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Sectoral Systems of Innovation

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... While the contents, the frequencies and the scale of these innovations differ depending on historical periods and geographical contexts, their emergence and their dissemination at a global scale have accelerated over the last two centuries. Consequently, one question is being asked repeatedly by agronomists, economists and rural sociologists, and by scientists who study the sectoral dimensions of innovation (Chambers et al., 1989;Sebillotte, 1996;Chauveau et al., 1999;Malerba, 2004;Touzard et al., 2014): What are the characteristics specific to agricultural and agrifood innovations and should not these specificities be disappearing in the context of the globalization of human activities? In this chapter, we will concentrate on this question in order to uncover and explore the current characteristics of agricultural and agrifood innovations. ...
... Actors, institutions and knowledge have come up throughout history on the basis of these relationships, enabling coordination and regulation of agricultural and food activities, orienting innovation, and constituting sectoral innovation systems (Malerba, 2004). ...
... The historical and joint construction of networks of actors, institutions and knowledge ensures the regulation of agricultural and agrifood activities and helps provide a framework for the innovations that transform them, while maintaining sectoral and national specificities (Touzard and Labarthe, 2016). The notion of the sectoral innovation system has been proposed to better study the conditions conducive to innovation (Malerba, 2004). Since it is found to be fully applicable to agriculture and the agrifood sector, some authors have proposed concepts such as the Agricultural Innovation System (AIS) or the Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System (AKIS) (Klerkx et al., 2010). ...
... Face ? ce mouvement, une m?me question est pos?e de mani?re r?currente par des agronomes, des ?conomistes et des sociologues ruraux, ou par des scienti- fiques qui ?tudient les dimensions sectorielles de l'innovation ( Sebillotte, 1996 ;Chauveau et al., 1999 ;Malerba, 2004 ;Touzard et al., 2014) : quelles sont les caract?ristiques sp?cifiques aux innovations agricoles ou agroalimentaires et ces sp?cificit?s ne seraient-elles pas en train de se dissoudre dans le cadre de la globalisation des activit?s humaines ? ...
... Autour de ces rapports, des acteurs, des institutions et des connaissances se sont construits ? travers l'histoire, permettant la coordination et la r?gulation des activit?s agricoles et alimentaires, orientant l'innovation, constituant des syst?mes sectoriels d'innovation (Malerba, 2004 (Klerkx et Leeuwis, 2009). Cette configuration d'acteurs pr?sente des variantes selon les pays (plus forte concentration des exploitations agricoles en Grande-Bretagne, poids plus ?lev? de la grande distribution en France, dualisme agraire en Am?rique latine, r?le d'organisations non gouvernementales en Afrique?) ou selon les produits (plus faible concentration de la transformation et du n?goce dans le secteur du vin). ...
... cadrer les innovations qui les transforment, avec le maintien de sp?ci- ficit?s sectorielles et nationales (Touzard et Labarthe, 2016). La notion de syst?me sectoriel d'innovation a ainsi ?t? propos?e pour mieux ?tudier ces conditions de l'innovation (Malerba, 2004). Elle s'applique pleinement ? ...
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Le concept d’innovation territoriale est mobilisé dans la littérature pour analyser les rapports entre centre et périphérie, la qualité des milieux et la gouvernance territoriale. Nos recherches reprennent ce concept pour saisir les multiples dimensions des relations entre ville et agriculture et pour comprendre ainsi les transformations de l’agriculture dans le contexte de la société urbaine. Nous analysons pour cela les agencements sociaux, spatiaux et organisationnels qui s’opèrent dans les initiatives agri-urbaines locales. À partir d’une chronique de la place prise par l’agriculture dans l’aménagement urbain et dans les politiques locales, l’exemple de Montpellier permet d’illustrer comment ces agencements agri-urbains sont sources d’innovation territoriale. En effet, l’innovation devient territoriale par accumulation de micro-changements, qui finissent par infléchir des fonctionnements établis dans les usages et les normes qui régulent les relations entre ville et agriculture. Ce processus de passage à une plus grande échelle (scaling up) ouvre un champ de recherche sur les relations entre innovations territoriales et transitions globales.
... Similarly, Carlsson [85] believes that in the case of SMEs, national and sub-national institutions context (including sectoral) may play a vital role. The work of scholars such as Malerba [86], and Lee and Von Tunzelmann [87], suggests that countries may show similarities across their national systems of innovation (NSI); however, differences would emerge amongst them across industry-level influences of NSI. Certainly, any policy initiatives should take into account the industry-specific nature of innovation [70], though overall, the role of institutions for LT/LMT development is not well understood. ...
