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Toward Integrative Dynamic Models for Adaptive Perspective Taking

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DOI: 10.1111/tops.12219
Abstract
In a matter of mere milliseconds, conversational partners can transform their expectations about the world in a way that accords with another person's perspective. At the same time, in similar situations, the exact opposite also appears to be true. Rather than being at odds, these findings suggest that there are multiple contextual and processing constraints that may guide when and how people consider perspective. These constraints are shaped by a host of factors, including the availability of social and environmental cues, and intrinsic biases and cognitive abilities. To explain how these might be integrated in a new way forward, we turn to an adaptive account of interpersonal interaction. This account draws from basic principles of dynamical systems, principles that we argue are already expressed, both implicitly and explicitly, within a broad landscape of existing research. We then showcase an initial attempt to develop a computational framework to instantiate some of these principles. This framework, consisting of what we argue to be important mechanistic insights rendered by neural network models, is based on a promising and long-standing approach that has yet to take hold in the current domain. We argue that by bridging this gap, new insights into other theoretical accounts, such as the connections between memory and common ground information, might be revealed.
Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016) 761–779
Copyright ©2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN:1756-8757 print / 1756-8765 online
DOI: 10.1111/tops.12219
This article is part of the topic “Memory and Common Ground Processes in Language
Use,” Sarah Brown-Schmidt, William S. Horton and Melissa C. Duff (Topic Editors). For
a full listing of topic papers, see: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tops.2016.8.
issue-4/issuetoc.
Toward Integrative Dynamic Models for Adaptive
Perspective Taking
Nicholas Duran,
a
Rick Dale,
b
Alexia Galati
b,c
a
School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Arizona State University
b
Cognitive and Information Sciences, University of California, Merced
c
Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus
Received 4 January 2015; received in revised form 20 July 2015; accepted 7 August 2015
Abstract
In a matter of mere milliseconds, conversational partners can transform their expectations about
the world in a way that accords with another person’s perspective. At the same time, in similar
situations, the exact opposite also appears to be true. Rather than being at odds, these findings
suggest that there are multiple contextual and processing constraints that may guide when and
how people consider perspective. These constraints are shaped by a host of factors, including the
availability of social and environmental cues, and intrinsic biases and cognitive abilities. To
explain how these might be integrated in a new way forward, we turn to an adaptive account of
interpersonal interaction. This account draws from basic principles of dynamical systems, princi-
ples that we argue are already expressed, both implicitly and explicitly, within a broad landscape
of existing research. We then showcase an initial attempt to develop a computational framework
to instantiate some of these principles. This framework, consisting of what we argue to be impor-
tant mechanistic insights rendered by neural network models, is based on a promising and long-
standing approach that has yet to take hold in the current domain. We argue that by bridging this
gap, new insights into other theoretical accounts, such as the connections between memory and
common ground information, might be revealed.
Keywords: Perspective taking; Interaction; Learning; Memory; Dynamical systems; Neural networks
Correspondence should be sent to Nicholas D. Duran, School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Arizona State
University, DynamiCog Lab, Glendale, AZ, 85306 E-mail: nicholas.duran@asu.edu
1. Introduction
Much of our day-to-day expression of thought and action occurs in rich social interac-
tion. This was likely true in our evolutionary history, as it certainly is in modern society
(Beckner et al., 2009; Clark, 1996). Humans have been interpreting others, and acting
with and among others, in a way that may be constitutive of our species (Tomasello,
2008). When each of us assesses the significance of a communicative event, and seeks to
contribute in kind, we reveal a non-trivial cognitive process, which depends on a number
of factors. These factors range from the perception and use of immediate cues in the
environment, to drawing on previous histories of social interaction to guide language use
and understanding (Galati & Brennan, 2010; Gibbs & Van Orden, 2012). In many
instances, these factors are processed against a reciprocal appreciation of others’ needs or
mental states, where simple attributions about what another knows or believes, or simple
memory associations about the contents of shared knowledge, can quickly shape interac-
tion (Brennan, Galati, & Kuhlen, 2010). This focus on others, “other-centric” or “com-
mon ground” processing, does not necessarily holdor need to holdin all cases.
Interlocutors, at least initially, do not always consider or integrate the mental states of
others. Instead, they have been shown to draw from their own knowledge and perspec-
tive, and often rely on non-social cues and heuristics to mitigate potential sources of con-
fusion (i.e., “egocentric” processing; Keysar, Lin, & Barr, 2003).
