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Abstract

Purpose: Prayer benefits will make the human body of the sporting and the exercise aspects will be discussed. Method: It is a form of literature studies. Results and Discussion: Namaz, requires the worshiper to move through several distinct bodily postures while reciting specific supplications. The series of postures is fixed, and it’s repeated a number of times for each act of prayer. Namaz (prayer) is performed by Muslim believers which must be performed at least five times a day, consists of 40 rakaats. Namaz can be regarded as a type of stretching and isometric contractions exercise. These movements have an effect directly and indirectly on the whole organism. Namaz improves posture, increased the intake of oxygen and enhances the functioning of the respiratory, blood flow, endocrine and excretory system. Namaz are the strengthening of ligaments and tendons, preventing muscle tears, positive effect on the joints, to relax the eyes, the removal of the accumulated electrical charge in the body, arthritis, hypertension and varicose veins as well come to the situation. In addition, brain, heart, stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, kidney and has a positive effect on the urinary tract. Conclusion: Prayer movement direction outside of worship, there are benefits circulatory, respiratory, digestive, nervous, and to the hormonal system. Unless it made in accordance with the specified time and rules the benefits of exercise and sport will make the human body more.
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport
August 2016 : 4 (Special Issue 1)
ISSN : 2148-1148
Doi : 10.14486/IntJSCS559
Copyright©IntJSCS (www.iscsjournal.com) - 306
Field : Physical Activity
Type : Research Article
Recieved: 24.03.2016 - Accepted: 15.05.2016
Benefits of Prayer as a Physical Activity
Osman İMAMOĞLU
Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Sports Science Yaşar Doğu, Samsun, TURKEY E-Posta: osmani@omu.edu.tr
Abstract
Purpose: Prayer benefits will make the human body of the sporting and the exercise aspects
will be discussed. Method: It is a form of literature studies. Results and Discussion: Namaz,
requires the worshiper to move through several distinct bodily postures while reciting specific
supplications. The series of postures is fixed, and it’s repeated a number of times for each act
of prayer. Namaz (prayer) is performed by Muslim believers which must be performed at
least five times a day, consists of 40 rakaats. Namaz can be regarded as a type of stretching
and isometric contractions exercise. These movements have an effect directly and indirectly
on the whole organism. Namaz improves posture, increased the intake of oxygen and
enhances the functioning of the respiratory, blood flow, endocrine and excretory system.
Namaz are the strengthening of ligaments and tendons, preventing muscle tears, positive
effect on the joints, to relax the eyes, the removal of the accumulated electrical charge in the
body, arthritis, hypertension and varicose veins as well come to the situation. In addition,
brain, heart, stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, kidney and has a positive effect on the urinary
tract. Conclusion: Prayer movement direction outside of worship, there are benefits
circulatory, respiratory, digestive, nervous, and to the hormonal system. Unless it made in
accordance with the specified time and rules the benefits of exercise and sport will make the
human body more.
Keywords: Prayer, sports, health
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport (IntJSCS), 2016; 4:(SI 1): 306-318
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Namazın Fiziksel Bir Aktivite Olarak Faydaları
Öz
Amaç: Namaz kılmanın insan vücuduna egzersiz ve sportif yönden ne tür faydaları olduğu
tartışılacaktır. Metot: Literatür taraması şeklinde yapılmış bir çalışmadır. Bulgular ve
Tartışma: İslam Dininin beş şartından biri olan namaz, tekrarlayıcı hareketler eşliğinde dua
okuma esasına dayanan bir ibadet şeklidir. Bir günde 5 değişik zamanda 40 rekat namaz
kılınması emredilmiştir. Namazda tüm büyük vücut kasları değişik ölçülerde hareket ederler.
Namazda hem aktif, hem de izometrik kasılma hareketleri bulunmaktadır. Bu hareketler tüm
organizmanın üzerinde direk ve dolaylı olarak etkide bulunurlar. Namazın vücuttaki önemli
kas gruplarını çalıştırması ve düzgün duruş şekli sağlaması, kan dolaşımını artırması, bağ ve
tendonların kuvvetlenmesi, kas yırtılmalarının önlenmesi, eklemler üzerine olumlu etkisi,
gözleri dinlendirmesi, vücutta biriken elektriksel yüklerin uzaklaştırılması, kireçlenme,
tansiyon ve varis gibi durumlara iyi gelmesi bazı faydalarıdır. Ayrıca beyin, kalp, mide, safra,
pankreas, böbrek ve idrar yollarına olumlu etkisi vardır. Sonuç: Namazın ibadet yönü dışında
hareket, dolaşım, solunum, sindirim, sinir ve hormonal sistemlere faydaları vardır. Belirtilen
zamanlarda ve kuralına uygun kılındığı takdirde egzersiz ve sporun insan vücuduna sağladığı
faydaların daha fazlasını sağlayacaktır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Namaz, spor, sağlık
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Introduction
Prayer (Namaz) is an external and an internal practice: a set of physical exercises with reading
various Qur’anic verses. The prayer is done by assuming each separate positions of the body
and reciting various Qur’anic verses with each posture. Namaz consists of rakaats, each rakaat
being a series of 7 postures. For example, before sunrise, 2 rakaats or 14 postures must be
performed. Thus each Muslim is under obligation to perform 119 postures per day that is
3750 postures per month and 42,840 postures per year. Suppose, if we live up to an average of
50 years, namaz being obligatory from the age of 10 years, we would have performed
1,713,600 postures compulsorily in this lifetime(www.yogamag.net/archives). Namaz
postures are similar to yogic postures and therefore namaz, while being performed as a
religious obligation, can simultaneously give the namaz all the benefits of yoga. Seven
postures of namaz and their impact on the nervous system. Namaz can be regarded as a type
of stretching exercise; the physical acts performed during Namaz are gentle, simple exercises
suitable for all ages and conditions. During Namaz, we perform continuous gentle muscle
contraction and relaxation with perfect harmony and balance, inducing flexibility without
over-exhaustion. The various postures of Namaz were studied and a range of joint motions
were measured by goniometer, an instrument for measuring angles. Brain blood pressure was
calculated from the effect of gravity on blood pressure at different positions. The physical
activities involved in the performance of Namaz helps in the rehabilitation process in disabled
geriatric patients by improving blood flow and increasing musculoskeletal fitness. The Namaz
prayer involves little effort (standing, bowing, prostration and sitting), has a short duration
and is beneficial for mental and physical health (Reza et al, 2002).
