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Every day, a lot of people all over the world participate in games and sports activities or competitions. Participation in sports improves physical fitness and overall health and wellness. Games and sports can also result in injuries, some mi nor, some serious and still other in lifelong medical problem. Sports injuries result from acute trauma or repetitive stress associated with athletic activities. Sports injuries can affect bones or soft tissue (ligaments, muscles, tendons). There are numerous sports injuries happened in the field of sports. It is very important for all coaches, trainers and players to know the causes symptoms, prevention and treatment for all these common injuries in order to avoid most of these types of injuries, also to update the poor training methods. This paper will review the general common sports injuries.
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International Journal of Ph
sical Education
orts and Health 2016
: 142-148
P-ISSN: 2394-1685
E-ISSN: 2394-1693
Impact Factor (ISRA): 5.38
IJPESH 2016; 3(5): 142-148
© 2016 IJPESH
Received: 27-07-2016
Accepted: 28-08-2016
Mohammed Abou Elmagd
Senior Executive Sports, Student
Affairs, Physical Activity
department, Ras Al Khaimah
Medical and Health Sciences
University, RAK, 11172,
United Arab Emirates
Mohammed Abou Elmagd
Senior Executive Sports, Student
Affairs, Physical Activity
department, Ras Al Khaimah
Medical and Health Sciences
University, RAK, 11172,
United Arab Emirates
Common sports injuries
Mohammed Abou Elmagd
Every day, a lot of people all over the world participate in games and sports activities or competitions.
Participation in sports improves physical fitness and overall health and wellness. Games and sports can
also result in injuries, some minor, some serious and still other in lifelong medical problem. Sports
injuries result from acute trauma or repetitive stress associated with athletic activities. Sports injuries can
affect bones or soft tissue (ligaments, muscles, tendons). There are numerous sports injuries happened in
the field of sports. It is very important for all coaches, trainers and players to know the causes symptoms,
prevention and treatment for all these common injuries in order to avoid most of these types of injuries,
also to update the poor training methods. This paper will review the general common sports injuries.
Keywords: Sports injuries, exercise, sports, physical education
1. Introduction
Sports injuries are injuries that occur in athletic activities or exercising. They can result from
accidents, poor training technique in practice, inadequate equipment, and overuse of a
particular body part. In the United States there are about 30 million teenagers and children
alone that participate in some form of organized sport. About 3 million avid sports competitors
14 years of age and under experience sports injuries annually, which causes some loss of time
of participation in the sport. [1] In the process to determine what exactly happened in the body
and the standing effects most medical professionals choose a method of technological medical
devices to acquire a credible solution to the site of injury. Prevention helps reduce potential
sport injuries. It is important to establish participation in warm-ups, stretching, and exercises
that focus on main muscle groups commonly used in the sport of interest. Also, creating an
injury prevention program as a team, which includes education on rehydration, nutrition,
monitoring team members “at risk”, monitoring behavior, skills, and techniques.[2] Season
analysis reviews and preseason screenings are also beneficial reviews for preventing player
sport injuries. Adults are less likely to suffer sports injuries than children, whose vulnerability
is heightened by immature reflexes, an inability to recognize and evaluate risks, and
underdeveloped coordination. Injury rates are highest for athletes who participate in contact
sports, but the most serious injuries are associated with individual activities [3]. Between one-
half and two-thirds of childhood sports injuries occur during practice, or in the course of
unorganized athletic activity. Baseball and softball are the leading causes of sports-related
facial trauma in the United States, with 68% of these injuries caused by contact with the ball
rather than player-player collision or being hit by a swung bat [4].
Common Sports Injuries [5, 6, 7]
2. Sprains
A sprain is where one or more of your ligaments is stretched, twisted or torn. Ligaments are
strong bands of tissue around joints. They connect one bone to another and help keep your
bones together and stable. Sprains often occur in ligaments around joints in the ankle or
knee. The joint is not dislocated or fractured. The symptoms of a sprain include:
inflammation (swelling),
Bruising, and Restricted movement in the affected area.
Sprains are common injuries in many sports and, if necessary, can be treated with rest and anti-
inflammatory medication.
International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health
Fig 1: Sample of ankle sprain injury [8]
3. Strains
A muscle strain is where muscle tissues or fibers are stretched
or torn. A muscle strain is sometimes referred to as 'pulling a
muscle'. Tendons can also be strained. A tendon is the tough,
narrow tissue at the end of a muscle that connects it to the
bone. Strains are caused by a muscle that is overstretched or
that over-contracts. Symptoms of a strain include:
Muscle spasm,
A loss of strength in the muscle.
Strains are common to many sports, particularly those
involving running, jumping or rapid changes of direction.
To help prevent sprains and strains, you should warm up
properly before exercising and wear suitable footwear.
Conditioning and strengthening exercises can also help.
Fig 2: Sample of elbow strain injury [9]
4. Dislocation
A dislocation is an injury in which the ends of your bones are
forced from their normal positions. The cause is usually
trauma resulting from a fall, an auto accident, or a collision
during contact or high-speed sports. Dislocation usually
involves the body's larger joints. In adults, the most common
site of the injury is the shoulder. In children, it's the elbow.
Your thumb and fingers also are vulnerable if forcibly bent the
wrong way. The injury will temporarily deform and
immobilize your joint and may result in sudden and severe
pain and swelling. A dislocation requires prompt medical
attention to return your bones to their proper positions.
