Article

GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds and Nutrient Composition of Myristica fragrans Seeds

Authors:
  • Babcock University, ilishan remo, ogun, Nigeria
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Abstract

The chemical constituents in Myristica fragrans seeds were analyzed using proximate analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS), phytochemical and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) methods. Results showed the percentage proximate composition of M. fragrans seeds as: crude ash < crude protein < crude fibre < moisture < crude fat < nitrogen free extract. The AAS analysis indicated the presence of magnesium (133.10mg kg–1), sodium (423.55 mg kg–1), calcium (1560.09 mg kg–1) and potassium (5139 mg kg–1). The aqueous extract of M. fragrans seeds had higher concentrations of phenols (0.10 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g–1) and flavonoids (1.10 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) g–1) than the dichloromethane extracts that had phenols (0.03 mg GAE g–1) and flavonoids (0.10 QE mg g–1). The aqueous and dichloromethane extracts contained 6 and 18 bioactive compounds respectively.

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... A simple, rapid, and accurate method for determining DDIE, MYR, and SAF is interesting to be developed. Several HPLC and GC methods using variety of columns and mobile phase for determination of myristicin and safrole have been reported [4,6,7,8,9], but there was no reported method to determination of myristicin, safrole, and DDIE simultaneously. In the present study, HPLC is also used based on its advantages on high resolution, efficiency, and fast separation. ...
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The inhibitory effects of nutmeg essential oil and three components of this oil at different concentrations were tested by GABA-induced chloride current (I GABA) stimulation through gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors comprising of α1β2γ2s subtype using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique on Xenopus laevis oocytes. The essential oil of the kernels of Myristica fragrans was extracted by steam distillation and was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) technique. A total of 16 compounds were isolated from the essential oil. The essential oil showed promising activity by enhanced I GABA up to 100% of stimulation when tested at 100 nL/mL. For dose dependent activity, α-terpineol and myristicin showed statistical significant potentiation of I GABA. α-Terpineol was found to induce an enhancement of I GABA modulation (EC5-10) by 229.6±23.8% and 326.3±43.8%, at 100 μM and 500 μM, respectively. Myristicin induced an enhancement up to 237.6±35.1% at 500 μM. In contrast, limonene exhibited weak modulation compared to GABA controls at the same concentration. The essential oil and its two components exhibited promising inhibitory activity by enhancement of I GABA that provides scientific evidence for its traditional use in the treatment of epilepsy.
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Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical constitution of dried seeds of Myristica fragrans using eight different solvent extracts such as methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, petroleum ether, acetone, and aqueous (cold and hot). Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screenings for various secondary metabolites were carried out. All the extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening and were analyzed for the presence of active constituents such as alkaloid, flavonoid, phenol, glycosides, and triterpenoids, etc. Results: Qualitative analysis of the seed extracts confirmed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenols, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, anthocyanin, chalcones, emodins, and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The generated data has provided the basis for its wide uses as a therapeutic both in traditional and folk medicine. The observed phytochemical constituents in the seed extract may be associated with its high bioactive constituents that may serve as candidates to new drugs in the treatment and prevention of various human ailments. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.
Article
Nigerian medicinal plants (Aspilia africana and Bryophyllum pinnatum) were analyzed for their chemical composition, vitamins and minerals. The results revealed the presence of bioactive constituents comprising alkaloids (1.24 to 1.48 mg/100 g), saponins (1.46 to 1.72 mg/100 g), flavonoids (1.46 to 1.86 mg/100 g), phenols (0.06 mg/100g) and tannins (0.04 to 0.5 mg/100g). The medicinal plants contained ascorbic acid (26.42 to 44.03 mg/100 g), riboflavin (0.20 to 0.42 mg/100 g), thiamine (0.11 to 0.18 mg/100 g), and niacin (0.02 to 0.09 mg/100 g). These herbs are good sources of minerals such as Ca, P, K, Mg, Na, Fe and Zn. The importance of these chemical constituents is discussed with respect to the role of these herbs in ethnomedicine in Nigeria.
Article
Tinospora crispa Beumee, a herbaceous climber, has been widely used in traditional medicine for treating various ailments such as contusion, septicaemia, fever, fracture, scabies and other tropical ulcers. A wide range of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, diterpenes, flavones, phenolics, and triterpenes have been isolated, some of which have also shown corresponding biological activities. The current review is an update on the reported pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of T. crispa.