Namaz (prayer) is performed by Muslim believers which must be performed at least five
times a day. It involves with physical activities which includes standing, bowing prostration
and sitting consecutively. It can be seen that from this consecutive movement, Namaz can
also be considered as a slow moderate exercise. Benefits of Namaz from the spiritual point of
view have been discussed at length by religious scholars. However, there is still little
discussion on the Namaz’s benefit from science perspective even though it can be seen that
performing Namaz is like performing slow and moderate exercise. Ibrahim et al have reported
on the heart rate activities during Namaz performance which show positive effects to doers
(İbrahim and Abbas 2008, Salleh and İbrahim 2009). The customary prayers of Muslim
(Namaz), where physical movements of prayers have been beautifully conglomerated with
spiritual exercise, result to many surprising health and medicinal benefits. Namaz is the
prescription from Allah for better health and fitness who offers it regularly. Thus, it is the
natural way to keep oneself healthy. Namaz should be offered coolly, calmly, religiously and
spiritually to get maximum of its benefits (www.gyanunlimited). The prayer is understood to
be invalid without a mindful witnessing of the presence of God. Physically, it exercises the
major joints (especially the spinal column), massages the intestinal tract, transmits a reflex to
the liver, regulates the breath, and stimulates the frontal cortex of the brain as it is brought to
the ground, while momentarily leaving the heart in a higher position than the brain. Namaz is
a form that integrates mindfulness, mental precision, affirmation, devotion, and stretching.
Done five times a day for a lifetime, it has profound effects on the body and soul”
(sujonhera.com). Studies have proven that non-Muslim participants merely going through the
physical movements of Namaz also showed appreciable results from the exercise (Doufesh et
al.,2012). Prayer provides spiritual benefits as follows: It provides, when performed properly,
the joy of being in Allah’s presence, meditation, comfort in the time of fear, pleasure in the
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time of joy, sustaining the spiritual character of the soul, maintenance of faith, and a good
relationship with the Divine Being. Prayer provides the following sociological benefits: The
sense of coming together, knowing one another, friendship, and reinforcement of the bonds of
brotherhood (www.namazzamani.net/english). Religion at large has always been at hand to
lend useful guidance to approach both the physiological illnesses and psychological
maladjustments (Al-Ghazal,2006 ). One of the most basic and mandatory acts in Islamic
tenets is the 5 times daily obligatory prayer (Sayed,2003).
Discussion
The physical and physiological benefits of namaz are multiple to say the least. Most of the
body muscles and joints are exercised during Namaz. In the most noteworthy movement of
prostration besides the limb muscles, the back and perineum muscles as well are exercised
repeatedly (Al-Ghazal,2006 ). The neck muscles, in particular, are strengthened such that it is
uncommon to find a person offering regular Namaz prostrating at least 40 times a day to
suffer from cervical spondylosis or myalgias. Prostration is the only position in which the
head is in a position lower than the heart and therefore, receives increased blood supply. This
surge in blood supply has a positive effect on memory, concentration, psyche and other
cognitive abilities (Al- Gazal,2006;Ayad ,2008) ). During Prostration dissipation of the
electromagnetic energy accumulated from the atmosphere takes place by the grounding effect
at regular intervals resulting in a calming feeling. A recent study investigating the alpha brain
activity during Muslim prayers has reported increased amplitude in the parietal and occipital
regions suggestive of parasympathetic elevation, thus indicating a state of relaxation
(Doufesh,2012). As mentioned earlier, Islam is a prescription for a complete and balanced
way of life, hence, Namaz besides being an act of worship doubles as a holistic health tonic
(Sayeed,2013). Movement in prayer if done in the proper position is able to prevent, treat and
rehabilitate a numbers of diseases. If prayer is practiced to perfection, Insya Allah this
practice can nourish the heart, strengthen the kidney, treat impotence for men, improve the
quality of sex and genital muscle recovery (neurotherapy-of-christian-brain,2014).
Preliminary findings of a research project carried out by University Malaya’s biomedical
engineering department shows that the positions Muslims take during their prayers benefit the
heart and spine. The study also showed that the postures boost the capacity for memory and
increase attention. Previous studies found that Muslim prayers, often directed in the direction
(qibla) of the Ka’ba shrine in Mecca, can be therapeutic for the mind and the body. Since
praying provides Muslims with mental satisfaction, it can also reduce anxiety, depression,
stress and tension which are also considered to be contributing factors to various diseases.
Performing ablution, which involves washing the face, mouth, nostrils, ears, and arms before
praying, has great health advantages, like preventing tooth decay, and reducing bacterial
infections (forum.bodybuilding.com,2014).
Among the other benefits uncovered by a team of biomedical researchers from University
Malaya (UM) include reducing the heartbeat rate, alleviating back pain and strengthening the
pelvic floor muscles. UM’s Biomedical Engineering Department head, Prof Madya Dr
Fatimah Ibrahim, said the study revealed that the actions in a prayer could help patients
suffering from ED. Quoting a previous study by researcher Marijke Van Kampen, Dr Fatimah
said pelvic floor exercises could boost blood circulation and reduce ED symptoms. “Our own
trial with two ED patients saw vast improvements (in their sexual health) after a month of
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‘prayer therapy’,” she told reporters after the launch of the national seminar on ‘Solat
Science’ at Masjid Wilayah Persekutuan here today. Dr Fatimah said movements in a prayer
could also alleviate back pain, especially in pregnant women. She said a study was conducted
on patients with regular back pain and pregnant mothers from the Malay, Indian and Chinese
communities. Findings from the study showed that the ‘rukuk’ (bowing with hands resting on
knees) and ‘Prostration’ positions could be used as therapy as it helped relax the spinal canal
and reduces the risk of pressure on the spinal nerve. “The non-Muslim mothers only acted out
the positions during the therapy sessions. They showed improvement in just a month,” she
said. In his research, UM Medical Centre Cardiology Consultant Specialist Prof Dr Wan
Azman Wan Ahmad found that heartbeat rate could be reduced by 10 times a minute in the
‘Prostration’ (prostration) position, where Muslims knelt with their forehead, nose, hands and
knees touching the floor to face the Kaabah in Mekah. He said that 12 ‘rakaat’ (unit for a set
of actions in a prayer) equalled to 30 minutes of light exercises daily as recommended by
health experts (zurairifm.wordpress.com/2009). One study investigated the muscles activities
between Namaz (Muslim’s prayer) and stretching exercise. The findings indicate that Namaz,
apart as a spiritual act, it can also act as a form of exercise that is done slowly and moderately.
