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Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity of Different Trametes versicolor Extracts on Some Clinical Isolates


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Intensive drug uses against species which have clinical significance and cause severe diseases have triggered the development of resistance in these species. It is necessary to discover new potential drugs against clinical isolates because many antimicrobial drugs become ineffective in the coming years. In this research, we used different extracts from Trametes versicolor fruiting bodies for investigating antibacterial and antifungal activities on some clinical isolates. For this purpose, five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a fungal species (Candida albicans) were selected as clinically important isolates and four different crude extracts (chloroform, water, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol) of Trametes versicolor were tried on these species in terms of antimicrobial sensitivity with disc diffusion method. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 14 software. At the result, some of extracts were found to have antimicrobial activity on clinical isolates although all extracts generally show antimicrobial effect. Chloroform extract was found to have the highest antimicrobial activity on S. aureus and E. faecalis while ethanol extract was observed as more effective on P. aeruginosa, E. coli, B. subtilis and C. albicans isolates. It can therefore be suggested that, some of Trametes versicolor extracts are promising antimicrobial agents.
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Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity of Different Trametes
versicolor Extracts on Some Clinical Isolates
Farklı Trametes versicolor Özütlerinin Bazı Klinik İzolatlar
Üzerindeki Antimikrobiyal Aktivitesinin İncelenmesi
Research Article
E. Özgör et al.
/ Hacettepe J. Biol. & Chem., 2016 , 43 (3), 267–272
Erkay Özgör*, Meltem Ulusoy, İrem Çelebier, Semiha Selda Yıldız, Nevin Keskin
Hacettepe University, Department of Biology, Microbiology and Parasitology Laboratory, Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey
Klinik önemi olan ve ciddi hastalıklara sebep olan türlere karşı yoğun ilaç kullanımı bu türlerde direnç
gelişimini tetiklemektedir. İlerleyen yıllarda birçok antimikrobiyal ilaç etkisiz hale geleceğinden bu türlere
karşı yeni potansiyel ilaçların keşfedilmesi gereklidir. Bu araştırmada, Trametes versicolor üreme yapılarından
elde edilen farklı özütler, bazı klinik izolatlar üzerinde antibakteriyel ve antifungal aktiviteleri araştırmak
için kullanılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, klinik önemi olan izolatlar olarak 5 bakteri tü(Staphylococcus
aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) ile bir fungus
türü (Candida albicans) seçildi ve Trametes versicolor’un 4 farklı ham özütünün (kloroform, su, etil asetat,
etil alkol), bu türler üzerinde antimikrobiyal duyarlılık açısından disk difüzyon yöntemi kullanılarak denendi.
Elde edilen veriler SPSS 14 programı kullanılarak analiz edildi. Çalışmanın sonunda, tüm özütler genel olarak
antimikrobiyal etki gösterse de özütlerden bazılarının klinik izolatlar üzerinde antimikrobiyal aktiviteye sahip
olduğu bulunmuştur. Kloroform özütünün S. aureus ve E. faecalis üzerinde en yüksek antimikrobiyal aktiviteye
sahip olduğu bulunurken etanol özütünün P. aeruginosa, E. coli, B. subtilis ve C. albicans izolatları üzerinde
daha etkili olduğu gözlenmiştir. Bu nedenle, bazı Trametes versicolor özütlerinin umut verici antimikrobiyal
ajanlar olabileceği söylenebilir.
Anahtar Kelimeler
Trametes versicolor, Antimikrobiyal aktivite, Antifungal aktivite, Klinik izolatlar.
