Article

When “Embedded” Means “Stuck”: Moderating Effects of Job Embeddedness in Adverse Work Environments.

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Abstract

Job embeddedness is predominately assumed to benefit employees, work groups, and organizations (e.g., higher performance, social cohesion, and lower voluntary turnover). Challenging this assumption, we examined the potentially negative outcomes that may occur if employees are embedded in an adverse work environment—feeling “stuck,” yet unable to exit a negative situation. More specifically, we considered two factors representing adverse work conditions: abusive supervision and job insecurity. Drawing from conservation of resources theory, we hypothesized that job embeddedness would moderate the relationship between these conditions and outcomes of voluntary turnover, physical health, emotional exhaustion, and sleep quality/quantity, such that employees embedded in more adverse environments would be less likely to quit, but would experience more negative personal outcomes. Results from two independent samples, one in Japan (N = 597) and one in the United States (N = 283), provide support for the hypothesized pattern of interaction effects, thereby highlighting a largely neglected “dark side” of job embeddedness.

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... Kurangnya rasa kontrol dan prediktabilitas selama kondisi perubahan atau ketidakpastian seperti downsizing, layoffs, maupun bentuk perubahan lainnnya berkaitan dengan rasa tidak aman bekerja yang lebih kuat (Armstrong-Stassen, 2005;Østhus, 2007;Probst & Lawler, 2006, dalam Keim et al., 2014. Terdapat penelitian terdahulu yang dilakukan oleh Allen et al. (2016) mengenai job embeddedness pada karyawan. Konstruk ini menekankan bahwa semakin besar koneksi seseorang dengan organisasi dan komunitasnya, maka akan semakin tinggi kemungkinan dia bertahan di organisasi (Holtom et al., 2006). ...
... mengenai job embeddedness pada karyawan. Konstruk ini menekankan bahwa semakin besar koneksi seseorang dengan organisasi dan komunitasnya, maka akan semakin tinggi kemungkinan dia bertahan di organisasi (Holtom et al., 2006). Hanya saja, berbeda dengan kebanyakan penelitian mengenai dampak positif job embeddedness, Allen menekankan pada sisi gelap (Allen. et al., 2016). Adapun job embeddedness diperkirakan berperan sebagai moderator pada pengaruh rasa tidak aman bekerja terhadap kelelahan emosional dan kualitas tidur, di mana ketika karyawan lebih embed (merasakan kelekatan), tingginya rasa tidak aman bekerja akan memiliki dampak berupa kelelahan secara emosional dan kualitas tidur yang buruk. Efek mo ...
... Lebih lanjut lagi dijelaskan bahwa kurangnya kondisi mengancam yang dirasakan partisipan adalah dikarenakan fenomena rasa tidak aman bekerja belum dijelaskan secara rinci, di mana partisipan berasal dari berbagai bidang pekerjaan tanpa kesamaan kondisi kerja yang terbilang negatif. Dengan demikian, belum tampak fenomena yang menimbulkan ancaman bagi partisipan yang selanjutnya dapat menimbukan rasa tidak aman bekerja (Allen et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Perubahan adalah suatu hal yang tidak terelakkan. Perubahan yang terjadi dalam organisasi bahkan disebut dapat menjadi salah satu sumber stress pada karyawan. Adanya gejala stress yang dialami karyawan tampak dari rasa tidak aman mengenai masa depan ataupun kelanjutan pekerjaannya. Bahkan rasa tidak aman bekerja diprediksi dapat berpengaruh terhadap kondisi emosi dan kualitas tidur karyawan. Dengan mengembangkan penelitian terdahulu, penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi pengaruh dari rasa tidak aman bekerja terhadap subjective well-being dan kualitas tidur pada karyawan Perusahaan X, dengan job embeddedness sebagai variabel moderator. Sebagai suatu gejala stress, rasa tidak aman bekerja (job insecurity) diartikan sebagai ancaman kehilangan pekerjaan yang dirasakan individu serta rasa khawatir yang berkaitan dengan ancaman tersebut. Dampak dari rasa tidak aman tersebut tampak pada subjective well-being yang diartikan sebagai penilaian keseluruhan individu terhadap pengalaman emosional, serta tampak pula pada kualitas tidur, yaitu aspek kuantitatif dan subyektif dari pengalaman tidur individu. Job embeddedness sebagai moderator didefinisikan sebagai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keputusan seseorang untuk bertahan pada pekerjaan dan organisasi atau perusahaan. Penelitian ini berbentuk studi kuantitatif non-eksperimental dengan melibatkan 110 karyawan tetap dari Perusahaan X. Pengambilan data dilakukan melalui metode survey dengan menyebarkan e-form. Kemudian data dianalisis dengan metode regresi linear melalui program SPSS 24.0. dan menunjukkan hasil di mana secara umum job embeddedness tidak menunjukkan peran sebagai moderator pada pengaruh dari rasa tidak aman bekerja terhadap subjective well-being maupun kualitas tidur. Namun demikian, job embeddedness pada level tertentu akan menunjukkan peran sebagai moderator. Change is inevitable Changes that occur in an organization might even be a stressor for employees. One symptom of stress experienced by employees is the insecurity about the future or the continuation of their employment. This feeling of work insecurity is predicted to affect the emotional condition and quality of sleep of employees. By improving on previous research, this study aims to identify the effect of work insecurity on subjective well-being and sleep quality in Company X employees, with job embeddedness as a moderating variable. As a symptom of stress, job insecurity is defined as the threat of job loss felt by individuals as well as the worry associated with said threat. The impact of insecurity on subjective well-being is defined as an overall individual assessment of emotional experience, which is reflected on the quality of sleep, namely the quantitative and subjective aspects of individual sleep experience. Job embeddedness as the moderator is defined as the factors that influence a person's decision to stay with the job and organization or company. This research is a non-experimental quantitative study involving 110 employees from Company X. Data was collected through a survey by distributing e-forms. Then, the data were analyzed using linear regression method on SPSS 24.0. which shows that, in general, job embeddedness does not serve as moderator of the influence of work insecurity on subjective well-being and sleep quality. However, job embeddedness, at a certain level serves as moderator.
