Iosr Journal Of Pharmacy
E-Issn: 2250-3013, P-Issn: 2319-4219
Www.Iosrphr.Org Volume 3, Issue 2(March 2013), Pp 14-20
Evaluation of hypoglycemic properties of kodo millet based food
products in healthy subjects
Yadav Neelam*2, Chaudhary Kanchan1, Singh Alka2, Gupta Alka1
1Department of Foods and Nutrition, Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad, India.
2Centre of Food Technology, Science Faculty Campus, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India.
Abstract: The glycemic index (GI) of Kodo incorporated (60%) Idli and Sewai upma and their corresponding
control products were determined in ten normal subjects. Using a randomized crossover design the reference
and test foods were fed in random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Capillary blood samples
were collected through finger-prick and analyzed for glucose level by using automatic analyzer at 0, 15, 30, 45,
60, 90 and 120 min interval after consuming reference (glucose) and test food containing 50 g available
carbohydrate. No significant difference was observed between control and Kodo based Idli and Sewai upma in
terms of appearance, texture, flavour and taste and overall acceptibility.The incremental area under curve
(IAUC), GI and Glycemic Load (GL) values were determined for each test food. The GI of Kodo based Idli
(58.53 (SEM 1.48)) and Sewai upma (65.49 (SEM 1.01)) was considerably lower than the control Idli (67.11
(SEM 3.25)) and Sewai upma (69.49 (SEM 1.01)).The correlation between GI-GL (r2 =0.999, p≤0.01) and
between GI and IAUC (r2 =0.994, p≤0.01) was found positive and highly significant. Including these value
added products containing kodo millet in daily diet could help a better glucose control and aid in avoiding
Keywords: Glycemic Index, Glycemic load, Incremental area under curve, Diabetes, Value added products
Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) is one of the hardiest crops grown in Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh and various other parts of India. Minor millets like kodo is also described as
nutritious millet and has received far less research and development attention than other crops with regard to
crop improvement and utilization. According to Directorate of Millets Development, kodo millet is grown in
area of about 907,800 ha with annual production of about 310,710 tonnes. It is the main source of protein and
minerals in the daily diets of tribal and weaker section living in remote rural areas . Millets are nutritionally
superior than other cereals. The millet contains a high proportion of complex carbohydrate and dietary fiber
which helps in prevention of constipation and slow release of glucose to the blood stream. Glycemic index is an
important tool used in treating people with diabetes [2, 3], cardiovascular disease management , and weight
regulation programs . Millets including Kodo contain water soluble fiber and this property may be utilized
for maintaining or lowering blood glucose response among diabetic and CVD patients. Glycemic load (GL)
representing both quality and quantity of carbohydrate in a food and allows comparison of the likely glycemic
effect of realistic portion of the different foods.
Low glycemic index foods have been shown to improve the glucose tolerance in both healthy and
diabetic subjects . Therefore in the present study kodo millet a locally available, unexploited food was
selected in order to develop low glycemic index food and to produce data that can effectively enable the use of
GI for dietary recommendations. In present study we compared the Glycemic index of control Idli and Sewai
upma with the newly developed kodo millet based products.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Procurement of raw materials
Kodo millet was procured from the local farmers of Chunar village of Mirzapur district of Uttar
Pradesh (U.P.), India.
Evaluation Of Hypoglycemic Properties…
2.2 Nutritional and chemical composition of kodo millet
All determinations were done by following the AOAC (1980) official protocols . The Soxhlet
method was used for total fat determination. Crude fiber was obtained after samples digestion with diluted acid
and alkali. Moisture was determined from sample weight loss after drying at 110° C for 4 h. Protein content was
determined by Lowry’s method  and Carbohydrate by difference method. Calcium was determined by
titration method and Iron by Spectrophotometric method. All samples were analyzed in triplicate.