Fig 3: Sample of ankle dislocation injury [10]
5. Fractures
Fractures are a common injury for people of all ages.
Diagnosing a fracture can sometimes be complicated as it
depends on location and how the fragments are aligned. The
difference between a compound fracture and a simple fracture
is visible, and an x-ray will be able to determine the shape of
the fracture. Children will heal faster than adults as their
bodies are still growing. A fracture for a child could take only
a few weeks to heal, whereas an older adult could take months.
The best way to prevent one from occurring is to practice
safety and awareness.
Fig 4: Types of bone fractures [11]
6. Knockout
Knock out is a fight-ending, winning criterion in several full-
contact combat sports, such as boxing, kickboxing, karate,
some forms of taekwondo and other sports involving striking
[12]. The term is often associated with a sudden traumatic loss
of consciousness caused by a physical blow. Single powerful
blows to the head can produce a cerebral concussion or a
carotid sinus reflex with syncope and cause a sudden, dramatic
knock out [13].
Fig 5: Game over: Carl Froch knocked out George Groves
in the eighth round of their rematch at Wembley [14]
International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health
7. Punch Syndrome
Punch syndrome is a condition seen in boxers and alcoholics,
caused by repeated cerebral concussions and characterized by
weakness in the lower limbs, unsteadiness of gait, slowness of
muscular movements, hand tremors, hesitancy of speech, and
mental dullness. Punch syndrome most often affects fighters of
the slugging type, who are usually poor boxers and who take
considerable head punishment, seeking only to land a
knockout blow [15]. It is also common in second rate fighters
used for training purposes, who may be knocked down several
times a day. Frequently it takes a fighter from one to two hours
to recover from a severe blow to the head or jaw. In some
cases consciousness may be lost for a considerable period of
time [16].
Fig 6: MMA Fighter Andrei Arlovski sustaining a severe concussion
8. Wrestler Ear
The term cauliflower or wrestler ear refers to a deformity of
the ear caused by blunt trauma or other injury, such as what
may occur during a boxing or wrestling match [18]. Left
untreated, the injury leads to a blockage that prevents blood
flow and damages tissue. This results in a bumpy or lumpy
appearance on part of the ear, similar to a cauliflower. The
most common cause of wrestler ear is a hit to the ear or
repeated hits to the ear that leads to hematomas, or small
collections of blood that clot and block the flow of blood and
nutrients. These can also occur when skin is pulled away from
cartilage, the semi-rigid tissue that gives the ear its shape
fortunately, the types of injuries that cause cauliflower ear are
often preventable by wearing the right type of protective head
gear. Early treatment can help prevent permanent deformity
Fig 7: Sample of wrestler ear or cauliflower ear. [20].
9. Weight lifter blackout
Blacking out while exercising can be due to a variety of causes
that restrict blood flow to your brain. Dehydration as not
having enough fluids in your body it can lower your blood
pressure and lead to blacking out, particularly if you are
sweating a lot [21].Dehydration is the most common cause of
orthostatic hypotension, this causes significant drops in blood
pressure when you go from laying to sitting to standing. If you
are significantly dehydrated and trying to squat it is not
unreasonable to think your blood pressure changes could cause
you to become light headed and close to blacking out [22].
Fig 8: Sample of blackout condition [23].
10. Stitch at side
Side stitches are muscle spasms of the diaphragm, and they
occur occasionally during strenuous exercise [24]. Most people
experience stitches on their right side, immediately below the
ribs. A sudden sharp pain during exercise that occurs below
the bottom of the ribcage, and disappears once exercise stops
[25]. Though there are different theories, some experts think
stitches are the result of a cramp in the diaphragm, perhaps due
to. As you run, you increase pressure on your abdominal
muscles and breathe rapidly, expanding your lungs. This pain
gradually subside as the activity continues [26].
Fig 9: Sample of stitch at side injury [27]
11. Low back pain
Lower back pain can be caused by a variety of problems with
any parts of the complex, interconnected network of spinal
muscles, nerves, bones, discs or tendons in the lumbar
spine[28]. Pain in the low back can be a result of conditions
affecting the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae,
ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves,
muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and
abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area. Treatment of
low back pain is optimally directed toward a diagnosed or
suspected specific cause [29]. For acute lumbar strain, use of a
home remedy initially can be beneficial. Exercise appears to
be useful for preventing low back pain [30]. Exercise is also
probably effective in preventing recurrences in those with pain
that has lasted more than six weeks.
International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health
Fig 10: Sample of low back pain injury [31].
12. Shoulder impingement syndrome
Shoulder impingement syndrome is a common cause of
shoulder pain. It occurs when there is impingement of tendons
from bones of the shoulder [32]. Overhead activity of the
shoulder, especially repeated activity, is a risk factor for
shoulder impingement syndrome. Examples include: painting,
lifting, swimming, tennis, and other overhead sports. Other
risk factors include bone and joint abnormalities. With
impingement syndrome, pain is persistent and affects everyday
activities. Motions such as reaching up behind the back or
reaching up overhead to put on a coat or blouse for example
may pain. Over time, impingement syndrome can lead to
inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons (tendinitis) and bursa
(bursitis). Impingement syndrome is usually treated
conservatively, but sometimes it is treated with arthroscopic
surgery or open surgery [33]. Conservative treatment includes
rest, cessation of painful activity, and physical therapy.