... To the best of our knowledge, specifically, the relationship between abusive supervision and job embeddedness has not been previously examined. Two recent studies analyzed the moderating role of job embeddedness between abusive supervision and various employee outcomes (Allen et al. 2016;Avey et al. 2015). In addition, regarding a similar factor, Erkutlu and Chafra (2017) reported that leader narcissism has a negative relationship with job embeddedness. ...
... Sacrifice refers to the cost of any benefits that may be forfeited by quitting a job. Numerous links, strong fit, and/or large sacrifices are assumed to increase one's embeddedness and prevents him/her from quitting a job (Allen et al. 2016). ...
... Moreover, prior research has suggested that job embeddedness has both positive and negative sides (Allen et al. 2016). As an employee's current situation is unfavorable, job embeddedness may cause him/her to have undesired attitudes and behaviors towards the organization. ...
Article
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The present study examines the relationship between abusive supervision and job embeddedness. Specifically, this study tests a model linking abusive supervision to job embeddedness through perceived organizational support (POS). The model basically draws on social exchange theory and conservation of resources theory. By this model, we propose POS as an intermediary mechanism that mediates the abusive supervision-job embeddedness relationship. Data were collected from a variety of organizations in Turkey. The sample included 644 fulltime employees with at least one-year tenure. We tested our research hypotheses using structural equation modeling and bootstrapping. The results showed that POS fully mediates the relationship between abusive supervision and job embeddedness. Our findings give a deeper understanding of how abusive supervision is related to reduced job embeddedness through reduced POS. Furthermore, this study expands the existing research on the harmful consequences of abusive supervision by linking abusive supervision to job embeddedness, not previously studied. Our findings also indicate that abusive supervision and job embeddedness measures are valid constructs in the context of Turkey. Contributions, practical implications and limitations were discussed, and directions for future research were proposed.
... First, given that the majority of research on occupational stigma has exclusively examined low-prestige occupations workers using qualitative research methods, we advance the topic by examining the influence of occupational stigma on relatively high-prestige occupations using a quantitative approach. In addition, by challenging the dominant assumption that job embeddedness is entirely beneficial, our research adds evidence on the potential downside effect of embeddedness on employees (Ng and Feldman, 2012;Allen et al., 2016). Further, by examining the negative impact of occupational stigma and the moderating role of job embeddedness on the experience of meaningfulness, we respond to recent calls to uncover the factors that impede or challenge the process by which individuals experience work as meaningful (Lysova et al., 2019). ...
... Fifth, the current findings also have theoretical implications with respect to exploring the negative effect of job embeddedness. The majority of research on job embeddedness has focused on the benefit of embeddedness to individuals and organizations, yet some researchers have also found some adverse effects on employees' behavior and performance (e.g., Ng and Feldman, 2012;Allen et al., 2016;Juanne et al., 2018). Our research revealed that under situations of occupational stigma, increased embeddedness can injure rather benefit employees; we thus also provide insights into the boundary conditions of embeddedness' positive effect. ...
... Being embedded in a stigmatized workplace may be harmful to employees' meaningfulness, and withdrawal behavior may then be more likely. Thus, consistent with previous research (Allen et al., 2016), we also suggest that organizations could provide more career counseling services or employee assistance programs to employees who are most embedded in the organization, which may help them to cultivate more commitment toward the profession, and eliminate the idea of being "stuck" in the occupation, so as to buffer the negative effects mentioned above. ...
Article
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Occupational stigma is pervasive, but there is a lack of understanding about how it impacts the behaviors of employees in relatively high-prestige occupations. We draw on the job characteristics model and social information processing theory to establish hypotheses about the effects of occupational stigma on the withdrawal behavior of employees in a relatively high-prestige occupation (preschool teacher). We suggest that perceptions of skill variety and task significance among high-prestige employees may be negatively influenced due to occupational stigma perception. In addition, occupational stigma conveys information to employees that the work they do is not appreciated by beneficiaries. For those reasons, making it difficult for them to perceive the meaningfulness of their work. This lack of meaningful experience is in turn positively associated with employees’ withdrawal behavior. Furthermore, we propose that these indirect effects are moderated by perceived job embeddedness of employees. Based on data collected at two time points from 466 preschool teachers in China, we find that occupational stigma is positively related to employees’ withdrawal behavior through meaningfulness. In addition, the negative relationship between perceived occupational stigma and experienced meaningfulness is stronger for employees with high job embeddedness than for employees with low job embeddedness.
... Our review of the literature reveals two explanations for this research question: (a) deeply embedded employees feel "stuck" and trapped by their situation (Allen et al. 2016;Collins and Mossholder 2017;Ghosh 2017;Marasi et al. 2016), and (b) these individuals fail to question the ethicality of their actions as a result of adopting the organization's perspective and goals (Dukerich et al. 1998;Effelsberg et al. 2014). For example, Umphress et al. (2010) found that individuals tend to engage in UPB if they have strong organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs. ...
... Researchers, however, have begun to uncover the downsides of organizational embeddedness by paying attention to its double-edged nature, which represents both attachment and inertia ("being stuck") (Allen et al. 2016). Building on a wealth of social exchange literature, recent studies provide important implications to advance our knowledge about why employees engage in UPB at work (Umphress and Bingham 2011;Wang et al. 2019). ...
... That is, although the connections, fit, and sacrifices linking high status with a comfortable environment may motivate highly embedded people to exert more effort that results in increased task performance (Sekiguchi et al. 2008) and to less likely consider leaving the organization (Hom et al. 2009;Mitchell et al. 2001), these embedded factors can also backfire within the positive exchange relationships between these employees and the organization. As highly embedded employees become more attached and more loyal to the organization, they may realize that they cannot afford to give up their consequential benefits and thus, these invested employees become stuck (Allen et al. 2016;Mitchell et al. 2001). As the embedded employees want to continue to have or develop a valuable relationship with the organization, they will become more willing to engage in UPB to benefit their organization while giving themselves the moral license (Klotz and Bolino 2013). ...