2.3 Development of Kodo millet based products
Two recipes Idli and Sewai upma were standardized and served as control (T0). Idli is a fermented and
steamed product of rice and splitted black gram, consumed as a staple food in the Southern part of India. Sewai
upma is an extruded-traditional food of Indian diet made up of refined wheat flour. In both the products the
main ingredients i.e. rice in Idli and extruded refined flour in Upma was replaced with 20% (T1), 40% (T2) and
60% (T3) of Kodo millets. Sensory evaluation of the control and all the treatments was done with the help of
nine point hedonic scale by a panel of seven judges.
2.4 Study Protocol
2.4.1 Participant characteristics
Ten normal weight female volunteers aged between 20 to 25 year were recruited from the students of
Allahabad Agriculture Institute-Deemed University. They were clinically normal and non diabetic. Subjects
were excluded if they were on any special diet, had a family history of diabetes or were on any medication. The
subjects were apprised about the experiment and their consent was taken. The present study was conducted
according to the guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedure involving human
subjects were also approved by the Ethical Committee of the Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed
2.4.2 Analysis of blood glucose in the subjects
All subjects for investigation fasted overnight (10-12 h). Their blood samples were collected through
finger prick using a hypodermic needle or lancets. Each blood sample was inserted into a calibrated glucometer
(ACCU CHEK-Active/ one touch) which gave direct reading after 45 seconds based on glucose oxidase assay
method . The determination of blood sugar was taken at different intervals i.e.0 (fasting) min, 15, 30, 45, 60,
90 and 120 min after feeding the experimental diets to the subjects.
2.5 Experimental diets
2.5.1 Reference foods
After fasting for 10-12 h, subjects were required to arrive at the laboratory at 8 O’ clock in the morning
and blood samples were obtained. Fasting blood sugar was estimated and postprandial blood sugar was taken at
15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min interval after consumption of 50 g glucose dissolved in 200 ml drinking water.
2.5.2 Test foods
Two preparations namely Idli and Sewai upma standardized in the Nutrition lab were used as test foods
I. Idli and Sewai upma developed by incorporating kodo millets at 60 percent levels were taken as a test food II
as they scored best in terms of organoleptic characteristics. Description of the test foods is shown in Table 1.
Fifty g of available carbohydrate (Total carbohydrate minus dietary fiber) for each test food sample was
calculated from the results of the proximate analysis and the measured portion of the food was served to the
subjects. Fasting blood glucose samples of the subjects after 10-12 h of overnight fasting was obtained, whereas
PPBS was taken at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min intervals after the consumption of test foods II.
2.6 Computation of Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL)
Changes in blood glucose concentration were calculated separately for each post meal period by using
the blood concentration before meal (time 0) as a baseline. Postprandial responses were compared for maximum
increase and incremental area under the glucose curves for each food. The protocol used was adapted from that
described by Wolever et al.  and is in line with the procedures recommended by the Food and Agriculture
Organization / World Health Organization .
Glycemic index was calculated by using the following formula:
GI = IAUC for test food x 100
Mean IAUC for reference food
Evaluation Of Hypoglycemic Properties…
Calculation of Glycemic load: The GL of a specific serving of each food was calculated using the
following equation :
GL = Glycemic Index of food × carbohydrate eaten (g)
2.7 Statistical analysis
Analysis of variance and significant difference among means were tested by one way ANOVA using
SPSS software (version 12.0). Significant difference between the treatments was determined by using critical
difference test and t- test was applied to find the difference in the IAUC values and GI of the control and
To examine the correlation between the GI- GL and GI and IAUC Pearson’s correlation coefficient
was used. Levels of inter- individual variation of standard (glucose) was assessed by determining the coefficient
of variance (CV=100 x SD/mean value).
Nutritive value of Kodo millet obtained is compared with the values reported by ICMR and FAO 
and is presented in Table 2. In comparison to other commonly consumed cereals in India, the value of crude
fiber (8.5 g/100 g) and iron (2.9 mg/100g) was found to be higher in Kodo millet. The value of most nutrients
are comparable to ICMR value, however the value of protein, fat and ash reported by FAO are higher in
comparison to present study.