... This underscores the need for streamlining extant scholarly work to give greater coherence to our understanding of the role of interactions/relationships in influencing LT/LMT innovation. Malerba [86] points to the value of a sectoral system approach for better understanding of innovation and production generally, as such approaches focus on "knowledge base and learning processes", "basic technologies", "inputs and demand", and the type and "structure of interactions among firms and non-firm organizations". The overlap with some aspects of our framework, and the focus on interactions through the co-evolutionary underpinnings of this approach suggests that this may well offer the promise for more theoretically grounded and better-integrated research for the future, particularly in developing countries, as there is a dearth of studies on LT/LMT in the context of developing countries. ...
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Despite apparent significance, innovation in low-technology (LT) and low-to-medium technology (LT/LMT) sectors has enticed relatively less consideration from scholars and policy-makers than high-technology (HT) sectors, thus, earning the label ‘the forgotten sector’. In this paper, we critically review the extant research on this forgotten sector, with the vital objective of proposing an integrated research framework from a diffuse literature base. We believe our findings can be utilized by innovation scholars to do more coherent research on the LT/LMT sector in the future. Our research presents important contributions and implications for scholars, business, and policy-makers as we propose a multi-level, integrated thematic framework that highlights the importance of LT/LMT sectors in innovation ecosystems (NIS) and offers avenues for future research.
... In this work, we depart from the concept of sectoral system of innovation (SSI) (Malerba, 2004) and we reflect, in Section 2, on certain underlying factors that may drive labor productivity growth at a sectoral level. As we will see, the concept SSI allows us to integrate the afore-mentioned visions on the sources of uneven sectorial technological change. ...
... Afterwards, we will incorporate these sectoral dynamics within a multisectoral evolutionary model of economic growth with crucial demand-side components. We put forward now the specific sectoral assumptions, which are consistent with the NeoSchumpeterian view of sectoral innovation, and which capture -in a simplified wayessential aspects of the appreciative approaches by Malerba (2004;2016) and others. ...
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In this work, we draw upon the Neo-Schumpeterian concept of sectoral systems of innovation to reflect on the uneven sectoral patterns of productivity growth observed in modern economies. Inspired by recent contributions within evolutionary economic theory, we present a formal proposal to integrate uneven sectoral productivity growth in a multisectoral growth model. In this model, certain demand-side elements turn out to be crucial. More precisely, we explore the interactions between technological factors, income growth, and distinct income elasticities of sectoral demand underlying structural change. Thereby, we obtain a representation of economic growth as a long-run property which emerges from complex interactions between sectoral innovation, and certain (often-overlooked) demand-side fundamentals.
... We follow Breschi and Malerba (1997) in distinguishing between a TIS, which encompasses networks of vertically as well as horizontally connected heterogeneous agents engaging in innovation for specific technologies, and an SSI, which focuses on relatively homogeneous agents with a common knowledge base engaging in innovation and competition in a given selection environment. Thus, we assume that both TISs and SSIs have the same type of structural elements (Bergek et al., 2015;Malerba and Adams, 2014), but they differ in terms of their system boundaries. We will see that this is a useful distinction to make, since the relative homogeneity of structural elements (particularly the knowledge base) within an SSI allows us to make hypotheses regarding the influence of their characteristics on innovation processes (or 'functions') within a TIS. ...
... Finally, the appropriability conditions determine the ease with which the stock of knowledge can be protected from externalities and spillovers. They depend on factors such as institutional environment for intellectual property rights, trade secrecy, and control of complementary assets (Levin et al., 1985;Malerba and Adams, 2014). While high appropriability is unfavorable for knowledge spillovers, it does not directly influence learning processes, including learning-by-interacting for knowledge development and diffusion. ...