At first blush, these findings may indicate a lack of consensus, or be perceived as a
contradictory state of understanding in our field. This may be true if the assumption is
that there should be an ego- or other-centric “default” across all interactions. But when
viewed in another light, namely, that egocentric and other-centric behaviors arise from a
highly adaptive cognitive system, it is not surprising to see such variation. To be adap-
tive, sensitivity to context is essential, and given that contexts vary in any number of
ways, from the attributions that can be made, the saliency of associated cues, and the
intentions to be expressed, the resulting behavior should be richly complex. This has led
researchers on both sides of the issue to acknowledge that there are likely multiple strate-
gies for when and how common ground is used (Barr, 2014; Brown-Schmidt & Hanna,
2011). It also places greater importance on the contextual constraints that are present dur-
ing interaction (Schober & Brennan, 2003), as well as the attentional and memory
resources that are needed to process these demands (Horton & Gerrig, 2005).
One of the challenges, however, for any account of perspective taking, is in explaining
how these many constraints and processes are integrated, and why resulting behaviors are
seemingly “inconsistent”or, put differently, whether so much variation across individu-
als and contexts can be explained more systematically. A promising way forward, as we
discuss here, is to consider how basic principles from dynamical systems theory might
provide a conceptual framework for bridging ideas, and how these principles can be
instantiated as models for systematic exploration.
In general, dynamical systems theory is a theoretical account of how a complex system
changes over time. This process is marked by interactions among component parts, with
762 N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016)
particular emphasis on environmental constraints, the timescales at play, and the multi-
causal underpinnings of stable patterns. There is no need for a “central executive” or
other hardwired control process for explanatory purposes; rather, the locus of control is
distributed across the many interactions present. Given these occur as embedded in a lar-
ger environment, new configurations of the system are always at the ready to meet the
needs of the moment. And with no single deterministic factor dictating outcomes, multi-
ple causes can produce similar patterns.
Extending these principles to an adaptive account of perspective taking, we assume
that during communication, available perspective-taking information is organized across
multiple timescales, both in how it is instantiated and how it is expressed during use.
This information interacts in real time and within diverse social environments, and thus
the relative saliency of one source of information might give way to, or perhaps enhance,
the saliency of other sources of information. In addition to available information, the
dynamics expressed are also influenced by learning and online processing capacities, that
is, cognitive architectural constraints. As these various components vary, so too will the
likelihood of ego- and other-centric behaviors.
In Sections 2 and 3 of this study, we begin by examining how dynamical principles
are already expressed across existing perspective-taking studies, despite many of these
studies originally designed for other purposes. The goal here is to discuss an adaptive,
dynamically inspired account against the backdrop of familiar research, and critically, to
draw preliminary links among a wide-ranging set of research findings. We do so in a nar-
rative style, eschewing formal definitions, with the intention of providing a brief and
accessible overview.
1
In Section 4, we turn our attention to the potential of models for understanding per-
spective-taking processes. We argue that progress can be made by building models (a)
that implement dynamical principles computationally; and (b) that do so by simulating
existing experimental paradigms. We focus primarily on the assumption that behavior and
cognition are subject to subtle variables that can radically alter the system’s behavior
variables that are present in the social environment and produce outcomes that dynami-
cally adapt in time.
2
2. Cues and constraints across embedded timescales
How do social contexts influence peoples’ interpretation of what their conversational
partners say or do? Consider the everyday scenario of parting ways with your money.
Whether buying a coffee from your local barista, or haggling over the price of a new car,
unique situational demands shape how perspectives are taken and meaning understood.
The same behavior in one context might be taken as a whimsical display, and in another,
a cause for concern. The barista’s wink is a playful gesture, but coming from the car
dealer, deception. Although these interpretations may be driven by active monitoring of
another’s knowledge and intentions, an adaptive account also opens up the possibility that
such “high-level” demands are supported by, and certainly working in concert with, a
N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016) 763
host of additional factors that are more or less implicit and operate across a range of
timescales.
For example, when conversing with that barista, you may not notice that your bodies
are swaying in similar ways (Richardson, Dale, & Shockley, 2008), or that your voice
rates are beginning to subtly align (Manson, Bryant, Gervais, & Kline, 2013). Meanwhile,
you may engage in complementary turn-taking patterns, where your contributions are
unknowingly timed at regular, oscillatory intervals (Wilson & Wilson, 2005). Even the
phrases being used can become conceptually aligned without conscious attempt, reflecting
a shared understanding that may not be readily understood by a non-participant listening
from across the room (Mills, 2014; Schober & Clark, 1989). What is happening during
this interaction is an integration of perception and action, expressed as an implicit antici-
pation and convergence across behavioral and linguistic channels, that all unfolds over
time (Pickering & Garrod, 2013).
Although the functional consequences of such “low-level” phenomena on social and
cognitive processes are a focus of ongoing research, one promising account is that it
serves language comprehension and common ground processing (Richardson et al.,
2008). Much like skilled dancers or improvisational musicians, language users are highly
attuned to each other’s understanding and perspective. Such accommodation has been
argued as being central to interpersonal communication, and it has recently been
described in terms of synergistic coupling (Fusaroli, Ra
zczaszek-Leonardi, & Tyl
en,
2014). In dynamical systems parlance, synergies occur when the degrees of freedom
between separate behavioral and processing systems become linked through interaction,
resulting in rapid and compensatory adjustments of behavior (Riley, Richardson, Shock-
ley, & Ramenzoni, 2011). This capacity for immediate responsiveness suggests that the
efforts entailed in perspective taking are distributed across social agents, and that when
disparities in understanding do exist, they can be quickly recognized and resolved in a
collaborative manner (Brennan et al., 2010).
