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Microsporum canis and other dermatophytes isolated from humans, dogs and cats in mexico city

  • Centro Dermatológico de Yucatán
Research Article
Global Dermatology
ISSN: 2056-7863
Glob Dermatol, 2016 doi: 10.15761/GOD.1000173 Volume 3(2): 275-278
Microsporum canis and other dermatophytes isolated from
humans, dogs and cats in mexico city
Torres–Guerrero E1, González de Cossío AC1, Segundo ZC2, Cervantes ORA3, Ruiz- Esmenjaud J1 and Arenas R1
1Sección de Micología. Hospital “Dr. Manuel Gea González”, Ciudad de México, México
2Laboratorio de Micología Veterinaria, Unidad de Servicios de Diagnóstico y Constatación del Centro de Enseñanza, Investigación y Extensión en Producción
Animal en Altiplano. FMVZ.UNAM, México
3Laboratorio de Micología del Depto. de Microbiología e Inmunología de la FMVZ. UNAM. México
Introduction: Tineas or ringworm are infections caused by dermatophytes, a group of keratinophilic fungi.
According to origin and tropism can be classied as anthropophilics, zoophilics and geophilics.
Objectives: To obtain current data in zoophilic dermatophytes in humans and animals in Mexico City.
Material and methods: We performed an observational, descriptive and retrospective study, in two dierent Departments of Mycology. In a General Hospital we
studied dermatophytic infections in 8,684 patients, (human cases), and in 480 animals (377 dogs and 103 cats) at the Faculty of Medical Veterinary, University of
Results: 57 of the 8,684 human patients (0.65%), had zoophilic dermatophytes: M. canis 43 (75.5%), T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes 13 (22.9%) and M. nanum
1 (1.6%); 40.8% were men and 59.2% females.
At the Veterinary Faculty, 377 samples from dogs and 103 from cats were studied, with 33 (8.73 %) and 36 (34.95%) positive cultures respectively. In dogs M. canis
72.70% Trichophytonterrestre 12.15%, M. gypseum 9.10% and T. mentagrophytes 6.10%, and in cats only M. canis was isolated.
Conclusions: In humans and in animals M. canis is still the main causal zoophilic agent. In children tineacapitis is the most frequent dermatopytosis.Tineacorporis
is the second one, and usually related to close contact with infected pets.
Tineas or ringworm are infections caused by keratinophilic fungi
called dermatophytes that can also invade the skin and its appendages
[1]. ere are three anamorphic genders: Trichophyton, Epidermophyton
and Microsporum, none of which form part of the cutaneous ora. ey
can be classied according to its origin and tropism in anthropophilics,
zoophilics and geophilics. ese infections constitute 70 to 80% of all
the mycoses and represent 5% of the dermatological consults [2,3].
Infection is by direct contact with the causal agent and it can appear
in any race, sex, socioeconomic level or occupation [3]. e animals act
as reservoirs and can be symptomatic or just be carriers.
Among the zoophilic dermatophytes, Microsporumcanis and
Trichophytonmentagrophytes, are of main medical relevance in Mexico.
e tineas are frequent in domestic and savage animals; they are
found in bovine, pigs and equine as well as in poultry, the most aected
ones, are the small species, such as dogs, cats and rodents. To acquire
infection, a direct contact with the contaminated source is needed, soil
or animal or it can also be transmitted from person to person or by
fomites [3].
Our aim is to obtain the current frequency of the zoophilic dermatophytes
in samples collected from patients and animals with a clinical diagnosis of tinea
in a general hospital and in a veterinary clinic res pective ly.
Material and methods
We performed an observational, descriptive and retrospective
study, in two departments of mycology, at “Dr. Manuel Gea
Gonzalez” General Hospital, and at the Faculty of Medical Veterinary,
Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM).
During a 10 year-period, a mycological study was performed,
in 8684 patients with cutaneous lesions suggestive of tinea in the
hospital and in the same period, 480 animals at the Faculty of Medical
Veterinary, 377 dogs and 103 cats with suspected dermatophytes. All
of them were included.
A direct exam with 20% potassium hydroxyde (KOH) and a culture
in Sabouraud dextrose agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol
at 30°C were performed in samples from humans and animals.
Identication was performed based in the morphologic criteria by the
microscopic observation with lactophenol cotton blue.
Correspondence to: Dr. Roberto Arenas. Sección de Micología. División de Investigación.
