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“Effective Leadership is all about Communicating Effectively: Connecting Leadership and Communication”

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Abstract

The leaders and other senior professionals of this business era; put more emphasis on the business nitty-gritties. While hiring a manager good communication skills are considered to be the most imperative skills a manager must have. For an effective manager it is obligatory to ensure persuasion, responsibility, premeditated association, creating and managing value system and to provide support and motivation to his teams. A manager is capable to accomplish all this by effective leading, sound planning, monitoring and communicating. Among these mention factors perfect and precise communication is of utmost importance. It is a manager’s communication skills which motivate and inspire teammates to work hard and achieve team targets and organizational goals as well. According to an older study, every day manager spent 70 to 90 percent of their time in communicating with their teams and others at work place. Effective communication act as an advantage of a leader to lead effectively. So, on the basis of the study of previous work done by many authors in the past decade, the author has made an attempt to find how leadership is affected by communication. What all are the key points managers have to keep in mind while communicating with their teams and suggestions to improve communication to make leadership more effective
Effective Leadership is all about Communicating Effectively:
Connecting Leadership and communication
Anchal Luthra,
Research Scholar, Faculty of Management Studies, SRM University
E-mail: anchal_vkn@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
According to the business leader and other senior
professional of this business era; put more
emphasis on the business nitty-gritties. While
hiring a manager good communication skills are
considered to be the most imperative skills a
manager must have. For an effective manager it
is obligatory to ensure persuasion, responsibility,
premeditated association, creating and managing
value system and to provide support and
motivation to his teams. A manager is capable to
accomplish all this by effective Leading, sound
planning, monitoring and communicating. From
these mention factors Perfect and precise
communication is of utmost importance. It is a
manager’s communication skills which motivate
and inspire teammates to work hard and achieve
team goals and organizational goals as well.
According to older studies, every day manager
spent 70 to 90 percent of their time in
communicating with their teams and others at
work place. Effective communication act as an
advantage of a leader to lead effectively. So, on
the basis of the study of previous work done by
many authors in the past decade, the author has
made an attempt to find how leadership is
affected by communication. What all are the key
points managers have to keep in mind while
communicating with their teams and Suggestions
to improve communication to make leadership
more effective.
Keywords: Effective communication, Leadership
styles, trust, barriers, principles.
Introduction
Effective and accurate communication act as an
important factor to grow as an efficient and
successful leader or manager. To achieve
professional success managers must be effective
and convincing communicators. It is important
that managers and their teams must learn the
how to communicate perfectly as this will not
only help teams to complete their projects
successfully, but also enable organizations to
achieve success and growth (Lee Froschheiser).
According to many researchers, leader is one
who has an ability to take charge, direct,
encourage, or stimulate others. They have an
attitude to convince others and to make them
follow the goals or the participles defined by
them. They are results oriented hence, well
trained and expert in controlling difficult to
difficult conditions and help to enhance the
outputs of teams working with him. A leader
could be anyone as the person who has charge
taking attitude is a leader. He could be a prime
minister of any nation or an executive working in
an organization. These people have cluster of
leadership qualities, but are not able to lead if
they are not good communicators.
Communication enables them to share what they
have and what they expect from others. So, it is
effective communication, which makes leaders
lead successfully (Frese et al. 2003, Deborah J.
Barrett, 2006). Good communication skills help
to develop better understanding and beliefs
among people inspire them to follow the
principles and values which their leader wants to
inculcate in them. In the absence of good
communication skills, a manager fails to achieve
the goals set by him and by the organizations and
a makes him an ineffective leader. By interacting
more efficiently with his team and colleagues, a
manager can increase his potential and will be
able to get work done by members of his team.
Good leaders are very well aware with the fact
that productive communication is not a one way
process rather there are two key factors which
complete communication process: speaking and
listening with understanding. They know that
they cannot make this process continues until
unless they are heard and understood
appropriately by their team members. To make
this process smooth an effective manager has
well planned objectives in his mind which he has
assumed to be achieved after communicating.