Another focus within the perspective-taking literature has been the perceptual and
information-based cues that provide opportunities for social responding (Brennan et al.,
2010). These include the physical characteristics and action capabilities of others, peo-
ple’s location and relationship with other people and objects in space, and even basic
“one-bit” informational units, such as having knowledge of what another is likely to
know or see (Galati & Brennan, 2010). For example, returning to our barista introduced
earlier, upon detecting a foreign accent in his or her voice, you may spontaneously alter
the way you speak to ensure mutual understanding (Costa, Pickering, & Sorace, 2008).
Or perhaps, having been explicitly told that this person is Dutch, you mention how “The
Orange almost had it in 2014,” and provide clarification only when a look of confusion
appears, quickly understanding that he or she is apparently not a sports fan. In another
interaction, your barista might hear you ambiguously ask, as you fumble with your wallet,
for “the cup” despite two identical cups being present, one in front of you and the other
further away. Your barista, however, does not waver, immediately looking to the farther
cup and handing it to you, assuming this is the one you meant given your limitation and
spatial configuration (Hanna & Tanenhaus, 2004). Or you may even spontaneously take
764 N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016)
the visual perspective of the barista to ease his or her understanding. Standing across
from each other at a display case, you ask, “Could you grab me the biscotti on your left,”
despite requiring a mental rotation to do so (Duran, Dale, & Kreuz, 2011).
These findings point to a perspective-taking process that is probabilistically guided and
driven by factors that are forged at longer timescales, integrating histories of social learn-
ing and situational expectations, as well as immediate demands that may arise to divert
attention or tax other cognitive resources. According to our adaptive account, multiple
interacting components come together at any moment to guide possible interpretations
and behavior, and thus no single component will have causal priority.
These observations also open up the possibility that there are many instances of suc-
cessful communication where it is uncertain whether disparities in common ground are
actually acted upon and, instead, egocentric processes primarily hold. As noted previously,
flexible adaptivity arises from a system that is responsive to environmental and social con-
straints, encompassing intrinsic biases of the system, previous histories of experience and
learning, and even genetic predispositions. Because these various forces can activate both
other- and egocentric responses, their competition and resolution during language use is
yet another nested and interactive time course to be explored. Such dynamics suggest a
mechanism of integration whereby people can simultaneously be other- and egocentric,
and where, even in similar contexts, simple cues can have a huge consequence on sponta-
neous perspective-taking behavior (see Duran & Dale, 2014 for a detailed account).
To further explore the role of perceptual and information-based cues on perspective-
taking abilities, we target next a set of existing studies that involve spatial and visual
tracking during interpersonal interaction. Here, the constraints and affordances of our
bodies necessitate that we invariably occupy distinct spatial viewpoints from our conver-
sational partners. As a consequence, we have to consider spatial perspectives that are dis-
tinct from our own. How we resolve this competition requires the integration of multiple
sources of information across time, and it appears to be supported by, but not entirely
beholden to, how information is initially remembered.
3. An example domain: The integrative adaptiveness of spatial perspective taking
Across a variety of non-social tasks, it appears that people consider a number of con-
textual cues when selecting the perspective from which to organize spatial information in
memory (e.g., McNamara, 2003). Although the viewer’s egocentric viewpoint is often
used as the organizing direction of spatial information (Shelton & McNamara, 2001),
other contextual and environmental cues, when available, can influence the selection of
that preferred orientation. These cues include the symmetry of the spatial configuration
(Mou & McNamara, 2002), functional features of the constituent objects (Taylor & Tver-
sky, 1992), and the geometry of the environment in which the configuration is embedded
(Shelton & McNamara, 2001).
In collaborative tasks, social cues, such as a conversational partner’s viewpoint, have
also been shown to influence how spatial information is organized in memory (Galati,
N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016) 765
Michael, Mello, Greenauer, & Avraamides, 2013), how it is described (e.g., Schober,
1993), and how it is interpreted (Duran et al., 2011). Moreover, attributions about the
partner’s ability to contribute to the task, including whether the partner is believed to be
real (vs. simulated, Duran et al., 2011), or familiarity with the environment (H
olscher,
Tenbrink, & Wiener, 2011), also influence whether an egocentric or other-centric perspec-
tive is adopted and what interpretive strategies are used.
Nevertheless, most investigations of spatial perspective have focused on the contribu-
tion of single contextual or social factors. Recent work by Galati and Avraamides (2015)
has shown that perspective selection is instead guided by multiple, converging factors.