Article
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This study examines why individuals who are deeply embedded in the organization may engage in unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB). Drawing from social identity theory and self-affirmation theory, we propose that deeply embedded employees may engage in UPB as a way of promoting or maintaining their status in the organization. We further propose that this positive relationship between organizational embeddedness and UPB, mediated through status perceptions, is stronger for employees working under managers who display low levels of ethical leadership. Using data gathered in a two-wave survey from 224 working adults, the results of the study lend support for the hypothesized relationships and remained significant even after controlling for affective commitment. The study advances our understanding of both contextual and individual factors motivating employees to engage in UPB and the boundary conditions under which UPB can be reduced.
... Although voluntary turnover has been the most often explored outcome, job embeddedness theory and research suggest that onthe-job embeddedness also has effects on other outcomes (Allen et al., 2016). Drawing on prior work connecting on-the-job embeddedness to employee performance, we propose that employees who are highly embedded on-the-job may also have a lower probability of being fired. ...
... These connections form a web that binds employees to their employer (Mitchell et al., 2001). Allen et al. (2016) described on-the-job fit as employees' perceived compatibility with their work. This includes believing their values, skills, and preferences match what their organizations require. ...
... Consistent with findings from the WFC literature, we expect that the time and energy invested (or not invested) in the community domain has consequences for what happens in the organization domain. Given the similarity between being highly involved and being highly embedded and previous findings regarding FIW conflict, we predict that those who are less embedded off-the-job will be best able to benefit from their being highly embedded on-thejob-a prediction also consistent with the idea that on-and off-thejob forces serve as constraints on each other (Allen et al., 2016). ...
Article
Job embeddedness is the net of influences in both work (on-the-job) and nonwork (off-the-job) domains that discourage employees from leaving their jobs. In this article, we argue that the entrenchment and increased investment associated with job embeddedness run parallel to the concept of role involvement from the work-family conflict literature. Drawing on this similarity, we extend theory and research regarding work-family conflict to develop and test predictions about the moderating role of off-the-job embeddedness on the effects of on-the-job embeddedness on involuntary turnover. Specifically, we predicted that being highly embedded on-the-job can reduce the likelihood of being fired because it increases job performance, but that these benefits are only accrued when employees are not also highly embedded off-the-job. We tested our predictions using a sample of 908 government employees from whom we collected performance and turnover data over time. Consistent with our predictions, among employees who were highly embedded on-the-job, those who were less embedded off-the-job were less likely to be terminated than those who were more embedded off-the-job. However, job performance did not explain this effect. In addition to providing a rare examination of involuntary turnover, we contribute to the job embeddedness literature by demonstrating the importance of distinguishing between, and simultaneously examining, on- and off-the-job embeddedness and their unique, multiplicative effects. We also demonstrate the utility of the WFC literature in advancing theory and research on job embeddedness. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Several past researchers have examined job burnout situations among employees of different oil and gas companies in the United Arab Emirates. According to Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein (2016), the primary reason behind job burnout in the UAE is less availability of different career enhancement opportunities. Nearly 64% of employees are not satisfied with the job opportunities provided to them. ...
... Moreover, the satisfaction level can be based on age, sex, culture, and other demographic levels. In accordance with Allen et al. (2016), several employees of companies are satisfied with average beneficial factors. Moreover, these people can reliably do their work and focus on their work process to develop their work performances. ...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, job satisfaction and turnover intentions are the significant issues for oil and gas companies in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). These issues need to be addressed soon for the performance of the oil and gas companies. Thus, the aim related to the current study is to examine the impact of job burnout, emotional intelligence, and job satisfaction on the turnover intentions of the oil and gas companies in the UAE. The goals of this research also include the examination of mediating the influence of job satisfaction alongside the nexus of job burnout and turnover intentions of the oil and gas companies in the UAE. The questionnaire method was adopted to collect the data from the respondents, and Smart-PLS were employed to analyse the data. The results show that job burnout, emotional intelligence, and job satisfaction have a positive association with turnover intentions. In contrast, job satisfaction positively mediates the nexus between job burnout and turnover intentions. These results provide the guidelines to the policymakers that they should enhance their focus on job satisfaction and turnover intentions of the employees that improve the firm performance.
... The review of previous studies indicates that many aspects of the JE phenomenon have yet to be investigated in the present literature. Allen et al. (2016) and Wheeler et al. (2012) studied JE to predict intention to quit and voluntarily leave. They recommended further exploring the antecedents of JE related to workplace culture. ...