Hospital “Dr. Manuel Gea González”. Calzada de Tlalpan 4800, Colonia “Belisario
Domínguez, sección XVI”, Ciudad de México C.P. 14080. E-mail:
Received: March 01, 2016; Accepted: March 31, 2016; Published: April 04, 2016
Torres–Guerrero E (2016) Microsporum canis and other dermatophytes isolated from humans, dogs and cats in mexico city
Glob Dermatol, 2016 doi: 10.15761/GOD.1000173 Volume 3(2): 275-278
From the 8,684 human patients, zoophilic dermatophytes
were isolated only in 57(0.65%) patients: M. canis 43 (75.5%), T.
mentagrophytes (0.65%) var. mentagrophytes 13 (22.9%)and M.
nanum1 (1.6%) (Graph 1), 40.8% were men and 59.2% females.
e most aected age groups were 0 to 10 (46.89%); and the group
21 to 30 (12.5%) (Graph 2). Clinical features are shown in Graph 3.
At the Veterinary Faculty, 480 samples from dogs and cats
were studied: 377 from dogs and 103 from cats, with 33 (8.73%)
and 36 (34.95%) positive cultures respectively. In dogs M. canis
(72.70%), TrJichophytonterrestre (12.15%), M. gypseum (9.10%)
and T. mentagrophytes (6.10%), were isolated, while in cats the only
dermatophyte was M. canis (Graph 1).
According with 4th National Consensus of Supercial Mycoses
in Mexico (2008), 70 to 80% of mycoses in outpatients were caused
by dermatophytes [4]: 2% tineamannus, 4% tineacruris, 4-10%
tineacapitis, 15% tineacorporis, 30% tineaungium and 45% tineapedis
[4]. ese data are considered on the basis of a general population, but
only tineacapitis is almost always present just in children. [5]
In the current study, the majority of the cases in humans correspond
to tineacapitis (46.89%) followed by tineacorporis (27.86%) because
the highest percentage of patients was found from 0-10 years of age
(46.89%).is data is congruent, as tineacapitis was the most frequent
aected was the pediatric group, with an exceptional case in a 97 year-
old female [5].
M. canis was the most frequent dermatophyte. It is present in
4.1% among general statistics and is the causal agent in 60 to 89%
of tineacapitis in Mexican children [3,6]. e contact with domestic
animals represents the main source of infection in up to 83%. [3,6]
Similar results by Monteagudo [7], aer his study conducted in
Santiago de Compostela with 196 cases of tineacapitis, observed M.
canis in 70-95%, and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes in 14.8%,
and a low frequency of other non-zoophilic species. ese data are
dierent from USA reports, where the main causal agent of tineacapitis
is T. tonsurans (90%), the increase incidence of this agent is related
to migrations of Afro-Americans and Latin American [3,8]. Also in
Madrid, T. tonsurans’ incidence has increased in the last years, and M
canis is now in the second place. In Puerto Rico about two thirds of
tineacapitis are caused by T. tonsurans and the other third by M. canis
In Jordan aer conducting a 6 years epidemiological study, Shagra
[10] found T. violaceum as the main causal agent in tineacapitis, and in
second place, M. canis. Mseddi and Makni in Tunez, separately reported
83 and 68% tineacapitis caused by T. violaceum, and M. canis in 29.2%
[11,12]. Also Ouidaina, in Morocco, aer nishing a study with 1299
patients from 1993 to 2007, identied 76.4% of tineacapitis due to
T. mentagrophytes, while M. canis 13.4% [13]. In the same country,
Boumhil, studied 162 patients from 2002 to 2008, nding 63.58% of
infections due to T. violaceum and 33.33% to M. canis [14]. Arenas et
al., reported in an epidemiological study conducted in the urban and
rural zones of Dominican Republic, a resurging of M. audouinii and T.
tonsurans respectively, probably due to the migratory movements from
Haiti, while M. canis was found in 19.04% and 11.65% respectively [15].
Tineacorporis, ranked second in frequency of the clinical forms
observed in our study (27.86%). According to the National Consensus
of Supercial Mycoses [4], T. rubrum was the main causal agent,
followed by M. canis, however it must be considered that tineacorporis
caused by M. canis is more typical of pediatric patients, as we are
reporting in this paper. In a retrospective study in Mexico 357 cases
oineacorporis were reported in 21 years, and M. canis was found in
16.7% [16]. Meanwhile, Cafarchia et al. [17], in 2005, performed in
Bari, Italy, a dermatophitic search in dogs and cats, which owner had
or had not tinea and found M. canis in 53.6% of cats and 36.4% in dogs
whose owners had tinea, and in only 14.6% of cats and non in the dogs
which owners did not have tinea, concluding that one must be aware
that the animals are a source of infection.
