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The Effect of Social Media to the Brand Awareness of A Product of A Company

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Social media is an online media, where the users can easily participate, share, and create any content such as banner, posters, videos and advertisement. Many companies use these social media as a tool to promote their products and make customers aware with their brand. On the other hand, not all companies succeed to market their products and make their products are at their customers’ awareness. The purpose of this research is to find the correlation between social media commu- nication marketing with companys brand awareness in social media. The research method for this research is quantitative research. This method collects data with explanative research type which explains the relationship between two variables. The result of this research is to show that marketing communication in a company has an impact to company’s brand awareness. In addition, this research wants to show that marketing via social media can give impact to company’s revenue. The summary of this research is to get significant information about the effect of social media toward companys brand awareness through quantitative and explanative research method due to the rising of social media.
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THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA TO THE
BRAND AWARENESS OF A PRODUCT OF
A COMPANY
Hansel Bagus Tritama
Program of Information System,
Faculty of Computer Science,
University of Pelita Harapan
Jakarta 15811, Indonesia
Email: hanselgunawan94@gmail.com
Riswan Efendi Tarigan
Program of Information System,
Faculty of Computer Science,
University of Pelita Harapan
Jakarta 15811, Indonesia
Email: re.tarigan@gmail.com
Abstract—Social media is an online media, where the
users can easily participate, share, and create any content
such as banner, posters, videos and advertisement. Many
companies use these social media as a tool to promote
their products and make customers aware with their
brand. On the other hand, not all companies succeed
to market their products and make their products are at
their customers’ awareness. The purpose of this research
is to find the correlation between social media commu-
nication marketing with companys brand awareness in
social media. The research method for this research is
quantitative research. This method collects data with
explanative research type which explains the relationship
between two variables. The result of this research is to
show that marketing communication in a company has an
impact to company’s brand awareness. In addition, this
research wants to show that marketing via social media
can give impact to company’s revenue. The summary of
this research is to get significant information about the
effect of social media toward companys brand awareness
through quantitative and explanative research method
due to the rising of social media.
Keywords: Social Media; Marketing Communication; On-
line Marketing; Brand Awareness.
I. INTRODUCTION
Business competition through social media is getting
tougher. It can be seen from the rising number of social
media user. This development can be seen from the
rise of social media user in a relatively short period of
time. In 2002, the first social media named Friendster
was created by British programmer named Jonathan
Abrams. He managed to popularize this social media to
Asia. But unfortunately, Friendster could not last long.
In 2004, a social media named Facebook was created
by Mark Zuckerberg and he managed to influence the
Received: Nov. 16, 2015; received in revised form: Jan. 19, 2016;
accepted: March 1, 2016; available online: May 12, 2016.
world with an effect called The Facebook Effect [1],
which has succeeded to make Friendster abandoned.
After that, two years later, a new social media came
up with the name of Twitter. Twitter was created by
Jack Dorsey, a programmer from the United States.
Twitter even rose up and replaced Facebook as the
highest levels of the company’s revenue in 2008 [2].
Not long after, in 2010, a social media emerged and
became popular in 2013, it is Instagram that was
created by Kevin Systrom, a programmer from Mas-
sachusetts. Instagram attracts the attention of many
people including business people, even top artists such
as Justin Bieber and Katy Perry’s use Instagram to
promote their new song [3].
Then, a new social media Path recently emerged in
2011, which its shares are owned by Bakrie. Path is a
new social media that was created by Dave Morin a
programmer from San Francisco. Now Path is still in
developmental stages. With the rapid development of
social media, many companies see this as their chance
to show their products to the public. So the company
should have a superior marketing strategy to attract the
attention of social media users, especially for corporate
marketing communication division.
The result of previous research shows that the role
of marketing communications of a company in social
media affects the awareness of social media users
on a brand of a company. The result of previous
research presented by Ref. [4] shows the adoption of
an integrated marketing communications can build a
corporate brand in the minds of consumers or cus-
tomers. The process begins to build awareness of the
company’s products to customers and then it will
give impact to customers’ satisfaction and establish
customers’ loyalty to the company.