All Muslims must perform Namaz at least five times a day and by performing them, it could
help in the joints’ flexibility and movements. This also suggests that, Namaz movements can
be another alternative to the existing exercises, like yoga and pilates. Three postures in Namaz
have been investigated and compared to similar stretching exercise, which were takbeer,
bowing and prostration. This proves that Namaz has musculoskeletal effect like stretching. As
part of spiritual act, the doers also perform slow and moderate exercise at the same time
which could benefit their health (Ibrahim and Siti,2012).
Namaz also has a psychological, musculo-skeletal and cerebral effects on improving the
muscular functions of the geriatric, disabled and demented patients in a rehabilitation
program. Namaz is a short-duration, mild to moderate psychological, physical and brain
activity. Such an activity, when performed daily, can have long-term health benefits,
according to the American Heart Association. Autonomic effects such as electro dermal
activity of the skin, rates of haemolysis of red blood cells and haemoglobin levels
(newageislam.com/islam-and-science, newageislam.com/islam-and-spiritualism).
12 ‘rakaat’ (unit for a set of actions in a prayer) equaled to 30 minutes of light exercises daily
as recommended by health experts (zurairifm.wordpress.com/2009/). The postures of the
prayers stretch various muscles and nerves, giving a constant physical therapy to all the joints
of our bodies. This protects arthritis, and reduces back pains and disc problems
(http://forum.bodybuilding.com). Each Rakka lasts between 3 and 6 minutes. Dr. Ramadan
looked at the energy cost of two and four Rakka prayers in thirty-two male and female adults.
He found that Namazs have a positive effect on metabolic function. For an 80 kg person,
energy cost of daily prayers was about 80 calories a day, and could be considered a form of
physical activity that enhances fitness (http://www.healthline.com/health/fitness-exercise).
Heart in the most important organ in the body. It supplies fresh blood to all body tissues.
These body movements performed during Namaz are an excellent source of exercise for our
heart as well. According to a Hadith of the Holy Prophet, “There is an organ in the body,
when it is healthy, the whole body is healthy, and when this is sick, the entire body becomes
sick". It is the heart (www.alislam.org/library). A remarkable tissue in our body is cartilage.
It is unique in being a living tissue with no direct blood supply. The only way it receives
nutrients and oxygen is by movements of the joints. The pumping effect forces blood into the
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joint area which would otherwise be bypassed. Those who sit at the terminals are in greater
danger of ending up with dead cartilage tissues that will subsequently wear away. This will
leave us with arthritis, painful joints and paralysis. Bacteria and viruses find safe haven in
joints for this reason as no blood cell can get at them and in most cases neither can antibodies.
Namaz therefore, has many orthopedic benefits for all Muslims. Next time you offer Namaz,
thank Almighty Allah that He made you a Muslim. Indeed, there is cure in Namaz
(www.alislam.org/library). Exercise is a great way to "oil and feed" the cartilage. Under-
exercised joints don't get the lubricating and nourishing benefits of the in-and-out action of
the joint fluid, so cartilage can become thin and dry, losing its resilience and capability to
cushion the bones(www.dummies.com/how).
After Niyaat (intention)/ Takbir (Stanging) (Figure 1), Niyyat: Duration 5 second. Bring
hands, palm open, up to ears, and place thumbs behind earlobes, as “Allah Akbar” (Allah is
the Greatest) is uttered (said). By offering Takbir at the beginning of Namaz, we move hand
and shoulder muscles thereby increasing the flow of blood towards torso. Akamat performs a
similar function. Beneficial Effects: Body feels relieved of weight owing to even distribution
on both feet. Straightening back improves posture. Mind is brought under control of intellect.
Vision is sharpened by focusing upon the floor, where head will prostrate. Muscles of upper
and lower back are loosened. Higher and lower centers of brain are united to form singleness
of purpose. Elbows bent, shoulder joint gently stretched. The shoulder blades and lower back
are brought into a helpful neutral position with core muscles active. These muscles help
maintain good posture and your physiotherapist can show you exercises to help strengthen
these. By raising our hands in the beginning of the prayer for takbeer, we stretch the fingers,
shoulder and all anterior arm muscles, and cause the elbows to flex. Several studies have
been made about the movement of the muscles when we start standing up, then raising both
hands placed on the takbir and put on the stomach can enlarge the chest cavity & lungs will
feel spacious and move the muscles in both hands. Brain signals are in the most relaxed
(http://www.islamweb.net/en/article,www.yogamag.net/archives,http://therapyandislam.weebl
y.com, www.medyouth.com/2012, www.onislam.net/english/health, Sayeed and Prakash
2013, Reza et al., 2002, http://darulfiqh.com, www.kaheel7.com/eng).
Quayam/Qiyam (standing) (Figure 2): Duration: 40-60 seconds. Place hands, right over
left. Then Recite first chapter of the Qur’an and a short chapter of at least three verses should
be recited from the Holy Qur’an. Upon standing, body weight is evenly distributed so that the
back does not take all the strain, and the neck and shoulders are relaxed. Beneficial Effects:
Body and mind feel relaxed and balanced as the weight of the body is evenly distributed on
both legs. Backbone is straight, and breathing is natural and invigorating. Control of thoughts
and concentration of mind become easier on account of focusing the eyes steadily on the spot
of Sajda. Extends concentration, causes further relaxation of legs and back, generates feelings
of humility, modesty and piety.
While reciting more verses from the Quran, the sound vibrations of the long vowels ā, ī, and ū
stimulate the heart, thyroid, pineal gland, pituitary, adrenal glands, and lungs, purifying and
uplifting them all. Standing posture in Namaz (Qiya’m) ensures proper blood flow the lower
portion of the body. It is also good in strengthening the leg muscles.