Intensive drug uses against species which have clinical significance and cause severe diseases have triggered
the development of resistance in these species. It is necessary to discover new potential drugs against cli-
nical isolates because many antimicrobial drugs become ineffective in the coming years. In this research, we
used different extracts from Trametes versicolor fruiting bodies for investigating antibacterial and antifungal
activities on some clinical isolates. For this purpose, five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Entero-
coccus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a fungal species (Candida
albicans) were selected as clinically important isolates and four different crude extracts (chloroform, water,
ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol) of Trametes versicolor were tried on these species in terms of antimicrobial
sensitivity with disc diffusion method. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 14 software. At the result,
some of extracts were found to have antimicrobial activity on clinical isolates although all extracts generally
show antimicrobial effect. Chloroform extract was found to have the highest antimicrobial activity on S. aureus
and E. faecalis while ethanol extract was observed as more effective on P. aeruginosa, E. coli, B . subtilis and
C. albicans isolates. It can therefore be suggested that, some of Trametes versicolor extracts are promising
antimicrobial agents.
Key Words
Trametes versicolor, Antimicrobial activity, Antifungal activity, Clinical isolates.
Article History: Re ceived: Jan 19, 201 6; Revised: May 16 , 2016; Accepted : Jun 20, 2016; Avai lable Online: Jul 31, 2016.
DOI: 10.15671/HJBC.20164420569
Correspondence to: E. Özgör, Ha cettepe Unive rsity, Depart ment of Biolog y, Microbiolog y and Parasitol ogy Laborato ry, Beytepe, An kara, Turkey
Tel : +90 312 297 801 1 Fax: +90 312 2 99 2028 E-Mail: er .tr
268 E. Özgör et al.
/ Hacettepe J. Biol. & Chem., 2016 , 43 (3), 267–272
Fungi have been a very good source of many
medical compounds for thousands of years.
Fungal substances have been as important source
of lead structures for new drug compounds. Due
to the discovery of penicillin that led to later
discoveries of potent antibiotics isolated from
microbial habitats [1,2]. In the last decades,
problem with antibiotic resistant bacteria has
emerged because of the wrong and intensive
drug uses. Bacterial and fungal pathogens have
evolved numerous defense mechanisms against
antimicrobial agents, and nowadays, the need to
discover new and more potent of these agents as
alternative to antibiotic therapy is stronger [3-5].
There are many different studies about
antimicrobial activity of different types of
fungal extracts from Slovakia, Nigeria, India and
China [3,6-9]. In these studies, fungal extracts
have been shown to be a potential drug against
bacterial and fungal disease agents. Studies with
macromycetes, especially Ganoderma lucidum
and Trametes versicolor, revealed that these fungi
have effective microbial inhibitory properties.
Trametes versicolor (L.) which commonly
known as turkey tail is a common polypore
mushroom found throughout the world. The
top surface of the cap shows typical concentric
zones of different colours. The fruiting body is 1–3
mm thick and has leathery texture. T. versicolor
contains biologically active compounds with
an enormous variety of chemical structures
including the protein-bound PSP, B-1,3-B-1,4
glucans, tetracyclic triterpenoids of lanostane,
fungisterol and B-sitosterol [10-12]. Furthermore,
Polysaccharide-K (PSK) which can be obtained
from mushrooms displays anticancer activity
in laboratory studies and preliminary human
researches [13,14]. Therefore, Trametes spp.
could be useful in the search of new potent
antimicrobial agents.
The aim of this study is to investigate
antibacterial and antifungal activities of different
extracts from Trametes versicolor fruiting bodies
against some clinical isolates including Gram-
positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida
Preparation of Different Trametes versicolor
Trametes versicolor fruiting bodies were collected
almost 500 gram from different forest areas
in Ankara and Zonguldak provinces, Turkey
during the spring season 2015 and macroscopic
identification of harvested fungi were done.
Fruiting bodies of T. versicolor were dried at
70°C and pulverized with laboratory blender. The
obtained powder was weighed and divided into
four groups. Each group was treated with 500
mL of four different solvent (chloroform, water,
ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol) to find out which
solvent requires to obtain active compounds from
T. versicolor fruiting bodies. Powdered substances
in each extract were dissolved with the aid of
sonicator. After this process, each mixture was
filtered to remove solid residues and solvents
evaporated with rotary evaporator. The crude
residue of each extract was frozen at -80°C and
lyophilized [3]. These fungi extracts were stored
at + 4°C in refrigerator until use.