... Business industries Organizational citizenship behavior and job performance Swider et al. (2011) Embeddedness and turnover relationship citizenship behavior University Quality of work-life and organizational citizenship behavior Takawira et al. (2014) Sources of job stress and cognitive receptivity to change: the moderating role of job embeddedness Production industry Job/role ambiguity, work relationships, job tools, and equipment Vardaman et al. (2020) Retention issues in TR in health care environment Health care Work-family conflict and intention to quit Holtom et al. (2012) JE factors as a predictor of TOI Nurses Turnover intention C.-Y. Cheng (2014) Newcomer embeddedness and turnover Manufacturing company Work-life balance practices and turnover intentions Allen et al. (2016) JE Means "Stuck" environments Business industries Adverse work environments Hom et al. (2012) Turnover contagion and job embeddedness Banking sector Human resource management and job performances Ng & Feldman (2014) Community embeddedness and work outcomes Education sector Work, stress, and health Yam (2018) Employment stability and retention Hotel industry Employee turnover with special emphasis on Infosys S. K. Ghosh (2017) Embeddedness between justice Manufacturing industries Justice and role performance Treuren (2019) Work and family conflict Manufacturing business Family, work-life balance policies and performance Holtom et al. (2012) JE on quality of work-life and organizational citizenship behavior University and hospitals Task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and job complexity Li et al. (2014) JE and banks Banking sector Employee performance Holtom et al. (2012) JE as a mediator between job satisfaction and TOI Nurses Work-to-family, job satisfaction, and turnover Greene et al. (2018) Communal effects of job embeddedness on performance Different manufacture companies Employee involvement and employee performance Jiang et al. (2012) When and how JE meta-analytic Business industry Job satisfaction turnover intentions Nicholas & Mensah (2016) Job embeddedness and turnover intention Hotel staff Employee's performance and task performance Thakur & Bhatnagar (2017) Work-life balance practices and job embeddedness Large organizations Work and life conflict and turnover intention Treuren (2019) Relationship between work and life conflict and TOI Working adults' employees Public hospital ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to explore the significance of job embeddedness (JE) theory and practices to reducing employee turnover and then suggest future research directions. It also reviews the systematic development of JE theory and its relationship with different workplace theories. A comprehensive content analysis, including a systematic review of articles published between 2008 and 2018, is conducted to understand the extensive role of JE in the workplace. A total of 108 research papers published in various high-ranking journals are selected for further analysis. To identify the mediating role of JE in the service and manufacturing industry, most of the existing studies focus on turnover intention, organizational commitment, employee engagement, and job satisfaction. However, many other key areas, which can be linked to JE to understand and evaluate the theory of organizational and employee behavior, are ignored in the literature. In this study, a further understanding of JE is suggested to be expanded in accordance with various elements of organization and employee theories, such as job design, job burnout, and role performance. This study contributes to the literature by further expanding JE theory and proposing a comprehensive JE framework that researchers and practitioners can adopt in future research.
... The review of previous studies indicates that many aspects of the JE phenomenon have yet to be investigated in the present literature. Allen et al. (2016) and Wheeler et al. (2012) studied JE to predict intention to quit and voluntarily leave. They recommended further exploring the antecedents of JE related to workplace culture. ...
... Business industries Organizational citizenship behavior and job performance Swider et al. (2011) Embeddedness and turnover relationship citizenship behavior University Quality of work-life and organizational citizenship behavior Takawira et al. (2014) Sources of job stress and cognitive receptivity to change: the moderating role of job embeddedness Production industry Job/role ambiguity, work relationships, job tools, and equipment Vardaman et al. (2020) Retention issues in TR in health care environment Health care Work-family conflict and intention to quit Holtom et al. (2012) JE factors as a predictor of TOI Nurses Turnover intention C.-Y. Cheng (2014) Newcomer embeddedness and turnover Manufacturing company Work-life balance practices and turnover intentions Allen et al. (2016) JE Means "Stuck" environments Business industries Adverse work environments Hom et al. (2012) Turnover contagion and job embeddedness Banking sector Human resource management and job performances Ng & Feldman (2014) Community embeddedness and work outcomes Education sector Work, stress, and health Yam (2018) Employment stability and retention Hotel industry Employee turnover with special emphasis on Infosys S. K. Ghosh (2017) Embeddedness between justice Manufacturing industries Justice and role performance Treuren (2019) Work and family conflict Manufacturing business Family, work-life balance policies and performance Holtom et al. (2012) JE on quality of work-life and organizational citizenship behavior University and hospitals Task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and job complexity Li et al. (2014) JE and banks Banking sector Employee performance Holtom et al. (2012) JE as a mediator between job satisfaction and TOI Nurses Work-to-family, job satisfaction, and turnover Greene et al. (2018) Communal effects of job embeddedness on performance Different manufacture companies Employee involvement and employee performance Jiang et al. (2012) When and how JE meta-analytic Business industry Job satisfaction turnover intentions Nicholas & Mensah (2016) Job embeddedness and turnover intention Hotel staff Employee's performance and task performance Thakur & Bhatnagar (2017) Work-life balance practices and job embeddedness Large organizations Work and life conflict and turnover intention Treuren (2019) Relationship between work and life conflict and TOI Working adults' employees Public hospital ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to explore the significance of job embeddedness (JE) theory and practices to reducing employee turnover and then suggest future research directions. It also reviews the systematic development of JE theory and its relationship with different workplace theories. A comprehensive content analysis, including a systematic review of articles published between 2008 and 2018, is conducted to understand the extensive role of JE in the workplace. A total of 108 research papers published in various high-ranking journals are selected for further analysis. To identify the mediating role of JE in the service and manufacturing industry, most of the existing studies focus on turnover intention, organizational commitment, employee engagement, and job satisfaction. However, many other key areas, which can be linked to JE to understand and evaluate the theory of organizational and employee behavior, are ignored in the literature. In this study, a further understanding of JE is suggested to be expanded in accordance with various elements of organization and employee theories, such as job design, job burnout, and role performance. This study contributes to the literature by further expanding JE theory and proposing a comprehensive JE framework that researchers and practitioners can adopt in future research.
... To experiment with competencies or identities that do not directly fit within such objectives, employees often keep their crafting invisible to their supervisors, which further risks to reduce its significance and scope (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001). These limitations may restrict the exploration of new competencies and identities beyond a given job (Ibarra & Petriglieri, 2010) and may cause people to experience a sense of stagnation in their daily work (Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein, 2016;Stengård, Bernhard-Oettel, Berntson, Leineweber, & Aronsson, 2016;Verbruggen & De Vos, 2019). ...
... , the continued resistance against individual claims of purpose and identity often led to an ongoing sense of feeling stuck(Allen et al., 2016;Stengård et al., 2016;Verbruggen & De Vos, 2019). Most interviewees in such conditions continued to reside in the status quo of their jobs while waiting for a suitable internal position to which they could apply. ...
Article
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As employees cannot always readily stretch their competencies and professional identity on the job through regular job crafting, we ask the question: are there alternative ways of crafting inside organizations through which people can stretch themselves? Using grounded theory methods, we step into the shoes of federal employees active in Open Opportunities, a digital market for temporary assignments in the U.S. federal government. We find that employees use such temporary assignments to craft a liminal space in which they can explore new skills, establish new professional ties, and claim new professional identities unavailable in their full-time jobs. However, due to its visibility, this way of crafting can also generate substantial supervisory pressures resisting it. These pressures may induce an image cost, and trigger increased frustration, stress, and strain in people’s jobs. As we describe this new job crafting pattern, we pay attention to both its benefits and burdens, and the impact thereof on people’s efforts to stretch themselves at work. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our study and its consequences for future research on job crafting, professional identity development, and the future of work.
