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Gross morphometrical study on the humerus of camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors:
  • Dau Shri Vasudev Chandrakar Vishwavidyalaya, Durg (C.G.)

Abstract

The study was carried out on the right and left humerus of three adult camel skeleton preserved in the department. The distinguished gross anatomical features and various measurements were recorded on different parts of humerus. The long, cylindrical shaped camelid humerus consisted of a shaft and two extremities. There was no significant difference in between the right and left humerus of same animal. The present finding showed that the humerus of camel had some specific characteristic features and some features similar to the humerus of horse, cattle, pig and dog.
26
Indian Vet. J.,
October
2014,
91
(10):
26-
28
Gross
Morphometrical
Study
on
the
Humerus
of
Camel (Camelus
dromedarius)
S.K.
Gupta'
and
S.
K.
Deshmukh
Department
of
Veterinary
Anatomy
and
Histology,
College
of
Veterinary
Science
and
Animal
Husbandry,
Mhow,
Madhya
Pradesh-453446
(Received:
26-06-2013; Accepted:
11-01-2014)
Abstract
The
study
was
carried
out
on
the
right
and
left
humerus
of
three
adult
camel
skeleton
preserved
in
the
department.
The
distinguished
gross
anatomical
features
and
various
measurements
the
help
of
meter
scale,
thread
and
Vernier
Calli-
pers.
The
data
of
observations
were
subjected
to
statistical
analysis
applying
one
way
analysis
of
variance
(ANOVA)
in
the
programmed
CRD
and
measured
at
5
percent
level of significance
(Snedecor
and
Cochran,
1994).
were
recorded
on
different
parts
of
humerus.
The
long,
cylindrical shaped
camelid
humerus
consisted
of a
shaft
and
two
extremities.
There
Results
and
Discussion
The
present
study
was
carried
out
on
the
right
and
left
humerus
of
three
adult
camels
but
no
was
no
significant difference
in
between
the
right
and
left
humerus
of
same
animal.
The
present
finding
showed
that
the
humerus
of camel
had
some specific
characteristie
features
and
some
features
similar
to
the
humerus
of
horse,
cattle,
pig
and
dog.
significant difference
was
noticed
in
between
right
and
left
humerus
of
same
animal
(Table
I).
It
had
a
long
shaft
and
two
extremities.
The
shaft
was
cylindrical
structure
but
was
latero-
medially
flattened
in
the
proximal
one
third
part.
The
shaft
had
a
maximum
circumference
in
the
proximal
part
while
the
minimum
circumfer-
ence
in
the
mid
shaft.
The
cranial
surface
was
convex
and
had
a
nutrient
foramen
in
the
distal
third
of
it
(Fig.
1).
While
the
nutrient
foramen
was
situated
in
caudal
surface
in
ruminants,
pig
and
dog (Sisson, 1975)
and
on
medial
surface
in
equines
(Getty, 1975).
The
caudal
surface
was
concavo-convex
and
smooth
(Fig. 2).
The
lateral
surface
was
smooth, concave
and
spirally
curved
(twisted)
and
it
formed a well
developed
muscu
lospiral
groove
(Fig.
3).
The same was described
by
Getty
(loc. cit)
in
equines,
Liebich
et
al. (2009)
in
different domestic
animals.
The
teres
major
Key
Morphometry,
Camel.
words:
Humerus,
Gross anatomny,
The
camel
is
called
as
the
"Ship
of
the
desert"
due
to
their
ability
to
retain
water
for
long
period
of
time
and
because
they
can
easily
move
in
the
desert,
making
them
better
means
of
transportation
in
the
desert
than
other
domestic
animals.
According
to
McCann
et
al.
(1988)
the
length
of
humerus
in
horse
reflected
a
constant
relationship
with
wither
height.
Camel
is
a
tall
animal
and
humerus
of
camel
has
some
features
similar
to
the
humerus
of
horse,
cattle,
pig
and
dog.
The
present
study
was
undertaken
to
record
gross
and
morphometrical
features
of
camelid
humerus
in
view
of
its
forensic
and
vetero-legal
importance.
tuberosity
was
situated
on convex
medial
surface
(Fig.
4).
While
Getty
(loc. cit)
in
equines,
Liebich
et
al.
(loc.
cit)
in
ruminants
and
horse
and
Dyce
et
al.
(2009)
in
horse
and
cattle
mentioned
that
the
teres
major
tuberosity
was
just
proximal
to
its
middle.