Sensory characteristics of the products (Table 3) showed that Idli prepared by kodo millet
incorporating 20 per cent (T1), 40 per cent (T2) and 60 per cent (T3) of millets was found acceptable for color,
flavour and taste, texture and over all acceptability and there was no significant difference between control and
all treatments. Sensory score of Sewai upma prepared by incorporating kodo millet at 20 per cent (T1), 40 per
cent (T2) and 60 per cent (T3) of flour showed that treatment T3 was best for flavour and taste, whereas there
was no significant difference between color, texture and overall acceptability.
Figure 1 and 2 shows the mean blood glucose at different time intervals after consuming the reference
food (glucose) and the test foods. The result showed that Postprandial blood sugar value (PPBS) of reference
food ranged between 3.71 to 5.4 and 3.83 to 5.27 mmoL/L. PPBS value was highest for reference food
(glucose) followed by control Idli and Sewai upma as test food I and kodo based Idli and Sewai upma as test
food II respectively. The highest mean blood glucose response for reference food was found at 45 min interval,
whereas for test food it was found at 60 min time interval.
The incremental area under curve which reflect the changes occurring in blood glucose level after
consuming test foods was calculated for the blood glucose response over 2 h period. In this study mean IAUC
of kodo based Idli and Sewai upma [404 (SEM 16.83) and 449.36 (SEM 11.98) respectively] were significantly
reduced in comparison to their control products [463.35 (SEM 22.12) and 480.55 (SEM 14.57) respectively]
The study reports on glycemic index, IAUC and glycemic load value of control and kodo Idli and
Upma is presented in Table 4. Kodo millet based (60%) Idli and Sewai upma had lower GI i.e. 58.53 (SEM
1.43) and 65.49 (SEM 1.01) respectively in comparison to control Idli and Sewai upma 67.11 (SEM 3.25) and
69.14 (SEM 1.74) respectively as shown in Table 4. The difference in the glycemic index of kodo based product
and control were found highly significant (p≤.01). The glycemic load value of Idli and Sewai upma developed
by incorporating 60% of kodo millet were also reduced (28.7 and 32.7 respectively) in comparison to control
Idli and Sewai upma (33.5 and 34.5 respectively).In present study the glycemic index of Kodo Idli and Upma
was significantly lower than their corresponding Idli and Upma. The relationship between GI-GL (r2 =0.999,
p≤.01) and between GI and IAUC (r2 =0.994, p≤.01) was found positive and highly significant.
The data from the present study demonstrates decrease mean glucose level and GI of Idli and Sewai
upma when incorporated with kodo millet (60 %). The CV % of inter-individual variation in the control Idli and
Sewai upma was found to be 4.03 and 4.98 respectively. Similarly the values of GI in the Kodo based products
were low ( Kodo Idli 3.98 and Kodo upma 3.53) . Smaller CV % values of mean blood glucose level
representing variation between subjects produces a useful statistics for comparing the precision of different
variables . The smaller value of CV % shows that the group of the test subjects was homogenous. Cereals
and millets are richest source of carbohydrate and serve as a major source of energy of human being.
Evaluation Of Hypoglycemic Properties…
Carbohydrate foods particularly rice and wheat (60-65%) provide the bulk of energy in Asian Indian diet .
Understanding the glycemic response of such staple foods is essential, particularly for insulin resistant people
.Brand-Miller et al.,  have documented that glycemic index value can be classified into three main
categories: <55 (low GI food), 56-69 (intermediate GI food) and >70 (high GI food). Studies have reported high
GI value of white rice (87)  and extruded wheat flour products (80) , so we can say that traditional Idli
(control) which is usually made up of rice and Sewai upma which is made up of refined wheat flour can be
classified as high GI food and not recommended for diabetic patients .In the present study control Idli and
Sewai upma was replaced with kodo millet (60 %) , which resulted in 15 % and 9 % decline in GI respectively.