(http://www.islamweb.net/en/article,www.yogamag.net/archives,http://therapyandislam.weebl
y.com, www.medyouth.com/2012, www.onislam.net/english/health, Sayeed and Prakash
2013, Rezaet al., 2002, http://darulfiqh.com, www.kaheel7.com/eng).
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Rukoo /Ruku (Bowing), (Figure 3): Duration: 12 seconds. When bow, the body bent
forward, and his hands were on top of the knees and hips parallel to the floor. Bend at:3
Position waist, place hands on knees with fingers spread. Back is parallel to ground, such that
if a glass were on the back, it would not spill. Eyes are looking down, directly ahead. Do not
bend the knees. While bending at the waist, recite Allah Akbar, then, Subhana Rabbi Al
Azim. Upon bowing (ruku), we stretch the trunk, back, pelvis, hip, thighs and leg muscles, in
addition to shoulders, arms and neck muscles. The action of bowing followed by redressing is
a very useful exercise for the weak back by regularly, stretching the back muscles. These
muscles are called erector spinae; they span the entire length of the vertebral column,
providing resistance that helps control the action of bending over at the waist. If not properly
exercised, these muscles go into spasms, causing back pain. This position is capable of
moving the segmentation spine, collarbone, and pelvis. Ruku’ in right posture can slow the
aging process; improve water balance in the body and smooth the function of the kidneys. The
movement of the right bow can prevent, treat and rehabilitate back pain. This is because when
bent, lumbar muscles located in the back of the body will contract and rest when the body is
fully bent. Ruku’ can also reduce the risk of nerve compression thus promoting flexibility of
the spine. Fully stretches the muscles of the lower back, thighs and calves. Blood is pumped
towards the upper half of the body. This is an effective pose for elimination of flatulence and
excess fat. Spine is made supple and spinal nerves are nourished; backaches and pains are
relieved. Also provides effective relief in cases of constipation. Tones muscles of stomach,
abdomen and kidneys. Tones up calf and thigh muscles, backbone, abdomen, kidneys, etc.
Over time, this posture improves the personality, generating sweet kindness and inner
harmony. Muscles of the lower back and back of the thighs and calves are fully stretched as
the waist is bent. Control of bending the lower back and hips works core muscles, both in
forward bending and returning to standing position. The forward bending position of Namaz
(Ruk’u) is good for your lower vertebral column. It helps to ease your back pain as per Yogic
philosophy. Doing Ruku properly helps to control backache and vertebral column related
diseases. Namaz Ruku is effective in developing flexibility to shoulder, elbows wrist, knees
and ankle regions. Ruku exerts abdominal pressure thereby eases constipation and peristaltic
movements.
During Ruku, the kidney experiences a sort of massage thus helpful to kidney problems
(http://www.islamweb.net/en/article,www.yogamag.net/archives,http://therapyandislam.weebl
y.com, www.medyouth.com/2012, www.onislam.net/english/health, Sayeed and Prakash
2013, Rezaet al., 2002, http://darulfiqh.com, www.kaheel7.com/eng, gyanunlimited.com).
Quanta/Qauma (Straight standing)/ Returning to Fig. 1 (Figure 4): Duration: 6 seconds.
While rising from the bending position of ruku, recite Sami Allahu Li-man Hamidah ,
Rabbana wa lakal Hamd . Then return to standing position, arms at side. It is a dynamic
posture which involves standing up without any support, so that the entire weight of the body
is on the toes. Beneficial Effects: This exercises the backbone, thighs, knees and leg muscles,
increasing strength by daily repetition. The person who regularly offers namaz in this posture
will be free from backache and any degenerative disease of the joints, like osteoarthritis of the
knees, during his lifetime. Fresh blood pumped towards the upper half of the body now
returns to its normal route. The body is again in a relaxed and evenly balanced
position(http://www.islamweb.net/en/article,www.yogamag.net/archives,http://therapyandisla
m.weebly.com, www.medyouth.com/2012, www.onislam.net/english/health, Sayeed and
Prakash 2013, Rezaet al., 2002, http://darulfiqh.com, www.kaheel7.com/eng).
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Sajida/Prostration (Prostration) (Figure 5): Duration: 12 seconds. Lower yourself slowly
into a kneeling position. Place both hands on knees and lower yourself slowly and easily into
a kneeling position. Then touch the head and hands to the ground. The following seven body
parts should be in contact with the ground: forehead, two palms, two knees and toes of both
feet. Recite Allah Akbar while going down and then, Subhana Rabiil al-Ala (3 time).
Worshipers start out standing, then bow at the waist until their upper bodies are parallel with
the floor, with their hands pressed against the knees. They then return to a standing position
(still reciting supplications, or prayers) before kneeling down to the fully prostrate position
foreheads fully touching the ground. After prostration, worshipers sit up on their knees briefly
before returning to a final prostrating. The cycle then starts again. Each stage in this cycle of
prayer lasts a few seconds, and the whole cycle lasts between 30 seconds and a full minute.
Prostrating also exercises the same muscles that bowing does, with more stress on the neck,
toes and legs. As the practitioner returns to the fourth position for a second time, the repetition
of this pose within a few seconds produces a beneficial effect on the respiratory, circulatory
and nervous systems. During Prostration, many of the muscles and joints can be moved. The
entire body weight is supported on the muscles of the hands, legs, chest, stomach, back, neck
and leg muscles. Sitting between the two Prostration will move the heel, hip, groin, toes and
other. The habit of bending the toes while Prostration can increased rates of fat burning in the
body and lowers the risk of heart disease. Research shows Prostration position is useful for
someone who suffers from high blood pressure. This is because when Prostration; heart rate
is low, and this can reduce the blood pressure. Done Prostration, we will sit between the two
Prostration and again will fall down and get up qiyam; this movement will automatically
move a large number of muscles in the chest, shoulders, arms, abdomen, buttocks, thighs, and
legs.The fresh blood returns, carrying away toxins. Body regains relaxation and releases
tension.It helps pump blood into the brain and upper half of the body, including eyes, ears,
nose and lungs. Repetition of the deep prostration within a few seconds cleanses the
respiratory circulatory, and nervous system. Gives experience of lightness of body and
emotional happiness. Oxygenation of entire body is accomplished. Balances sympathetic and
parasympathetic nervous systems. Blood goes into upper parts of body, especially the head
(Including eyes, ears and nose) and lungs . When you do Prostration there is drainage of
sinuses and there are fewer chances that a person will have sinusitis, that is inflammation of
the sinus, this drainage of module sinus, of the frontal sinus, and a person has less chances of
having inflammation of the sinus, that is sinusitis. There are various benefits. [For example],
when a person doe’s Prostration even the bronchitis’s, the secretion of the bronchitis, they get
drained, there are less chances of having bronchitis. When you do Prostration, there is
increased venes return there is less chance of having hernia, etc. Due to posture in Prostration
there is less chances of having hemorrhoid that is piles. Prostration is very beneficial in the
proper functioning of brain, lungs, body muscles, joints and entire vertebral column.