For achieving the objectives of the
communication leader imagines the opinion,
emotions and knowledge level of the receiver
and prepare action to support communication so
as to make others understand the message wants
to deliver. He delivers the well planned messages
with persuasion and relates them to the aim and
objectives to be achieved with the help of
communication. Asking for conformation or
understanding of the message indirectly is one of
the keynote qualities of a good leader. While
receiving any message, he keeps all his doors
open and try to figure out the main idea. Even in
case of negative feedback he doesn’t lose his
heart and take it as an opportunity to learn new
things. He always tries to understand the weak
points and analyze the usefulness of the
communication. In case of miscommunication
taking corrective measure to rectify the mistake
is also important and must be done by the
managers or leaders. Hence, to establish oneself
as a great and effective leader one must be an
effective convincing communicator and needs to
learn skillfully the art of extraordinary
communication, this would further support
manager and his team to attain new levels of
quality leadership. Ethos is also acting as an
important aspect of effective leadership. It is
must for a leader to be sensitive towards moral
ideologies. According to a research on
leadership, the Trust is a factor which any
individual wants to have before following
anyone enthusiastically in any situation, whether
it may be a battleground or meeting room and
want to get assured that the leader they are going
to follow is truthful and ethical (James Kouzes
and Barry Posner, 1993). In developing this trust
factor a leader must be able to share his vision
with them by interacting with them. Hence, for
effective leadership, effective communication
serves as a significant ingredient.
Communication: A vital aspect to a
leader’s fate
The utmost essential key to great leadership is
communication (Towler 2003). A Leader is
among one of the employees with exceptional
skills set and in one situation or another he has
potential to step forward to take charge and
mentor others who lack experience and skill set,
tries to inculcate skills by motivating them and
help them in achieving their individual, team and
organizational targets. To become a great leader
one should be a great communicator. Great
leaders are always considered as first-class
communicators, they have a clear set of values
and they always believe in promoting and
inculcating those values in others. It is due to this
reason that their teams appreciate them and
follow them as a leader. Being great
communicator does not mean great talker. There
is a big difference between the two, the thrust of
gaining more knowledge separates excellent
communicator from a good talker, who lack
knowledge and get confused while interacting
with others, whereas great communicator speak
in confidence and never get confused because of
the knowledge they possess. They have ability to
connect to passions and ambitions while
communicating their ideas with others. They are
aware of the thing that if fails to connect with the
audience they might not be able pass their idea to
them and purpose of communication will not be
achieved. The best communicators always have a
unique quality of listening peacefully to what
others are speaking. This makes them good
observer and enables them to read a person or
group’s mind by analyzing the attitudes,
behavior, activities, ideals, anxieties and are able
to modify their messages according to the
situation. Leaders who communicate effectively
to encourage and stimulate their people are
considered to be the best leaders or managers.
They ensure work, discipline, and a sense of
responsibility among team members. They have
strong and precise set of working principles and
believe to incorporate the same in their teams
and because of this they are highly appreciated
and followed by their team members (Lee
Froschheiser). When a leader inspires his team,
group or people around him by communicating
his ideologies and aims perfectly make them
enough efficient to perform the entire assigned
task effortlessly that concept is Leadership
communication. It has been observed that all the
managers or leaders are mostly busy in
communicating with one or another while
working and spend 70 to 90 percent of their time
in group or team interactions every day
(Mintzberg, 1973; Eccles & Nohria, 1991). And
there is a significant increase in this percentage
with the invention of new communication
technologies like mobile phones, e-mail,
messaging, social sites, etc. This vast percentage
of time spent by managers in communicating
highlights the importance strong communication
skills for leaders who want to expand their
leadership positions. Even many researches have
explained the concept that it is effective
communication that takes an individual from
lower level to the leadership spot. In fact, it has
been proved that individual who can
communicate exceptionally, capable of taking
significant decision and are able to get the work
done by others is recommended more frequently
for leadership position in an organization
(Bowman, Jones, Peterson, Gronouski, &
Mahoney, 1964). Good communication skills
support in creating an atmosphere for
exceptional understandings of what is being
communicated and encourage teammates to
blindly follow their leader. Thus, to become an
expert in leadership communication is
indispensable priority for managers who want to
attain excellence and remarkable growth in their
professional career. A leader should make sure
that communication is continuous and also
ensure the appropriate use both informal and
formal approaches (Bill Back). It is very good to
use a combination of formal and informal
approaches while communicating. Informal
means of communication helps to get exact and
more regular evaluations to report concerns more
rapidly. Informal interaction during breakfast
meetings, roundtable meetings are always proved
effective and helpful for discussing and finding
solutions of various issues like trust and
credibility whereas formal approaches require
proper planning and execution.