... We collected data from working women because they are likely to experience WFC and leave their jobs (Carr et al., 2008), have fewer chances to be promoted (Stumpp et al., 2010) and more physical health problems (Allen et al., 2000). We also specified them to have at least a 4-year bachelors' degree because people with more advanced education tend to incur greater sacrifices if they quit (Mitchell, Holtom, Lee, Sablynski, & Erez, 2001) (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005) and physical health symptoms (Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein, 2016). ...
... First, we controlled for employee age because younger people more frequently change jobs (Griffeth et al., 2000) F I G U R E 1 Research model and hypotheses PELTOKORPI AND MICHEL and older people have more physical health problems (Spector & Jex, 1998). Second, we controlled for organizational tenure because employees with longer tenure have a lower propensity for voluntary turnover (Allen et al., 2016) and higher propensity to be promoted (Ng et al., 2005). Third, we controlled for number of children each respondent had, as this can affect reported levels of WFC, voluntary turnover and physical health (Williams et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Despite strong evidence that individuals process stressor-strain relationships differently, little attention in work-family conflict research has been given to moderating effects of core self-evaluations (CSE). Integrating conservation of resources theory with work-family conflict and CSE research, we predicted that CSE has moderating effects between the relationships of work-to-family conflict (WFC) and voluntary turnover, job promotions, and physical health. We tested our predictions at two time points over a 14-month period with a sample of 731 working mothers in Japan. Results confirmed that CSE moderated the relationships between WFC and voluntary turnover, job promotions, and physical health, such that respondents with higher CSE had lower degrees of voluntary turnover, higher degrees of job promotions, and lower degrees of health problems. This study helps clarify the inconsistent effects of WFC on voluntary turnover in previous research, expands on the limited research examining WFC and job promotion, and provides consistent evidence that CSE act as a moderator between WFC and outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Keywords retention, organizational citizenship behavior, well-being, job, embeddedness Job embeddedness captures an array of integrated forces that hold or enmesh employees within their jobs (Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein, 2016;Collins & Mossholder, 2014;Crossley, Bennett, Jex, & Burnfield, 2007;Jiang, Liu, McKay, Lee, & Mitchell, 2012). Departing from the traditional view that holds job attitudes and perceived availability of alternatives as the primary reasons behind employee retention and/or leaving (Griffeth & Hom, 1995;Griffeth, Hom, & Gaertner, 2000;, embeddedness researchers (e.g., Mitchell, Holtom, Lee, Sablynski, & Erez, 2001;Crossley et al., 2007) argue that the reasons why employees choose to stay versus leave (an organization) are substantially different from one another. ...
... Community psychologists and sociologists have long contended that community factors (e.g., community attachment) influence work-related outcomes. Within the field of work-family research, there is enough evidence of positive and negative spillovers between the two domains, but within the domains of work and community, examinations of spillover have been few and far between (Allen et al., 2016;Price, 1985). Our findings indicate that both forms of embeddedness generate resource surpluses that are instrumental in creating positive cross-domain outcomes. ...
Article
Drawing on Conservation of Resources and spillover theories, we empirically examine work and community outcomes of both organizational and community embeddedness and the underlying mechanism whereby the two forms of embeddedness influence both domain-specific and cross-domain outcomes. With data from 165 matched pairs of employees and their colleagues from a Midwestern US organization, we found that organizational and community embeddedness influence specific individual behaviors both within and across their respective domains. Additionally, we found support for the mediating role of psychological flourishing in the relationships between embeddedness and various organizational and community outcomes. We discuss the theoretical contributions and practical implications of our findings, as well as suggestions for future research.
... Several past researchers have examined job burnout situations among employees of different oil and gas companies in the United Arab Emirates. According to Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein (2016), the primary reason behind job burnout in the UAE is less availability of different career enhancement opportunities. Nearly 64% of employees are not satisfied with the job opportunities provided to them. ...
... Moreover, the satisfaction level can be based on age, sex, culture, and other demographic levels. In accordance with Allen et al. (2016), several employees of companies are satisfied with average beneficial factors. Moreover, these people can reliably do their work and focus on their work process to develop their work performances. ...
Preprint
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Currently, job satisfaction and turnover intentions are the significant issues for oil and gas companies in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). These issues need to be addressed soon for the performance of the oil and gas companies. Thus, the aim related to the current study is to examine the impact of job burnout, emotional intelligence, and job satisfaction on the turnover intentions of the oil and gas companies in the UAE. The goals of this research also include the examination of mediating the influence of job satisfaction alongside the nexus of job burnout and turnover intentions of the oil and gas companies in the UAE. The questionnaire method was adopted to collect the data from the respondents, and Smart-PLS were employed to analyse the data. The results show that job burnout, emotional intelligence, and job satisfaction have a positive association with turnover intentions. In contrast, job satisfaction positively mediates the nexus between job burnout and turnover intentions. These results provide the guidelines to the policymakers that they should enhance their focus on job satisfaction and turnover intentions of the employees that improve the firm performance.
... Organisations should also look into motivating organisational citizenship behaviour through non-monetary interventions (e.g. encouraging further studies, on-the-job training or acting in higher positions, etc.) because research has shown that employees are not only fuelled by money (Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein, 2016). Organisations can increase organisational citizenship behaviour by acknowledging employees' religious customs as one means of doing so. ...
... This finding supported previous research showing a link between social unwellness and voluntary turnover (Janse van Rensburg et al., 2017;Redelinghuys et al., 2019). In addition, it strengthened previous research claiming that reasons for turnover extended beyond a lack of monetary incentives that traditional turnover models concentrated on why employees left, but did not consider the aspect of social well-being and such perspectives were too narrow to provide a holistic view of why employees left (Allen et al., 2016). ...