Prostration helps to maintain smooth blood to the brain region, and also stimulates the master
gland pituitary gland as well as the pineal gland. Prostration reduces the chances of brain
hemorrhage and headache due to smooth blood flow to the head region. While performing
Prostration, the toes are experiencing acupressure which is good for better health of the body,
especially for body pains. The most important function in Namaz is Prostration where we
touch the ground with our forehead. This posture increases fresh supply of blood to our brain
(www.gyanunlimited.com/health,www.nairaland.com/474021,www.yogamag.net/archives,he
rapyandislam.weebly.com, www.medyouth.com/2012, www.onislam.net/english/health,
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Sayeed and Prakash 2013, darulfiqh.com, www.kaheel7.com/eng, www.patheos.com/blogs/
2012, Reza et al., 2002,).
Effect of Prostration
1-Effect on muscles: When a person goes to the position of prostration his whole body is in
an active motion. In this position, the Musalli (the person who offers prayer) rests his
forehead on the ground while his hands are placed at the sides. This brings most of the body
muscles, if not all, in active motion and gives them some exercise. The hands are then
stretched out in a manner such that the forearm as well as arm muscles bear the weight in the
Prostration position. This is good exercise for the muscles of the upper limbs. The Prophet in
a Hadeeth advised people not to put the forearms flatly on the ground but to keep them
elevated above the ground. From the physical point of view, this is better for the forearm and
arm muscles ( Ghorbani and Moosavi).
2-Effect on blood circulation: Prostration is a unique position as this is the only position in
which brain (or head) becomes lower than the heart, and hence the blood gushes towards the
brain with full force, whereas in all other positions (even when lying down) the brain is above
the heart when it has to work against gravity to send blood to the brain. In the position of
Prostration, due to the increased blood supply, the brain receives more nourishment, which
has a good effect upon memory, vision, hearing, concentration, psyche and all other cognitive
abilities. People who offer their prayers regularly may have stronger willpower and can cope
with the difficulties of life in much better ways. They are less vulnerable to headaches,
psychological problems and other disorders of the cognitive functions ( Ghorbani and
Moosavi).
3- Effect on neck muscles: In the unique position of Prostration the neck muscles get the
best exercise. They have to bear the load when the forehead touches the ground; hence, the
neck muscles become stronger. One can note the tense pressure at the neck muscles in the
position of Prostration, specially the active motion of the neck and the facial muscles when
the head is lifted. And it will be observed that they are in a very active state. Stronger
cervical muscles mean the cervical vertebra will be better protected. The strength of the
cervical muscles is important, as the head rests upon cervical vertebra, supported by cervical
musculature. In fact, the head performs rotator movements over the cervical vertebra. In case
of an accident, examination of the cervical (neck) region is especially important to
physicians. It is uncommon that a person who offers his prayers regularly will get common
neck ailments like myalgias or cervical spondylosis, because the neck muscles in particular
become very strong due to the Prostrations offered daily in five prayers ( Ghorbani and
Moosavi).
4-Effect on internal organs and muscles: The position of the Prostration is also said to be a
good treatment for the retroversion of the uterus, a disease of women. Most of us do not
know that the position of Prostration is an excellent exercise for men. While rising from
Prostration the perineal muscles pull the trunk back to sitting position and they contract
actively. Similarly, while getting up from Prostration, the perenial muscles are again actively
mobilized and this gives strengthens the muscles associated with the male reproductive
system. The unique position of Prostration also has positive effects upon the back muscles as
while going into Prostration and getting up from it the back muscle contract actively and they
become stronger. Probably, it is because of this reason that a person who is regular in prayers
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport (IntJSCS), 2016; 4:(SI 1): 306-318
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seldom gets a backache. After performing Prostration either the Musalli stands up or he sits to
pray. In this position the person sits calmly while his hands rest at his thighs which are folded
backwards. This has a soothing effect upon one's health and mental condition. Prophet
Muhammad, used to lengthen the position of Ruku' (bending) and Prostration and advised
others to do so, as well ( Ghorbani and Moosavi).
Jalsa/Tashahhud/Sitting: Quood (Figure 6): Sitting between the two Prostrations: Duration
6 seconds. This hardy pose is like vajrasana. Reciting Allah Akbar, rise and assume the sitting
Posture. Sitting Tahayatul Awal & sitting Tahayatul Akhir: Duration: 10-30 seconds. Again
the fresh blood which was pumped towards the upper half of the body now returns to normal
circulation. This is the best pose for relaxing the muscles, including those related to the spine.
This pose stimulates circulation in the nerves and muscles of the thighs. It eliminates
indigestion and constipation, and is beneficial in the case of peptic ulcer or other stomach
ailments. The pattern of bending the toes while sitting between the two Prostration, sitting
Tahayatul Awal and Tahayatul Akhir are able to increase the rate of fat burning in the body
and lowers the risk of heart disease. The right heel bent and the other feet weight is on it.
This position helps remove poisons (toxins) from the body and move the muscle in the colon.
This position enables the body to comfortably rest and help in digestion. Muscles at the front
of the ankle and foot stretched, with toes extended, knee and hip flexed. Lower back in good
posture will help to strengthen core muscles. In tashah'hud position, our hip, elbow, knee
joints, backbone, wrist joints move in a way that it provides a form of relaxation to our entire
body. Pressure is applied on the body parts as if it was a kind of massage which releases
tension. (http://www.islamweb.net/en/article, www.yogamag.net/archives, Reza et al., 2002,
http://therapyandislam.weebly.com, www.medyouth.com/2012, Sayeed and Prakash 2013,
www.onislam.net/english/health, http://darulfiqh.com, www.kaheel7.com/eng).