Fig 111: Anatomical structure of shoulder impingement syndrome [34]
13. Tennis elbow
Tennis elbow" is a common term for a condition caused by
overuse of arm, forearm, and hand muscles that results in
elbow pain. You don't have to play tennis to get this, but the
term came into use because it can be a significant problem for
some tennis players. Tennis elbow is caused by either sudden
or indirect injury of the muscle and tendon area around the
outside of the elbow[35]. Tennis elbow specifically involves the
area where the muscles and tendons of the forearm attach to
the outside bony area (called the lateral epicondyle) of the
elbow. Overuse injury can also affect the back or posterior part
of the elbow as well. Tennis elbow most commonly affects
people in their dominant arm, but it can also occur in the non-
dominant arm or both arms [36].
Fig 12: Sample of tennis elbow injury [37].
14. Javelin throwers elbow
Throwers elbow occurs when there is damage to the bones,
muscles, tendons and ligaments around the elbow joint and
forearm. The throwing motion causes the structures on the
medial side (inside) of the elbow to stretch, while at the same
time compresses the structures on the lateral side (outside) of
the elbow. The damage eventually causes a restriction of
movement, inflammation and pain, and leads to the formation
of scar tissue, bone spurs and calcium deposits. If untreated,
this damage can put so much pressure on the muscles and
nerves that they can cut off the blood flow and pinch the
nerves responsible for controlling the muscles in the forearm.
By far the most common cause of throwers elbow is overuse,
Poor technique, using ill-fitted equipment and poor level of
general fitness and conditioning. Any action which places a
repetitive and prolonged strain on the forearm muscles,
coupled with inadequate rest, will strain and overwork those
muscles [38].
Fig 13: Sample of throwers elbow injury [39].
15. Boxer elbow
As is the case with any complex joint, elbow injuries can range
from minor to acute. Boxing injuries of the acute variety could
include elbow dislocations, tendon tears and serious damage to
the structures around the elbow. These injuries require medical
attention and possibly surgery. For minor injuries overuse and
boxer's elbow, which involve pain in the posterior of the joint,
rest and rehabilitation should be sufficient. Once you damage
International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health
your elbows by striking too hard and too fast or missing the
target completely, you need to take a patient approach to make
a full and lasting recovery. Strengthening exercises include
liberal stretching of the area, along with exercises to
strengthen the grip. Working on wrist flexion will help to
strengthen tendons that run from the hand all the way up to the
elbow [40].
Fig 14: X-ray case shows a posterior dislocation of the elbow [41].
16. Mallet finger
A mallet finger is a deformity of the finger caused when the
tendon that straightens your finger (the extensor tendon) is
damaged. When a ball or other object strikes the tip of the
finger or thumb and forcibly bends it, the force tears the
tendon that straightens the finger. The force of the blow may
even pull away a piece of bone along with the tendon. In a
mallet finger, the fingertip droops, it cannot straighten on its
own power. The finger may be painful, swollen and bruised,
especially if there is an associated fracture, but often the only
finding is the inability to straighten the tip [42].
Fig 15: Sample of mallet finger injury in baseball [43].
17. Runner’s Knee
Runner’s knee, got its nickname for an obvious and very
unfortunate reason, it's common among runners, But it can
also strike any athlete who does activities that require a lot of
knee bending like walking, biking, and jumping. It usually
causes aching pain around the kneecap. The stress of running
can cause irritation where the kneecap (patella) rests on the
thighbone. The resulting pain can be sharp and sudden or dull
and chronic, and it may disappear while you're running, only
to return again afterward, the cause can often be traced back to
poorly conditioned quadriceps and tight hamstrings [44]. In the
absence of cartilage damage, pain at the front of the knee due
to overuse can be managed with a combination of RICE (rest,
ice, compression, elevation), anti-inflammatory medications,
and physiotherapy [45].
Fig 16: Sample of pain in Patella tendon as a result of knee injury [46].
18. Jumper’s Knee
Jumper's knee also known as patellar tendonitis or patellar
tendinopathy, is an inflammation or injury of the patellar
tendon, the cord-like tissue that joins the patella (kneecap) to
the tibia (shin bone). Jumper's knee is an overuse injury,
regularly happened to the one who plays sports that involve a
lot of repetitive jumping - like track and field (particularly
high-jumping), basketball, volleyball, gymnastics, running,
and soccer can put a lot of strain on their knees [47].
Fig 17: Sample of jumper’s knee injury-inflamed patellar tendon [48].
19. Shin Splint
The term "shin splints" refers to pain along the shinbone (tibia)
the large bone in the front of your lower leg. Shin splints are
common in runners, dancers and military recruits. Medically
known as medial tibia stress syndrome, shin splints often occur
in athletes who have recently intensified or changed their
training routines. The muscles, tendons and bone tissue
become overworked by the increased activity. Most cases of
shin splints can be treated with rest, ice and other self-care
measures. Wearing proper footwear and modifying your
exercise routine can help prevent shin splints from recurring
International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health
Fig 18: Sample shows anterior and posterior shin splint injury [50].
20. Turf toe
“Turf toe” is the common term used to describe a sprain of the
ligaments around the big toe joint. Although it’s commonly
associated with football players who play on artificial turf [51],
it affects athletes in other sports including soccer, basketball,
wrestling, gymnastics, and dance. It’s a condition that’s caused
by jamming the big toe or repeatedly pushing off the big toe
forcefully as in running and jumping [52].
