An aircraft antiskid braking system control method based on tire-runway friction model is proposed in this paper. The purpose is to keep tire-runway friction around its maximum value and prevent wheels from working in low-braking-efficiency regions. This paper defines a slip-factor parameter to distinguish between the adhesion region and the slip region, so that we can accurately obtain the location of the tire-runway friction peak. The slip factor needs signals, including wheel angular velocity and braking torque, and needs no aircraft longitudinal velocity value, which is difficult to detect. The proposed control method can automatically identify current runway conditions and yields robust performance with respect to unknown or changing runway conditions. Computer software simulations are conducted to verify the feasibility of the control method, and experiments are conducted on a ground-inertia braking test bench to validate the control method. The results show that the controller can detect the actual maximum tire-runway friction peak and also provide high adaptability in different tire-runway conditions.