These findings are compatible with our adaptive account, which predicts that multiple
cues (egocentric, other centric, and contextual) will be integrated simultaneously. To
demonstrate, Galati and Avraamides (2014) asked participants (“directors”) to study a
spatial configuration of different objects with the goal of describing it later from memory
to a partner (“matcher”). This partner would then later reconstruct the configuration at his
or her own workstation. At study, directors either knew the matcher’s viewpoint (the part-
ner was co-present in the room) or they did not (the partner was absent). Moreover, the
participants’ position was manipulated as to be aligned or not with an intrinsic configura-
tion of the object display (objects were organized around a bilateral axis of symmetry;
see Fig. 1 below). Directors were either aligned alone, matchers aligned alone (assuming
they were present), or neither was aligned (see Fig. 1).
Memory tests preceding the description phase revealed that directors organized spatial
relations in memory according to the convergence of cues (e.g., their own and partner’s
Fig. 1. (A) The setup of study phase with seven-object array organized around a bilateral axis of symmetry,
based on Galati and Avraamides (2014). Director (black circles) was either at 0°or offset at 225°. (B) The
matcher was either present during the study and description phases at 0°or 135°(dark gray circles), or pre-
sent during description phase alone at 0°or 135°(light gray circles). (A) and (B) During the description
phase (and during study when the matcher was present), director was either at 0°and the matcher at 135°,
the matcher at 0°and the director at 225°, or director at 225°and matcher at 135°.Note: during description
phase there were no objects on the table for the director.
766 N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016)
position, visibility of partner during study, orientation of configuration). For example,
when directors drew the object configuration based on memory, those who had studied
the configuration while aligned with its intrinsic orientation (0°) always drew them from
that viewpointthe intrinsic orientation of the array reinforced their egocentric viewpoint
as the organizing direction. For those directors who occupied a misaligned orientation
(225°), the convergence of social and contextual cues now influenced the orientation of
their drawings. When directors at 225°knew in advance that their partner would be
aligned with the intrinsic orientation of the configuration (0°), they were more likely to
organize their drawings along that canonical axis of the configuration. When directors at
225°did not know in advance their partner’s viewpoint, they were more likely to use
their own viewpoint as the preferred orientation of their drawings. And when they knew
in advance that their partner would also be misaligned with the intrinsic orientation of
the configuration (at 135°), they were equally likely to draw arrays from their own view-
point and from the configuration’s intrinsic axis (which was perhaps made more salient
upon considering the oblique viewpoint of the partner).
The convergence of cues available at the description phase also predicted the perspective
from which directors described the spatial configurations to their partner. When the matcher
was aligned with the intrinsic orientation of the configuration, directors used more other-
centric spatial expressions (e.g., to your left) than egocentric expressions (e.g., to my right),
and when directors were the ones aligned with the intrinsic orientation they used more (nu-
merically though not reliably) egocentric than other-centric expressions. Moreover, directors
were able to integrate cues at the description phase, even if the relationship between these
cues was not known at the time of study. For example, as already noted, directors positioned
at 225°, whose partner was not present at the time of study, were more likely to organize
spatial information egocentrically in memory. But when describing the configuration to a
partner who was now present and positioned at 0°, the directors adopted the other’s perspec-
tive while referring to the objects. This is critical because it shows directors do not simply
rely on the preferred direction of their initial encoding in spatial memory but are able to
flexibly adapt to changing circumstances and needs.
These findings provide compelling evidence that multiple sources of information con-
verge and interact over time. Such integration occurs in the initial encoding of spatial
organization and in subsequent communicative planning and interpretation. Rather than
ascribing precedence to single social cues, egocentric biases, or environmental structure,
perspective taking appears to be better captured by a process of multicausality, whereby
multiple factors are brought together in a single moment.
4. Need for integration: Exemplary models
To reiterate, the preceding sections suggest that multiple cognitive processes are func-
tioning during real-time interaction and perspective taking. Low-level and high-level cog-
nitive processes operate together to support coherent and often informationally complex
interaction. The resulting inferencesperhaps subtle and implicit, or other times explicit
N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016) 767
and strategicoperate over an already robust egocentric frame that we employ when nav-
igating the physical and social world. The empirical results we described above suggest
that these processes are integrative and can sometimes produce very different perspectival
outcomes depending on whether information is present or noticed.
But how can we further mitigate the existing debates about the primacy of ego- versus
other-centric processes? How can we develop a more integrative framework? In the past
we have referred to this as a kind of “centipede’s dilemma” problem (Dale, Fusaroli,
Duran, & Richardson, 2013). The cognitive science of interaction includes numerous
specific paradigms and measures that tend to focus on particular situations or behaviors
of interest. The centipede’s dilemma describes the difficulty in achieving progress with a
strategy of this kind. There is not yet an integrative mechanistic account that overcomes
this in a more synthetic sort of analysis or modeling framework. One way forward, which
we take a first step toward in this final section, is to consider the kinds of computational
models that would support systematizing our understanding of interaction and perspective
taking in a mechanistic framework. In sum, the preceding discussion suggests the follow-
ing desiderata for a computational framework:
1 The framework should be capable of integrating multiple simple sources of proba-
bilistic information.