Peace to the right and left (sitting) (Figure 7): Finally, as we say the final salutation
(tasleem) at the end of the prayer, turning the head to the right and left massages the neck
muscles and increases their flexibility. This is especially useful for people in sedentary jobs
who sit in front of their monitors all day long, and then complain of neck strain. Physical
Benefits: Turning the head to each side improves the range of motion of the neck, stretching
muscles with gentle repeated movements. Health benefits of Sala’m (Neck Yoga): Salam is
the excellent form of neck and upper vertebra exercise. Salam helps to refresh all the nerves
passes through the neck, thus good in case of headache and contend migraine
(www.gyanunlimited.com/health).
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Copyright©IntJSCS (www.iscsjournal.com) - 316
1
2
3
4
5
6
Conclusion
Namaz has multiple many health and fitness benefits. Some of the important physical health
benefits are as follow: Namaz is one of the important means for health, happiness and
harmony. Offering regular Namaz keeps one fit and healthy by burning extra calories thereby
losing weight. Namaz is one of the effective ways for weight loss as well as to control
obesity. Namaz stretches your muscles and helps to provide tone body. It is good to overcome
arthritis as Namaz is good to enhance flexibility of the body and reduces stiffness. Your body
goes through a unique exercise during the Namaz. So, you get a flexible and healthy body.
Namaz is a good source to balance Anabolic and Catabolic bio-chemical process of the body.
Namaz is good for heart, brain, above all for the entire body. During Prostration, your brain
gets more blood supply. It sharpens your memory. When you stand up during Namaz, your
eyes are centered to the namaz. It improves your concentration. It improves your body
structure. You get rid of any malfunction of your body. Namaz is an excellent form of
exercise to prevent indigestion. In the morning when stomach is empty, a Muslim is required
to offer fewer number of Rak'aat whereas in the evening after the dinner we offer an extra
number of Rak'aat. If you are bulky or weigh more than you should, then regular physical
exercise will help you lose weight. It will increase the supply oxygen in your body. Your
brain will get more oxygen, so you will be able to work more rapidly and accurately.
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport (IntJSCS), 2016; 4:(SI 1): 306-318
Copyright©IntJSCS (www.iscsjournal.com) - 317
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... These postures are similar to those in yoga. During a prayer, repeated cycles of the rakaat are performed, resulting in simple stretching exercises, consisting of muscle contraction and relaxation.(21) Hence, the additional night prayers (tarawih) of 11-23 rakaat daily should be counted as part of daily physical activity. ...
... Hence, the additional night prayers (tarawih) of 11-23 rakaat daily should be counted as part of daily physical activity. While there have been minimal studies on physical activity during Ramadan fasting, the effect of an additional 12 units of prayers has been reported to have similar effects as 30 minutes of light exercise daily.(21) ...
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Ramadan fasting, a month-long annual practice for Muslims, can be challenging for those who have diabetes mellitus with or without associated complications or pre-existing comorbidities, as well as healthcare providers involved in their care. Inadequate preparation for this fasting period can result in increased complications. We reviewed the current practice of Muslims with diabetes mellitus in Singapore who intend to fast during Ramadan, with particular attention on locally available evidence. Adequate preparation for Ramadan fasting, including pre-Ramadan assessment, optimisation of glycaemic control, structured Ramadan-focused diabetes education, medication adjustment, glucose monitoring and test fasting, can lead to benefits in terms of improvements in metabolic control and reduced risk of fasting-related complications in people with diabetes mellitus. While there are ongoing efforts to reduce risk during this period, larger-scale national programmes are needed to avert complications and assess the long-term effects of Ramadan fasting in the local population.
... In the form of prayer activities. 6 The activity of praying five times a day and night consists of 280 different body movements, such as standing, bowing 36 times, prostration 72 times, neck movements, raising hands, moving fingers, and sitting, which are considered stretching exercises light. 7 There is little research on the benefits of prayer from a scientific point of view. ...
... Regular prayer movements help reduce muscle tension and stretch the muscles of the lower back, thereby preventing muscle injury. 6 Takbir movement, raising both hands parallel to the ears and moving the shoulder muscles, will increase blood flow to the cartilages in the torso. Cartilage is a tissue that does not have direct blood flow so that it only gets nutrition when the joints and tissues around the joints are moved. ...
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Flexibility is one component of body fitness needed for daily activities, such as bending, running, and walking. Human flexibility significantly increases in childhood and reaches its peak in adolescence. One of the exercises related to increasing lower back flexibility is stretching exercise in the form of Islamic prayers five times a day. This study was conducted to know the effect of stretching exercise on lower back flexibility in students age 12-15 years. This research is analytical observational research with a cross-sectional design using proportionate stratified random sampling. The subject of the research is 70 students of the Islamic school and 70 students of public school in Kota Palembang. Lower back flexibility is measured by the Sit and Reach Test. The Mann-Whitney Test analyzed data. There is a significant difference between lower back flexibility of Islamic school that do stretching exercise and lower back flexibility of public school that does not include stretching exercise (p = 0,000). Stretching exercise in the form of Islamic prayer increases lower back flexibility.
... This unique type of body movement found very helpful, can be consider slow moderate exercise having many health benefits like increases muscles flexibility, yoga like activity [51,52]. The activity during salah is very usefull in nourishinf heart, kidney, impotence of men increase quality of sex and recovery of genital muscle [52]. ...
... This unique type of body movement found very helpful, can be consider slow moderate exercise having many health benefits like increases muscles flexibility, yoga like activity [51,52]. The activity during salah is very usefull in nourishinf heart, kidney, impotence of men increase quality of sex and recovery of genital muscle [52]. The Prophetic advices about foods, -'A'isha the wife of Allah's Apostle said: When there was any bereavement in her family the women gathered there for condolence and they departed except the members of the family and some selected persons. ...
