Modern trends in the greener synthesis and fabrication of inorganic, organic and coordination compounds, materials, nanomaterials, hybrids and nanocomposites are discussed. Green chemistry deals with synthesis procedures according to its classic 12 principles, contributing to the sustainability of chemical processes, energy savings, lesser toxicity of reagents and final products, lesser damage to the environment and human health, decreasing the risk of global overheating, and more rational use of natural resources and agricultural wastes. Greener techniques have been applied to synthesize both well-known chemical compounds by more sustainable routes and completely new materials. A range of nanosized materials and composites can be produced by greener routes, including nanoparticles of metals, non-metals, their oxides and salts, aerogels or quantum dots. At the same time, such classic materials as cement, ceramics, adsorbents, polymers, bioplastics and biocomposites can be improved or obtained by cleaner processes. Several non-contaminating physical methods, such as microwave heating, ultrasound-assisted and hydrothermal processes or ball milling, frequently in combination with the use of natural precursors, are of major importance in the greener synthesis, as well as solventless and biosynthesis techniques. Non-hazardous solvents including ionic liquids, use of plant extracts, fungi, yeasts, bacteria and viruses are also discussed in relation with materials fabrication. Availability, necessity and profitability of scaling up green processes are discussed.