Test Microorganisms
Six clinically important strains of microorganisms
were tested in this research. Three Gram-
positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis ATCC
6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923,
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212) and two Gram-
negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) were
selected for antibacterial activity test. Candida
albicans ATCC 10231, a clinically important yeast
strain, was also selected for antifungal activity
test. Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus
faecalis were cultured in the blood agar (Sigma-
Aldrich, USA) at 37°C, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia
coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cultured
in the nutrient agar (Merck, Germany) at 37°C and
Candida albicans was cultured in the sabouraud
dextrose agar (Merck, Germany) at 30°C.
Antimicrobial Assay
Antibacterial and antifungal activity tests were
performed with disc diffusion method to find
antimicrobial sensitivities of selected clinical
isolates. Different Fungal extracts dissolved in
E. Özgör et al.
/ Hacettepe J. Biol. & Chem., 2016 , 43 (3), 267–272
DMSO were prepared to a final concentration of
200 µg/mL. These solutions were regarded as
100% concentration and were diluted 1:1 ratio with
DMSO to obtain 50% concentrations . Suspensions
of all test microorganisms were prepared in
eppendorf tubes with using sterile distilled water.
Each tube was adjusted with microbial suspension
at the final density of 0.5 McF°. Antibiotics known
to be inhibition effect on isolates were used
as a positive control and DMSO was used as a
negative control during disc diffusion method.
Vancomycin was used for S. aureus and E. faecalis,
Erythromycin for B. subtilis, Norfloxacin for E. coli,
Piperacillin-tazobactam for P. aeruginosa and
Polymyxin B for C. albicans as an antibiotic. To
obtain meaningful results, microbial inoculations
were repeated three times for each parameter.
100 µl of microbial suspension was inoculated
into respective medium for each petri dish by
spread plate technique at disc diffusion method.
Discs were placed inoculated petri dishes and
100% and 50% concentrations of crude extracts
were added 15 µl on blank discs (5 mm). After
incubation at 37°C for bacteria and 30°C for yeast
for 36 hours, the inhibition of microbial growth
was evaluated by measuring zone diameters.
Statistical Analysis
After disc diffusion method, SPSS 14 software
was used for statistical evaluation of zone
diameters (in millimeters) measurement data.
The comparison of different extracts in each
isolate and between isolates was performed with
one-way ANOVA. These results were obtained
in 95% confidence intervals. The most effective
extract was also evaluated with Duncan test for
each clinical isolate.
The amounts of crude residues which are
lyophilisates of four different extracts made
from Trametes versicolor fruiting bodies are
shown in Table 1. Even though the products were
obtained with different amounts of each extract,
standardization is made using the residue in the
same proportions during disc diffusion method.
The antimicrobial activity (expressed as mm)
of four different fungi extracts from Trametes
versicolor against various strains of bacteria
and yeast are summarized in Table 2. Although
all extracts generally show antimicrobial effect,
some of them were found to have antimicrobial
activity on clinical isolates.
The comparison of zone diameters showed
that there is a significant difference between
the zones when extracts of 100% and 50%
concentrations compared with positive and
negative controls (p < 0.05). Antibiotics used as
positive control were found to be most effective
on all isolates. However, Different Trametes
versicolor extracts were found to have microbial
inhibition due to the negative control by Duncan
test (Table 3). Although it was not seen a
significant difference between the concentrations
of the extracts, it was found to be more effective
in 100% concentration of extracts (p > 0.05).