Fig 19: Photo shows the case of turf toe injury [53].
21. Conclusion
All the above sports injuries occur during any sports activities
or exercising. They can result from accidents, poor training or
warming up technique in practice, inadequate equipment, and
overuse of a particular body part. It is very important for any
one related to sports field to be aware about all kinds of sports
injuries; causes symptoms, prevention and treatment, in order
to manage an injury prevention program as a team, which
includes education on rehydration, nutrition, monitoring team
members, monitoring behavior, skills, and techniques.
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... Mayoritas jenis olahraga yang mengakibatkan trauma meliputi sepak bola, basket, sepeda dan rugby. 2 Trauma olahraga umumnya terjadi pada anak-anak laki-laki hingga usia dewasa dan umumnya terjadi pada usia 15-24 tahun. 3 Berdasarkan Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) tahun 2018, trauma kepala merupakan urutan ke 3 setelah cedera anggota gerak bawah dan atas. ...
... Trauma oromaksilofasial dapat terjadi pada jaringan lunak maupun jaringan keras seperti abrasi, laserasi jaringan lunak hingga fraktur dentoalveolar, atau fraktur pada mandibula dan maksilofasial. 2,3,5 Trauma penetrasi yang disebabkan akibat cedera olahraga merupakan kasus yang jarang terjadi. 6 Penyebab paling umum terjadinya trauma penetrasi meliputi luka tembak atau luka tusuk yang diakibatkan perkelahian. ...
... Trauma penetrasi adalah luka yang disebabkan oleh benda asing yang menusuk kulit, yang merusak jaringan di bawahnya dan mengakibatkan luka terbuka. 2,3,6 Trauma penetrasi dapat memiliki risiko yang besar ketika masuk ke dalam tubuh yaitu benda asing yang menusuk dapat mengenai jaringan vital di sekitar luka seperti pembuluh darah, dan jaringan saraf. 6 Gaya gesek yang disebabkan oleh benda yang menusuk di dalam tubuh dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan jaringan dan pembuluh darah di sekitar benda tersebut. ...
Full-text available
ABSTRAKPendahuluan: Benda asing yang menusuk pada daerah oral maksilofasial dapat disebabkan oleh trauma ataupun faktor iatrogenik. Kecelakaan olahraga merupakan salah satu etiologi terjadinya luka penetrasi. Setiap benda asing yang berpenetrasi pada jaringan lunak di daerah oral maksilofasial harus segera dilakukan evakuasi untuk mencegah terjadinya infeksi. Tujuan laporan kasus ini menyampaikan penatalaksanaan kegawatdaruratan evakuasi benda asing pada regio oral maksilofasial. Laporan kasus: Kasus ini terjadi pada seorang atlet anggar laki-laki dengan usia 16 tahun dibawa ke instalasi gawat darurat Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung dengan kondisi pedang anggar tertancap di dalam mulutnya. Kecelakaan terjadi 2 jam sebelum masuk rumah sakit ketika latihan bersama dengan lawan tanding di daerah Antapani tanpa menggunakan pelindung wajah. Pedang lawan tanding menusuk dan menancap pada mulut pasien. Pemeriksaan klinis dan penunjang berupa foto rontgen dilakukan sebelum tindakan evakuasi pada pasien. Pedang kemudian di evakuasi secara anestesi lokal dan dilakukan penutupan luka. Kontrol dilakukan pada hari ke-7 pasca tindakan. Simpulan: Penatalaksanaan kegawatdaruratan evakuasi benda asing pada regio oral maksilofasial yang cepat dan tepat dibutuhkan untuk keberhasilan penyembuhan pasien seperti tampak pada saat kontrol hari ketujuh yang menunjukkan perbaikan tanpa komplikasi.
... The issue on the injury factors in sports is attracting attention of scholars for last decades, the authors have studied preventive measures [1,2,3], the main risk factors of injury [4,5,6] and efficiency of recovery in athletes [7,8,9,10]. Moreover, especially the social and psychological factors were examined, and their impact was proven. ...
... Thus, the time needed to heal the injured zones is eliminated, which leads to further damage and injured areas turn out to be swollen and hurting. Among the key reasons of these overuse injuries are related to the change in the training program, poor planning of trainings, where the recovery time is not included [1,2,3]; -secondary injuries, that can occur when the previous injuries are not treated well or the athlete is not fully recovered, under these conditions, there is a high risk of frequent secondary injuries in future [12,13,14]. ...
... -Reaching this stage means that the injury is not serious, next the first aider should move the injured area of the athlete to evaluate the level of pain, if the range of pain-free movement is normal the injured athlete should be asked to stand; -To test the required skills for a particular sport and estimate the level of pain, if all required actions can be done by the athlete, he can be resumed to the game or competition [1,2,3]. ...