Article
Innovation is critical for economic growth and addressing societal and environmental problems. Therefore, many policy interventions aim to accelerate and redirect technological change. Most modern technologies have value chains spanning multiple sectors, and thus are likely to require cross-sectoral knowledge spillovers. However, knowledge spillovers between sectors in a technology's value chain have hardly been analyzed. We analyze the role of the sectoral diversity and sectoral distance of knowledge for subsequent knowledge generation within one specific technology. More specifically, we investigate how the sectoral diversity and distance of prior knowledge affect the technological importance, sectoral diversity, and sectoral distance of subsequent knowledge. Our regression analyses of global patent data of lithium-ion batteries show that (1) higher sectoral diversity increases the importance of newly created knowledge, whereas higher sectoral distance does not significantly increase the importance of newly created knowledge; (2) both higher sectoral diversity and distance of prior knowledge increase the sectoral diversity of subsequent knowledge; and (3) higher sectoral distance of prior knowledge increases the sectoral distance of subsequent knowledge, whereas higher sectoral diversity of prior knowledge does not significantly increase the distance of subsequent knowledge. We discuss our findings and derive implications for research, R&D managers and policymakers.
... O processo de inovação, no seu aspecto macroeconômico, pode ser entendido como baseado na evolução de um sistema institucional de suporte originalmente público; já sua complementação, tem base em uma estrutura organizacional do setor privado (Cooke, 2001;Nelson, 2008). A abordagem para a análise do processo de inovação, nesta investigação sobre a introdução da tecnologia da videoconferência no mercado da saúde brasileiro, consiste na aplicação do conceito de Sistema Setorial de Inovação e Produção (SISP) (MALERBA, 2002). ...
... As tecnologias em domínio público são estratégicas, pois elas podem ser reproduzidas sem ônus. As informações contidas nas patentes podem e devem ser utilizadas como estratégias para a promoção e prática do que se define como catching up, que consiste no processo de aprendizagem da produção de determinada tecnologia (Malerba;Nelson, 2011). ...
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Nas últimas décadas observa-se um aumento da aplicação das tecnologias da informação e da comunicação nas variadas áreas da assistência à saúde. Faz-se importante conhecer o cenário da proteção intelectual deste setor tecnológico. Para tanto foi realizada a revisão da literatura de patente em telessaúde – em particular, a videoconferência. O cenário mundial de proteção por patente se apresenta em franco crescimento. Quanto às empresas, verifica-se a predominância da presença das multinacionais, no Brasil. A série temporal denota crescimento de depósitos na mesma época de altos investimentos públicos em telessaúde no Sistema Único de Saúde. Os resultados da análise no cenário internacional evidenciaram que há poucos depósitos no Brasil, o que denota a impossibilidade de a indústria local reproduzir a tecnologia. A aliança entre empresas brasileiras e universidades, com os gestores do setor saúde emerge como possível caminho estratégico para o desenvolvimento tecnológico e a inovação, através do qual o poder de compra do Estado induziria a indústria local.
... The literature on innovation seemed unable to explain the mixed results of the empirical studies up to that point, which led to a tentative to explain that the nature of competition differs between sectors' technological trajectories by using the distinction between competition in the market and competition for the market (Ahn, 2002;Malerba, 2004). Nevertheless, even when focusing on just one individual sector, the theoretical and empirical studies were failing to explain why firms with similar external conditions would show vastly different innovation performances (Fagerberg & Mowery, 2005). ...
Article
This study examines the corporate governance and innovation relationship of China listed firms. It aims to contribute to the literature on corporate innovation antecedents, corporate governance of Chinese firms, and its impact on innovation outcomes.Relying on agency and resource-dependence theories to understand corporate governance elements, and patents granted as a measure of successful corporate innovation, this study utilizes a quantitative research methodology and a longitudinal design to leverage data collected from the State Intellectual Property Office of China, the Chinese Research Data Services Platform as well as the China Stock Market & Accounting Database. The study sample includes 3,337 firms with a total 13,182 firm-year observations from the year 2010 to 2019.A better understanding of Chinese corporate governance practices in light of the country’s Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) recent reforms is needed, especially considering the necessity to derive a corporate governance theory from China for Chinese firms that has emerged in the literature. We find that board independence is the corporate governance component with the highest predictive significance on innovation, followed by CEO duality, and that board size is not a significant innovation predictor. We also find high incidence of CEO duality among China listed firms.
... È acquisito in letteratura che l'innovazione può essere considerata come il risultato di un processo collettivo di knowledge development (Mowery, Nelson 1999). Le caratteristiche di questo processo risentono naturalmente delle peculiari condizioni, sempre in continua evoluzione, del sistema d'innovazione specifico del settore (Malerba, 2004). Tale sistema d'innovazione può presentarsi poi con varianti più o meno significative nei singoli contesti nazionali (Patel, Pavitt 1994). ...