In
agreement
with
the
description
ot
Dyce
et
al.
(loc.
cit)
in
horse
and
cattle,
the
lateral
border
had
a
large
deltoid tuberosity,
which
joined
the
greater
tubercle
(lateral tuberosity)
by
a
prominent
ridge
and
subsides
below
as
crest
of
humerus
(Fig. 2
and
3).
Materials
and
Methods
The
humerus
of
three
adult
camel
skeleton
preserved
in
the
department
were
used
for
the
present
study.
The
distinguished
gross
anatomi
cal
features
and
various
measurements
were
recorded
on
different
parts
of
right
and
left
humerus. The measurements were
made
with
Corresponding author:
Email
: vetskgupta@rediffmail.com
The
Indian Veterinary
Journal
(October,
2014)
S.
K.
Gupta
and
S.
K.
Deshmukh
27
Table
I.
Morphometry
on
different
parameters
of
camel
humerus
(MeantSE
in
cm)
Right
humerus
(MeantSE
in
cm)
Parameters
Left
humerus
Average
value
(MeantSE
in
cm
SI
No.
(MeantSE
in
cm)
Length
of
humerus
37.5
t
0.87
37.5
0.87
37.5
t0.55
2. Max.
circumference
of
shaft
31.0
1.15
31.01.15
31.00.73
3 Min.
circumference
of
shaft
16.5
0.87
16.5
+
0.87
16.5
0.55
4.
Length
of
shaft
29.0+0.57
29.00.57
29.0
t
0.36
5.
Position of nutrient
foramen
25.0
0.57
25.0
0.57
25.0
0.36
.
Position
of deltoid
tuberosity
13.0
t0.28
13.0
+0.28
13.00.17
Position
of
teres
tubercle
12.5
+0.28
12.5
t0.28
12.5
0.17
8.
Diameter
of
head
7.5
0.28
7.5+0.28
7.5
+0.17
9.
Width
of
proximal
end
14.5
t
0.87
14.5
t
0.87
14.5
0.87
10. Width of distal
end
8.7
+0.11
8.7
+0.11
8.7
0.09
11
Width of medial
condyle
5.6
0.06
5.6
0.06
5.6
0.04
12. Width of lateral
condyle
3.1
0.06
3.1
0.06
3.1
0.04
Similar
to
the
deseription
of
Getty
(loc.
cit)
in
equines,
Sisson
(loc.
cit)
in
ruminants,
pig
and
dog,
Patel
et
al.
(1991)
in
adult
buffalo,
Dyce
et
al.
(loc.
cit)
and
Liebich
et
al.
(loc.
cit)
in
differ-
ent
domestic
animals,
the
proximal
extremity
was
voluminous
and
showeda
head,
neck,
lateral
tuberosity
(greater
tubercle),
medial
tuberosity
(lesser
tubercle)
and
an
intertuberal
(bicipital)
groove (Figs.
1,
2.
3
and
4).
The
head
was
circular
hemispherical)
in
shape,
and
caudo-
medially
placed
(Figs.
2,
3
and
4).
The
neck
was
the
constricted
area
below
the
head,
cranially
FIg2
Fig.1
Cranial
view
of
right
humerus
of
camel
showing-
Fig.3
Lateral view
of
right
humerus
of
camel
showing-
A-greater
tubercle
/
lateral
tuberosity,
B-
intermediate
tuber-
cle,
C-
lesser tubercle/
medial
tuberosity,
D-
bicipital
/
inter-
tubercular
groove,
E- bicipital /
intertubercular
groove,
F-
del-
toid tuberosity, G-
crest
of
the
humerus,
H-
nutrient
foramen,
lateral
epicondyloid
crest,
J-
radial
fossa,
K-
lateral
condyle
I capitulum,
L-
medial
condyle
/
trochlea.
A-head,
B-
greater
tubercle
/ lateral tuberosity,
C-
prominent
ridge
connecting
the
deltoid
tuberosity
with
the
greater
tuber
cle, D- deltoid tuberosity, E-
musculospiral
groove,
F.
latera
epicondyloid
crest,
G-
medial
condyle,
H-
lateral
condyle
Fig.4
Medial view of right
humerus
of
camel
showing-
Fig.2 Caudal
view
of
right
humerus
of
camel showing-
A-head,
B-
neck,
C-
greater
tubercle lateral tuberosity,
D-
prominent
ridge
connecting
the
deltoid
tuberosity
with
the
greater
tubercle,
E-
deltoid
tuberosity,
F-
olecranon
fossa,
G-
medial
epicondyle,
H- lateral
epicondyle
A-lesser
tubercle/
medial tuberosity,
B-
intermediate
tubercle
C-
head,
D-
neck,
E
teres
major
tuberosity.