p> The aim of the study is to develop a comprehensive model on the risk factors of injury/re-injury and factors affecting the recovery process. Material and methods. Systematic analysis and scientific generalization of the latest theoretical and analytical studies on the factors affecting risk of injury, assessment, prevention and recovery of injuries in athletes. Results. The conducted comprehensive analysis allowed to build a theoretical model on the injury-recovery cycle. The model includes 3 main groups of factors affecting the risk of injury, namely: internal, caused by physiological processes; external, caused by training conditions and equipment; fear, which is related to the personal psychological and emotional characteristics and external surroundings. At the same time, implementation of preventive measurements can reduce the risk of injuries. The model highlighted the positive impact of social support and interactions between a patient and a therapist in the process of injury recovery. Conclusions. In order to minimize the risk of injury and stimulate the recovery process in athletes the following recommendation should be taken in place: to promote the spreading of information on possible ways of injury prevention; to provide educational services for those who are involved in sports and other physical activities; to spread the information about the main types of injury and the treatment approaches to make athletes familiar with that, which can increase their competence and reduce the fear of injury; to encourage communication and interaction between teammates, with their trainers and coaches during the period of recovery to eliminate the level of isolation of injured athletes.</p
... There are many possible causes for sports injuries such as Accidents, improper equipment, poor training practices, insufficient warm-up, stretching, lack of conditioning and overuse of a particular body part. 2,3 Sports injuries mostly involves tissues such as ligaments, bones, cartilages, muscles and tendons. Some of the major sports injuries are sprains, strains, dislocations and fractures. ...
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p>Sports and exercise activities are helpful to increase overall health and physical fitness. But also, there is risk of different types of injuries such as sprains, strains, dislocations and fractures collectively known as sports injuries. Sports injuries, if not treated promptly and properly, may lead to lifelong disabilities or may affect athlete’s ability to participate in sports. Most of the sports injuries are affecting bones and soft tissues manifesting pain, inflammation and restricted mobility. The common treatment modalities are the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids for pain and inflammation management in sports injuries. But these drugs may lead to severe side effects in long term use. Also, NSAIDs and corticosteroids, do not promote crucial process of remodeling and repair of injury. Hence, there is a need for treatment modalities facilitating fast recovery with less side effects hastening the return to competition by injured athletes. Systemic enzyme therapy (SET) is the enzyme flavonoid combination administered orally and has been recommended since many years for the treatment of pain and inflammation. SET including bromelain, trypsin, rutoside combination has been evaluated and proven effective treatment option for faster recovery with reduced inflammation. These enzymes either in combination or individually show effect on injuries. This review explains types, pathophysiology, current treatment modalities, use of SET and its clinical evidences in sports injury.</p
... The quality of evidence was assessed based on criteria of internal validity (study design, quality reporting, selection and misclassification bias, and potential confounding) and external validity (generalizability). The downs and black (DB) quality assessment tool was used to scoring each study based on each criterion, with a total score of 32 points per study (10 points for reporting, 3 points for external validity, 7 points for bias, 6 points for confounding, and 5 points for weighting) [15]. The level of evidence for each study was classified according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) 2009 model, and levels 1a, 2a, 3a (systematic reviews), 4 (case series), and 5 (opinion-based papers) were excluded according to the study's exclusion 3 Occupational Therapy International criteria. ...
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This paper provides an in-depth study of occupational therapy and the prevention of common sports injuries in special physical training. The issue of sports injuries and rehabilitation has always been a hot topic in special training. With the continuous development of sports, the increasing intensity of competition, and more stringent requirements for special techniques, the increase in difficulty and intensity of training has led to the increasing frequency of sports injuries, so how to prevent injuries in special physical training and rehabilitation and recovery of athletes after the injury is particularly important. Since the most common musculoskeletal injuries occur in the lower quadrant, this paper proposes a lower extremity functional test (LEFT) model as a means of identifying injury risk and guiding the implementation of training programs to prevent sports injuries. In this paper, a knee injury is used as an example, and an occupational therapy program of TCM physical therapy+aquatic rehabilitation is adopted for the already occurred sports injuries. Through interviews and clinical examinations of athletes, coaches, and medical personnel, this paper summarizes the sites, types, characteristics, and probability of occurrence of common sports injuries in special physical training. Experiments were conducted through clinical rehabilitation of common sports injuries with the addition of TCM manual massage. A series of effects of this modality on the rehabilitation of sports injuries were examined by monitoring physiological and biochemical indexes and by comparative analysis before and after testing physical function indexes using the Omega Wave system. Sports injuries are diverse. Traditional Chinese medicine physical therapy+water rehabilitation therapy is an effective physical therapy method. According to the relevant theories of traditional Chinese medicine treatment, diagnosis and treatment through meridians and related acupuncture points have significant curative effects. Traditional Chinese medicine, massage, and acupuncture have irreplaceable roles in the rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries and can effectively improve and cure sports injuries.
... Cedera olahraga dapat diakibatkan karena kecelakaan, melakukan teknik olahraga yang buruk, perlengkapan yang tidak memadai, dan penggunaan berlebihan (overuse) pada bagian tubuh tertentu (Elmagd, 2016). Dalam dunia olahraga cedera dapat disebabkan karena kelemahan fisik, melakukan latihan dalam kondisi yang kurang sehat, faktor lingkungan yang tidak mendukung dan kesalahan dalam melakukan latihan (Somosardjuno dalam Hastuti, 2006). ...