Zoophilic dermatophyes isolated from humans, dogs and cats.
Graph 1. Zoophilic dermatophytes isolated from humans, dogs and cats.
46.8 %
12.5 %
9.5 % 9.5 %
6.2 %
9.5 %
0 - 10
21 - 30
51 - 60
más de 61
Frequency of dermatophytoses in each age group
Graph 2. Frequency of dermatohytoses according to age group.
Tinea capis
Tinea corporis
Afección en cara
Tinea pedis
Clinical forms of tinea caused by zoophilic dermatophytes
Graph 3. Clinical human dermatophytic infections caused by zoophylic dermatophytes.
Torres–Guerrero E (2016) Microsporum canis and other dermatophytes isolated from humans, dogs and cats in mexico city
Glob Dermatol, 2016 doi: 10.15761/GOD.1000173 Volume 3(2): 275-278
Concerning tineafaciei (20% of tineacorporis) and onychomycosis,
in this study each one was present in 9.5%. In Italy, Monod performed a
study of facial tinea caused by M. canis, reporting 91.3% of the children
infected by their pets. [18] According to Romano et al., the medium
age in tineafaciei is close to 27 years of age, while in Aste et al., paper, it
is more common between 36 and 45 years of age. [19] Our facial cases
were found in the age group of 20 to 50 years.
We found a lower frequency of M. canis in other dermatophytic
infections, 9.5% in onychomycoses and 6.25% in tineapedis.
Kazemi, in Iran, studied 590 patients from 1996 till 2004, found
zoophiticdermatophytes such as T. mentagrophytes and M. canis,
with a frequency of 65.5% of cases with onychomycosis; Sei in Japan,
identied M. canis in just 5 cases in 36,052 ambulatory patients. In
feet and nails, M. canis is uncommon but Trichophyton sppare more
contagious and responsible of outbreaks in endemic countries, and
zoophilic fungi are just related to small familiar epidemics [20-22].
From the veterinary point of view, Microsporumcanis is the
most common dermatophyte in pets [18]. Worldwide 90-100% of
dermatophytoses in cats are caused by M. canis [23] and usually its
isolation in asymptomatic animals indicates subclinical infection or
carrier [24].
In the laboratory of the faculty of veterinary medicine at the
UNAM, 100% of M. canis was reported in the hair of cats and 72.70%
in dogs, similar to Lorio in Italy, who showed that the stray cats are an
important source of dermatomycosis, because he isolated fungi in 100%
of the hair samples [25]. Boumhil in Moroco reported that 56.7% of the
cases with tineacapitis have been originated from direct contact with
animals [14]. Cafarchia in Italy and Seker in Turkey [26,27], described
that in animals one of the main risks to acquire dematophytoses was
the age. Moriello, found that cats with the immunodeciency Felline
virus, the dermatophytosis are three times more prevalent [28].
In this study M. gypseum was isolated in a 9.10% of dogs’ samples,
which diers from the reported percentage by Álvarez et al., in
Colombia, who isolated M. gypseum in 55.9% in stray dogs and owned
dogs in a study in 2001 [29]; Madrid et al., in Brazil, from 7 dogs, 20
day-old, M gypseum was isolated [30].
e isolation of M. gypseum in animals, occurs less frequently and
its presence is in general attributed to its geophilic character, besides
external and internal factors that can alter the normal microbiota of
normal animal’s skin and this way the infection process is favor, as has
been proven in previous studies by Levy et al.. ose who determined
the presence of dermatophytes in the hair of cats in cautivity, found
M. gypseum in 1.6% of animals and they attributed this nding to the
humid conditions, pH and fecal contamination of the place where they
are housed [31].