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Human body composed of four components mind, heart, soul, body these all effect on each other in different way, which may be the cause of disease or heal if we heal ourselves right best thing s come out of us with world changing power. Microbiota the whole colony of the microorganisms is preset in our body and performing different function affecting our mood decision making abilities. A universe living inside us and with their whole perfections 98% of our body contains these microorganisms, and only 2% of our own genome present inside us which tell us how they are controlling us and if through poor food choices how we can affect their growth and they may become cause of several inflammatory diseases. Isalm is the absolute religion which teach us not only Spirituality but also give us the right idea of life how to live and what is being required by a human. Because Allah SWT makes mankind, HE knows what is beneficial for him through food or in any other purposes. Because maker know what and how did he make a thing and what is going be its fuel. Our food our thoughts are fuel of our life if we use rightly we will manage all the relations we have with other humans and surroundings. Nutrients deficiencies such as vitamin B12, B9, B1, B3, A, D, E and omega 3 fatty acids influence the neurological issues. Diet plays a pivotal role in the management of neurological disorders.
... 7 It is suitable for physical health and nourishes the body. 8 It leads to physical and mental health. 9 It results in a positive effect on mental wellbeing, which provides prayers frequently. ...
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Objective: To observe the association of Muslim prayer and physical fitness. Methodology: For this article, the data were searched from Google scholar, PubMed, Pedro and Cochrane library using the keywords and reviewed using the systematic approach. A systematic review was conducted. Several positive effects are gained from Prayer. It impacts both physical health and mental health. During offering prayers, there is the movement of the whole body. It also interlinks with spiritual well-being. So, Prayer is also called physical fitness. It reduces the mental strains. It makes the relation between God and Muslims. It is very beneficial for physical health.This study only includes the articles elated cross-sectional research and systematic reviews. Results: We selected the 10 studies without biasness and unpaid, 7 out of 10 had association between Prayer and physical fitness. There were beneficial outcomes which are suitable for health. Prayer is also helpful for disabled and geriatric patients, indirectly maintaining physical fitness. Conclusion: Prayer is very beneficial for health. It maintains the physical fitness level. It gives body shape. It reduces the level of obesity. During praying, the muscles of the body contract and relax at specific positions which increases the blood flow, which helps in removing wastes. Though, it gives more positive results that are very useful for a person's health.
... A goniometer, a tool for measuring angles, was used to study the various postures of salat and to assess a variety of joint movements. By enhancing blood flow and developing musculoskeletal fitness, the physical activities involved in performing salat aid in the rehabilitation process in crippled elderly patients (Imamoğlu, 2016). Prophet Muhammad (Saw) advised his followers, to work, be energetic, and start their day early, all of which are conditions for a healthy body. ...
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Naskah ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan signifikansi Islamisme dalam ilmu kesehatan terutama pada pandemi kontemporer COVID-19. Tujuan pertama dan terpenting dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bahwa amalan Islam sehari-hari adalah pencegahan yang lebih baik bagi orang-orang untuk dibebaskan dari penyakit yang disebabkan oleh COVID-19 dan virus pembawa penyakit lainnya. Ia juga mengamati bahwa aktivitas sehari-hari dalam agama Islam selalu menjaga manusia tetap bersih dan bebas bahaya dari virus corona yang telah menjadi semangat kejayaan ilmu dan teknologi kedokteran di dunia digital ini. Artikel ini juga ingin menyelidiki dan mengakumulasikan praktik rutin para Islamis yang bertindak bagi mereka sebagai obat penyakit virus mereka seperti COVID-19. Pekerjaan penelitian dilakukan sesuai dengan metode kualitatif. Untuk membuat penelitian ini otentik, informasi telah dikumpulkan dari berbagai sumber primer dan sekunder: Al-Qur'an, Hadits, buku-buku Islam, artikel dari surat kabar, jurnal, dll. tidak menghindari dan mengabaikan ajaran Islam yang dapat membuat seluruh umat manusia tetap jernih, bersih, dan bebas dari Better Prevention of COVID-19 and Infectious Diseases in Islamic Culture...-Md. Abdul Qader et al. 12 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35723/ajie.v6i1.209 penyakit virus khususnya COVID-19. Akhirnya, penelitian ini memberikan beberapa rekomendasi tentang Islam yang terbukti secara ilmiah dan logis dan dianggap sebagai agama terbaik untuk menjaga kesehatan tetap aman dan sehat dari penyakit virus dunia yang terkontaminasi.
... Shalat juga menguatkan tendon dan ligamen, mencegah robekan otot, memberikan efek positif pada persendian, merilekskan mata, mencegah hipertensi, artritis, varises. Selain itu otak, jantung, abdomen, kantung empedu, pankreas, ginjal mendapatkan pengaruh positif dari gerakan shalat [22]. ...
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Psychological problems arise in cervical cancer patients because of the stages of management that must be followed since the patient performs an examination, makes a diagnosis, and during therapy that takes time which will not appear again. Some studies in cervical cancer patients have focused on morbidity or mortality more because of the risk of depression. The purpose of this study was to describe the condition of the spiritual role in the coping muslim patient suffering from cervical cancer undergoing chemotherapy. This study used a hermeneutic phenomenology method, involving six cervical cancer participants with chemotheraphy. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews which were then transcribed. Data analysis using content analysis. In the study, two themes were found, namely cervical cancer patients performing mahdhah worship, and performing ghairu mahdhah worship during cervical cancer treatment. The results of this study indicate that Muslim patient suffering from cervical cancer apply mahdah and ghairu mahdhah worship while undergoing cervical cancer treatment.
... The individual sits down on their flexed knees and keeps their trunk upright. To conclude the single Rakaat, the individual will then transition into the next sequence by moving into the standing posture again [4]. ...