2 It should be capable of non-monotonic transformation, allowing sometimes opposite
outcomes from only slightly changed input.
3 Similarly, it should nonlinearly depend on small but important fluctuations such that
one output or another may be dependent on individual task factors.
4 It should be flexible enough to explore processing and learning in a way that allows
rapid prototyping and exploration of information combination.
In previous work we have argued that complex dynamical systems offer a suitable theo-
retical domain to think about the problems of interaction and perspective taking (Dale
et al., 2013; Duran & Dale, 2014). However, we also noted that complex dynamical sys-
tems are still significantly limited in their ability to flexibly build extensive cognitive mod-
els to which dynamic principles can easily apply (see Dale & Duran, 2013). We argue that
a fruitful way forward would be to consider parallel distributed processing (PDP) models
of the theoretical sortused traditionally as “theoretical prototype” models or existence
proofsas satisfying each of the desiderata above (see McClelland, 2009; for some discus-
sion). Indeed, recent discussions on dynamical systems theory and PDP argue that these
frameworks ought to be integrated and are at root little different from each other (Spencer,
Thomas, & McClelland, 2009). It has long been known that neural networks instantiate
dynamical systems of various kinds, and that differences among theorists and modelers
come primarily in the form of computational or theoretical detail, such as ontological
commitments over a network’s input or output space, learning algorithm, and so on.
A natural next challenge is to determine the type of PDP model to develop. There are
numerous possibilities, but we consider two obvious ones and develop a straightforward
prototype for each to demonstrate that the above 14 desiderata can be easily accommo-
dated.
768 N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016)
4.1. Normalized recurrence network for real-time processing
The normalized recurrence network was devised by Spivey and Tanenhaus (1998; see
also Spivey & Dale, 2004) as a means of implementing a dynamic processing network
for exploring how a parallel and probabilistic system mitigates potentially divergent
sources of information. It was inspired by classic TRACE connectionist models (McClel-
land & Elman, 1986) and was initially put to the service of investigating ambiguity
resolution in sentence or word processing. It has been used recently by McMurray, Horst,
Toscano, and Samuelson (2009) to study word learning and processing, and by Dale
(2007) to study lexical categorization.
It is easy to devise a perspective-taking normalized recurrence system for demonstra-
tion. For example, consider Fig. 2A that is based on an experimental paradigm developed
by Duran et al. (2011). In this paradigm, listeners saw identical objects on a table and
received verbal instructions from a conversational partner to grab the “object on the left”
or “object on the right,” and to then hand it over. Sometimes speakers were oriented in
such a way that they were next to the listeners (at 0°), and the perspectives of both con-
versational partners were aligned. In a more ambiguous situation, speakers might be ori-
ented opposite the listeners (180°), and the instruction “grab the object on the left” can
now be interpreted as meaning the speakers’ left. If so, listeners would select the object
on their right, an other-centric response. It was found that particular selections were
guided by very simple social beliefs held by listeners. For example, if listeners believed
speakers could not see them, they were more likely to act other centrically (presumably
because speakers were issuing instructions from the only perspective available to them
their own).
Now, imagine a simple normalized recurrence system that similarly integrates input
from social and task parameters to determine the output of an ego- or other-centric “left”
or “right” response. In such a model, as depicted in Fig. 2B, an “integration layer” would
correspond to object selection possibilities (shown in double-lined circles) and would
receive numerous inputs, including information about a task partner’s orientation (shaded
circles), simple belief information about a social partner (square nodes), and the “verbal”
instructions from a partner (single-lined circles). We can also build in egocentric biases
that might be reinforced when conversational partners’ orientations are aligned at 0°,or
that are merely present a priori.To do so, we increase the initial activations of the links
originating from the egocentric response possibilities in the integration layer.
In processing these sources of information to provide a “decision,” the object integra-
tion layer receives combined activation input from the various input layers, such that for
each node iof each layer,
objecti¼instructioniþorientationiþbeliefi
and once integrated, the input layers themselves are updated by receiving input from the
object integration layer,
N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016) 769
instructi¼instructioniþobjectiinstructioni
orientationi¼orientationiþobjectiorientationi
beliefi¼beliefiþobjectibeliefi
This integrative feedback continues iteratively in a dynamic sense, where current
inputs are the outputs of previous time steps, until the system stabilizes or achieves some
activation threshold with one of the “left” or “right” object nodes (see Fig. 3).