CommIT (Communication & Information Technology) Journal 10(1), 9–14, 2016
Cite this article as: H B Tritama and R E Tarigan, “The Effect of Social Media to the Brand Awareness of a
Product of a Company”, CommIT Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2016.
Although social media has been widely used by
many companies as a facility to show their products
to the users of social media, there are still many
companies that do not succeed in marketing their prod-
ucts in social media. The result of previous research,
conducted by Ref. [5] shows that it is due to the infor-
mation that is managed by companies is less attractive
so that people do not respond. In this study, the role
of social media as a new trend in marketing will be
explored more deeply to raise customer awareness of
a brand of a company. This research is expected to
produce a maximum contribution, assuming the time
of the income generated by the impact of social media
on the brand awareness of the company’s products is
two months, from the date of May 27, 2014 until July
31, 2014.
Based on the above background, the problem is then
formulated to provide guidance and direction of this re-
search. Do social media give a significant impact on the
communitys brand awareness of companys products?
Is there any significant relationship between social me-
dia marketing communication of a company with brand
awareness of a product in the community? The purpose
of this study is to determine the effect of social media
on the brand awareness of the company’s products.
Results of this study will provide recommendations
for the management of the company or organization
to increase its marketing strategy, especially on social
media.
II. SUPPORTING THEORIES
A. Social Media
Social media is a collection of applications based on
the basis of web 2.0 and it allows the user to fill its
content. Social media will stop if there is not any user
filling content. The characteristic of social media is the
message that is conveyed not only for one person but
also for many people. The message tends to be faster
than the other media since the interaction with many
users makes this media lively. Social media can be in
the form of forums, microblogging, social networking,
social bookmarking, and wiki [6].
B. Marketing Communications
Marketing communications is a means for a com-
pany to inform, persuade and remind consumers di-
rectly or indirectly about their products and brands.
Marketing communications presents a “voice” of a
company and its brand and a means of a company
to create a dialogue and build relationships with con-
sumers.
Marketing communications is able to describe the
manufacturer of the product and what the objectives
of a company and a brand. Marketing communications
enables a company to connect a brand with people,
places, experiences, feelings, and other things. They
contribute to the brand awareness of company’s prod-
ucts by placing the brand in people’s memories. They
create a brand image as well as encourage the sale and
even affect shareholder value [7].
C. Advertising
Advertising are all paid form of nonpersonal pre-
sentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services
through a clear sponsorship [8].
D. Brand Awareness
Brand awareness is the ability of a potential buyer
to recognize and recall a brand as part of a particular
product category. Brand awareness requires continum
ranging from feeling of uncertainty that a particular
brand has been known before, so the consumer believes
that the product is the only brand in a particular group.
Brand awareness is divided into four stages, namely
brand unaware, brand recognition, brand recall and top
of mind. The lowest level of brand awareness is the
brand recognition or it is also called as levels of aided
recall. The next level is brand recall or unaided brand
recall since the consumers do not need to be helped
to remember the brand. The measurement of unaided
brand recognition is more difficult than aided brand
recognition. The aid in aided brand recognition can
be a poster, video, advertisements, banners, or social
media. The next level is a brand that is introduced
for the first time in unaided brand recognition and it
is called top of mind (conscious top of mind). Top
of mind is the highest brand awareness that is on the
top of other different brands that exist in the minds of
consumers [9].
E. Online Media
Online media, also called Digital Media, is a media
that is presented online on the internet. Online media
is divided into two definitions.
Definition of online media in general is any kind or
media format that can only be accessed via internet
containing text, images, video, and sound. Online
media can also be interpreted as a means of on-
line communication. Therefore, e-mail, mailing lists,
websites, blogs, whatsapp and social media is in the
category of online media. Definition of Online Media
in particular is an online media in the context of mass
communication. Media short of mass communication
media in the scientific field of mass communication
have certain characteristics, such as publicity and pe-
riodicity. Online media in particular is a medium that
10
Cite this article as: H B Tritama and R E Tarigan, “The Effect of Social Media to the Brand Awareness of a
Product of a Company”, CommIT Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2016.
presents the work of journalism (news, articles, feature)
online [10].