Article
Many structural factors may influence the choice of the governance mode in a specific industry and push towards the change of the dominant model. Among the others, change in risk/rewards structure arising from new technology development may play an important role in the organization of R&D process in favor of a more decentralized system. That move can be seen as an entrepreneurial opportunity for some specific kind of new entrepreneurial venture. Life Science Industry is a very interesting field to analyze such dynamics: companies changed their R&D processes from a vertically integrated activity to a more decentralized one. As a result a Contract Research Organization (CRO) industry emerged along the time. The aim of the study was to better understand the role of CROs in the innovation system of the biopharmaceutical field. This work investigated the business models adopted by CROs and a first profiling of Italian CROs could be traced in the new open biopharmaceutical system. CROs resulted to cover many important market segments in the value chain of the drug development process, with a wide range of services in outsourcing or partnering from the applied research in the early phase of development to the marketing consulting activities. It was interesting to find out through this analysis that CROs over time developed different business modes to meet the needs of all their clients, while preserving the core value of efficiency and innovation.
... Observations of the major differences between the patterns of innovative activities in distinct sectors and their similarity across different countries has led to the coining of the concept of SSI. The concept was thoroughly introduced into the literature by Malerba (2002Malerba ( , 2004. In contrast to its closely related geographically delineated counterparts, that is, national systems of innovation (NSIs) and regional systems of innovation (RSIs) (Lundvall, 1992;Cooke, 1992), in this approach sectors are utilized as units of analysis. ...
Article
The maturing literature on innovation has recognized the processes of sectoral and technological systems of innovation as helpful frameworks to analyze environmental innovation – a field whose importance continues to grow amidst contemporary regulatory pressures, for example, on maritime industry and shipping. This paper intertwines these key innovation concepts and applies them to classify and systematize an environmental product innovation: marine scrubber systems. The paper also addresses the linkage between innovation policy and environmental regulation and presents an overall framework to visualize and systematize conceptual connections between sectoral and technological systems of innovation to further develop and manage these complex systems of environmental innovation inducement. The paper applies technological and legal materials depicting the context of maritime scrubber systems as technological responses to more rigid environmental regulation by addressing their implications for market potential and change. The results underline the importance of environmental regulations as the driver of the development of technological innovation systems centered on environmental innovation.
... This more rational and technical demand increases the likelihood of producer-user collaboration in innovation and, consequently, a more direct link between the demand side and the innovation effort. Thus, the ability to focus at the same time on internal (tacit knowledge and experience of the technicians) and external sources (interaction between producers and users) of innovation ( Malerba and Orsenigo, 1997;Malerba, 2004) makes more intense the link between the innovation propensity of this industry and both technology and demand determinants. ...
Article
The paper focuses on the effects of technology-push and demand-pull determinants on firm's innovation propensity comparing start-ups and established firms in the specialized suppliers' industry. Specifically, it explores technology-push and demand-pull effects in isolation and in their interaction using a sample of European firms in the period 2007-2009. Our main results show that either the technology-push and demand-pull determinants exert a positive impact on innovation propensity in both start-ups and established firms, Moreover, in start-ups, we discovered that the demand-pull determinant plays a strong moderating role in the relationship between innovation propensity and the technology-push determinant. The paper contributes in making managers more aware of the effect that some choices concerning the composition of the firm's workforce may produce on the firm's innovation propensity. There are also implications for policy makers whose overemphasis on demand pull incentives may disempower the positive effect of the technology determinant on the innovation propensity of start-ups.
... In innovation literature, the importance of external knowledge has been discussed widely (Freeman, 1995;Lundvall, 1992;Malerba, 2004;Nelson, 1993). Involving market-based information, such as knowledge from suppliers and customers may facilitate the market requirement, particularly for the innovative goods and services. ...