As mentioned before T. mentagrophytes, is isolated in dierent
inammatory entities in the head and nails, but in animals this
dermatophyte was isolated just in dogs (6.10%). is dermatophyte
has been reported in rodents and less frequently in dogs and other
mammals. Murmu et al. in a previous study isolated in 16.7% from
dogs’ hair, skin and nails with suggestive lesions of dematophytoses
[32]. In India Gangil et al., isolated T. mentagrophytes in 18.3% from
dogs with skin lesions [33], while in Baghdad, Jasim isolated 30.95%
in dogs, from samples taken from various body sites [34].ese data
contrast with our ndings as we found a lower frequency that the
previously cited authors, but this nding becomes relevant as it can be
a source of infection or re-infection in human and animals, so better
hygienic conditions are recommended to dogs´ owners as well as in
places where animals are too close to each other (aesthetic canines and
veterinary clinics).
T. terrestre was isolated just in dogs (12.15%), similar to M.
gypseum, though its presence can be attributed to its geophilic
character, but dierent form the last one, it is considered as a causal
agent of dematophytoses in animals. T. terrestre doesnot count with
conclusive evidence to conrm its role in dematophytoses in dogs,
attributing their presence to the rather natural behavior of the animal,
as when they smell, their snout is in direct contact with the soil, the
source of dermatophyte infection [35].
M. canis is the most frequent zoophilic dermatophyte isolated
from humans and animals. It is still the main causal dermatophyte for
tineacapitis in children and tineacorporis in young adults. is group is
the most frequently aected, because aerward in puberty long-chain
fat acids are in the scalp and have a protective role.
Also, children are more oen in direct contact with pets. Infections
may be related with poor hygiene especially when animals are too close
to each other (esthetics and veterinary clinics) and can become a focus
of infection. Zoophilic or geophilicdermatophytes could also be the
cause of family epidemics.
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Copyright: ©2016 Torres–Guerrero E. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Green chemistry‐based bio‐waste has been taken attention toward new components for many applications especially in dermatophytes of animals and humans. The main goal of this study to assist the synthetic pathways, clean and large‐scale synthesis of silver nanoparticles are achieved as promising alternative green techniques with high efficiency, simplicity and less hazardous waste based on agro‐waste of banana peels extract powder. The preparation of silver nanoparticles directly via solid‐state reaction and the liquid one based on the natural agro‐waste of banana peels under specific conditions for treating ringworm in pets. Ultraviolet (UV)‐visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT‐IR), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to prove the prepared nanoparticles. A total of 30 samples from pets (dogs and cats) were subjected to mycological examination. 10 (33.3%) were culture positive and 100% of the positive samples were Microsporum canis. In‐vitro antifungal activity against M. canis isolates using both the disc diffusion and the broth microdilution methods were evaluated. The significant results for solid silver nanoparticles (Ags1 and Ags2) than liquid AgNPs (AgL) with p <0.05 compared with Itraconazole were observed. This bio‐material from waste could be used as a fast, simple, eco‐friendly, and efficient to prepare Ag NPs on solid that can be applied to the veterinary sector against ringworm.
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RESUMO A dermatofitose é a micose cutânea de maior ocorrência na clínica de pequenos animais e, que pelo seu caráter zoonótico, é considerada uma importante doença em saúde pública. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever um surto de dermatofitose neonatal canina causada por Microsporum gypseum. Sete filhotes com 20 dias de idade foram encaminhados para exame clinico onde cinco apresentavam áreas de alopecia, eritema e descamação no membro posterior e/ou cauda. A dermatofitose foi confirmada pelo isolamento de M. gypseum, sendo indicada terapia antifúngica tópica para todos os animais. Dois animais tiveram cura clínica espontânea das lesões e os outros foram tratados com cetoconazol ou miconazol por 30 dias, sendo obtida a negatividade da cultura fúngica ao final do tratamento. Palavras-chave: Dermatofitose, filhotes, antifúngico. CANINE NEONATAL DERMATOPHYTOSIS BY Microsporum gypseum ABSTRACT Dermatophytosis is a cutaneous mycosis of great occurrence in the small animal clinics and, that due to zoonotic character is considered an important disease in public health. This paper has the objective to report a outbreak of canine neonatal dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum gypseum. Seven puppies with 20 days old-age were submitted to clinical examination, where five showed regions of alopecia, erythema and scaling in the hindlimb and/or tail. Dermatophytosis was confirmed by isolation of M. gypseum and topical antifungal therapy was prescribed to all animals. Two animals had spontaneous clinical cure of the lesions and the others were treated for 30 days with ketoconazole or miconazole. Fungal cultures were negative after the end of the treatment.