Article
Minerals are inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts from less than 1 to 2500 mg per day, depending on the mineral. As with vitamins and other essential food nutrients, mineral requirements vary with animal species. For example, humans and other vertebrates need large amounts of calcium for construction and maintenance of bone and normal function of nerves and muscles. Phosphorus is an important constituent of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nucleic acid and is also essential for acid-base balance, bone and tooth formation. Red blood cells can not function properly without iron in haemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells. Iron is also an important component of the cytochromes that function in cellular respiration. Magnesium, copper, selenium, zinc, iron, manganese and molybdenum are important co-factors found in the structure of certain enzymes and are indispensable in numerous biochemical pathways. Vertebrates need iodine to make thyroid hormones. Sodium, potassium and chlorine are important in the maintenance of osmotic balance between cells and the interstitial fluid. Magnesium is an important component of chlorophyll in plants. The interactions between nutrition and diseases, nutrition and drug metabolism have been reported. Excessive intake of some minerals can upset homeostatic balance and cause toxic side effects. For example, excess sodium intake is associated with high blood pressure and excess iron can cause liver damage. Also, severe shortages or self-prescribed minerals can alter the delicate balance in body functions that promotes health. The knowledge of the biochemistry of the mineral elements is also essential because individuals suffering from a chronic illness or taking medications that affect the body's use of specific nutrients need to be enlightened. The aim of this paper is to review the biochemical functions and the importance of the mineral elements in health and disease conditions of humans, animals and plants as this will assist in the prevention of nutrition-related diseases and maintenance of good health for humans and animals that depend on plants for food. This paper could also serve as a ready source of literature review for researchers involved in nutritional sciences.
Article
The natural plant components, 1-feruloyl-sn-glycerol (FG) and 1,3-diferuloyl-sn-glycerol (F2G), were synthesized by the enzymatic esterification of glycerol and soybean oil mono- and diacylglycerols, respectively, with ethyl ferulate. The isolated FG and F2G were examined for their antioxidant activities as free radical scavengers (DPPH assay) and peroxyl lipid oxidation inhibitors (TBARS assay). The H atom transfer kinetics, as monitored by DPPH free radical bleaching, of FG showed that the mono-feruloyl glycerol acted as a rapid antioxidant (50% reduction of DPPH radical < 5 min) in ethanol solutions while F2G and ferulic acid activity rates were in the range of intermediate antioxidants (50% reduction of DPPH radical in 5–30 min). FG and F2G showed similar activity as the control agent, ethyl ferulate, towards the inhibition of the AAPH-induced peroxyl radical oxidation of surfactant emulsified γ-linolenic acid. A slight excess of feruloyl groups was sufficient to completely suppress the formation of secondary lipid oxidation products.
Article
The antioxidant activities (AA) of Sechium edule extracts were tested by three established in vitro methods, namely reducing power, β-carotene linoleate model and 1,1- diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging. Leaf ethanolic extracts and leaf and seed water extracts showed strong inhibitory activity by β-carotene bleaching (AA values of 90%). Furthermore, these extracts exerted hydrogen-donating ability in the presence of DDPH stable radical (IC50 2 μg/ml). These extracts also showed strong reducing power by the potassium ferricyanide reduction method. Leaf and seed extracts may be exploited as biopreservatives in food applications as well as for health supplements or functional food, to aleviate oxidative stress.
Article
About 100 pure components of essential oils have been tested for their antioxidant effectiveness. The main classes of compounds, namely monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, benzene derivatives, and non isoprenoid components comprising alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, which are the most common constituents of essential oils, have been analysed. Two model systems for the antioxidant efficacy have been used; the first exploiting the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) method using egg yolk as oxydable substrate, the second measuring the formation of hydroperoxydienes from linoleic acid in a micellar system, using in both cases 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP) as a radical initiator, and α-tocopherol as a reference compound. From a general point of view phenols were confirmed to possess the highest antioxidant activity. In particular some monoterpene hydrocarbons, namely, terpinolene, α- and γ-terpinene showed a significant protective action, whereas among the oxygenated components, beside the aforesaid phenols, allylic alcohols manifested an appreciable activity. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and non isoprenoid components subjected to this study showed a low, if any, antioxidant effect. The role of the different model systems and the relationship between structure and antioxidant effectiveness are discussed.