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This paper examines the significance of external knowledge sources as impacting factors on innovation by incorporating a variety of external sourcing strategies, the firm’s internal competencies and the industry attributes, into a unique analytical framework in predicting the innovative capabilities of firms in developing countries. The World Bank Enterprise and Innovation follow-up dataset for manufacturing, service and retail firms in 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa is utilised to assess the degree to which firms utilize external sources of information (customers, competitors, consultants, new employees and work-shops) in the implementation of product, process, marketing and organizational innovation. Sectoral and country-specific estimations are performed with IV binary treatment and Tobit models, respectively. The findings demonstrate that, although internal sources are essential, external sources of information are also necessary to attain the desired level of innovativeness. These findings confirm the open innovation literature in that firms that open their innovation process and utilise distinct knowledge sources have a superior capability to introduce innovations. The paper provides significant contributions to the literature. The paper uncovers three sources of external knowledge linking indirect players in the market that are not common in the literature (consultant, new employees and workshop). The study shows that the baggage of knowledge inherent in these three sources is indeed essential to the innovative capabilities of the firms. Second, the results also reveal that the essentiality of external sources of knowledge differs conditional on the type of innovation considered (product, process, marketing or organisational), dependent variable operationalisation, sectoral, methodical configurations, and country specifics. Third, the study contributes to the understanding of how firms in emerging economies develop competencies for innovativeness through the interplay of knowledge from both direct and indirect market players. The findings offer essential insights on how management could invest in the distinct, useful and preferred external sources to best foster a compelling introduction of any innovation. The study further provides robust and novel evidence of the role of new consultants, employees and workshops on firms’ propensity to innovate.
... For the concept of the national systems of innovation, seeFreeman (1987),Lundvall (1992),Nelson (1993), and for the SSI, seeMalerba (2002Malerba ( , 2004 andMalerba (2005).Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/book/40028/chapter/340396988 by guest on 26 November 2022 ...
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Latecomer economies are firms which may be able to leapfrog older vintages of technology, and make pre-emptive investments in emerging technologies to catch up with advanced countries in new markets. Leapfrogging can be defined as latecomers trying something different ahead of the forerunners, thereby leaping over them. The answer to the question whether the fourth industrial revolution represents a new window of opportunity for leapfrogging or whether it constitutes a source of further risks for latecomers is that this depends entirely on the country’s response and readiness, that is, its industrial policy, digital literacy, the skill and education level, as well as domestic market size and position in the GVC. Policy recommendations for leapfrogging can also be made for different types of firms, such as incumbents and start-ups. The former comprises three types of firms, namely leaders, followers, and laggards. Path-creating type leapfrogging is more likely to take place in start-ups because they have invested the least in existing technologies or business models. Leader or follower type firms in emerging economies tend to have some experience with technology and absorptive capacity and are thus likely to be in a position to skip one or several stages, while managing the risks associated with leapfrogging. Lastly, laggard firms should not attempt pre-mature leapfrogging but should first build some absorptive capacity in their niche area and upgrade by moving up the higher end of the GVC.
... The main idea is the interactive nature of innovation and the importance attributed to interrelationships of elements in the system (Freeman, 2002;Lundvall, 1992). The importance of learning, culture and the institutional environments for distinctive modes of innovation (Lundvall, 2016), rooted in sectorial attributes of productive sectors (Malerba, 2004) and geographical contexts (Asheim et al., 2011), was subsequently highlighted. ...
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This editorial discusses the sociological perspective of innovation, starting with a critical overview of the situation of sociology in current innovation studies. An outline of several key challenges to understanding innovation in society is followed by an interpretation of the characteristics of a sociology of innovation based on the core assumptions of the discipline. The editorial concludes with a summary of the papers of the special issue.
... Las versiones referidas a los sistemas nacionales centraban la atención en un conjunto variado de actores (formado por empresas, laboratorios, universidades, gobiernos, etc.), en los vínculos entre ellos (Lundwall, 1992; y en las instituciones, demostrando cómo estas configuraciones determinan la capacidad de innovación de países y regiones (Edquist, 1997). Otras versiones referidas a los sistemas sectoriales (Malerba, 2004) y regionales (Cooke, et al., 1997;Tödtling, et al., 2011) han mostrado las influencias de la composición de los sectores productivos (Asheim, et al., 2011), las características geográficas de aglomeración y cercanía (Boshma, 2005) y la gobernanza (Borrás y Edler, 2014). ...
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Este artículo ofrece un marco de análisis de la perspectiva sociológica sobre la innovación. Presenta una serie de herramientas que son útiles para estudiar la relación de la innovación con dimensiones sociales fundamentales. Realiza una contribución al campo interdisciplinar de los estudios sobre la innovación a través de una serie de conceptos y mecanismos explicativos expuestos de manera sistemática. El artículo discute algunas limitaciones en los estudios sobre innovación para tratar fenómenos de naturaleza social y especifica el significado de la innovación desde los principios del canon sociológico. Aborda las relaciones de la innovación con algunos aspectos de la cultura (normas, valores, repertorios cognitivos e instituciones) y de la estructura social (clases sociales, ocupaciones, redes y organizaciones).