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Orientation: Employee social well-being is likely to influence individual and organisational outcomes, especially in African countries where a high premium is often placed on one’s personhood being rooted in one’s relations with others. Research purpose: This study investigated the associations between social well-being, job satisfaction, organisational citizenship behaviour and intentions to leave in a South African utility organisation. Motivation for the study: Given the history of relationships amongst diverse people in South Africa, social well-being seems to be a critical component of the overall well-being of employees. However, few studies in South Africa have focused on social well-being in organisational contexts. Research approach/design and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used, targeting permanent employees in a South African utility organisation. Consenting participants (N = 403) completed previously validated measures of social well-being, job satisfaction, organisational citizenship behaviour and intentions to leave. Structural equation modelling was performed to test hypotheses. Main findings: Social well-being was positively associated with job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour and negatively associated with intentions to leave. Social well-being indirectly affected organisational citizenship behaviour and intention to leave through job (dis)satisfaction. Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resources practitioners are alerted to practical ways of sustaining employees’ social well-being such as by implementing tailor-made policies that support social aspects of well-being and by ensuring the alignment of well-being programmes with changing circumstances in the modern world of work. Originality/value-add: This study illuminated social well-being associations with selected outcomes in a developing African country workplace context.
... One stream of researchers argues that organisational embeddedness provides rich resources which prevent employees from performing CWB (Ampofo et al., 2017;Tian et al., 2016). Conversely, some scholars posit that high embeddedness in an organisation may cause immobility that incites retaliatory counterproductive behaviours (Allen et al., 2016;Greene et al., 2017). Thus, it is necessary for scholars to discover the conditions under which organisational embeddedness can reduce CWB (Darrat et al., 2017). ...
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Purpose This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms through which organisational justice influences counterproductive work behaviour (CWB). This relationship was explained using a moderated mediation model where organisational embeddedness is a mediator between organisational justice and CWB, while psychological ownership (for the organisation) is a moderator of the relationship between organisational embeddedness and CWB. The conservation of resources (COR) theory was used as the underpinning theory to explain the interrelationships among the constructs. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected by administering a quantitative cross-sectional survey to employees of Punjab Police, a large public sector, law enforcement organisation in Pakistan. The study model was analysed using PLS-SEM to address the treatment of higher-order reflective-formative constructs. Findings The results showed that organisational justice is positively related to organisational embeddedness, while organisational embeddedness is negatively related to CWB. Organisational embeddedness was found to play a significant role in mediating the negative effects of organisational justice on CWB. Also, psychological ownership moderated the influence of organisational embeddedness on CWB in an interesting fashion. CWB was the highest when both embeddedness and ownership were low; however, CWB was not the lowest when both embeddedness and ownership were high. Research limitations/implications Reliance on self-report data, not accounting for the community embeddedness and discounting the differential effects of justice dimensions are some of the limitations of the present study. Despite these limitations, this study offers valuable insights into how the occurrence of CWB can be minimised. That is, apart from providing a work environment based on fair procedures and policies, it is critically important to manage the perceptions of embeddedness and psychological ownership of employees. Originality/value Although numerous researchers have studied the link between organisational justice and CWB, few have explored the roles of organisational embeddedness and psychological ownership in this relationship. This study thus posits a novel moderated mediation mechanism, based on the COR theory, through which organisational justice is translated into CWB. Moreover, this study adds value by investigating this model in the police force context, where justice and CWB have important consequences.
... Second, our study adds to current knowledge of job embeddedness by investigating its relationship with proactive job-changing and improvement activities in terms of job crafting. Prior research has revealed that some embedded employees are more likely than others to change their status quo (Ng & Lucianetti, 2018), but their motivations for doing so remain unclear (e.g., Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein, 2016;Lee et al., 2014). Our research helps to address this question by offering insights for researchers and practitioners into the proactivity of embedded employees. ...
Article
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This study investigates the effects of job embeddedness on employee job crafting and job satisfaction. Based on goal-striving orientations, we propose a moderated mediation model with job crafting as the mediator of the linkage between job embeddedness and job satisfaction, and with three goal-striving orientations (accomplishment striving, status striving, and communion striving) as the moderators. We tested our hypotheses using a two-phase survey, with data collected from 138 employees from various industries in southern China. The theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.
... We partnered with Qualtrics-a United States based online survey administration firm-to identify a sample of job seekers. Qualtrics has become an increasingly popular means by which researchers can efficiently obtain data from individuals who meet relevant criteria (e.g., Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein, 2016;Eberly, Holley, Johnson, & Mitchell, 2017;Strauss, Griffin, & Parker, 2012). Study participants had to (a) be actively searching for a job and (b) have a Facebook site. ...
Article
Many organizational representatives review social media (SM) information (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) when recruiting and assessing job applicants. Despite this, very little empirical data exist concerning the SM information available to organizations or whether assessments of such information are a valid predictor of work outcomes. This multistudy investigation examines several critical issues in this emerging area. In Study 1, we conducted a content analysis of job seekers' Facebook sites (n = 266) and found that these sites often provide demographic variables that U.S. employment laws typically prohibit organizations from using when making personnel decisions (e.g., age, ethnicity, and religion), as well as other personal information that is not work-related (e.g., sexual orientation, marital status). In Study 2 (n = 140), we examined whether job seekers' SM information is related to recruiter evaluations. Results revealed that various types of SM information correlated with recruiter judgments of hireability, including demographic variables (e.g., gender, marital status), variables organizations routinely assess (e.g., education, training, and skills), and variables that may be a concern to organizations (e.g., profanity, sexual behavior). In Study 3 (n = 81), we examined whether structuring SM assessments (e.g., via rater training) affects criterion-related validity. Results showed that structuring SM assessments did not appear to improve the prediction of future job performance or withdrawal intentions. Overall, the present findings suggest that organizations should be cautious about assessing SM information during the staffing process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Leaving early may be easier for newcomers as they don't have to invest much effort in learning the ropes of their new organization. Furthermore, there may be fewer costs associated with leaving early as employees may not have had the chance to fall into a routine or become embedded in their new organization (Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein, 2016;Mitchell et al., 2001). Employees are most likely to turnover in the first few months of employment (Griffeth & Hom, 2001), which suggests that employees don't hesitate to leave if they perceive the organization as an unattractive employer. ...