F. Previous Research
Research conducted by Ref. [11] supports this re-
search. Their research proves the influence of advertis-
ing messages on facebook fanpage, which is a social
media, to the awareness of the company’s products
and buying interest from women. This has implications
for the company’s marketing communications strategy,
especially the promotion through advertising.
Research conducted by Ref. [4] suggests that the
Marketing Communications variables influence the
Brand Equity Products. This proves that the marketing
communications of a company plays an important role
in selling the company’s products. Research conducted
by Ref. [12] suggests that Kaskus online banner and
advertisement give a significant influence on improving
the image of Kaskus. In addition, the calculation result
of correlation indicates that Kaskus banners and ad-
vertisement relate strongly to the Kaskus brand image
with a value of 0.517. It has more than 0.500 and
this means strong influence. Not only that, this study
also shows a strong Guilford correlation between two
variables.
Research conducted by Ref. [13] shows the influence
of social media on the benefits of a brand called Coffee
Toffee. The result shows that there are four variables in
social media that can give effect to the users of social
media. These variables are social media as a means
of communication with the loading factor of 0.98, as
Media Campaign with the loading factor 0.93, as a
Means of Research with loading factor 0.91, and as
Brand Awareness Enhancing with the loading factor
of 0.87. Research conducted by Ref. [14] suggests
that advertising on the Internet simultaneously gives
significant influence on buying interest of Blackberry.
In addition, advertising on social media also gives in-
fluence the public perception of a product. This proves
that advertising through social media can give effect
to the brand awareness of the company’s products.
These previous researches indirectly support this
research on the question of whether there is a signif-
icant influence of social media on a company’s brand
awareness.
III. RESEARCH METHODS
A. Types of Research
Explanatory research aims to test a theory or hy-
pothesis to strengthen or even reject the theory or hy-
pothesis of the research that already exists. Exploratory
research has a fundamental nature and it aims to obtain
explation, information and data about things that are
not yet known. Because it has a fundamental nature,
this study is called exploration. Some questions are
prepared as a guide to obtain primary data in the form
of explanation and information, as preliminary data
required. Explanatory research goal is to test a study
with a view to justify or strengthen and determine
the nature of the relationship between one or more
symptoms or dependent variables by one or more
independent variables
This type of research is based on the basic ques-
tion of “why”. Through this explanatory research,
it can be seen how the correlation between two or
more variables in pattern, direction, nature, form, and
strength of the relationship. This correlational study
was started with implicit or explicit question: “Is there
a relationship between Xand Y?”, where Xis the
independent variable and Yis the dependent variable.
In addition, this type of research is also relatively good
for beginners who are just doing research [15].
B. Research Model
The research model is shown in Fig. 1. Independent
variables in the research model above are adopted from
previous research but it has carried out modification
and addition of new variables in order to contribute to
existing research.
Research conducted by Ref. [11] uses two inde-
pendent variables. They are Advertisement Message
Attaction (X1) which has a coefficient of Cronbach’s
for 0.948 and Buying Interest on Women (X2) with a
coefficient of Cronbach’s for 0.962. Five independent
variables are used in the research conducted by Ref.
[4] but the content of these variables are different. The
variables are Sales Promotion (X1), Public Relations
(X2), Direct Marketing (X3), Interactive Marketing
(X4) and Corporate Design (X5), all of these variables
influence the Brand Equity.
In the research conducted by Ref. [12], three in-
dependent variables are used. They are the Strength of
Fig. 1. Research Model.
11
Cite this article as: H B Tritama and R E Tarigan, “The Effect of Social Media to the Brand Awareness of a
Product of a Company”, CommIT Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2016.
Brand Association (X1), Favorability of Brand Associ-
ation (X2) and Uniqueness of Brand Association (Y3).