... Accordingly, those who examined the conditions of innovation processes in countries developed the concept of national innovation systems (Lundvall, 1992;Nelson, 1993). In contrast, those who studied particular sectors (Malerba, 2004) or technologies (Hekkert et al., 2007;Bergek et al., 2008) drew system boundaries that transcended territorial boarders and developed non-spatial concepts 11 (Weber & Truffer, 2017). Among them is also the recently developed notion of global innovation systems that emphasises the globalisation and multi-scalarity of innovation processes (Binz & Truffer, 2017, see also chapter 2.4.2). ...
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Since the ‘evolutionary turn’, much attention in Economic Geography has been devoted to the evolution of regional economies and industries. While earlier work focused on path dependence, inertia and lock-ins, the past decade has seen a shift of attention to the analysis of ‘new regional industrial path development’, that is, the emergence of new sectors and innovation-based renewal processes of mature industries. Over the recent years, scholars have developed an impressive body of work consisting of both, narrow and more comprehensive perspectives on the topic. However, reflecting a broader interest into how novelty is created, much of this literature is preoccupied with the rise of entirely new industrial paths, leaving transformation processes in existing paths under-studied. This thesis contrasts the recent trend and investigates, both conceptually and empirically, radical innovation-based changes in well-established industries (referred here to as ‘path transformations’). To this end, it utilises and further contributes to a burgeoning literature that has enriched Evolutionary Economic Geography with the Regional Innovation Systems (RIS) approach. This body of work essentially highlights that the capacity of regions to generate processes of new path development is determined by a wide set of regional factors and elements, their enabling and constraining influence and how they interact and work in concert. Informed by this systemic understanding of regional industrial change, this cumulative thesis unravels path transformations by identifying and casting light on four fundamental dimensions through four different research articles: (i) the structures that condition path transformation, (ii) the actors who drive it, (iii) the iterative process between structures and agency underlying it and, finally, (iv) the outcomes of this process. This dissertation projects contributes to the debate by identifying and addressing research gaps in the extant literature associated with each of these key dimensions. First, the thesis argues that it is necessary to move beyond simplistic conceptualisations of influences of (i) regional structural conditions. Arguably, many established perspectives portray structures as either per se enabling or constraining for certain forms of industrial development, thereby neglecting the greyscales. Inspired by complementary literature in Institutional Theory, this dissertation develops a conceptual lens that appreciates the nuances and distinct positive and negative dimensions inherited in different regional structural configurations. Second, this thesis argues for reconsidering (ii) the circle of relevant actors and types of agency in path transformations. In particular, it casts light on an actor group that has received very limited attention in the recent debate on new path development: powerful incumbent firms. Drawing on insights from Management and Transition Studies, it is shown how they steer the direction and pace of path transformation through their engagement that both can be oriented towards either change or maintenance. Third, this dissertation unravels (iii) the iterative process between structures and agency underlying path transformations. The extant literature tells us little about how this process unfolds. This thesis offers a dynamic perspective, develops a stage model and shows how path transformation requires not only initiation but also acceleration and consolidation. Fourth, this thesis explores (iv) the outcome of path transformation processes. It explicitly incorporates development outcomes in the wider RIS accompanying successful processes of path transformation. In doing so, it contrasts how this process has ultimately resulted in the upgrading of a regional industrial system in one spatiotemporal context, and to the reorientation in another. Hence, the thesis investigates where – based on varying structural preconditions, different types of agency and underlying mechanisms – path transformations might lead. Empirically, this cumulative dissertation explores path transformation processes in different mature automotive regions in Austria, Sweden and Canada. The four research articles offer different angles and perspectives on current transformations towards more digitalised and sustainable regional industries. Thereby, this thesis seeks to deepen our understanding of the ways in which these changes take place and why they differ across different automotive regions based on a qualitative research design. All in all, this cumulative dissertation contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of how, where, why and when path transformations unfold, offering nuanced perspectives on the structures, actors, the process itself and its outcome. Based on these insights, the thesis finally elucidates possible avenues for future research and the design and implementation of regional innovation policy, such as smart specialisation.
