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Permanent Deacons and Non-profit Directors: Comparing Leadership Styles Among Facilitators of Community Agencies

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Abstract

Permanent deacons in the Roman Catholic Church (all male) are active in their local community and congregation mobilizing faith formation events, liturgical services, and community social action programs, yet not much is known about their leadership style. The present study compared U.S. 203 permanent deacons with 202 male community-based directors of non-profit agencies on their self-reported transformational leadership style, assessed by five subscales of competencies. Deacons and directors differed significantly on three subscales; deacons scored higher on the promoting positive values and leadership as service subscales, while directors scored higher on the building a sustainable organization subscale. Results suggested that the transformational leadership styles of U.S. permanent deacons is more value and service-centered, and, in comparison, community-based non-profit leaders seem to focus more on the group’s structure and health of their organization.

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... Another study in the US context by Jaskyte (2004) revealed that transformational leadership was a significant predictor of organizational culture due to its positive implications for innovativeness in NPOs. Meanwhile, Reed and Ferrari (2017) found that transformational leadership of deacons was service-oriented, with a focus placed on the overall health of the organization. A study was also conducted by Allen et al. (2018) on the impacts of servant leadership on organizational commitment via structural empowerment in a US nonprofit organization, and it was found that structural empowerment had a significant mediating effect on the relationship between servant leadership and organizational commitment. ...
Article
Purpose-This study aims to investigate the effects of transformational and transactional leaders' behaviors on employees' affective commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in the context of nonprofit organizations (NPOs). Additionally, this study attempts to examine the role of work engagement, as an intervening mechanism as work engagement in NPOs has been empirically neglected (Park et al., 2018). Design/methodology/approach-Data were conducted from 400 employees working in Italian NPOs in the North of Italy. For verifying the hypotheses of this study, structural equation modeling techniques were implemented. Findings-It was found that both transformational and transactional leaderships influenced positively affective commitment and organizational citizenship behavior, and work engagement was revealed to have significant positive mediating effects on the relationship between the variables examined in this study. Practical implications-The results of this study may be beneficial to leaders and supervisors of NPOs, specifically regarding the influence of the leaders' behaviors on the employees' outcomes. Originality/value-Due to the limited number of studies conducted on leadership in nonprofit organizations, this study theoretically and empirically contributes to the leadership literature as it is the first study to investigate the two styles of leadership on work-related outcomes via work engagement in the nonprofit sector.
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Communities form individuals, and individuals form communities. It is a journey of lifespan reciprocity: From our earliest ages and stages we need our communities to guide us and challenge us, to nurture us and toughen us, to give us roots and wings, and to finally give us the chance to become those who teach the next generations to thrive. This journey is not an automatic, instinctual process. It may be complicated and rocky depending on whom we encounter across our lifespans. This possibility is particularly true of persons who experience mental and emotional difficulties. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a lifespan development description of the potential positive roles of religion in healthy development, integrated with a prevention-science-based model of Clergy Outreach and Professional Engagement (COPE) to describe the continuity of care that might be accessed from religious communities collaborating with clinicians and consumers, as well as their families. We provide community examples of this continuity of care in the work of Catholic deacons.
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Transformational Leadership, Second Edition is intended for both the scholars and serious students of leadership. It is a comprehensive review of theorizing and empirical research that can serve as a reference and starting point for additional research on the theory. It can be used as a supplementary textbook in an intense course on leadership--or as a primary text in a course or seminar focusing on transformational leadership. New in the Second Edition: New, updated examples of leadership have been included to help illustrate the concepts, as well as show the broad range of transformational leadership in a variety of settings. New chapters have been added focusing specifically on the measurement of transformational leadership and transformational leadership and effectiveness. The discussion of both predicators and effects of transformational leadership is greatly expanded. Much more emphasis is given to authentic vs. inauthentic transformational leadership. Suggestions are made for guiding the future of research and applications of transformational leadership. © 2006 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
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