Leadership Communication
Leadership communication is defined as
inspiring and encouraging an individual or a
group by systematic and meaningful sharing of
information by using excellent communication
skills. Leadership communication is a complex
process which starts from developing strategy for
communicating, writing precisely and then
speaking effectively to control difficult
situations. Leadership communication has three
major aspects: core, managerial, and corporate.
With an increase in leader’s portfolio there is a
need to improvise communication skills to
manage large horizon and to become much more
effective all possible situations. So, complexity
increases with an increase in the level of
leadership. Core communication aspects
(approach, writing, and speaking), are the
individualized skills and are required to be
expanded, to lead and manage bigger groups or
teams. Expressive cultural understandings,
listening patiently, team management and team
meetings, providing training facilities and
mentoring are the skills which aid to manage
huge groups and are managerial aspects of
leadership communication. The corporate
communication aspects are the skills required at
much higher levels of leadership, and there is a
need to interact with an external sphere, skills
which are most needed: maintain employee
relations, communication during change and
crises, media associations and image building.
For an organization the biggest challenge these
days is to win the trust of its employees, business
partners and customers. Organization with
leaders who are skillful enough to communicate
responsively and frequently with perfectly
planned and dedicated communication policies,
help to encourage not only employees, but
partner and customers as well to make them to
have trust on the organization. Now the question
comes, why a leader is required to build trust
among stakeholders? The answer to this question
is; Leaders are the individuals who are followed
by many peoples because they trust him. They
don’t follow the leader they cannot trust on
(Diane Bean). Trust is an influential tool that can
increase reliability, integrity and gives you an
added advantage in case uncertainty. One cannot
build trust as trust cannot be built, but gained or
earned. For good and efficient leaders it is easy
to earn trust because they know the value and
importance of building and sustaining trust.
Leaders have to put all possible efforts with the
help of their teams which encourage business
partners to have faith in the organization’s
leadership. Communications plays significant
role in building trust by creating an environment
which empowers leaders to lead efficiently
motivating employees to work and achieving the
ultimate goal (Jodi Macpherson). It becomes
very challenging for a leader to stimulate,
involve and hold their most brilliant team
members if the leader won’t trust their messages
(Kaufman). If the employees have trust on their
leader and are very well aware with what is
going around, they will be most gratified and
energized. By sharing essential information with
employees, leaders can develop a culture of trust
and can easily build associations with employees
and other business channels that facilitate
organizations to grow more rapidly. Trust
building activities include communication
management, sourcing the right networks,
positive conversation about what else to be done
and feedback of communication. Trust is
essential because it is the trust of the people that
has the capability to create a vast form slight and
convert major into minor. Hence, it is must for
an organizational leader to make sure that the
people associated with them contain trust factor.
Leadership styles influencing
communication:
As we already know that communication has a
great impact on effective leadership precisely
same is the case with leadership. Different
leadership styles also influence communication
process. There exists a vice-a-versa relation
between the two. (Benita Zulch, 2014).
Following are the styles of leadership which
affects communication:
Style according to Situation:
The style of leadership is concerned with the
practice and use of diverse leadership styles
under unlike situations according to the need of
audiences and personal leadership qualities.
Under every situation the communication gets
affected as some situations demand direct and
strict communication and in other situation
leader has to opt for indirect ways of
communication. This can even make
communication an effective process sometimes
or may lead to miscommunication.
Goal oriented leadership style:
Every leader has a vision or goal for him and for
his team. This vision or goals are synchronized
with organizational aims and objectives. The
leaders have to communicate the vision and
goals to his team so as to motivate them to
achieve them with efficiency. He communicates
in a way so that he will be able to make others
see what he is expecting from them. Team
Involvement, effective listening, clear and timely
communication is the main feature of this style.
This style of leadership makes communication
an effective communication.
Directive leadership style
In this style of leadership the leader helps his
teams to achieve their personal work targets and
team targets by telling them the appropriate
methods and showing the right directions to
achieve those goals. He acts as a director, who
support and enables his team to follow the path
which leads them to achieve their goals more
easily and perfectly by communicating
effectively.
People centric or employee orientated:
According to this there are two types of
employees working in a team: active and lazy.
The active category includes those employees
who are self-motivated and enthusiastic to work
hard for accomplishing the tasks given to them.
Another one is those who need regular
motivation and encouragement to perform their
duties. Here the leadership style people centric as
leader have to be in regular touch and
communication with these employees to get the
work done. The leader has to make strategies in
accordance to employees to make them attached
to their work. Communication is an important
part of this leadership style.