Research conducted by Ref. [13] uses four independent
variables. They are Means of Communication (X1),
Media Campaign (X2), Research Medium (Y3) and
More Popular Brand (X4). Four independent variables
are used in a research conducted by Ref. [14]. They
are Effectiveness of Advertising (X1), Reference (X2),
Perceived Quality (X3) and Buying Intention (X4).
Based on the explanation above, it shows that several
variables used were adopted from previous studies but
there are also variables that are modified to be able
to contribute to existing or future research. Thus, this
research may proceed to a deeper research.
C. Hypotheses
The hypothesis is a proportion, condition or prin-
ciples that are temporarily considered to be true and
perhaps without an assurance for logical consequence
to be drawn and then the results of the conducted
research is examined. The current hypotheses are:
H0: Social media is considered to have a very
significant influence on factors such as en-
hancement of new products awareness, new
product intense recall, products buying inter-
est, product attraction and swiftness of new
product awareness.
H1: Factors that are considered most affected
dominantly is product attraction.
D. Population dan Sample
Population of this research is 50 students from
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Systems
Study Program of Pelita Harapan University, class of
2011-2012 who use social media. Sampling (a tool that
represents the population) is taken by using Simple
Random Sampling (SRS). This technique takes a ran-
dom sample of population members and assumes all of
the students of social media users are homogeneous or
they have the same opportunity to become members of
the sample [16]. Sample that is going to be examined
is set by using the Slovin formula:
n=N
1 + N e2(1)
where nis sample number, Nis population number, e
is error tolerance, as if 2%, 5%, or 10%.
Total population in this research has been deter-
mined as many as 50 people. Error tolerance limits is
assumed at 5%, so it has a 95% accuracy rate. By using
this Slovin formula, the number of samples studied
can be determined, where the process of calculation is
n43.
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
A. Respondent Profile
The current empirical data were collected from 50
respondents, 70% male and 30% female. They were
19 to 21 years old, 30% were 19 year old, 45% were
20 year old, and 25% were 21 year old. All were users
of social media and had highschool level of education.
The data were collected on June 2014.
B. Validity and Reliability
To meet the criteria of a research which is consid-
ered as scientific research, measurement accuracy is
indispensable [17]. There are two main requirements
that must be met by the measuring instrument to obtain
an accurate measurement, the validity and reliability.
Validity means measuring instruments used to measure
what is to be measured [17].
Validity test is intended to test the accuracy of the
items in the questionnaire, whether the items are able to
describe and explain the variables studied. So validity
is the extent to which the tool can measure a matter
or subject to be measured. Validity is done with a
logical mind, by asking the opinion of experts, using
recognized groups and independent criteria [18]. Items
used in this study were then tested for its reliability.
Reliability means having trustworthiness. When the
measuring instrument is used many times, it still
provides the same results [18]. So reliability is how
consistent the measuring devices provide the same
results in measuring the same matters and subjects.
C. Validity Test
Validity test that is used to measure whether the
questionnaire is valid or invalid in this study is cor-
relation validity test of product moment Pearson. This
test is done by calculating the correlation between the
values obtained from each question to the overall value
or the total value derived from questionnaire data [19]
by using SPSS 16.0 for Windows. The validity of
the data can be seen from the value of r(correlation
coefficient) with testing significance level of 0.05. If
r-count is larger than r-table then the questionnaire
as measuring instrument is valid. However, if the r-
count is smaller than r-table then the questionnaire
as a measuring instrument is invalid. The value of
r-table can be obtained via the official website of
SPSS Indonesia. Large or small of the value of r-
table depends on the number of questions written in
the questionnaire (N).
Total population studied is as many as 50. Then
the distribution of the value of r table with the 5%
significance is equal to 0.279. Questionnaire is made
12
Cite this article as: H B Tritama and R E Tarigan, “The Effect of Social Media to the Brand Awareness of a
Product of a Company”, CommIT Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2016.
TABLE I
QUESTIONNAIRE OF SOCIAL MEDI A INFL UEN CE O N BRAN D
AWAREN ES S OF PRO DUC T COMPANY 2014.
1 Social media is good to be used as a marketing
tool of company products.
2 Any trade or service company should have
social media as marketing tools.