3
In this
Fig. 2. Normalized recurrence network used to simulate perspective-taking behavior. (A) The architecture
reflects the task arrangement in Duran et al. (2011, 2014): Two instructions (left, right), two objects (egocentri-
cally on the left, right), and social information that can be activated (position of “speaker” (“S”) at 0°or 180°,
and whether speaker can see or not). Note: the network “listener” (“Lis”) is always positioned at 0°. (B) These
sources of information feed into an integration layer of the neural network architecture. This layer includes the
possible selection of the right object (double-lined R
o
, where superscript “o” corresponds to an other-centric
response, and “e” corresponds to an egocentric response) when hearing the left instruction. Note: the thickness
of the lines near 0°and egocentric left/right nodes are slightly increased to reflect egocentric biases.
770 N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016)
way, the network’s decision is shaped by a dynamically updating activation space. Given
space restrictions, we cannot present detailed specifications, but code and further descrip-
tions are provided at www.github.com/nickduran.
With this model, we can begin to manipulate the input to demonstrate how the contri-
butions of multiple cues interact over time, producing the same perspective-taking
dynamics observed in previous experimental findings. Fig. 3AC shows the results of
some of these critical manipulations. Importantly, input layer nodes are “turned on” by
giving them greater starting activation values (either 0.25 or 0.5, relative to a value of 0),
akin to a flexible one-bit either/or memory instantiation (Galati & Brennan, 2010). For
example, in Fig. 3B, the nodes for 180°orientation (0.5), left instructions (0.5), and “can
see” (0.5) are turned on, with the model rapidly settling on the egocentric “left” object
node. However, when the “cannot see” node is now turned on, a social belief previously
found to facilitate other-centric responding, the dynamics of the model converge on a
similar decision, selecting the other-centric “right” object (Fig. 3C). Interestingly, this
decision is more drawn out as it approaches threshold, approximating greater processing
costs and similar dynamics in human response movements (Duran & Dale, 2014).
4.2. Multilayer perceptron that performs spatial transformation and learning
A downside of the model described in Section 4.1 is that its connections are hand
coded. It abstracts over the complexity of learning and memory. To overcome some of
these limitations, we seek insight from perhaps the best-known PDP framework: the mul-
tilayer perceptron that learns by error backpropagation at each time step. It has been
applied to a number of domains (for a review and introduction, see McLeod, Plunkett, &
Fig. 3. Iterative activation of integration layer nodes corresponding to objects on the left (solid line) or on
the right (dashed lines), where objects are “selected” based on highest activation stabilization. (A) When we
activate input layer nodes corresponding to 0°orientation, left instructions, but do not activate social informa-
tion, the network rapidly selects the egocentric left object (solid line). (B) If we instead activate the 180°ori-
entation along with the left instructions, but also activate the “can see” social information, there is more
competition among objects, but the egocentric left response (the left object relative to the “participant” net-
work) is selected. (C) If we now activate the “cannot see” network, the response is precisely the opposite;
there is a relatively quick response to the opposite object (right), although the dynamics are slightly more
drawn out than the egocentric response seen in panel (A).
N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016) 771
Rolls, 1998) and has famously been extended in various ways to include sequential pro-
cesses (Elman, 1990). This architecture provides a highly flexible domain to combine
information sources and develop task parameters.
4
Given this flexibility, we implemented a more extensive array of task-based nodes that
correspond to the full repertoire of social and environmental cues as used in Duran et al.
(2011) (Fig. 4A). Doing so allows objects to occur at four unique locations, and it allows
speakers’ instructions to describe objects as being “above” or “below.” Moreover, the
speaker could also be positioned at 90°and additional social belief information is avail-
able. As shown in Fig. 4B, these cues served as additional weighted input nodes to a hid-
den layer. As is standard in these models, input is nonlinearly transformed and used to
predict an outcome (e.g., egocentric/other-centric objects 14), and any error in this
Fig. 4. The multilayer perceptron. (A) A more flexible architecture allows a wider array of task-based input
nodes. In addition to those described in Section 4.1, we add a more complex configuration of object posi-
tions, which in turn allows for more complex instructions. We also add additional orientations in which the
“speaker” partner (“S”) can be positioned (90°to the left relative to the “listener” (“Lis”), marked with sub-
script “a,” or to the right, marked with subscript “b”), and an additional social belief (a belief that the partner
is a real or simulated agent, where believing the partner to be simulated has been shown to engender greater
other-centric responding). (B) These sources of information feed into a hidden layer to predict possible out-
comes (objects 14) where, during a training phase, errors are corrected through backpropagation and weights
across links and nodes dynamically updated.
772 N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016)
prediction is used to update connection weights via backpropogation on a trial-by-trial
basis. More information can be found in the online supplementary material.