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ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat pengetahuan penanganan cedera olahraga metode protect, rest, ice, compression, elevation, support pada mahasiswa FIO UNESA angkatan 2016. Peneliti mengambil topik tersebut mengingat penting nya skill penanganan cedera olahraga yang harus dipahami bagi calon lulusan sarjana fakultas ilmu olahraga. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kuantitatif, dengan menggunakan metode survei dan untuk teknik pengambilan data peneliti menggunakan kuesioner yang telah dibuat di media google form untuk membantu mahasiswa mengisi kuesioner. Sampel dari penelitian ini yaitu mahasiswa dari Fakultas Ilmu Olahraga Universitas Negeri Surabaya yang berasal dari angkatan 2016 atau yang saat ini sedang menempuh semester delapan tahun ajaran 2019/2020 dengan jumlah 90 mahasiswa, dimana dari tiga program studi yang ada masing-masing diwakili oleh 30 mahasiswa. Analisis data dalam penelitian ini yaitu, menentukan persentase tingkat pengetahuan dari mahasiswa dan kemudian dilakukan uji one way anova dengan menggunakan bantuan software SPSS 26. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan tingkat pengetahuan penanganan cedera olahraga metode protect, rest, ice, compression, elevation, support pada mahasiswa FIO UNESA angkatan 2016 yang termasuk dalam kategori sangat tinggi sebesar 27,8% (25 mahasiswa), kategori tinggi sebesar 58,9% (53 mahasiswa), kategori sedang sebesar 13,3% (12 mahasiswa), serta kategori rendah dan sangat rendah sebesar 0% (0 mahasiswa). Dari hasil data tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwasanya tingkat pengetahuan mahasiswa sebagian besar termasuk dalam kategori tinggi dan pada uji one way anova menunjukkan nilai signifikansi 0,359 > 0,05 sehingga dapat diartikan bahwasanya dari tiga program studi yang ada tidak terdapat perbedaan tingkat pengetahuan yang signifikan. ABSTRACT The research aims to determine the level of knowledge in handling sports injury with protect, rest, ice, compression, elevation, support methods on Faculty of Sports Science's Students 2016 In State University of Surabaya. Researchers took the topic to remember her important Sports injury handling skills that must be understood for aspiring graduate students from faculty of sports science. Because they will come to the event when they plunge into the sports world, they become practitioners and academics. Type of this research is quantitative descriptive, using the survey methods and for the research data retrieval techniques using the questionnaire that was created in the google form media to help students fill out the questionnaire. A sample of this study is a student of the Faculty of Sports Science's at State University of Surabaya which is derived from the 2016 generation or who is currently taking the eighth semester of the 2019/2020 teaching year with a total of 90 students, of which three courses are each represented by 30 students. The analysis of the data in this study is, determine the percentage of knowledge rate from students and then conducted one way Anova test by using the help of software SPSS 26. Results of this research showed the level of knowledge in handling sports injury with protect, rest, ice, compression, elevation, support methods on Faculty of Sports Science's Students 2016 In State University of Surabaya which belongs to very high category of 27.8% (25 students), high category of 58.9% (53 students), medium category of 13.3% (12 students), as well as low category and very low of 0%. From the results of the data can be concluded that the student knowledge level is largely included in the high category and on the test one way Anova shows the significance value 0.359 > 0.05 so that it can be interpreted that from three courses there are no significant differences in knowledge levels.
... Sport injuries are caused by acute trauma or repetitive stress related to accidents, poor techniques, inadequate equipment, and overuse [1] . Injury is one of the main causes of withdrawal from exercise [2]. ...
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Background: Comparison of lower limbs injuries in male and female professional athletes in Poomsae Premier League. Methods: The statistical population consisted of 143 martial athletes in men and women premier leagues who are 76 females and 67 males. Among them, the athletes who suffered injuries were considered as samples of this study. The data was collected by the researcher and under supervision of a physician using questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and chi-Square were used for data analysis. Results: Results of the present study showed that the highest rate of injury in men related to ankle and in female related to hamstring injury. And there was a significant difference between men and women in hamstring injuries (x 2 =12.52, p≤0.05). The most common type of injury in men was Ankle sprain and in women was Hamstring strain; and the most common mechanism of injury in men was previous injuries and in women was due to rotational strikes. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, It is better for coaches pay more attention to teaching the techniques completely. Awareness of coaches about the injuries an athlete facing in sports competition can provide valuable help to prevent injuries.
... Sports injuries can result from acute trauma or repetitive stress associated with athletic activities mostly due to accidents, poor training technique, inadequate equipment, and overuse (Elmagd, 2016). Injury is a major cause for dropout in sports (Gould, 1987) and the repeated bodily stress affects the quality of participation in both recreational and professional athletes (Svoboda & Vanek, 1982). ...
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Basketball is a team sport that contains varied activities and various technical skills that a player must perform during the game. Basketball player required to perform a combinations of speed, agility and jumping abilities to achieve the best performance. SAQ training is known as one of the most effective training methods to improve performance in team sports. This study aimed to identify the effect of the of SAQ exercises training on the level of physical fitness and skillful performance levels of basketball players. Sixteen female basketball players was included in this study. The mean of their age, weight and height were (18.29 ± 1.17) years, (63.91± 1.25) kg, and (165 ± 2.33) cm, respectively. Participants was divided into two groups, experimental and control. All participants agreed to participate in the study and were familiar with SAQ training. Pre - posttest measurements were taken. The most important results obtained from this study that 8 weeks of SAQ exercises training was effective on improving physical fitness level and skill performance in basketball players. SAQ training showed an improvement in muscles strength and some skills performance.
