
Abstract There is a lack of consensus on whether the use of
intimate partner violence (IPV) is distinctly different between
men and women, or if men and women share similar risk
markers for perpetrating IPV. In this study, we compared 60
different risk markers for IPV perpetration for men and women
usingameta-analysis.Wefoundthreeoutof60riskmarkers
significantly differed between men and women. Our results sug-
gest that there are more similarities between men and women
than there are differences in risk markers for IPV perpetration.
Keywords Intimate partner violence perpetration .IPV .
Gender .Meta-analysis
Some researchers examining factors related to why individ-
uals perpetrate violence against their intimate partners have
taken a gendered approach, looking at mens and womens
use of intimate partner violence (IPV) as distinctly different
(Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al. 2012). However, other re-
searchers have viewed mens and womens perpetration of
IPVas stemming from a variety of risk markers that are similar
for men and women (Straus 2011). There is currently no clear
consensus in the literature about whether risk markers related
to mens and womens use of violence in intimate relation-
ships are distinctly different from one another, or if men and
women share the same risk markers for perpetrating IPV. This
paper presents an overview of findings from a meta-analytic
review to address this controversy.
A number of individual studies have addressed this contro-
versy. For example, Swan et al. (2008) non-systematic litera-
ture review highlighted research that supports the notion that
men are more likely than women to use violence as a means to
control their partners or exert dominance over their partners.
This perception of partner violence as a gendered phenome-
non looks at IPVas a result of the inequality within romantic
relationships which supports male dominance and fosters
male power and control (Yllo 2005). This perception suggests
that mens perpetration of IPV is a strategy to dominate and
control their partners. Researchers who focus on IPV as a
gendered phenomenon would expect that risk markers for
male versus female IPV would differ and that, for example,
control would be a stronger risk marker for mensperpetration
of IPV than for womensperpetration.
However, other researchers have found that women are just
as likely as are men to use violence as a means to control or
dominate their partners (Straus 2005). For example, Graham-
Kevan and Archers(2005) cross-sectional study found that
controlling behaviors was a significant predictor of women
perpetrating violence against their intimate partners. These
findings suggest that control would be an equally strong risk
marker for women using violence in intimate relationships as
it would be for men.
An alternative perspective is that mensperpetrationofIPV
is less about their desire for domination and control, and more
about their restricted range of strategies for conflict resolution
(Straus 2005). This suggests that men perpetrate IPV because
they have maladaptively chosen to use violence as a result of
their inability to resolve conflict in their intimate relationships.
*Chelsea Spencer
cspencer@ksu.edu
1
Kansas State University, 2801 Goodrich Circle,
Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
2
Loma Linda University, Griggs Hall, Office 203, 11065 Campus
Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
3
Kansas State University, 101 Campus Creek Complex, 1405 Campus
Creek Road, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
J Fam Viol (2016) 31:981984
DOI 10.1007/s10896-016-9860-9
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Die empirische Forschung hat eine Anzahl von Risikofaktoren für die Ausübung 2 von IPG identifiziert. Grundsätzlich muss von einem komplexen Zusammenspiel verschiedener Risikofaktoren ausgegangen werden (beispielsweise Stith et al. 2004;Spencer et al. 2016 Hilton et al. (2014) in einer längsschnittlichen Studie über 9 Jahre (n = 30) eine hohe prädiktive Validität (AUC = 0,72) des ODARA (wobei die Rückfallraten von denen der Männer abwichen). Dies ist zurzeit als vorläufiges Resultat einzustufen (Yaxley et al. 2018), das in Deutschland bzw. ...
... a.Steinau et al. in press). Gemäß einer Metaanalyse vonMatias et al. (2019) wiesen Männer, die ihre Partnerin getötet haben, im Vergleich zu nichttödlich verlaufenden IPG-Fällen im Vorfeld häufiger Suizidgedanken und Suizidversuche auf.Weiterhin gibt es Hinweise, dass patriarchalische Einstellungen Risikofaktoren für IPG sind(Stith et al. 2004), jedoch scheinen kontrollierende Verhaltensweisen an sich keine Risikofaktoren zu sein, die spezifisch für Männer gelten(Spencer et al. 2016). Eine spezielle Kategorie, die jedoch noch wenig erforscht ist, bildet die ehrbasierte IPG. ...