... firms, science & technology institutions, regulatory agencies, etc.) be able to execute their complementary roles in order to concretely allow knowledge to be absorbed, operated, and developed. To really reduce transaction costs and allow capability building, these systemic relations depend on established structures, such as national and sectoral systems of innovation (Nelson 1993;Malerba 2002;Lundvall and Maskell 2003). In short, the industry techno-economic coordination structure works as the necessary link between the policy goals (which aim at catching-up), and the concrete agents responsible for leveraging and building capabilities. ...
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This book synthesizes and interprets existing knowledge on technology upgrading failures as well as lessons from successes and failures in order to better understand the challenges of technology upgrading in emerging economies. The objective is to bring together in one volume diverse evidence regarding three major dimensions of technology upgrading: paths of technology upgrading, structural changes in the nature of technology upgrading, and the issues of technology transfer and technology upgrading. The knowledge of these three dimensions is being synthesized at the firm, sector, and macro levels across different countries and world macro-regions. Compared to the old and new challenges and uncertainties facing emerging economies, our understanding of the technology upgrading is sparse, unsystematic, and scattered. While our understanding of these issues from the 1980s and 1990s is relatively more systematized, the changes that took place during the globalization and proliferation of GVCs, the effects of the post-2008 events, and the effects of the current COVID-19 and geopolitical struggles on technology upgrading have not been explored and compared synthetically. Moreover, the recent growth slowdown in many emerging economies, often known as a middle-income trap, has reinforced the importance of understanding the technology upgrading challenges of catching-up economies. We believe that the time is ripe for “taking stock of the area” in order to systematize and evaluate the existing knowledge on processes of technology upgrading of emerging economies at the firm, sector, and international levels and to make further inroads in research on this issue. This volume aims to significantly contribute towards this end.
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In this article we extend the model developed by Bogliacino and Pianta (Indus Corp Change 22:649, 2013) on the link between R&D, innovation and economic performance, considering the impact of innovation on export success. We develop a simultaneous three equation model in order to investigate the existence of a ‘virtuous circle’ between industries’ R&D, share of product innovators and export market shares. We investigate empirically—at the industry level—three key relationships affecting the dynamics of innovation and export performance: first, the capacity of firms to translate their R&D efforts in new products; second, the role of innovation as a determinant of export market shares; third, the export success as a driver of new R&D efforts. The model is tested for 38 manufacturing and service sectors of six European countries over three time periods, from 1995 to 2010. The model effectively accounts for the dynamics of R&D efforts, innovation and international performance of European industries. Moreover, important differences across countries emerge when we split our sample into a Northern group—Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom—and a Southern group—France, Italy and Spain. We find that the ‘virtuous circle’ between innovation and competitiveness holds for Northern economies only, while Southern industries fail to translate innovation efforts into export success.
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Countries can enhance endogenous innovation using multifaceted incentives for science and technology indicators. We explore country-level innovation using OECD data for research and development (R&D), patents, and exports. We deploy a dual methodology of descriptive visualization and panel regression analysis. Our results highlight industry variances in R&D spending. As a nation develops, governmental expenditure on R&D decreases, and businesses take on an increasing role to fill the gap, increasing local innovation. Our portfolio of local versus foreign resident ownership of patents highlights implications for taxation/innovation policies. Countries with high foreign ownership of patents have low tax revenues due to the lack of associated costs with, and mobility of income from, patents. We call on these countries to devise targeted policies encouraging local patent ownership. Policy makers should also recognize factors influencing high-technology exports for innovation. Lastly, we call on countries to reinstate horizontal and vertical policies, and design national innovation ecosystems that integrate disparate policies in an effort to drive economic growth through innovation.
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Circular economy is an emerging concept that places an emphasis on strategies (e.g., reduce, reuse, recycle) to decouple resource use from economic growth, minimize waste and emissions, and maintain the highest utility along a product life cycle. The transition to a circular economy requires innovative solutions along entire value chains. This literature review was carried out to investigate the respective innovation systems that emerge along the wood-based and plastic-based value chains. To investigate different barriers to and drivers for the transition to a circular economy, the system functions of the technological innovation system framework were used. The results reveal that the two sectors hold different strategic positions and that barriers are dominant in the innovation system for plastics, while drivers are more prevalent in the innovation system for wood. This study is one of the first to direct a focus toward different industrial origins and their underlying logic, contributing to a better overall understanding of the circular economy.
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Science & Technology Policy for the Caribbean Region
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