... Sports injuries can result from acute trauma or repetitive stress associated with athletic activities mostly due to accidents, poor training technique, inadequate equipment, and overuse (Elmagd, 2016). Injury is a major cause for dropout in sports (Gould, 1987) and the repeated bodily stress affects the quality of participation in both recreational and professional athletes (Svoboda & Vanek, 1982). ...
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the common injuries of collegiate Taekwondo Kyorugi athletes in the Philippines. A total of 70 collegiate Taekwondo Kyorugi athletes participated in the study. There were a total of 342 injuries reported with a 100% incidence of at least one injury among the athletes. The most frequently reported injury types are sprains (30%), inflammation (18%) and strains (9%) while injuries most commonly occurred in the ankles (18%), hands (12%), feet (12%) and knees (10%). The high risk for injury is consistent with related studies on injuries in combat sports in general. The trend in type of injury and anatomical regions at risk is also similar to other studies specifically on Taekwondo injuries. As is common in combat sports, Taekwondo carries an inherently high risk of injury but this risk can be managed with proper coaching and sufficient protective equipment.
Injury conditions in martial arts based on epidemiological research are in the 10th position in dangerous sports with the potential for injury to reach 2.4% overall. The injury model that occurs each time is determined by a certain dominance technique of a discipline resulting from the philosophy of the sport discipline, training objectives, as well as from the rules of sports competition. The management of hapkido Lampung is aware of the lack of facilities for approaching medical science in injury management to review data and carry out training developments to minimize injuries.This study purpose was to determine the risk of injury to Hapkido Athletes in order to develop training programs to focus on preventing or reducing the potential for existing injuries so that athletes have maximum performance. This research is descriptive analytic research using cross sectional design . In this design a transverse approach is used. Where is the observation of the independent variable and the dependent variable is carried out only once at the same time with the number of research samples 60. The results of this study are data on the incidence of injuries experienced by hapkido athletes based on questionnaire data collection.The data obtained are 53.3% female samples and 46.7% male, with data on the incidence of injury 50.9% in the ankle region, and 44.4% specific tissue injury to joints and ligaments and the incidence of injury during technical training 50.9%. The incidence rate of injury to the hapkido martial arts athlete in Lampung has the largest presentation in the ankle region and in specific ligamentous tissues with the risk of it occurring during movement technique training activities where the results can be concluded that hapkido sports require good joint stability, especially in the ankle region.
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Chronic back pain is one of the most common and expensive medical conditions facing today's population. Its costs are estimated to be as much as $100 billion in the United States alone. Causation is poorly understood and healthcare providers share little common language concerning this pain. In addition, costly medical diagnostic tests are performed that do little to inform treatment. In the era of evidence-based medicine, back pain healthcare providers must find better ways to communicate with one another. The key to better communication is measurement within the context of an evidence-based, protocol-driven clinical rehabilitation model. Measurement is the key to better communication among providers treating spinal pain. Measurement means acquiring both patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and clinician-based outcomes (CBOs). Musculoskeletal strengthening of the lumbar and cervical extensors has been shown to significantly reduce pain and provide successful clinical results for patients suffering from chronic back and neck pain. Lumbar strengthening has been successful because it is a safe exercise, it is prescribed based on pretreatment evaluation, and it provides objective measurements. Without measurement, clinical results rely more on opinion than on objectively prescribed courses of treatment. Although indirect measures (PROs) are typically presented in clinical papers and clinical reviews, they are not often used in normal physical therapy practices. Adding direct patient-performance measures (CBOs) creates a much clearer clinical picture. The key to understanding the value of clinical practice and its predictable impact on patient treatment is objective measurement.
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Triceps tendon injuries are reported to be very rare. To our knowledge, there have been no studies describing its prevalence or injury patterns on MR imaging. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of triceps injuries based on a large series of consecutive MR examinations. Clinical correlation was obtained. From 801 consecutive elbow MR examinations over a 15-year period, 28 patients with 30 triceps tendon injuries were identified and graded as partial tendon tear and complete tendon tear. The patients' medical records were reviewed to determine age, gender, cause of tears, and management. The prevalence of triceps tendon injuries was 3.8%. There were 5 women and 23 men with partial or complete tears (mean age: 46.6 years; range: 2.7 to 75.1 years). The most common injury was partial tear, found in 18 patients. There were 10 patients with 12 complete tears (2 had re-torn following surgical repair). A tear was suspected in 12 out 28 (43%) patients prior to the MRI. The most common presenting symptom was pain. The most common cause was athletic injury (8 patients [29%], including weightlifting [2 patients]). Tendon tear was found to be a complication of infection in 6 patients, and in 3 patients the tears were a complication of steroid use. Thirteen tendon tears were surgically repaired (8 of these were complete tears). Triceps tendon injury is not as rare as commonly reported and may often be clinically underdiagnosed.
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Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) is more commonly known to athletes as a runner's stitch. Many athletes also report shoulder tip pain (STP) associated with the ETAP. Although widely known, ETAP remains under analyzed and under reported in the medical literature. Often thought of as benign and self-limiting, ETAP has been shown to be very detrimental to the performance of many athletes from novice to elite. This case report of an elite triathlete with ETAP and subsequent review of literature, outlines the various theories about the etiology of ETAP, the epidemiology associated with it, some differentials to consider, and how chiropractic care may benefit those suffering from ETAP.