There was no significant difference between
the extracts when the antimicrobial activity of the
extracts on all isolates compared with one way
ANOVA (p > 0.05). However, there were significant
differences in the comparisons for each isolate (p
< 0.05). Chloroform extract was found to have the
highest antimicrobial activity on S. aureus and
E. faecalis (Figure 1) while ethanol extract was
observed to be more effective on P. aeruginosa,
E. coli, B. subtilis and C. albicans isolates (Figure
2). Furthermore, we did not determine significant
antimicrobial activity of tested water and ethyl
acetate extracts against selected clinical isolates.
Many researchers who tested different
macromycetes extracts against bacteria and
yeast observed their antimicrobial activities.
Macromycetes extracts contain lots of active
chemical compounds which show potential
antimicrobial activities. For example, terpenes,
organic acids, benzoic acid derivates and
quinolone were isolated from some species
such as Ganoderma spp., Lentinus edodes and
Leucopaxillus albissimus showed activity against
many different species of bacteria and yeast
Many different species of macrofungi
extracts were tested against different bacteria
270 E. Özgör et al.
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by Suay et al., [12]. These researchers determined
and confirmed antimicrobial activity of crude
macrofungi extracts.
From the obtained results, it could be
observed that ethanol was the best solvent
for extracting antimicrobial compounds from
Trametes versicolor. This suggestion was based
on the number of organisms inhibited and
the diameter of inhibitory zones produced.
Furthermore, chloroform extract of Trametes
versicolor has effect against S. aureus and
E. faecalis known as infectious disease agents.
These results demonstrated that various active
compounds can be isolated from different fungal
extracts. Thus, fungal extraction with different
solvents should be performed in order to obtain
active compounds to inhibit each clinical isolate.
Comparison of the concentrations (100% and
50%) of extracts revealed that there is no
significant difference between the concentrations
(Table 3). According to this result, inhibition of
clinical isolates can be performed with the lesser
amount of active compounds.
In conclusion, this study has shown that
different extracts (ethyl alcohol, ethyl acetate,
chloroform and water) have been used in-vitro
Table 1. The amounts of crude residues obtained from four different Trametes versicolor extracts.
Extracts Weight (mg)
Ethyl Alcohol 98
Ethyl Acetate 83
Chloroform 124
Water 149
Tab l e 2. Antimicrobial activity of different Trametes versicolor extracts against clinical isolates tested by disc diffusion
Ethanol Ethyl acetate Chloroform Water
100% 50% 100% 50% 100% 50% 100% 50%
P.aeruginosa 10.33 9.33 6.00 6.67 7. 3 3 7.33 7.0 0 7. 3 3
S.aureus 5.33 5.00 7. 33 5.67 10.00 12.33 5.00 5.00
E.faecalis 6.33 6.33 5.67 6.33 6.33 7. 3 3 5.33 5.33
B.subtilis 9.33 8.67 6.00 5.00 6.33 8.33 8.67 7.0 0
E.coli 9.67 9.33 6.33 6.33 7.0 0 8.67 9.00 8.67
C.albicans 9.00 6.67 7. 00 5.67 6.33 6.33 7. 3 3 5.00
Values are mean inhibition zone of three replicates (mm).
Table 3. The comparison of 100% (A) and 50% (B) concentration of extracts with positive and negative controls.
CONS NSubset for alpha = 0.05
1 2 3
Duncana N 72 5.01
50% 72 7.0 7
100% 72 7.21
P 72 19.83
Sig. 1.000 0.79 1.000
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed. a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 72.000.
E. Özgör et al.
/ Hacettepe J. Biol. & Chem., 2016 , 43 (3), 267–272
to inhibit the growth of some disease causing
bacteria and yeast. It can therefore be suggested
that, some of extracts are promising antimicrobial
We would like to express our thanks to Öznur İrem Yayalar
and Nermin Nazlı Ayan for help the collection of fungi
samples and Öyküm Öztürk for attribution to detect
Trametes versicolor macroscopic identification.
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Figure 1. Evaluation of antimicrobial effect of chloroform extracts of Trametes versicolor on Staphylococcus aureus by disc
diffusion method.