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Building on the stream of literature that seeks to better understand the effects turnover has on those who remain with the organization, this manuscript answers calls for understanding the mechanism through which turnover contagion operates and identifying the types of individuals disproportionately responsible for its spread. Delving into human motivations for engaging in imitation and the significance of employment, I identify cues emitted by leavers, and colleagues engaging in Pre-Quitting Behaviors, about the organi- zational attractiveness as a mechanism responsible for the spread of turnover. I apply Theories of Normative Influence and Social Comparison to identify the types of individ- uals whose turnover is most consequential. In a sample of 144 public university newcomers, results suggest that presence of turnover related behaviors among colleagues need not be evidence of contagion. It’s not so much the behaviors themselves, but the interpretation of cues behind these behaviors, and whether these cues speak negatively about the organization, that are responsible for the spread of turnover.
... Survey data were collected using a Qualtrics panel in the United States (Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein, 2016;Rudolph & Baltes, 2017). The use of panel data is supported by meta-analytic evidence suggesting that the validity and credibility of online panel data are comparable to conventionally sourced data (Walter, Seibert, Goering, & O'Boyle, 2019). ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of frontline employee (FLEs) to infections and other hazards and highlighted the importance of workplace safety practices (WSP) for service organizations. In response to the critical issue of service safety, we developed and empirically tested a model proposing that WSPs negatively influence FLE perceptions of pandemic related threats and positively influence their perceptions of organizational supportiveness (POS). In turn, these perceptions have time-lagged effects on two aspects of FLE wellbeing-reduced emotional exhaustion and increased work engagement. Utilizing data from a two-wave (separated by a month) survey panel consisting of 310 FLEs across the United States, we found evidence for all hypothesized relationships. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of our findings and provide suggestions for future research on service safety on the organizational frontlines.
... Highly embedded individuals may feel 'stuck' in the organisation when they perceive that it is hard to escape from a poor social exchange relationship with their superiors (Sekiguchi, Burton, & Sablynski, 2008). Allen, Peltokorpi, and Rubenstein (2016) found that highly embedded employees in adverse work environments, characterised by abusive supervision and job insecurity, were more likely to exhibit negative health outcomes, but they were unlikely to leave the adverse environment. ...
Article
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The current study draws on social exchange theory to examine the effects of organisational embeddedness and its dimensions of fit, links and sacrifice on affective commitment, and mediating effects of job satisfaction and work engagement on the relationships. A convenient sample of 274 full‒time frontline employees were selected from four 4–star and one 5‒star hotels in Ghana, at two separate times. PROCESS Macro was employed to test hypotheses. Results of the study show that organisational embeddedness and all its dimensions were positively related to affective commitment. Job satisfaction and work engagement partially mediated the effects of organisational embeddedness, and organisational links, fit and sacrifice on affective commitment. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
... We utilized a combination of objective COVID-19 incidence data and survey responses from participant-panels to test the hypothesized relationships. Confirmed cases of COVID-19 at the county level were obtained from Johns Hopkins University's Coronavirus Resource Center and survey data were collected using a participants-panel managed by Qualtrics, a third-party research company that provides researchers with targeted samples to collect data (see Allen et al., 2016;Rudolph & Baltes, 2017). Research has suggested that online panels are representative of the working population and that the data obtained are as reliable and valid as data obtained through traditional organizational samples (Porter et al., 2019;Walter et al., 2019). ...
Article
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We examined the disruptive influence of COVID‐19 pandemic rates in the community on telecommuters’ satisfaction with balancing their work and family roles, and consequently, their well‐being. Utilizing event system theory and adaptation theory, we proposed that the rate of increase in proportion of confirmed COVID‐19 cases in telecommuters’ residential communities would predict a lower rate of increase in their satisfaction with work‐family balance over time; thereby indirectly influencing two key aspects of well‐being ‐ emotional exhaustion and life satisfaction. Results from latent growth curve modeling using objective community data, as well as survey responses from a three‐wave (N = 349) panel study of telecommuters in the U.S., indicated that rate of increase in the proportion of confirmed COVID‐19 cases in communities was negatively associated with the rate of increase in satisfaction with work‐family balance, which translated into decreasing levels of well‐being over time. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
... So, the COR theory can help explain how WO results in KH behaviour in employees belonging to any organization (Hobfoll et al., 1990;Hobfoll et al., 2018). Because this theory places emphasis on physical as well psychological resources (Allen et al., 2016;Duffy et al., 2002), we propose that WO may result in KH behaviour of the employees. ...
Article
Purpose Drawing on the conservation of resources theory and need-threat model, this study aims to analyse the mediating role of efficacy needs (EN) and psychological distress (PD) on the relationship between workplace ostracism (WO) and knowledge hiding (KH) behaviour of employees. Design/methodology/approach Time-lagged data were collected from 225 employees working in the mobile telecommunication sector through online survey instruments prepared in light of past literature. SmartPLS3 was used to analyse the data. Findings The results obtained confirm the initial hypothesis that there exists a positive relationship between WO and KH. Furthermore, the results also established the sequential mediating roles of EN and PD between WO and KH behaviour of employees. Originality/value This study adds to the literature suggesting that WO represents a real threat to companies that aim to foster knowledge-sharing behaviours. Moreover, it reveals that EN and PD are two underlying mechanisms behind the baseline relationship.
... Job embeddedness (JE) theory emphases on the key decisionfactors that explain why employees are willing to stay (Allen et al., 2016). These decision-factors (i.e., link, fit and sacrifice) can affect the retention of staff as well as employee performance. ...