F-
mediai
con-
dyle,
G-lateral
epicondyle,
H-
medial
epicondyle
The Indian Veterinary Journal (October, 2014)
28
Gross
morphometrical
study
..
it
was
continuous
with
the
tuberosities
(Figs.
2
and
4). However,
Getty
(loc. cit)
in
equines,
Sisson (loc. cit)
in
ruminants,
pig
and
dog,
and
Liebich et al. (loc. cit)
in
dog
and
cat
mentioned
that
the
neck
was
well defined.
Similar
to
the
situated
on
the
caudal
aspect
was
deep
(Figs.
1
and
2).
According
to
Sisson
(loc.
cit)
the
radial
and
olecranon
fossae
were
deep
and
wide
in
case of
ruminants.
The
medial
epicondyle
wa
smaller than the lateral epicondyle
(Fig.
2)
and,
the
lateral
epicondyle
had
a
less
developed
lateral
epicondyloid
crest
(Figs.
1
and
3).
findings
of
Getty
(loc. cit)
in
equines, Sisson (loc.
cit)
in
ruminants,
pig
and
dog,
and
Liebich
et
al.
(loc. cit)
in
ox
and
horse
the
larger
greater
tubercle (lateral tuberosity) in the present study
was
placed on
craniolateral
side
and
the
smaller
lesser tubercle (medial tuberosity) on craniome-
dial side of the humeral head. The lateral tuber
0sity
had
a
small
convexity
but
the
summit
(a
raised
prominence
overhang
the
bicipital
groove)
was
not
found
as
mentioned
by
Sisson
(loc. cit)
in
ruminants.
A
well
developed
intermediate
tubercle
was also
present
in
between
these
two
tuberosities.
The
lateral
and
medial tuberosities
were
separated
by
bicipital
groove.
The
bicipital
groove
was
again
divided
into
two
as
in
case
of
horse, one well developed
intertubercular
groove
was
present
in
between
the
lateral
tuberosity
and
intermediate
tubercle,
and
a
less
developed
in
between
intermediate
tubercle
and
medial
Summary
A
37.5
+
0.55
cm
long,
cylindrical
shaped
camel
humerus
consisted
of
a
shaft
and
two
extremi
ties,
but
there
was
no
significant
difference
in
between
the
right
and
left
humerus
of
samne
animal
(Table).
In
the
proximal
extremity
bicipital
groove
was
again
divided
into
two.
The
nutrient
foramen
was
situated
25.0
0.36
cm
below
the
proximal
end
of
cranial
surface.
In
the
distal
extremity
the
radial
fossa
was
shallow,
while
olecranon
fossa
was
deep
and
lateral
epicondyloid
crest
was
less
developed.
References
Dyce,
K.M.,
Sack, W.O.
and
Wensing,
C.J.G.
(2009)
Textbook
of Veterinary Anatomy.
Elsevier, Pvt.
Ltd.
Noida, India. pp. 32-99.
edn.
Elsevier, a division
of
Reed
tuberosity
(Fig.
1).
But
Dyce
et
al.
(loc.
cit)
and
Getty
(loc.
cit)
in
equines
mentioned
that
these
two
intertubercular
grooves
were
well
devel-
oped.
Getty,
R.
(1975)
Sisson's
and
Grossman's
The
Anatomy
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and
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ch, H.G. 4 edn.
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New
York. pp.
145-160.
The
distal
extremity
comprised
of
two
condyles,
a
radial
fossa,
an
olecranon
fossa
and
two
epicondyles.
The
medial
condyle
was
larger
and
modified
in
the
form
of
trochlea,
while
the
lateral
condyle
(capitulum)
was
smaller
in
size
(Fig.
1).
The
same
was
mentioned
by
Getty
(loc.
cit)
in
equines,
Sisson
(loc. cit)
in
pig
and
dog,
Liebich
et
al.
(loc. cit)
in
dog,
cat
and
ungulates,
and
Dyce
et
al.
(loc. cit)
in
the
domestic
animals.
According
to
Liebich
et
al.
(loc.
cit)
the
articular
surface
of
the
condyles
was
further
divided
by
a
sagittal
ridge
in
ungulates,
but
this
type
of
ridge
was
not
clearly
visible
in
the
present
study.