Figure 2. Evaluation of antimicrobial effect of ethanol extracts of Trametes versicolor on Bacillus subtilis by disc diffusion
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... In Ming Dynasty, more than 120 strains of T. versicolor have been recorded in the Compendium of Chinese Materia Medica [81]. Various properties of T. versicolor like anti-diabetic [82][83], anti-cancer [80,[84][85][86][87], anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory [77,[88][89][90], anti-microbial [91], anti-viral effects [85,88,92], cytotoxic [77], immune-enhancing activity [84,93], prebiotic activity [94,85] and AChE inhibitory effect [77,95] have been mostly researched. Furthermore, T. elegans showed different biocatalytic capabilities toward β-carotene and transformed α-pinene through whole-cell biotransformation reactions [96]. ...
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Species of Trametes are important wood decomposers in natural ecosystems and they have been widely used as traditional medicines in Asia. In order to assess the fungal biodiversity of the Greater Mekong Subregion, surveys of Trametes were conducted in Laos. In this paper, Trametes cubensis is introduced as a new record from Laos based on morphology and molecular evidence. The collected specimens are described with colour photographs and illustrations, and compared with similar taxa. A phylogenetic analysis for the new collection of T. cubensis is provided based on ITS, LSU and TEF1 sequence data and the taxonomic status of the species is briefly discussed. Furthermore, the bioactive compounds, beneficial properties and biotechnological applications of Trametes species are also reviewed.
... (RLCS06) from Ascomycota were typical polymer decomposers, and the Basidiomycete fungi were degraders of resistant compounds. All the genera of polymer decomposers and degraders of resistant compounds used in the study have been reported as antibiotic producers [30][31][32][33][34][35] , however we did not measure antibiotic resistance in this experiment. ...
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Aqueous and methanol extracts of fruit bodies of Daldinia concentrica were tested against five pathogenic fungi like Penicillium sps., Aspergillus fumigatous, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Mucour indicus and also five bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the above extracts were determined by well diffusion assay. Nearly both the extracts were found effective against these bacteria and fungi. The aqueous extract showed higher zone of inhibition than the methanol extract tested. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activities with zone of inhibition ranging from 14-54 mm and 5-23 mm for aqueous and methanol extracts whereas, antifungal activities zone of inhibition ranging from 9-25 mm and 7-18 mm, for aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively. The organisms were more sensitive to the aqueous extract of the fungal fruit bodies than that of methanol extract.
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Bioproducts of Mushroom have multi beneficial effects for human welfare. Medicinal mushrooms are widely used as traditional medicinal ingredients for the treatment of various diseases and related health problems. Most of the medicinal extracts from mushroom are different forms of polysaccharides which strengthens the immune system with little or no side effect. Medicinal mushroom research has focused on discovery of compounds that can modulate positively or negatively the biological response of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts (40μg/ml) of Ganoderma lucidum was tested against six species of bacteria: Escherichia coli (MTCC-443), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-737), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-2405), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-1789) Salmonella typhi (MTCC-531) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-779). Acetone extract exhibited maximum antibacterial activity (31.60±0.10), while the most susceptible bacterium observed was Klebsiella pneumoniae.
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous extract of fruit bodies from Phellinus on selected five bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans and five fungal strains Penicillium sps., Aspergillus fumigatous, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor indicus. For antimicrobial test, well diffusion technique was used and the zone of inhibition of microorganisms was measured in mm. The fruit body of Phellinus showed potential antimicrobial activities against the selected strains and maximum inhibition zone 42mm was recorded from 200mg of aqueous extract of Phellinus fruit body against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and minimum (5mm) by the above pathogen at 50 mg of methanol extract. The methanolic extract showed the maximum antifungal activity 35mm inhibition zone was recorded from 200mg of extract against Aspergillus flavus and minimum 3mm by 50 mg of extract against Penicillium sp.