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Background: This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of cardiovascular disease risk among asymptomatic sedentary males participating in Islamic prayer, alongside various exercise durations and age groups. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Sedentary male participants (n = 243) completed an online 78-point self-administered CVD risk questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to determine the research findings. For statistical rigour, participants were divided into two age groups. Participants were divided into three categories based on current exercise durations. Inter-group comparisons were completed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to explore significant relationships. All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS (Version 26, IBM). The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The 21-30 age group 71.09% (7.53) and the 31-40 age group 72.74% (5.53) presented with Knowledge of CVD risk and prevention scores which indicated that older individuals were more knowledgeable about CVD risk and prevention. A significant difference [95% CI (- 6.76: 1.28), (p = 0.002)] existed among the 10-60-min and 61-140-min exercise duration categories. A significant difference (p = 0.006) was also found for inter-group comparisons. This result confirmed variability with duration categories. Significant differences were found between overall knowledge of CVD scores within the two age groups (p = 0.03). A negative correlation was demonstrated regarding knowledge of CVD risk and prevention, and duration of exercise (r = - 0.252; p = 0.000). Conclusions: Knowledge about CVD risk and prevention is crucial for understanding the risk factors for CVD. The older individuals become, the more knowledgeable they are of CVD risk and prevention factors. Results show more inactive people are less likely to seek out knowledge of CVD risk and prevention. The study recommends that sedentary populations should engage in public health information interventions, physical activity (such as Salaah) and healthy lifestyle modifications. This will inform, increase awareness, and improve understanding of prevention strategies and risk factors for CVD.
... Salat is considered obligatory at the puberty, and if someone lives up to an average of 60 years, a Muslim would have performed over 1,927,800 compulsory postures during salat in his lifetime. 26 The therapeutic aspects of salat in promoting psycho-physical well-being have been discussed by several authors and focused on the musculoskeletal benefits of salat which include maintenance of postural equilibrium, providing muscle tone, improving circulation, and may have protective role in reducing osteoarthritis (OA) of the weight bearing joints. 27,28,29 The role of this repetitive action on knee and hip osteoarthritis and osteoporosis was explored. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Recent studies explored the association between health and religious practice/spirituality. Several studies revealed that religious commitment and spirituality are generally associated with better health outcomes. Throughout the world, millions of Muslims perform salat (prayer) regularly five times a day. Salat is not only a physical activity but involves recitations of various Quranic verses and performance of certain postural positions. Several studies showed that salat does have positive effects on health status. This review aims to investigate the effects of Islamic salat on general health. Methods: A series of searches were conducted of Medline databases published in English between 1966 and October 2020 with the following keywords: Prayer, salat, health, and Islam. Results: Several positive effects of salat on health were identified. These include: psychological, neurological, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal effects. Conclusion: Salat is a non-pharmacological intervention and resource, and may be included in the holistic care and rehabilitation program aimed at the well-being of patients.
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Keperawatan meyakini bahwa ibadah keagamaan penting dalam asuhan keperawatan holistik. Akan tetapi pelaksanaan kegiatan keagamaan masih sering diabaikan, dan penyakit membuat pasien kesulitan untuk dapat menjalankan ibadahnya. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menilai pelaksanaan ibadah pasien-Muslim dan mengeksplorasi bagaimana pengalaman pasien melakukan ibadahnya sebelum dan selama menjalani perawatan di rumah sakit. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif komparatif dengan desain potong lintang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa untuk ibadah sunah selama menjalani perawatan terjadi penurunan dibandingkan sebelum perawatan. Sedangkan ibadah wajib “sholat” selalu dilakukan lima kali sehari baik sebelum maupun selama pasien manjelani perawatan.
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Religion and its practices have been duly implicated in treating not only problems related to medical health, rather, intervening and preventing such problems as well. In the present article, the authors have reviewed significance of the Islamic prayers (Salah/Namaaz) in healthcare in general and mental health in particular. The nature, procedures, practices and the benefits of Salah have been comprehensively described and discussed. In addition, an attempt to combine Yoga and its practices with Salah has been made for intervening and preventing the problems of mental health as an expeditious tool. In upshot, the clinicians in the field of mental health care have been suggested to incorporate these two viewpoints in their intervention program, at least, for the Muslim patients for a more desirable outcome. keywords: Islam, salah, yoga, mental health.
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This study investigated the proposition of relaxation offered by performing the Muslim prayers by measuring the alpha brain activity in the frontal (F3-F4), central (C3-C4), parietal (P3-P4), and occipital (O1-O2) electrode placements using the International 10-20 System. Nine Muslim subjects were asked to perform the four required cycles of movements of Dhuha prayer, and the EEG were subsequently recorded with open eyes under three conditions, namely, resting, performing four cycles of prayer while reciting the specific verses and supplications, and performing four cycles of acted salat condition (prayer movements without any recitations). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests revealed that there were no significant difference in the mean alpha relative power (RP(α)) between the alpha amplitude in the Dhuha prayer and the acted conditions in all eight electrode positions. However, the mean RP(α) showed higher alpha amplitude during the prostration position of the Dhuha prayer and acted condition at the parietal and occipital regions in comparison to the resting condition. Findings were similar to other studies documenting increased alpha amplitude in parietal and occipital regions during meditation and mental concentration. The incidence of increased alpha amplitude suggested parasympathetic activation, thus indicating a state of relaxation. Subsequent studies are needed to delineate the role of mental concentration, and eye focus, on alpha wave amplitude while performing worshipping acts.
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The major function of rehabilitation and physical medicine specialists is to provide the proper therapy that helps in improving the physical activities of impaired, disabled and handicapped persons through improvement in their muscle strength. In performing their function, the rehabilitation team should always take heed of the social and mental well-being of such patients. Having observed millions of Muslims perform the salat (prayer) regularly at specified times throughout the world, we postulated that salat, along with its various postures, can play a role in increasing psychological well-being including self-reliance and self-esteem, improving musculo-skeletal fitness, motor behavior and cerebral blood flow that may be beneficial in the rehabilitation of geriatric and disabled persons. The various postures of salat were studied and a range of joint motions were measured by goniometer, an instrument for measuring angles. Brain blood pressure was calculated from the effect of gravity on blood pressure at different positions. We found that during the offering of salat, most of the joints and muscles of the body were involved in physical activities with little effort, which probably play a vital role in cerebral blood flow and postural reflexes. The physical activities involved in the performance of salat helps in the rehabilitation process in disabled geriatric patients by improving blood flow and increasing musculoskeletal fitness. The salat prayer involves little effort (standing, bowing, prostration and sitting), has a short duration and is beneficial for mental and physical health. More studies are needed in future to determine the full beneficial effects of the salat prayer on the rehabilitative process of disabled persons.
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