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Aim: The ringworms of pet dogs, cats, and stray animals (dogs, cats, and other animals) could be a potential source of zoonotic infections causing a serious public health problem in the busy city Kolkata. The pet owners are more susceptible to get this infection from their pets, because of the close contact with them as dermatophytosis is very much prevalent in those pets. So, this study was aimed to check the prevalence of dermatophytosis in dogs, cats, and in pet owners. Materials and methods: A total of 362 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis from dogs (123 in number), cats (202 in number), and human beings (37 in number) were collected and studied from in and around Kolkata to detect the presence of significant dermatophytes. Direct microscopy and cultural examination of the isolates were performed following standard methodology. Identification and characterization of the isolates were done by different biochemical tests. Results: Samples (n=285) having significant dermatophytic fungal infections were found to be of highest number in cats (158, 55.5%) than in dogs (108, 37.8%) and humans (19, 6.7%), respectively. The incidence of Microsporum canis (60.0%) was the highest from affecting dogs, cats, and human beings in comparison to Microsporum gypseum (22.5%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.8%) and Trichophyton rubrum (1.7%). Detection of T. rubrum was only from human cases in this study, whereas the presence of rest three were slightly higher in cats than that of the dogs and humans in this present study. The incidences were higher in young animals and in humans of the age group of 21-30 years, during the rainy season (from April to August) and also in in-contact human beings. Conclusion: M. canis was the most commonly pathogen among all causing dermatophytosis in animals and also in the pet owners. M. gypseum and T. mentagrophytes were other pathogens associated with these infections. These infections were more prevalent in the rainy seasons and in in-contact human patients or pet owners.
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Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31-40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsurans was the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis.
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Aim: Ring worm are fungal infection relevant to animal and human health. The study was aimed to assess the frequency of dermatophytes infection of the skin of dogs in and around the Jaipur city. Materials and methods: One twenty canine samples were obtained during three years (2008-2011) from dogs suffering from different dermatological disorders and were invitro processed for dermatophytes detection at the Department of Microbiology, Apollo College of veterinary medicine Agra Road, Jaipur. Result: Out of these, eighty nine samples were positive respectively for Microsporum gypseum 55.83%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18.3% and other fungal isolate Alternaria spp. sporadic in 15 samples (0.12%). Retrospective studies of dermatophytosis due to Microsporum and Trichophyton were performed with the sole consideration of public health consequence of the canine ringworm. Conclusion: In the present study samples were found positive for Microsporum gypseum 55.83%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18.3% and other fungal isolate Alternaria spp. Considering the veterinary and public health importance of canine ringworm it would be necessary to assess the prevalence of the dermatophytosis in Rajasthan.
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En Cali se realizó un estudio en perros con el fin de determinar la frecuencia de dermatofitos. La toma de muestra se hizo en hocico, cabeza, dorso, vientre y zonas laterales por la técnica del tapete y para cada sitio y perro muestreado se utilizó una alfombra diferente. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo para hongos patógenos. Se examinaron 251 perros, 86 callejeros y 165 caseros, entre los cuales se encontraron 34 (133%) positivos para dermatofitos; de éstos, 23 correspondieron a perros caseros y 11 a callejeros. No se establecieron diferencias significativas entre estas dos categorías. Tampoco se encontró asociación con la edad, el sexo, la raza o la longitud del pelo, pero si hubo relación entre la presencia de lesiones en la piel y el aislamiento de hongos (P<0,05). El dermatofito más aislado fue el Microsporum gypseum (55,9%), seguido por Microsporum canis y Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, cada uro con el 14,7%, y Trchophyton rubrum con 2,9% de los aislamientos. Estos dos últimos hongos sólo se hallaron en los perros caseros. Palabras clave: dermatofitos, dermatofitosis, tiña, perros, Cali, Colombia. Dermatophytes in dogs from Cali. Colombia The presence of dermatophytes was studied in stray and house dogs in Cali, Colombia, using a sterile square of wool carpet rubbed on the hair. A total of 251 animals were studied, 86 stray and 165 pet dogs. Dermophytes were found in 34 (13.5%) animals, 11 being stray and 23 house dogs. No correlation was found between these two groups, neither between age, sex, race or length of hair, and dermatophytes.The presence of lesions was the only factor that showed a significant statistical relationship with isolation of fungi (P<0.05).The dermatophyte most frequently isolated was Microsporum gypseum (55.9%), followed by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytesvar mentagrophytes each one with 14.7%, and Trichophyton rubrum with 2.9%. The last two species were found only on pet dogs.
