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... Thus, the third specific objective was achieved. Cooperation with other enterprises and institutions, in addition to promoting productive efficiency, allows to move faster in technological creation, adding expertise not available to in a single company (Hasenclever & Tigre, 2002) conferring competitive advantage to these businesses (Prochnik & Araújo, 2005). Cooperation, therefore, is of fundamental importance to innovation, since firms in isolation may often have difficulties to gather all the necessary competence to generate eco-innovations, which requires the establishment of cooperative relationships with other organizations due to factors, such as the lack of resources for investment in P&D, among others. ...
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The generation of wealth, sustained by productive activities of agro-industries, leads to the production of wastes and uses natural resources, interfering in the environmental pillar of sustainability. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether cassava processing companies generate eco-innovations by means of technological cooperation, and the degree of participation of agents in these interactions. The quantitative method used the structural equation modeling for data analyses. The results indicated a relationship between technological cooperation and the generation of eco-innovation. The model developed showed the significance between variables and exposed the main aspects that generate eco-innovation from technological cooperation. A cooperation process allows a reduction in the burning of fossil fuels, reducing the emission of methane gas, which aggravates the greenhouse effect, also reducing odor, and ultimately, providing financial gains to agribusiness.
... Neste contexto, a empresa como fonte de inovação, assume papel ativo como organismo vivo em permanente mutação que recebe influências de seu ambiente externo, ao mesmo tempo em que é capaz de transformá-lo e de criar novos mercados ou indústrias a partir da introdução de inovações (HASENCLEVER; TIGRE, 2002). Sendo assim, pode-se dizer que a capacidade da empresa em inovar se apresenta como fator determinante de sua posição no mercado. ...
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V EGEPE - Encontro de Estudos sobre Empreendedorismo e Gestão de Pequenas Empresas - 2008
... De outro lado, depende das formas de organização externas adotadas pelas empresas para acessar e difundir as inovações surgidas no ambiente tecnológico, em termos de normas técnicas e padrões de comportamento humano. Contudo, a literatura econômica reconhece que certas normas técnicas são impostas pela regulamentação, pois nem sempre o mercado é o agente mais eficiente para equilibrar os interesses dos produtores e consumidores (Hasenclever& Tigre, 2002). Nesse sentido, a política ambiental pode ser visualizada, ao mesmo tempo, como uma pressão e um incentivo para as empresas inovarem. ...
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Resumo:Nesse artigo buscou-se realizar um breve panorama da inovação tecnológica no setor secundário da economia, o qual tem como objetivo evidenciar qual é o papel da inovação tecnológica na contemporaneidade, bem como analisar como se estabelece o quadro de inovação nas indústrias brasileiras. A metodologia utilizada para a presente análise, pautou-se na busca por bibliografias de cunho teórico-conceituais, em especial sobre o papel da inovação tecnológica, de modo que os dados foram extraídos da Pesquisa de Inovação (PINTEC), bem como realizou-se uma classificação dos ramos industriais intensivos em tecnologia. Obteve-se como resultado o dado que o setor industrial brasileiro possui quadros de inovação muito inferiores aos dos países de economia central analisados, reforçando seu papel periférico na Divisão Internacional do Trabalho (DIT). Palavras-chave:Inovação tecnológica; Setor Industrial; Brasil; Divisão Internacional do Trabalho. Resumen: En este artículo se buscó realizar un breve panorama de la innovación tecnológica en el sector secundario de la economía, en el que tiene como objetivo evidenciar cuál es el papel de la innovación tecnológica en la contemporaneidad, así como analizar cómo se establece el cuadro de innovación en las industrias brasileñas. La metodología utilizada para el presente análisis, se basó en la búsqueda de bibliografías de cuño teórico-conceptuales, en especial sobre el papel de la innovación tecnológica, de modo que los datos fueron extraídos de la Investigación de Innovación (PINTEC), así como se realizó una clasificación de las ramas industriales intensivas en tecnología. Se obtuvo como resultado el dato que el sector industrial brasileño posee cuadros de innovación muy inferiores a los de los países de economía central analizados, reforzando su papel periférico en la División Internacional del Trabajo (DIT).