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To characterize sports and recreation related (SR) injury episodes in the US population. SR activities are growing in popularity suggesting the need for increased awareness of SR injuries as a public health concern for physically active persons of all ages in the US population. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a face-to-face household survey conducted yearly by the National Center for Health Statistics, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Demographic and health data are collected from a nationally representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population residing in the US. Medically attended injury events reported in the 1997-99 Injury Section of the NHIS were categorized according to the associated sport or recreational activity using a classification scheme based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injury system. Episodes where the injured person received any type of medical attention (that is, medical advice or treatment) from any health care provider were used to report the incidence, severity, and nature of SR injuries sustained by US citizens. Annually, an estimated seven million Americans received medical attention for SR injuries (25.9 injury episodes per 1000 population). For 5-24 year olds, this national estimate was about 42% higher than estimates based on SR injuries seen only in emergency departments over a similar time frame. The highest average annual SR injury episode rates were for children ages 5-14 years (59.3 per 1000 persons) and persons aged 15-24 years (56.4 per 1000 persons). The SR injury episode rate for males was more than twice the rate for females. The age adjusted injury rate for whites was 1.5 times higher than for blacks (28.8 v 19.0 per 1000 population). Basketball was the most frequently mentioned SR activity when the injury episode occurred, with a rate of about four injury events per 1000 population. Strains and sprains accounted for 31% of injury episodes. An estimated 1.1 million SR episode related injuries involve the head or neck region, of which 17% were internal head injuries. The most common mechanisms of injury were struck by/against (34%), fall (28%), and overexertion (13%). As physical activity continues to be promoted as part of a healthy lifestyle, SR injuries are becoming an important public health concern for both children and adults. Prevention efforts aimed at reducing SR injuries through targeting high risk activities, places of occurrence, activity, risk behaviors, and use of protective devices need to go beyond focusing on children and also consider physically active adults.
Plantar capsule-ligament sprain of the great toe metatarsophalangeal joint, herein referred to as "turf-toe," is discussed with emphasis on two apparantly predisposing factors, playing surface hardness and shoe stiffness. Surface hardness studies have previously been performed by the authors on natural grass and AstroTurf. A study of football shoe flexibility is presented and the results correlated with the occurrence of turftoe. We have not encountered this entity in players wearing relatively stiff conventional seven posted football shoes or the more flexible soccer style shoe on natural grass fields. We have found it to be a not uncommon injury among players wearning the soccer style shoe on AstroTurf.
The histology of pathologic tennis elbow tissue reveals noninflammatory tissue, thus the term angio-fibroblastic tendinosis. The goal of nonsurgical treatment is a revascularization and collagen repair of this pathologic tissue by rehabilitative exercise. In the event of rehabilitation failure, surgical correction by removal of this pathologic tissue is the surgical technique of choice.
Rotator cuff impingement syndrome and associated rotator cuff tears are commonly encountered shoulder problems. Symptoms include pain, weakness and loss of motion. Causes of impingement include acromioclavicular joint arthritis, calcified coracoacromial ligament, structural abnormalities of the acromion and weakness of the rotator cuff muscles. Conservative treatment (rest, ice packs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy) is usually sufficient. Some patients benefit from steroid injection, and a few require surgery.
In order to investigate the characteristics of the exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) commonly referred to as "stitch," a questionnaire was administered to a total of 965 regular sporting participants involved in six sports. The percentage of respondents claiming to have experienced ETAP within the past year for the respective sports were: running (69%, N = 439), swimming (75%, N = 103), cycling (32%, N = 76), aerobics (52%, N = 126), basketball (47%, N = 121), and horse riding (62%, N = 100). ETAP appears to be most prevalent in activities that involve repetitive torso movement, either vertical translation or longitudinal rotation. ETAP appears to be a single condition, common in its manifestation to most sufferers, and was described by respondents as a well-localized pain (79%), mostly experienced in the right or left lumbar regions of the abdomen (78%). The sensation of ETAP may be related to the severity of pain with less intense ETAP being described as cramping, aching, or pulling, and greater severity ETAP as sharp or stabbing in nature. Fourteen percent of respondents indicated that they experience shoulder tip pain (STP), which being the diaphragmatic-referred site could suggest irritation of the diaphragm. Respondents claiming to have experienced ETAP were more likely to report STP (r = 0.14, P < 0.01). The findings of the present study provide perspective on previously suggested etiologies of ETAP, which include diaphragmatic ischemia and stress on the visceral "ligaments," and form the basis for examining alternative etiologies such as cramp of the musculature and irritation of the parietal peritoneum.
This article reviews the existing literature in the following areas of sports neuropsychology: Dementia Pugilistica, concussion and Post Concussion Syndrome, Second Impact Syndrome, and the emerging role of the sports neuropsychologist regarding return to play decisions. Dementia Pugilistica is discussed as a condition that exists along a continuum: Although many boxers will develop mild neurocognitive deficits, it is not yet known what percent of these mild presentations will progress to diagnosable Dementia Pugilistica. Factors contributing to both increased and reduced risk are detailed. The role of neuropsychological assessment in research and clinical management is reviewed. Existing studies of concussion incurred during contact sports provide evidence of an important role for neuropsychology in assessment and management of mild head injuries. Issues in clinical assessment of concussion are reviewed. The importance of grading of concussions, monitoring of postconcussive symptom resolution, and the use of neuropsychological test results in return to play decisions is detailed. The Second Impact Syndrome is discussed with regard to return to play decisions. Recommendations are proposed for research and for clinical application of findings in sports neuropsychology.