.
Leadership style according to the intellectual
Level:
It is believed that a leader must adjust his
leadership style by keeping in mind the
intellectual level and maturity of the employees.
Here maturity does not refer to the sensitivity or
age, but it means work stability, tendency to
handle complex situation, potential of achieving
given target etc. Effective leaders always try to
maintain a good balance by adjusting the
leadership method which further has influence
on communication.
Behavioral leadership style
This style of leadership differentiates among two
elementary sways of leadership; one is work
-orientated and the other one is individuals
orientated. Accomplishment, inspiration,
readiness and aptitude to take accountability,
learnings and knowledge regulate the blend of
these. This leadership style does not depend so
ways, but it hinge on the situation, where and
why it has to be used. The consequence of this
style is that during communication, associations
must have sufficient consideration to make
interaction a successful one.
Action based leadership style
This style recommends that the leader should
give emphasis to three main duties; assignment,
group and individual. A leader must have to
concentrate on the assignment given, the team
working on that assignment and individual issues
of the team members and should try to meet the
deadlines by focusing on each one at different
times. Here, the main drive of the team is to get
the work done and the leader has to uphold the
focus of the team to achieve objectives. It is
essential for a leader to boost and increase the
balance between the needs of the tasks, team and
individuals by regularly and effectively
communicating with them.
How communication improves leadership
qualities: Principles
Communication was earlier considered as a soft
skill which has no impact on organizations. Even
while hiring individual communication skills
never was a major criterion for hiring. But the
concept has been changed; communication has a
very large impact on business. It is assumed that
effective communication by leaders stimulates
employees stay engaged and to perform their
duties efficiently (Diana Clement, 2008).Good
communication involves a pre prepared plan.
Leader’s communication must match with his
actions and should be two-way communication.
Sharing of bad news must be done face-to-face
in an effective manner so as to reduce its direct
impact. The root cause of many problems is the
improper and untimely sharing of information or
communication. Effective communication
management is a principal leadership skill. Here
mentioned some communication principles to
become an excellent leader:
A leader must be confident enough, while
communicating with others. People must
believe the communications made by
their leaders. Lack of confidence while
communication can make team members
uncomfortable, and unenthusiastic about
work. Confidence helps a team to work
together to achieve desired goals.
True leaders always have to communicate
the rules clearly to his team and should
follow those rules himself, which he
expects to be followed by others and
must communicate indirectly to his team
that he is capable enough to do what he
expects from them. He must lead his
team by setting examples himself.
A great leader must be energetic and self-
motivated while communicating. If the
leader is doubtful, negative or
disconnected, no one in the team could
relate to him. Only highly energetic and
self-motivated leaders are considered as
effective leaders because they have vast
potential to motivate and to raise the
morale of their teams.
Great leaders must be steady and
trustworthy while they communicate.
There must be a value, grace, and
regularity when they interact with their
teams, but can also modify according to
the listeners. They have to upgrade their
personality as a trustworthy
communicator to develop trustworthiness
among his team and various business
channels. A quick change in attitude is
not considered as leaders beat quality.
A good leader must always be easy to
approach without any barriers, if the team
members are left with doubt about the
information shared during the
communication process. He should be
readily available to his team and to other
channels as well. Inaccessibility makes a
leader unsuccessful and incompetent.
A leader to become effective must have a
clear thought process. There must be
clarity in opting communication
techniques, channels and approaches by
keeping in mind the intellectual level and
understanding of the listeners. He must
very competent to manage multifaceted
things and will be able to convert them
into simpler form to make his team
understand and to perform extremely
well.
Communication by leaders must be clear,
brief and also he should value thoughts,
ideas and feeling of others. An excellent
leadership required to admire all cultures,
knowledge, education, moral values,
different demographics and
communication inclinations.
It is must for a leader to establish a
transparent system of communication.
There should be no space for any
grapevine to develop. Until unless very
confidential, there will be no secret
between the leader and the team.
A leader should be very much focused
and stable while communicating with his
team because during difficult situation
team depend on leader effective
communication for the getting stability
and solutions.
Strong leaders should be comprehensive
in communication and must try to
overcome differences positively and
practically.
A leader must also emphasis on effective
listening rather the completely focusing
on effective speaking, because to hear
patiently is as significant as to say
effectively.