This would be of great importance in South East Asia, where the diabetes is one of the major health problems,
and where the diet usually consists of high carbohydrate cereal based foods [18, 19, 20].
Crude fiber content in kodo millet (8.5 g/100 g) was found to be high in comparison to white rice (0.2
mg/100 g) and refined wheat flour (0.3 mg/100 g)  and this may be possible reason that kodo based products
has lower GI in comparison to control with altering the available carbohydrate content. According to Ludwig et
al.  the glycemic effect of food is influenced by different factors such as presence of dietary fiber, type of
carbohydrate, nature of starch granules, physical form of food and processing. In addition to that amylose:
amylopectin ratio in starch and alpha -amylase inhibitor lowers the GI of food by slowing starch digestion .
Incorporation of high fiber food in various products can reduce the glycemic response of product. Food rich in
dietary fiber reduces the postprandial blood glucose response, simply by reducing the rate of absorption of
carbohydrate due to the formation of viscous gel in the small intestine. Millets are nutritionally superior to other
cereals. Millet contains high proportion of dietary unavailable carbohydrate, beta glucan and soluble sugars that
is useful in improving glucose metabolism. Thondre and Henry  also found significant reduction in
glycemic index of chapatti (Indian unleavened flatbread) when incorporated with 4 and 8 % of the barley beta
glucan. The similar study was also conducted by Marangoni and Poli  and they concluded that fiber mix
added to the flour, used in preparation of biscuits and breads markedly reduced their glycemic index. The
therapeutic effect of Kodo millet on lowering postprandial blood glucose response is probably due to high
viscous soluble fiber which is not hydrolyzed by the digestive enzymes. Soluble fiber results in high viscous
intestinal contents with gelling properties that could delay the intestinal absorption . It is not only the GI of
the carbohydrate diet that affects glucose and insulin response but also the quantity of carbohydrate consumed.
Both these variables are represented by Glycemic load. In the present study the GL of control Idli and Sewai
upma was higher than kodo incorporated Idli and Sewai upma. A number of epidemiological studies have
correlated the GI and GL to disease risk. The combination of low intake of cereal dietary fiber and high GL was
associated with a double risk of women developing diabetes [27, 28] and coronary heart diseases .It has been
reported that cardiovascular diseases, duodenal ulcer and hyperglycemia occur rarely in regular millet eaters
Kodo millets are rich sources of phenolics, tannin and phytates, which can also act as antioxidants and
showed beneficial role in protecting against oxidative stress and maintaining blood glucose response. Whole
grain flour of kodo millet showed a greater reduction in blood glucose (42%) and cholesterol than those fed the
finger millet . Addition of kodo millet could be highly effective method for lowering the GI of Idli and
Sewai upma which are widely consumed by the people of South Asia and expatriate community of Indian origin
living worldwide, however, GI of kodo is not available in the published literature and very limited studies on GI
of Idli and Sewai upma are available; therefore the result could not be compared with other studies. This study
will be of great help to obese and diabetic people who can include kodo incorporated Idli and Sewai upma in
their daily diet. For the better management and prevention of chronic diseases such as type II diabetes and
CVD, the United Nations FAO/WHO  recommend that the GI foods be used in combination with
information about food composition to guide food choices.
In conclusion the present study showed that products developed by incorporating Kodo millets are
acceptable and they markedly reduce the GI. Similar result could be expected in other Rice and refined Wheat
flour based other foods after substituting these cereals with Kodo millets.
We are thankful to our student’s volunteers who participated in the GI testing study. Our special thanks
to Dr. A.R. Kumar, Head, Dept. of Food and Nutrition and other teaching faculties who provided technical
guidance for this.
Evaluation Of Hypoglycemic Properties…
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Table 1. Ingredients (g) and weight of control and developed test foods containing 50 g available carbohydrate*
Test Foods Control Idli Kodo Idli Control Sewai upma Kodo Sewai upma
(Test food I) (Test food II) (Test food I) (Test food II)
Rice (g) 45 18.4 __ __
Splitted Black 25 30 __ __
Kodo millet(g) __ 27.6 __ 39
Refined wheat __ __ 62 26
Carrot (g) __ __ 25 25
Capsicum (g) __ __ 25 25
Tomato (g) __ __ 25 25
Refined oil (g) __ __ 10 10
Weight of one serving(g) 70 76 147 150
*Available carbohydrate value on dry weight basis.
Evaluation Of Hypoglycemic Properties…
Table 2. Nutritional composition of kodo millet
Component Mean SEM ICMR FAO
Moisture (%) 7.3 0.18 12.8 --
Ash (g/100g) 2.6 0.21 2.6 3.3
Crude fiber (g/100g) 8.5 0.54 9.0 5.5
Fat (g/100g) 1.29 0.23 1.4 3.6
Protein (g/100g) 8.03 0.13 8.3 9.8
Carbohydrate (g/100g) 64.9 1.17 65.9 66.6
Energy (kJ/100g) 1257 3.18 1282 1402
Iron (mg/100g) 2.9 0.02 0.5 3.6
Calcium (mg/100g) 21.7 0.5 27 31
Table 3. Mean acceptibility scores for control and kodo millet incorporated Idli and Sewai upma:
Recipe/Variation Colour Texture Flavour / Taste Overall acceptibility
____________ ____________ ____________ _____________
Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM
T0 (Control) 7.9 0.18 8.0 0.19 8.1 0.53 7.9 0.53
T1 (20 %) 7.9 0.19 8.0 0.19 8.4 0.36 8.6 0.26
T2 (40 %) 8.4 0.17 8.45 0.17 8.2 0.19 8.2 0.19
T3 (60 %) 8.5 0.22 8.3 0.16 8.6 0.18 8.1 0.30
T0 (Control) 7.8 0.18 8.1 0.52 8.4 0.25a 8.4 0.25
T1 (20 %) 8.2 0.21 8.2 0.19 8.6 0.76ba 8.5 0.19
T2 (40 %) 8.1 0.22 8.0 0.47 8.5 0.19ac 8.6 0.25
T3 (60 %) 8.4 0.52 8.4 0.2 8.7 0.44ba 8.8 0.55
** Non significant at 5% probability level.
Note: Similar alphabets on value denotes non-significant differences, CD = 0.19
Table 4. Mean incremental area under curve (IAUC), Mean glycemic index and glycemic load of control and
developed products prepared by kodo millet
Test foods IAUC GI GL
Mean SEM Mean SEM
Control Idli 463.35 22.12 67.11 3.25 33.55
Kodo based Idli 404.68* 16.83 58.53* 1.48 28.76
Control Sewai upma 480.55 14.57 69.10 1.74 34.55
Kodo Sewai upma 449.36* 11.98 65.49* 1.01 32.7
*P value (< .01) refers to difference in IAUC and GI values of control and Kodo based Idli and Sewai upma.
Mean blood glucose
Refer enc e
Fig.1. Graphical representation showing the mean blood glucose concentration of the reference (glucose) (♦),
Control Idli (■ ) and Kodo Idli (▲ ).
Evaluation Of Hypoglycemic Properties…
Fig.2. Graphical representation showing the mean blood glucose concentration of the reference food (glucose)
(♦), Control Sewai upma (■ ) and Kodo Sewai upma (▲ ).
Fig.3. Graphical presentation of correlation between glycemic index and IAUC of control and kodo based Idli
Fig.4. Graphical presentation of correlation between glycemic index and glycemic load values of control and
kodo based Idli and Upma.