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Two edible Nigerian macro-fungi Lycoperdon pusilum and Lycoperdon giganteum were assayed in-vitro for their antimicrobial activities using water, methanol and ethanol as extractive solvents. Generally, the extracts were selectively active on few clinical pathogenic microorganisms. Ethanol was the best extractive solvent followed in order by methanol and water (P< 0.05). The best inhibitory zone (24.0mm) was recorded in ethanol extract of L. giganteum with inhibitory zone of 21.0mm. The least inhibitory zone, (4.0mm) was recorded with the aqueous extract of L. pusilum against Proteus vulgaris. The best antifungal activity (17.0mm), was recorded in L. giganteum extract against Microsporum boulardii. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the ethanolic extract was between 0.75 and 4.0mg/ml for bacteria, and between 9.00 and 13.75mg/ml for fungi. The extracts were found to be stable at temperatures up to 50 o C. As the temperature was increased from 60 to 100 o C, there was a significant decrease in stability of the extract. The implications of these observations are discussed. INTRODUCTION Lycoperdons otherwise known as Puffballs are common edible mushrooms, which are well distributed in the tropics. (Zoberi, 1972). They belong to phyllum basidiomycota, class gasteromycetes, order Lycoperdales and family Lycoperdaceae (Miller and Miller, 1988). Puffballs grow on tree stumps, decaying logs or, on ground among the fallen leaves during the raining season (Zoberi, 1972). Lycoperdon giganteum is an enormous puffball, which reaches 30-50cm or more in diameter. This fungus, which grows in the damp moist places, is readily noticed by its giant ball-like nature. (Smith et al, 1981). Lycoperdon pusilum is globose and about 1.5 to 2.0cm in diameter. It grows in open places, lawns and fields on moist soils. (Miller and Miller, 1988). The spherical mass of both L. giganteum and L. pusilum are attached to the ground by short rod like cord which is covered with a white or greyish envelop (Zoberi, 1972). Mushrooms producing antibiotics are undoubtedly numerous, but so far, they have not been sufficiently studied especially in their natural habitat. Traditional doctors have successfully used puffballs to cure sores, abrasion or bruises, deep cut, hemorrhage as well as urinary tract infection (Buswell and Chang, 1993; Oso, 1977) but, these claims have not been proved scientifically. So much work has been carried out on the antimicrobial activities of lower fungi but higher fungi especially edible mushrooms have not been adequately explored. Therefore, the objective of this work was to provide information on the antimicrobial activities of L. pusilum and L. giganteum from Nigeria.
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In the present study, the antibacterial activity of a chloroform extract isolated from the fruiting body of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi or Reishi) was investigated. Different concentrations of the crude extract have been used to evaluate its antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria - Bacillus subtilis ATCC 465, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Enterococcus feacalis ATCC 29737, and Gram-negative bacteria - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 85327. The results of disk diffusion tests showed that the chloroform extract had growth inhibitory effects on two of the Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined as well. Both MIC and MBC for Staphylococcus aureus were 8 mg/mL, and for Bacillus subtillis, they were 8 and 16 mg/mL, respectively. To investigate the chloroform extract for its bioactive components, established biochemical methods - the Liebermann-Burchard, Nöller, and Salkowski tests - were used. The results revealed that a variety of lipid derivatives, including sterols and triterpenoid acids, were present in the chloroform extract.
An antibacterial protein was isolated from the cultured mycelia ofCordyceps sinensis, and was designated asCordyceps sinensis Antibacterial Protein (CSAP). CSAP was single-chained, with an apparent molecular mass of 35×103 revealed by SDS-PAGE and a novel hydrophobic N-terminal sequence N-ALATQHGAP. The antimicrobial assays showed CSAP could inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but no significant inhibition against fungi or yeasts. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of CSAP was not bactericidal but bacteriostatic. It was the first time that an antibacterial protein was described in theCordyceps species, which might involve in the chemical defense mechanism of the hosts.