The
radial
fossa
situated
on
the
cranial
aspect
of
the
condyle
was
shallow
while
the
olecranon
fossa
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The
Indian
Veterinary
Journal
(October,
2014)
... The cylindrical shaped shaft was twisted in appearance as noted by Lakshmishree et al. (2021) in Indian elephant, Gupta and Deshmukh (2014) in camel, Getty (1975) in horse, , Bharti et al. (2021) and (Pawan andSuraj 1999 Rohlan et al. 2018) in Nilgai/ blue bull, Bordoloi et al. (1991) in Indian one -horned rhinoceros, Jangir (2010) in chinkara, Choudhary and Singh (2016) in blackbuck, Sarma et al. (2019) in adult Indian barking deer. However, it was spirally twisted in the African elephant (Tefera, 2012) and flattened cranio-caudally in Indian one-horned rhinoceros (Bordoloi et al., 1991). ...
... However, it was well developed in Mithun (Talukdar et al, 2002).The nutrient foramen was located distally at posterior surface as reported by Lakshmishree et al. (2021) In Indian elephant, in Asian elephant and Bordoloi et al. (1991) in Indian one-horned rhinoceros. However, it was in distal third of medial surface in horse (Getty, 1975), whereas it was observed at distal third of lateral surface in black Bengal goat (Siddiqui et al., 2008) and in the distal third of cranial surface in camel Bezuidenhout, 1987 andGupta andDeshmukh, 2014). ...
... However, it was well developed in Mithun (Talukdar et al, 2002).The nutrient foramen was located distally at posterior surface as reported by Lakshmishree et al. (2021) In Indian elephant, in Asian elephant and Bordoloi et al. (1991) in Indian one-horned rhinoceros. However, it was in distal third of medial surface in horse (Getty, 1975), whereas it was observed at distal third of lateral surface in black Bengal goat (Siddiqui et al., 2008) and in the distal third of cranial surface in camel Bezuidenhout, 1987 andGupta andDeshmukh, 2014). ...
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Background: The fore and hind limbs of the elephant are arranged in an almost vertical position under the body, similar to a pillar or leg of a table rather than being in the angular position seen in many other quadruped mammals to support great weight. The aim of this study is to elucidate the osteological outline on the humerus of Elephants, thereby making more contribution in filling the gap of knowledge and skills framework in this field. Methods: For the present study material from three Indian elephants were used. Some of the specimens were available at the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Mhow. Few skeletons were dug out from the ground which were buried from last 5-10 years in the premises of College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Mhow. Result: Humerus has a proximal and a distal extremity and a shaft. The shaft was consisted of four surfaces. The cylindrical shaped shaft of humerus was consisted of four surfaces. The Musculo spiral groove was limited by the lateral epicondyloid crest at the posterior surface of the shaft. The deltoid tuberosity was present in the proximal third of the shaft. The proximal extremity was consisted of the head, neck, two tuberosities and the intertubular groove. Distal extremity consisted of two condyles which were unequal in size and separated by a ridge.
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Twelve horses were utilized in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment to investigate the proportionality of the skeleton (small and large framed) and musculature (light and heavy) of mature horses. Large framed horses were longer from the elbow to fetlock, knee to fetlock, hock to fetlock, and from the poll to the end of the nasal bone than small framed horses. Withers height was correlated (P<.001) with the lengths of all long bones (r=.85 to .95) with the exception of the metacarpal bone (r=.69, P<.05). Yet when the lengths of the head, legs, scapula, humerus, femur, tibia, metacarpal, and metatarsals were expressed as a percentage of withers height, no differences between frame sizes were observed.
But Dyce et al. (loc. cit) and Getty (loc. cit) in equines mentioned that these two intertubercular grooves were well developed
  • Pvt Elsevier
  • Ltd
  • India Noida
Elsevier, Pvt. Ltd. Noida, India. pp. 32-99. edn. Elsevier, a division of Reed tuberosity (Fig. 1). But Dyce et al. (loc. cit) and Getty (loc. cit) in equines mentioned that these two intertubercular grooves were well developed.
Veterinary Anatomy of Domestic Mammals
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Liebich, H.G, Maier, J. and Konig, H.E. (2009) Veterinary Anatomy of Domestic Mammals. Eds. Konig, H.E. and Liebich, H.G. 4 edn. Schattauer Stuttgart, New York. pp. 145-160.