Importantly, we have to design a set of learning trials to set the network’s weights for
testing. For example, we can initially bias the weight space to favor egocentric responses
by having the model expect egocentric objects when presented with combinations of
instruction types. Such learning (reduction in error toward 0) can be seen in Fig. 5A for
about the first 2,500 trials. After instilling this ego bias, we then expose the network to
the alternative non-egocentric response possibility. At this point, the network has to reor-
ganize its weight space to accommodate as the error spikes in the face of these new
ambiguous trials. Following this training (about 10,000 trials), the network must then
learn how to socially transform its weight space by “changing perspective” in response to
social belief input. That is, when an other-centric belief such as “partner is not a real per-
son”
5
(“~Re” node in Fig. 4B) is given, with the left instruction and 90°
a
orientation
nodes, the model should select “object 1” opposed to “object 3.” Again, despite a brief
but substantial spike in error, the model appears to efficiently learn over the remaining
trials.
To test how the network might respond to single trials, as we did with the normalized
recurrence network above, we use an approach akin to the cascade model initiated by
McClelland (1979). We begin by activating a set of conditions for one trial, for example,
a left instruction with 0°orientation (as shown in Fig. 5B), and pass activation one time
through the network. We then use the network’s output activations to update the input
activations. This effectively allows the network to factor in immediate prior expectations
with new activations, doing so across a weight space that has previously been shaped by
learning, establishing a kind of long-term memory. An object node is eventually selected
when it hits threshold stabilization.
6
Fig. 5B shows an egocentric response convergence across 10 iterative time steps.
Importantly, the network is also capable of flipping its response when we activate social
Fig. 5. Learning and response behavior for the multilayer perceptron network. (A) Error reduction in network
being trained to appropriately respond to input combinations that lead to egocentric and other-centric expecta-
tions. (B) Referent corresponding to an egocentric response (dashed line) is converged upon when no social
information is given and initial ego activation is set at 90%. (C) The referent corresponding to an other-cen-
tric response (solid line) is converged upon with initial ego activation still set at 90%, but social information
now provided that overcomes egocentric bias.
N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016) 773
and orientation information (e.g., partner is located at 90°and “cannot see”). The network
does this even when, in both cases, initial egocentric activation is set at 90%we give
the network a strongly biased 0-degree “ego-centric” node activation, and it is still able
to radically alter the output object that reaches threshold. Moreover, these other-centric
responses are probabilistic as a result of the long-term training. Some networks still fall
into an egocentric strategy, other networks become even more other centric. That is, in
keeping with the language of the desiderata outlined above, nonlinear fluctuations across
multiple sources of probabilistic information allow for non-monotonic transformation of
perspective-taking outcomes.
The dynamic output from both models may permit data fitting of the kind seen in the
normalized recurrence model in other studies, such as Spivey and Tanenhaus (1998).
Indeed, such fixation profiles, over time, are what often distinguish ego- vs. other-centric
processes in observed data (e.g., Brown-Schmidt, 2009; Wu, Barr, Gann, & Keysar,
2013; e.g., Duran et al., 2011, with computer-mouse tracking). Rigorous statistical analy-
sis of the data often separates interpretations. The approach here would be different.
Space restricts our presentation only to initial demonstrations, but we hope that flexible
neural modeling would permit generative models, to see which constraint conditions
bring about different behaviors in time. This framework would indeed permit such explo-
rations, as we further elaborate below.
5. Discussion
In the preceding sections we reviewed research suggesting that perspective taking and
interaction are highly adaptive, involving the integration of many diverse cues. We gave
two examples of neural network models that have important properties needed to develop
a mechanistic integration of perspective taking. Our models suggest that adaptive out-
comes are possible through the nonlinear and simultaneous competition of multiple con-
straints over time. These outcomes are possible even with basic assumptions about the
nature of common ground information. Here, information was available as simple visual
cues or beliefs directly available from context. This framework may serve as a computa-
tional instantiation of the “one-bit” account of Brennan et al. (2010). Within the multi-
layer perceptron model, this information was associated with certain perspective-taking
orientations established through repeated exposure and error correction, akin to typical
development and learning. These associations were “remembered,” in a sense, within the
distributed weight space of the hidden layer, where processing constraints were also
imposed by the size of the hidden layer.
Although simple, these assumptions have plausible experimental grounding and could
provide modeling support for the notion that a great deal of interpersonal interaction
might involve minimal burdens on cognitive processing. A major advantage of these
models is that such claims can be tested by manipulating the nature of the input and
parameters (task related, cognitive, or social), thus exploring these simple generalizations
in a range of interactional domains. By modifying the architecture, input and output
774 N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016)
representation space, the training regime, and so on, one could explore the role of social
memories (Horton & Gerrig, 2005), executive-control processes (Brown-Schmidt, 2009),
and more.