... Diesbezüglich gibt es Hinweise, dass die Täter kaum psychische Störungen oder Persönlichkeitsstörungen aufweisen(Belfrage et al. 2012). Risikofaktoren für ehrbasierte IPG sind im Risikoeinschätzungsinstrument PATRIARCH zu finden(Belfrage 2005).In einer Metaanalyse kamenSpencer et al. (2016) zum Schluss, dass sich Männer und Frauen, die IPG ausüben, hinsichtlich 60 berücksichtigter Risikofaktoren weitgehend ähnlich sind. Geschlechtsunterschiede ergaben sich nur in 3 Aspekten u. a. bezüglich, Gewalt in der Kindheit erlebt/ bezeugt zu haben, sowie bezüglich Alkoholkonsum/-Missbrauch, die bei Männern wichtigere Risikofaktoren darstellten als bei Frauen. ...
... A study reported that there is a relationship between forced sex in teenagers and factors such as gender, negative self-concept, and suicidal ideation [13]. Forced sex has also been associated with attitude factors in adults such as low self-efficacy as well as sexual relationship associated behaviors, including a large number of past friendship partners [14,15]. The risk of these factors is closely associated with socio-ecological factors, including social, cultural, religious, familial, educational, political, and ideological factors affecting lifestyle [14]. ...
... Forced sex has also been associated with attitude factors in adults such as low self-efficacy as well as sexual relationship associated behaviors, including a large number of past friendship partners [14,15]. The risk of these factors is closely associated with socio-ecological factors, including social, cultural, religious, familial, educational, political, and ideological factors affecting lifestyle [14]. ...
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Background Forced sex is associated with negative psychological health outcomes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of forced sex and its predictors. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 800 students of a university in USA using a random sampling method. Reproductive health electronic questionnaire was used for data collection. Due to the sensitive nature of the questionnaires and for anonymity, Qualtrics software was used. To estimate the extent of the effect of each of the independent variables (knowledge, attitude, as well as socio-demographic characteristics) on the dependent variable (forced sex), multivariate logistic regression was used. Results About one-fifth of students (16.9%) had experienced forced sex. The variables of gender, knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and sexual attitude were among the predictors of forced sex. This kind of sexual relationship was more likely to occur in girls than in boys (OR = 2.94, 95%CI: 1.20 to 1.71). Further, the chance of forced sex significantly increased with growing knowledge of STD (OR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.61 to 1.71), and sexual attitude (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.04 to 1.21). Conclusion Considering the impact of gender, knowledge about STD, and sexual attitude on forced sex, educational interventions among the youth especially girls are required to provide complete and proper information about sexual and reproductive health and rights and correct the sexual attitudes of the youth.
... Approximately, 30% of women worldwide have experienced IPV at least once in their life (WHO, 2013). However, most of our knowledge about IPV comes from research and meta-analyses conducted in Western countries (Arroyo et al., 2017;Caetano et al., 2017;Cafferky et al., 2018;Spencer et al., 2016;Stith et al., 2004). During the past decade, the number of international studies focused on IPV has increased and several studies have systematically reviewed the knowledge 1 Kansas State University, Manhattan, USA generated on IPV in non-Western countries (Boy & Kulczycki, 2008;Clark et al., 2010;Hajnasiri et al., 2016). ...
... We also found that partner's experience of child abuse was a significant risk marker for female IPV victimization in Iran. Prior literature has shown that experiencing abuse as a child is related to perpetrating IPV in future relationships (Alderondo et al., 2002;Faramarzi et al., 2005;Reitzel-Jaffe, & Wolfe, 2001;Schafer et al., 2004;Smith-Marek et al., 2015;Spencer et al., 2016;Stith et al., 2000). We also found that partner's drug use was a significant risk marker for IPV victimization. ...
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In this study, evidence from 14 studies examines 16 unique risk markers for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization for Iranian women. Large-to-medium effect sizes were found for emotional abuse victimization, depression, poor mental health, poor physical health, partner’s drug use, living in a patriarchal household, and partner having experienced child abuse as risk markers. Higher levels of education and higher levels of household income were significant protective markers against IPV victimization for Iranian women. Partner’s education, partner’s employment, being employed, being pregnant, age, partner’s age, and length of the relationship were not significant risk markers for IPV victimization among Iranian women.
... Contrary to conventional findings that males tend to engage in crime and delinquency at a disproportionate rate relative to females, some researchers have found that women are just as likely as men to engage in IPV (i.e., the gender symmetry thesis; Straus 2009). Further, there is no clear consensus in the literature about whether men and women share the same risk factors for perpetrating IPV (Spencer, Cafferky, and Stith 2016). Agnew's (2005) integrated theory is well suited for exploring the seemingly contradictory evidence on IPV perpetration among males and females because it is designed to explain why certain groups have higher crime rates than others. ...
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Offering pragmatic guidance for planning and conducting a meta-analytic review, this book is written in an engaging, nontechnical style that makes it ideal for ...