3 Advertising through social media is more
quickly recognized by the community rather
than advertising through other media (such as
newspapers, TV, and radio).
4 Social media can attract more customers to the
company products.
5 Ads that draw attention to social media deter-
mines the selling of company products.
6 I know a lot of new products from social media.
7 Social media helps me to remember new prod-
ucts.
8 I like to buy a product from the ads on social
media
in accordance with the theory of Likert, where every
statement is divided into five points, namely Strongly
Agree (SA), Agree (A), Doubtful (D), Disagree (Da)
and Strongly Disagree (SDa).
The contents of the questionnaire is divided into
two, where the numbers 1-5 are questionnaires about
the influence of social media (X), where the data
will be examined as the dependent variables. While
the numbers 6-10 is a questionnaire about the brand
awareness of the company’s products in the community
(Y), where the data will be examined as independent
variables. The questionnaire is shown in Table I.
V. CONCLUSIONS
Social media gives a significant influence on a
company’s product brand awareness in the commu-
nity. It is based on the results of the analysis using
corellation bivariate where social media significantly
affect any independent variables (Brand awareness of
the products of a company in the public) with values
Significance 2-tailed at each independent variables less
than or equal to 0.05 which which means to have a
significant influence.
Social media gives a significant influence on the
enhancement of the product attraction to the product
marketing that circulates on social media. This can be
seen in the results of analysis using Corellation Bi-
variate where relationships dependent variables (Social
Media) and independent variables (Product Attraction)
have a value of Pearson Corellation of 0.861 and it
means that it has a very strong correlation. It also
has a number Significance 2-tailed smaller or equal
to 0.05 and it means that it also has a significant
relationship. Results of this research at the same time
validates the hypothesis (H1) where it says that the
most dominant factor affecting the products on Social
Media is the attraction of the products in the public.
So the statement H1 is no longer a hypothesis but it
has been proven correct.
This research obtains significant results and has a
strong correlation suggesting that social media can
attract more customers since social media users are
interested in the advertisement displayed. The results
can be seen in Coefficients table (Table 23) that is
generated through the analysis of Linear Regression.
It shows that there is a strong correlation relationship
between the dependent variables of Social Media At-
tracts More Customers of Company Products (X4) and
the independent variables of Marketing through Social
Media interests Users of Social Media (Y4) with a
correlation figure of 0.893 and it means that it has a
very strong correlation.
The influence of social media on the indepen-
dent variables 5 (Y5), Enhancement of New Products
Awareness, has the lowest correlation number among
the four other independent variables. This can be seen
in the results of Correlation Bivariate analysis of the
number 5 where Social Media only affects variables of
Enhancement of New Products Awareness for 0.675
(numbers in Pearson Corellation) and it means the
relationship between the two variables is moderate.
However, since the value of Significance 2-tailed is
still below 0.05 then the relationship between the two
variables can still be said to be significant.
For companies that want to release a new prod-
uct, they should market their products through social
media, because it gives a significant influence on the
public awareness of a product. It is already proven that
each independent variable formed refers to the depen-
dent variable, and that is social media. All of these
variables have Significance 2-tailed numbers smaller
or equal to 0.05 and it means it has a significant
relationship between social media and brand awareness
of a companys product Future studies could consider
other variables associated with brand awareness of a
product on social media, such as Increasing Company
Product in Capital Markets or Increasing Corporate
Weekly Sales. Addition or alteration of these other
variables is to convince companies about the significant
role of social media to their products.
13
Cite this article as: H B Tritama and R E Tarigan, “The Effect of Social Media to the Brand Awareness of a
Product of a Company”, CommIT Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2016.
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[1] D. Kirkpatrick, The Facebook Effect. Simon &
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[3] J. Miles, Instagram Power: Build Your Brand and
Reach More Customers with the Power of Pictures.
McGraw-Hill Education, 2014.
[4] N. P. Kartikasari, “Pengaruh komunikasi pe-
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AKSI: Jurnal Ilmu Komunikasi, vol. 3, no. 2, pp.
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Film-sebagai-Media-Social-Marketing.pdf
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