This line of theoretical development can also be pursued in a complementary fashion
with other modeling approaches. For instance, recent accounts of how perspective-taking
information is used have taken a “constraint-based” view that prioritizes the probabilistic
weightings of available social cues (Brown-Schmidt & Hanna, 2011). The confluence of
these weightings can guide hypotheses for interpretation, a view that is highly compatible
with Bayesian models (Barr, 2014). What these models emphasize is thus the strength of
contextual “priors” and rational combinations of which to produce “posterior” updating of
perspective choice. In our account, these priors can also be implemented as initial system
constraintsas was done in these preliminary modeling demonstrations. Some variant of
the multilayer perceptron (MLP) model, for example, could be seen as implementing
dynamic updating of posteriors in the face of new input (cf. Richard & Lippmann, 1991).
The major difference in our theoretical account, however, is the explicit focus on the
dynamic process in which these choices are resolved. Understanding these interactions, in
time, may reveal the mechanisms underlying reference-frame resolution, and neural net-
work models are well suited and easily adapted for these goals. We would argue that mod-
els that emphasize time as a key unit of analysis are crucial for resolving the
inconsistencies seen in the empirical data, toothe variability in ego- versus other-centric
responses in a wide variety of tasks requires dynamic models to help us understand what
constraints bring about one dynamic profile or another. As noted above in the simulations,
eye movement data, for example, show divergent fixation profiles when ego- versus other-
centric processes hold sway. Though space restricts exploring this here, dynamic models of
this kind may permit a direct map onto such dynamic data (see, e.g., Duran & Dale, 2014).
5.1. A further challenge: Integrating memory and common ground
The interconnections between memory and common ground information are fast
becoming a central issue in understanding communicative perspective taking. Dynamical
systems have sometimes avoided, or completely dismissed, the memory capacities that
underlie perspective-taking abilities. In some cases this is for good reason, as perceptuo-
motor constraints in the environment can account for a great deal of complex behavior
without resorting to internal representations (see Barrett, 2011, for an excellent introduc-
tion). But in light of the previous discussion, it seems worthy to consider the possibility
that for some behaviors in some contexts, various memory representations regulate com-
municative behavior.
So what role does memory and common ground play in our account? We argue that,
to make progress in this domain, each should be viewed as embedded in a highly adap-
tive cognitive/behavioral/environmental system. Their contribution to perspective taking
can then be understood in terms of interactions within a larger ecology of high- and low-
level constraints that are organized across multiple timescales. It is true that this account,
at least in its current form, does not directly inform the representational nature of
N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016) 775
common ground information or how it is retrieved from memory. But it does suggest that
answers will be shaped by the nature of the interactional dynamics themselves, and fur-
ther appreciation of the unique communicative contexts in which they occur. Insofar as
the purpose of memory “representations,” however conceived, is to act on a sometimes
predictable, sometimes unstable, social world, their retrieval and deployment must in turn
be flexible and probabilistic.
In conclusion, we hope the reader is intrigued by the promise of building more integra-
tive dynamic models for these important and complex social processes. This line of theo-
retical development, we feel, might help systematize our understanding of adaptive
perspective taking. Whether more egocentric in some contexts, or other centric in others,
integrative models may help us understand how an adaptive and context-sensitive process
can bring about both.
Notes
1. See Richardson, Dale, and Marsh (2014) for a more formal treatment of dynamical
systems within the social sciences.
2. It should be noted that cognitive scientists who adopt a dynamical perspective gen-
erally seek to understand systems as they are structured in time, although this per-
spective has a number of flavors. For example, some forgo representations, and
wish only to see formal specification of observed behavior through mathematical
models (see Chemero, 2008 for a summary), whereas others may be more inclined
to adopt computational models that invoke some form of internal representation
(e.g., Spivey & Dale, 2006). In all these accounts, it is generally assumed that
behavior and cognition are subject to subtle variables that can radically alter the
system’s behaviorin other words, systems dynamically adapt in time. This is the
general theoretical feature that guides the current exploration.
3. Note that the entire vector of activations, for each layer, is normalized to 01
before the next pass of activations.
4. Some have complained that this flexibility is a weakness as a theoretical framework
(Marcus, 2001), a critique now leveled at Bayes, too (Marcus & Davis, 2013).
However, any productive cognitive modeling framework has the same extreme flex-
ibility (including classical ones). The critique is an empty one when one regards
models as ever-nascent conceptual/quantitative explorations of some task/process
rather than a rigid mathematical theory which, even in the “purest” case in physics,
is subject to vibrant debate about excessive flexibility and philosophical implica-
tions (Smolin, 2006).
5. Greater other centricity is consistent with the principle of least collaborative effort.
Because the simulated partner is unable to take perspective, the listener is instead
willing to put in greater effort to do so (for greater detail, see Duran et al., 2011).
6. To avoid settling in permanently ambiguous output values, we square the output
activations output
i
=output
i
2
then renormalize output
i
=output
i
/
j
output
j
.
776 N. Duran, R. Dale, A. Galati / Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2016)
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