Tinea capitis (scalp ringworm) is the most common dermatophyte infection of the scalp affecting mainly children and rarely adults. The epidemiology of tinea capitis varies within different geographical areas throughout the world. It may occur sporadically or epidemically and an increase in its incidence has been noted over the last few decades. The aim of the study is to obtain a general overview of the current state and changing pattern of tinea capitis in Europe. According to the literature, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of tinea capitis and a change in the pattern of infectious agents in particular. Microsporum canis, a zoophilic dermatophyte, is still the most common reported causative agent of tinea capitis in Europe. The countries reporting the highest incidence of M. canis infections are mainly in the Mediterranean but also bordering countries like Austria, Hungary, Germany and Poland. Besides the increase in Microsporum-induced tinea capitis, there is a shift towards anthrophilic tinea capitis mainly in urban areas in Europe. The largest overall increase with anthropophilic dermatophytes has been noted with Trichophyton tonsurans mainly in the UK and with Trichophyton soudanense and Microsporum audouinii in France. The occurrence of anthropophilic infections seems to be geographically restricted and is possibly linked to the immigration from African countries. Children (aged 3–7 years with no predilection of gender) remain the most commonly affected, but recently an increase of tinea capitis has been observed in adults and in the elderly. The results of the study clearly demonstrate the importance of diagnosing and proper treatment of mycotic scalp infection in the Europe. If not diagnosed and treated properly, its prevalence might reach epidemic proportions in the near future. Therefore, an increased level of surveillance (screening in schools), and a highly effective interdisciplinary cooperation among general practitioners, mycologists, veterinarians and dermatologists are strongly recommended.
Tinea corporis (ringworm) represents 15% of dermatological consultation and the principal etiological agent is T. rubrum. Gold standard in diagnosis is KOH and culture. OBJECTIVES: to determine the frequency of body ringworm as well as mycological and epidemiological data in a period of 21 years in a general hospital. Methodology: restrospective, descriptive and transversal study in 357 patients. Data was collected from the Mycology Section at "Dr. Manuel Gea González" General Hospital from 1994 to 2014. Diagnosis was confirmed by KOH and mycological culture. RESULTS: we found a female predominance (53.7%), a bimodal frequency was observed from 11 to 17 and from 18 to 30 years of age. The most affected region was the thorax in 138 cases (30.5%). The most common etiological agent was T. rubrum in adults (30.5%) and M. canis in childrens (7.8%). CONCLUSIONS: most cases of tinea corporis are caused by T. rubrum and M canis. Thorax and lower limbs were most frequently affected. The gold standard for diagnosis was koh (96.6%), culture was positive in almost half of the cases (46.6%).
Tinea faciei, is a facial superficial mycosis. The most frequent etiological agents are Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and T. tonsurans. We report a 40 year-old woman, with an eight days history of an erythematous plaque on her superior right eyelid. Hyphae and dermatophytoma were easily visualized in KOH examination, and Microsporum gypseum was isolated.
The aims of this report on results of a retrospective study were to identify the incidence of this pathology among outpatients at the Children's Hospital in Rabat, Morocco, the species involved, their respective prevalence, and the influence of the age and sex of the patient. Between 1993 and 2007, a mycological examination was performed on 2962 patients in the dermatology service of Ibn Sina University Health Center in Rabat. Mean patient age was 35 (ages ranged from three months to 70 years). Direct microscopic examination was made of all the patients' hair, followed by culture on Sabouraud medium leading to the identification of scalp ringworm in 1299 patients. The age group most affected was children under ten years of age (50% of the cases), mostly boys (M: F sex-ratio 1:14). The majority of cases of ringworm in our study were caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes with 992 cases (76.4%), followed by Microsporum canis with 174 cases (13.4%). Inflammatory ringworm was identified in 32 patients (2.5%) and 30 cases of honeycomb ringworm (tinea favosa) (2.3%). Trichophyton violaceum was more frequent among girls and M. canis was more frequent among boys. Analysis of the incidence of the different species over the years revealed a clear decrease in case of tinea favosa, a decreasing trend for T. violaceum and a significant recrudescence of M. canis. T. violaceum continues to be the most common species of scalp ringworm in Morocco, despite a significant increase in M. canis. Tinea favosa has been practically eradicated.