A great leader must always concentrate
on communicating with teams rather than
simply sharing information with them
because communication has can inspire
opinions, approaches, and activities
whereas information means just to
inform.
For a leader communicating without fear
is must, he should communicate without
keeping in mind the fear of doing
blunders or errors. In case, where a leader
ends up with some errors, he should
admit them openly to gain trust and
respect of the team members.
A leader has to be sure while sending
messages to his team because a wrong
message may end up in conflict and
difference in opinion. The message
should be clear, precise and properly
written.
A leader must communicate with an open
mind and always welcome suggestions
and ideas for improvement in his style
and for enhanced learning.
A leader must swap his ego with
understanding as ego hinders learning
and decrease the appreciative tendencies
which may lead to many problems among
team members.
A leader must be aware of what he is
speaking to his teammates. The
communicator must select a message
without any ambiguity. A Leader must
have full knowledge of the subject he is
about to discuss to avoid confusions.
A leader may not have time to
communicate with all team members
individually, so he must develop an art of
interacting with individuals even if they
are in groups. He should address the
group in such a manner that it seems like
he is talking to all individuals solely.
Not only the above mentioned principles, but
there are some more which shows that leadership
communication is about inspiring others to
achieve great things
A leader must be skillful in narrating
stories and using anecdotes while
communicating this aid to instigate
understandings and behaviors of
associated groups
For a good leader it is must repeat the
message several times until unless the
last member of the group will understand
the meaning of it. This repeating of
message or information during
communication help to increase the
productivity as each one become able to
understand the idea or concept.
A leader must be aware with the use of all
communication technologies and
channels like, face-to-face meetings,
video conferences, telephone
conferences, emails, etc. to keep in touch
with all his teammates and to motivate
them time to time.
An effective leader must always
encourage feedback system to improve
workplace environment. Feedback will
help to overcome shortcomings and to
rectify errors if any.
Barriers to effective leadership
communication:
Communication simply means to transfer the
information or message from one individual to
another or to a group. Whereas effective
leadership communication means transferring
message by keeping in mind the understanding
and ability of the receiver and to make sure that
the receiver will be able to find the exact
meaning of the message or information passed to
him. Effective leader while communicating must
ensure that there would be no chance of any kind
of miscommunication or misunderstandings. But
practically on the basis of previous studies, it is
not feasible for a leader to make all the
communication effective as many barriers like
noise, disturbance, unique understanding levels
and different cultural backgrounds make it
difficult to make communication effective. While
communicating in a group although all good
leaders try to keep in mind the listeners point of
view, but still it becomes difficult to make
everyone to understand exactly what a leader
wants to deliver. The problem in communication
arises from the disturbances or barriers in the
transmission, either by the leader or by the
receiver. The some of the barriers are as which
affects good and effective communication are as
follows:
Lack of planning and purpose before
communicating with others restrict a
leader to communicate effectively
with his team.
Even if the planning is done by a
leader before communicating, but
without keeping in mind the nature of
audiences will make communication
process ineffective.
Choice of inappropriate tools and
techniques by a leader for doing
communication with the team will act
as a barrier and reduces the level of
exact understanding of the
communication done.
Choosing wrong language as a
communication medium is also one
of the biggest barriers which make
leader communication ineffective.
Lack of trust on each other and
disrespect is another factor which
makes leader communication
ineffective
Wrong assumption about listener by
ignoring their emotions and
sensitivities convert communication
into miscommunication.
Use signals, postures and gestures which
do not support the words used during
communication.
Ignoring the feedback aspect while
communicating is also a barrier.
Lack of self-confidence, values, courage,
knowledge also stops communication
becoming an effective one
Lack of major leadership qualities also
makes a leader to communicate
ineffectively.
Inability to adapt to changes is also a
strong barrier.
These are the some of the barriers which hinder
the effective communication process and affect
leadership communication abilities of a leader.
To get rid of these barriers they need to attain
mastery in core skills.
Limitations
The main thoughts presented in this paper have
highlighted the general knowledge and
understanding of basic leaders communication,
but still there exist some limitations such as
there is still more literature that should be
reviewed and linked to this study. But due to
time lack of time and inability to get access to
libraries and portals it was difficult to collect all
resources. The data collected may not be
sufficient to explain the concepts in broader a
way. Due to Copyrights issues, delay in taking
permission for refereeing some of the best
papers. Future research needs to collect more
data and resources related to leadership
communication to write a good conceptual paper
and developing a better conceptual model.