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O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar o processo de inovação em pequenas empresas participantes do programa ALI em Rondônia, verificando o desenvolvimento de competências em relação à evolução do grau de inovação de pequenas farmácias de manipulação. O método de estudo de casos foi empregado com três empresas do setor, considerando os dados do radar inovação, análise SWOT, entrevistas com gestores e colaboradores e observação participante. A tendência de desenvolvimento ou aprimoramento de competências a partir da implementação de inovações no âmbito do programa ALI foi verificada, permitindo a elaboração de uma articulação entre recursos, competências e inovação inerentes à atividade.
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This paper presents the results of a case-study on the importance of the standardization process for the Brazilian system of innovation for ethanol fuel. The analysis on its evolution also shows evidence of the strategic role of the State to enjoy the oportunities opened during a paradigmatic change, as we defend to have started during the energy crisis in the 1970s, when the Brazilian government started setting-up the policies for the ethanol fuel sector. The standardization process gains attention in the recent context, in face of the strategy of transforming the product into an international commodity. The main contribution of this paper is therefore to call attention to the need – at odds with more conservative perspectives – that developing countries invest in industrial, technological and pro-innovation policies in order to promote their development, according to their particular interests and taking into account the investment on activities involved in the standardization process. Presented at the GLOBELICS 6th International Conference 2008 22-24 September, Mexico City, Mexico.
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Exxon Mobil and ConocoPhillips stock price has been predicted using the difference between core and headline CPI in the United States. Linear trends in the CPI difference allow accurate prediction of the prices at a five to ten-year horizon.
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This paper attempts to explain why innovating firms often fail to obtain significant economic returns from an innovation, while customers, imitators and other industry participants benefit. Business strategy - particularly as it relates to the firm's decision to integrate and co1laborate - is shown to be an important (actor. The paper demonstrates that when imitation is easy. markets don't work wen, and the profits (rom innovation may accrue to the owners of certain complementary assets. rather than to the developers of the intellectual property. This speaks to the need, in certain cases, for the innovating firm to establish a prior position in these complementary assets_ The paper also indicates that innovators with new products and processes which provide value to consumers may sometimes be so iJt positioned in the market that they necessarily win fai1. The analysis provides a theoretical foundation (or the proposi. tion that manufacturing often matters. particularly to innovating nations_ Innovating finns without the requisite manufacturing and related capacities may die. even though they are the best at innovation_ Implications for trade policy and domestic economic policy are examined.
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This paper attempts to explain why innovating firms often fail to obtain significant economic returns from an innovation, while customers, imitators and other industry participants benefit. Business strategy — particularly as it relates to the firm's decision to integrate and collaborate — is shown to be an important factor. The paper demonstrates that when imitation is easy, markets don't work well, and the profits from innovation may accrue to the owners of certain complementary assets, rather than to the developers of the intellectual property. This speaks to the need, in certain cases, for the innovating firm to establish a prior position in these complementary assets. The paper also indicates that innovators with new products and processes which provide value to consumers may sometimes be so ill positioned in the market that they necessarily will fail. The analysis provides a theoretical foundation for the proposition that manufacturing often matters, particularly to innovating nations. Innovating firms without the requisite manufacturing and related capacities may die, even though they are the best at innovation. Implications for trade policy and domestic economic policy are examined. © 2003 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.