Article
Unlabelled: Isolation of volatile and fixed oils from nutmeg have been obtained by supercritical fractioned extraction with carbon dioxide. Extraction experiments were carried out at pressures of 90 and 250 bar and temperature of 40 °C. The extraction step performed at 90 bar produced a volatile fraction mainly formed by myristicin (32.8%), sabinene (16.1%), α-pinene (9.8%), β-pinene (9.4%), β-phellandrene (4.9%), safrole (4.1%) and terpinen-4-ol (3.6%). The oil yield relative to this step of the process was 1.4% by weight of the charge. The last extraction step at 250 bar produced a butter-like material (nutmeg butter). The yield of this step was 14.4% by weight. The most represented fatty acids of fixed oil from nutmeg were 14:0 (79.2%), 18:1 n-9 (7.4%) and 16:0 (6.1%), and in particular the unsaturated fatty acids 18:1 n-9 averaged 32.96 μg/mg of oil. The level of myristicin in the nutmeg essential and fixed oils was also directly quantified by reversed HPLC-DAD. Moreover, the essential oil obtained from nutmeg, as well as myristicin, showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of a colon cancer cell line (undifferentiated Caco-2 cells). Practical application: In this study, the chemical characterization and the anticancer activity of nutmeg oils obtained by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide were investigated. This is important for their potential application in food and pharmaceutical industries.
Article
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a sphingolipid signaling molecule crucial for cell survival and proliferation. S1P-mediated signaling is largely controlled through its biosynthesis and degradation, and S1P lyase (S1PL) is the only known enzyme that irreversibly degrades sphingoid base-1-phosphates to phosphoethanolamine and the corresponding fatty aldehydes. S1PL-mediated degradation of S1P results in the formation of (2E)-hexadecenal, whereas hexadecanal is the product of dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate (DHS1P) degradation. Fatty aldehydes can undergo biotransformation to fatty acids and/or alcohols, making them elusive and rendering the task of fatty aldehyde quantitation challenging. We have developed a simple, highly sensitive, and high-throughput protocol for (2E)-hexadecenal quantitation as a semicarbazone derivative by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The approach was applied to determining S1PL activity in vitro with the ability to use as low as 0.25μg of microsomal protein per assay. The method is also applicable to the use of total tissue homogenate as the source of S1PL. A correction for (2E)-hexadecenal disappearance due to its biotransformation during enzymatic reaction is required, especially at higher protein concentrations. The method was applied to confirm FTY720 as the inhibitor of S1PL with an IC₅₀ value of 52.4μM.
Article
Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as well as the quantity of phenolic substances (total phenol, flavonoid and phenolic acid contents) were determined in aqueous extracts of leaves, stems and flowers of Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. from two mountainous localities (Sveti Jure and Snijeznica) in Croatia. In addition, the profile of phenolic acids was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Antioxidant activities of all extracts in different test systems, namely the DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power assay and chelating activity, increased with extract concentration. Activity of the extracts from Snijeznica in beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay did not differ from the activity of standard, BHA. The leaf extracts from Snijeznica demonstrated superior antioxidant activity in most of the assays, while the stem extract from the same locality was the most effective Fe(2+) ion chelator. In general, the extracts from Snijeznica were more effective antioxidants than the corresponding extracts from Sveti Jure. The aqueous extracts of M. petraea did not show antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi tested in the diffusion and dilution assays.
Article
Cobalt(III) complexes of the type [Co(N-N)2L](ClO4)2.H2O [where L=anionic form of para-substituted benzaldehyde-benzoylhydrazone (BHBX-); X=H, Me, OMe, OH, Cl or NO2; N-N=2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)] have been synthesized and characterized through UV-Vis, IR, NMR and electrochemical studies. The IR spectral frequencies support the mode of coordination of BHBX to the metal through the imino nitrogen and enolic oxygen atoms. The electronic absorption spectra exhibit metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition around 450 nm together with intraligand (IL) bands that are comparable to that of [Co(phen/bpy)3]3+. In acetonitrile solution these complexes show two well defined redox couples corresponding to Co(III/II) and Co(II/I) processes. Binding of these complexes with herring sperm DNA have been investigated by spectroscopic and voltammetric methods. The lower binding constant values of these complexes with respect to the [Co(phen/bpy)3]3+ are ascribed to the polar interaction of the substituted benzoylhydrazone moiety with the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA. The UV spectrum shows reasonable hypochromism with slight (2-4 nm) red shift, while the cyclic voltammogram shows decrease in current intensity along with a very small shift in the formal potential of the Co(III/II) redox couple. These experimental results indicate that phen mixed ligand complexes bind to DNA through an intercalative mode more effectively than their bpy counterparts. These complexes are also found to have good antimicrobial activity.
Characterization of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase activity by ESI-LC/MS/MS quantitation of (2E)-hexadecenal
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