Conclusion
As stated in the introduction, ample studies and
researches have been done with the same
purpose of identifying that how communication
and leadership are interrelated to each other.
Why excellent communication skills are required
to manage a team at workplace or to manage an
organization efficiently? How communication
gets affected by the different leadership styles?
What all are the qualities which make a leader a
perfect communicator? In concluding lines we
can state that effective communication and leadership
together gives an effective leadership
communication. A leader cannot become an effective
leader until unless he is an excellent communicator
and must use his this ability to let individuals follows
him. He must have knowledge and will be able to
communicate that knowledge to others at work. Must
have the competences to motivate team to achieve
which seems to be impossible for others.
Communication makes a leader effective who
develops better understanding in teams. These
understanding bring a sense of trust in employees on
the leader and on each other work together which
further reinforce congenial relations with team
members and creates an excellent work atmosphere.
While working with such a good, healthy, positive
and congenial environment they get motivated and
enthusiastic to work much harder. This dedication
towards their work makes it easy to achieve their
targets quickly and hence their productivity increases.
On the basis of this conclusion author has proposed a
conceptual model of effective leadership
communication in Figure 1. There is another point of
view that different leadership styles also have an
impact on communication. As different
communication styles have an impact on leadership
similarly different leadership also influences
communication (Benita Zulch, 2014). With a
change, a change in style the impact of
communication also alters. In some of the style like
where leader has to handle a tough or critical
situation he need to be little hard and leadership style
will become authoritative, but must have a control on
his communication otherwise it may become a
miscommunication or an ineffective one. In another
example where has to deal with a group with
different work attitude and styles here he need to be
more people centric and should communicate in a
way that he will be able to communicate at individual
levels even while interacting with a group. At the
end, we can say that both communication and
leadership are linked deeply and cannot be done on
individually.
But still there is no as such explanation or
clarification to these questions as concepts may
vary person to person and every individual has
his own perception about the things happening
around.
Figure 1: Model for effective leadership
communication
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Anchal Luthra, A research scholar, Faculty
of management studies SRM University
Haryana. I have done B.Sc. (Medical) and
B. Ed., MBA (HR), M. Phill. (Management
Studies). Now I am pursuing Ph.D in
management Studies. I am working on
organizational communication and its
various aspects .I do have a good
corporate experience. I worked as an HR
Generalist and also have teaching
experience.
... Pemimpin yang efektif, wajib untuk memastikan persuasi, tanggung jawab, asosiasi terencana, menciptakan dan mengelola sistem nilai dan memberikan dukungan dan motivasi kepada timnya (Luthra and Dahiya, 2015). Seorang pemimpin yang efektif harus mampu mencapai semua ini dengan kepemimpinan yang efektif, perencanaan yang baik, pemantauan dan komunikasi. ...
... Seorang pemimpin yang efektif harus mampu mencapai semua ini dengan kepemimpinan yang efektif, perencanaan yang baik, pemantauan dan komunikasi. Di antara faktor-faktor yang disebutkan ini, komunikasi yang sempurna dan tepat adalah yang paling penting (Luthra and Dahiya, 2015). ...
... Komunikasi yang efektif dan akurat berperan sebagai faktor penting untuk tumbuh sebagai pemimpin atau manajer yang efisien dan sukses (Luthra and Dahiya, 2015). Untuk mencapai kesuksesan profesional, pemimpin harus menjadi komunikator yang efektif dan meyakinkan. ...
... However, this could be because of their knowledge on the value and importance. Luthra & Dahiya (2015), thinks trust is earned over the time period. They likened it to organizations dealings with the outside world. ...
... Source: trustedadvisor.com Luthra & Dahiya (2015) while examining communication as a tool for maintaining trust stated that trust is earned. In other words, trust building consists of these components; Sincerity, Competence, Reliability, and Self Interest. ...
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... Hubungan antar manusia untuk mewujudkan dan mencapai tujuan membutuhkan komunikasi yang efektif dengan difasilitasi pemimpin yang mampu menggerakkan dan mengarahkan. Luthra and Dahiya (2015) menyatakan bahwa pemimpin yang efektif dan unggul harus memiliki komunikasi yang efektif, mampu memotivasi anggota dan menggerakkan anggota dalam mencapai tujuan organisasi. ...
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