This book is not another parable of Japan’s economic success; it provides rich and systematic descriptions of Japanese microeconomic institutions and interprets their work in terms familiar to Western economists. A systematic, in-depth analysis of Japanese institutions of this kind has never been available before. In making his comparative analysis of the Japanese system, Professor Aoki critically examines conventional notions about the microstructure of the market economy that have strongly shaped and influenced economists’ approach to industrial organization (e.g., hierarchy as the alternative to the market, the firm as a propery of the stockholders, and market-oriented incentive contracts). While these notions may constitute an appropriate foundation for the analysis of the highly market-oriented Western economies, the author has found that a more complete understanding of the Japanese economy requires us to broaden such ‘specific’ notions. At one level, therefore, this book may be regarded as a provocative exercise in comparative industrial organization and the theory of the firm. To the extent that this approach is convincing, the book suggests a reordering of focus and emphasis in these studies.
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The purpose of the paper is to describe and explain sectoral patterns of technical change as revealed by data on about 2000 significant innovations in Britain since 1945. Most technological knowledge turns out not to be “information” that is generally applicable and easily reproducible, but specific to firms and applications, cumulative in development and varied amongst sectors in source and direction. Innovating firms principally in electronics and chemicals, are relatively big, and they develop innovations over a wide range of specific product groups within their principal sector, but relatively few outside. Firms principally in mechanical and instrument engineering are relatively small and specialised, and they exist in symbiosis with large firms, in scale intensive sectors like metal manufacture and vehicles, who make a significant contribution to their own process technology. In textile firms, on the other hand. most process innovations come from suppliers.These characteristics and variations can be classified in a three part taxonomy based on firms: (1) supplier dominated; (2) production intensive; (3) science based. They can be explained by sources of technology, requirements of users, and possibilities for appropriation. This explanation has implications for our understanding of the sources and directions of technical change, firms' diversification behaviour, the dynamic relationship between technology and industrial structure, and the formation of technological skills and advantages at the level of the firm. the region and the country.
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This paper compares the efficiency of two information structures of the firm in coordinating operational decisions among technologically-interrelated constituent units (shops) whose costs are uncertain. The structures compared are a hierarchical one in which the capability of management to monitor and respond to emergent events at the shop level is bounded; and a horizontal one inwhich production decisions are coordinated among shops without the centralization of information, but the capability of semiautonomous problem-solving by component units im proves over time through learning-by-doing and better uses of on-the-spot knowledge. A comparison of Japanese and American practices precedes the analysis. Copyright 1986 by American Economic Association.
Clio and the Economics of QWERTY. The American Economic Review
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Baumol, W. J.; Panzar, J. C.; Willig, R. D. (1982) Contestable Market and the Theory of Industrial Structure. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovitch. David, P. (1985) Clio and the Economics of QWERTY. The American Economic Review, v. 75, n. 2, p. 332-337.
Microfoundations of Economic Growth. A Schumpeterian Perspective
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Langlois, R. N. (1998) Schumpeter and Personal Capitalism. In: Eliasson, G.; Green, C., (orgs.). Microfoundations of Economic Growth. A Schumpeterian Perspective. United States of America: The University of Michigan Press.
Economie de l'Innovation
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Le Bas, C. (1995) Economie de l'Innovation. Paris: Ed. Economica. Nonaka, I.; Takeuchi, H. (1997) Criação de conhecimento na empresa. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Campus.
Economia da informação
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Shapiro, C.; Varian, R. H. (2000) Economia da informação. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Campus.
Metrologia e padronização técnica como ferramentas para a competitividade e inovatividade industrial: uma análise a partir da indústria brasileira de etanol combustível. Tese (Doutorado em Economia)
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Souza, T. L. (2008) Metrologia e padronização técnica como ferramentas para a competitividade e inovatividade industrial: uma análise a partir da indústria brasileira de etanol combustível. Tese (Doutorado em Economia). Rio de Janeiro: IE/UFRJ.
David de 1985 sobre o modelo do teclado de uma máquina de escrever, conhecido como modelo QWERTY, é um excelente exemplo
  • O Artigo De Paul
O artigo de Paul David de 1985 sobre o modelo do teclado de uma máquina de escrever, conhecido como modelo QWERTY, é um excelente exemplo.