The fruit bodies of 97 species of wood-rotting fungi, mainly of Polyporaceae and related families, were examined for the distribution of triterpenes and sterols. Triterpene acids of lanostane group were detected exclusively from the fungi causing brown-rot of woods, while sterols were found to occur commonly in both brown-rot and white-rot fungi. The most abundant sterol was found to be ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-ol. The presence and absence of the triterpene acids is discussed from the point of view of fungal phylogeny.
Over the past century, a number of synthetic antimicrobial agents have been discovered and developed, but drug resistance and toxicity are still the major hindrances to gaining successful therapeutic outcomes in many instances. Herbal medicines may represent a safe and useful supplement to existing chemotherapeutic therapies for the management of infectious diseases. Ganoderma has traditionally been used to treat chronic infectious diseases, such as chronic hepatitis and bronchitis in Asia, when it is administered alone or more often in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. Preclinical (in vitro and in vivo animal) studies indicate that Ganoderma exhibits a broad spectrum of antibacterial and antiviral activities, whereas data in human beings are scanty. Polysaccharides or triterpenoids from Ganoderma showed activities against Herpes simple virus, Hepatitis B virus, HIV, and Epstein-Barr virus in vitro or in animal models. Ganoderma species also contain antibacterial constituents inhibiting gram-positive and/or gram-negative bacteria in vitro. However, it is difficult to extrapolate these findings to humans, as most of these preclinical studies were conducted under optimized conditions with the use of high doses of Ganoderma components. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study indicated that treatment of hepatitis B patients with G. lucidum polysaccharides at 5400 mg/day for 12 weeks resulted in significantly decreased serum HBV DNA and hepatitis B e antigen (HbeAg) levels. The mechanisms for the antimicrobial and antiviral activities of Ganoderma are largely undefined. Currently available data do not support the use of Ganoderma as an antibiotic, but it may play an adjunct role for the management of bacterial and viral infection. Further studies are needed in humans.
Antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of three polypore macrofungi Phellinus rimosus, Ganoderma lucidum and Navesporus floccosa were studied. The activity was evaluated by hole-plate diffusion and microtitre plate dilution methods using Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Bacillus subtilis. The methanol extract of P. rimosus and N. floccosa showed activity against all the strains at a concentration of 800 µg/well and 1 mg/well, respectively. The methanol extract of G. lucidum showed activity against E. coli, S. typhimurium and B. subtilis at a concentration of 1 mg/well. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. rimosus and N. flocossa were found to be 500 µg/well and 1 mg/well, respectively. The MIC of G. lucidum was also found to be 1 mg/well. Chemical analysis of the methanol extracts of these fungi indicated the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones and terpenes.
Despite the huge diversity of antibacterial compounds, bacterial resistance to first-choice antibiotics has been drastically increasing. Moreover, the association between multiresistant microorganisms and nosocomial infections highlight the problem, and the urgent need for solutions. Natural resources have been exploited in the last years and among them, mushrooms could be an alternative source of new antimicrobials. In this review, we present an overview of the antimicrobial properties of mushroom extracts and highlight some of the active compounds identified, including low- and high-molecular weight (LMW and HMW, respectively) compounds. LMW compounds are mainly secondary metabolites, such as sesquiterpenes and other terpenes, steroids, anthraquinones, benzoic acid derivatives, and quinolines, but also primary metabolites such as oxalic acid. HMW compounds are mainly peptides and proteins. Data available from the literature indicate a higher antimicrobial activity of mushroom extracts against gram-positive bacteria. Among all the mushrooms, Lentinus edodes is the most studied species and seems to have a broad antimicrobial action against both gram-postive and gram-negative bacteria. Plectasin peptide, obtained from Pseudoplectania nigrella, is the isolated compound with the highest antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, while 2-aminoquinoline, isolated from Leucopaxillus albissimus, presents the highest antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria.