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Localization of Human Resource Management Practices in China: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approach

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... (Eriksson and Kovalainen 2008). As stated by Lu (2014), the role of the researcher with the related background and conditioning is crucial, and it is the researcher's duty to be aware of this, making sure the reader is informed, too. The researcher's background and prior knowledge can be argued to act as a starting point to qualitative research. ...
... The researcher's background and prior knowledge can be argued to act as a starting point to qualitative research. Lu (2014) further argues that describing the researcher's background is particularly important when the research is conducted in a cross-cultural context in which the researcher can be considered to play a key role in the transmission of the culture he or she is familiar with, and, as stated above, eventual biases. This information should be documented in research diaries and protocols. ...
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Talent management is currently seen as a high-priority issue in organizations worldwide, and a critical determinant of organizational success. Organizations spend a great deal of resources on identifying and developing talent necessary for strategy implementation and to achieve strategic targets. When looking at critical factors for competitive advantage and business success, ‘talent’ is gaining status as an important element, almost equal to financial resources. Furthermore, both management researchers and practitioners have found the identification and development of high potential employees to be one of the major challenges of the current human resource function. Even if talent management has in recent years received much attention in academia, research on different contexts, such as that of non-profit organizations, is limited. This dissertation explores talent management in the context of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), and more precisely in humanitarian aid organizations. The focal organization of this study is the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
... Our interest lies in explaining how labor regulations and portability of skills at the level of municipalities, when combined with MNC decentralization, influence the adaptation of compensation in China. We focus on compensation practice as it is typically susceptible to pressures from both the MNC parent and local Chinese host context (Lu, 2014). Subsidiaries of foreign MNCs seek to adapt their compensation practice in an effort to recruit the best managerial and professional talent in an environment where such talent is limited (IMD World Talent Report, 2016). ...
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Unlike previous research that has largely focused on the influence of national institutions on human resource management practices in China, our study taps into the role of sub-national institutions. We demonstrate, via a qualitative configurational analysis, that foreign subsidiaries of multinational corporations still adapt HQ compensation practice to the local context despite low regulatory pressure and low mobility of skills at the sub-national level. This adaptation is facilitated by a decentralized structure in the multinational corporation. Our study also shows that high regulatory pressure and high portability of skills at the sub-national level alone are sufficient to induce local adaptation of compensation practice. Our explanation points to the significant role played by sub-national institutions in large and rapidly changing emerging economies and contributes to research on local adaptation of HRM practice in China. It offers an insight into forms of institutional agency by political and economic actors at local levels of governance as they attempt to influence the skills and human resources available for MNCs through regulatory means.
... The analysis of HRM practices in the early reform period is based on published empirical studies, whereas that of the later reform period is based on the interviews undertaken for two research projects that took place between 2005 and 2011 (Kettunen et al. 2008;Lu 2014). 2 ...
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This article demonstrates how the development of labour market institutions alongside economic reform has impacted the human resource management (HRM) practices of foreign companies in China. A historical approach is applied to examine the transformation of China from a centrally planned labour administration system to a market-based labour institution. The HRM practices of foreign companies are seen being embedded in China's macro-institutional environment, which constrains and/or enables foreign companies to exercise people management. Drawing on previous research, the study shows that HRM practices in the early reform period were primarily constrained both by formal and by informal institutions. The evidence from Finnish companies operating in China shows that HRM practices in the late reform period are largely enabled by formal institutions; however, foreign companies face the need for adaptation to the demands of informal institutions. Furthermore, the scarcity of human resources and rapid yet heterogeneous socio-economic development pose additional challenges for people management in China today.
... Jameson's (2007) argument that age creates cultural groups through historical generations is of particular relevance to this study because of the huge social and economic changes in China since 1978. As Lu (2013) pointed out, the terms used for the post-reform generations-that is, 70后 (the post-1970s), 80后 (the post-1980s), and 90后 (the post-1990s) generations-carry a strong cultural identity for the Chinese. For example, the work values and career attitudes (i.e., a strong desire for fast career development and high economic goals) are quite different from those of the prereform generations. ...
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This study questions the conventional view of the indirectness of Chinese communication. Drawing on qualitative interviews with Finnish and Chinese business professionals, the authors examine the effect of cultural identity on the directness of the communication of Chinese professionals who work for internationally operating Finnish companies located in Beijing and Shanghai, China, and who use English as the shared language with their Finnish colleagues. Three components of cultural identity (i.e., vocation as an international business professional, fairly young age, and the use of English as the business lingua franca) are particularly relevant in the participants’ professional communication and stimulated its openness and directness. The study finds that the evolution of English as the business lingua franca can be detected in the signs of convergence identified in Chinese and Finnish professional communication.
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List of Tables - List of Figures - Acknowledgements - List of Abbreviations - Preface - PART 1: SHAPING THE IRON-RICE BOWL - Setting the Scene - The Iron Rice-Bowl: The Early Days - Labour-Management Relations - Economic Reforms and their Implications for Labour - PART 2: 'OLD WINE, NEW BOTTLES?' - Labour Reforms at City-Level: Background - Selected Case-Studies at Enterprise-level - The 'Three Systems Reforms' - PART 3: BEYOND THE IRON-RICE BOWL - Discussion - Human Resource Management 'With Chinese Characteristics'? - Conclusions - Appendices - Endnotes - References - Index
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This paper examines four questions: Was the U.S. workforce diverse in previous times? What were the origins of its diversity? How did management scholars of the past view the diversity of the U.S. workforce? Why did they view diversity as they did? While the workforce was diverse, particularly in the era 1880-1930, the diversity was addressed exclusively in practitioner literature, not in theoretical literature. Five intellectual trends contributed to the "invisibility" of diversity in theoretical literature: ethnocentrism, America's vision of itself, nativism (especially racial nativism), assimilationism and convergence theory.