Article
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Young academics have been facing a problem of high turnover rate due to missing links between the institutions' policies and the performance. This study explores the effect of job embeddedness and community embeddedness on creative work performance and intentions to leave of young teaching staff in academic institutions in Pakistan. In this study, 300 qualified young academics from public and private universities were selected as subjects and asked to complete a questionnaire. Data were collected via mail-survey. A variance-based structural equation model is employed to measure the path model. The results show that the fit-dimension of organizational-and community-embeddedness, along with the moderating effect of organization size and the availability of nearby alternative jobs have a significant impact on improving perceived creative performance and reducing staff turnover intentions. This study suggests that organizations should focus on organizational-fit and community-fit constructs in their nurturing strategies to embed young teachers in their academic institutions. This study also suggests that monetary rewards only are relatively ineffective to improve retention. Hence, public and private sector universities should facilitate meaningful contributions from young teachers in creative work and provide opportunities for social interactions and personal development.
... Employees ought not "stick it out" in a toxic work environment (e.g., abusive leadership, discrimination, bullying), and when they do, they suffer physically and emotionally (Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein, 2016). More generally, we expect retention to be a worse outcome than departure when there is misfit between the individual's interests, values, and goal hierarchy and those of the organization-or when structural opportunities and obstacles are, on balance, worse than other options. ...
Article
Grit—the tendency to pursue especially long-term goals with both passion and perseverance—has been shown to predict high achievement in a range of individual performance domains. We make a case for introducing the concept of grit to the organizational behavior literature. To begin, we elaborate the conceptual foundations of grit, highlighting ways in which grit differs from related traits and situating grit in the broader literature on goal pursuit. We then discuss three organizational antecedents—leadership, culture, and job design—that can encourage grit at work. Next, we discuss how and under what circumstances encouraging grit can improve workplace outcomes such as employee retention, work engagement, and job performance. We conclude with suggestions for future research at the intersection of psychology and organizational behavior.
... Ghosh, Sekiguchi, and Gurunathan (2017) used COR theory to predict that distributive and procedural justice influence organizational embeddedness, which in turn affects in-role performance. Allen, Peltokorpi, and Rubenstein (2016) demonstrated another angle of the linkage between COR theory and JE. They proposed that employees who are highly embedded in an adverse work environment (e.g., abusive supervision) would still be less likely to leave the job because their concerns about potential resource loss override interpersonal discomfort. ...
Chapter
The employment goals of most organizations include attracting, developing, motivating, and retaining a talented workforce. An important reason to monitor, understand, and actively manage the psychological contract is to enable the fulfillment of these goals. A potentially costly consequence of psychological contract breach is voluntary employee turnover. In the past two decades, job embeddedness, a leading theory of employee turnover, has been developed and tested extensively. Much is known from empirical research about the common antecedents and consequences of the psychological contract and job embeddedness. This chapter carefully examines this overlap and identifies ways to leverage understanding at this important intersection to guide researchers and practitioners who seek to empower leaders to intervene strategically. Given evolving employment forms and rapidly advancing technology, it is timely to assess the positive and negative impacts of these changes on the psychological contract and job embeddedness.
... That is, low embeddedness makes employees more susceptible to job dissatisfaction and increases their likelihood of looking for new jobs when they do become dissatisfied. This hypothesis was affirmed by a recent empirical study by Allen, Peltokorpi, and Rubenstein (2016) that included samples from both the US and Japan. ...
... In line with prior research (e.g. Allen et al., 2016), participants were asked to report if they were still employed in the same organisation. More specifically, participants were asked to answer to four statements: (1) I am still employed in the same organisation, (2) I left the organisation because I was formally asked to leave, (3) I left the organisation to work for another organisation, (4) I left the organisation for other reasons (please explain). ...
Article
Although turnover intentions are the strongest predictors of voluntary turnover behaviors, many employees who express intentions to leave do not. To explain why some employees translate turnover intentions into behavior and others do not, this study examines the moderating effect of temporal focus (i.e., the degree to which one thinks about the past, present, and future) between turnover intentions and voluntary turnover, using the lens of theory of planned behavior. Data were collected from 683 full‐time employees in a range of organizations at three points in time. Results show that past temporal focus conditions the positive relationship between turnover intention and turnover, such that the relationship is stronger when past temporal focus is high. Future temporal focus has an opposite moderating effect, such that the relationship between turnover intention and turnover is weaker when future temporal focus is high. Results show no significant moderating effect of current temporal focus. Overall, temporal focus helps explain why some employees leave and others stay by conditioning the likelihood of translating turnover intentions into quitting. We speculate that a dominant, unspoken paradigm in turnover research is an assumption that individuals are current focused, yet our results suggest scholars should explicitly examine this assumption.
... By focusing on individuals resources (Allen et al., 2016;Duffy et al., 2002), the COR theory explains individual's behaviors as their efforts to gain, maintain as well as protect their valued resources like objects, characteristics, social support and conditions (Hobfoll, 1989). COR has been applied in working contexts, showing how employees' perceptions of resource losses trigger behaviors aiming to help them replenish their lost resources (Halbesleben et al., 2014;Hobfoll et al., 2018); e.g. ...
Article
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This study investigates when and why organizational dehumanization leads to deviant work behavior. Accordingly, aims to investigate the impacts of organizational dehumanization on perceived incivility and deviant work behavior. In addition to this, also investigates the psychological capital as moderator between organizational dehumanization and perceived incivility, while perceived incivility as a mediator between organizational dehumanization and deviant work behaviors (employee time theft and knowledge hiding). A time lag approach: with three-time intervals T1, T2 and T3 respectively was used to collect the data from hotel employees. Results indicate that organizational dehumanization leads to perceived incivility and thereof, perceived incivility propels deviant work behaviors amongst employees. Moreover, employee’s psychological capital played a protective role of reducing the detrimental effects of organizational dehumanization on perceived incivility. This research contributes to literature by considering behavioral outcomes of organizational dehumanization. For managers this study provides insights to minimize organizational stressors to buffer employee deviant behaviors. This study also provides new research avenues in hospitality industry.
... Thus, the high degree of job-embedded employees is more likely to be adversely impacted by role conflict. By concentrating on previously untested competing factors, this research leads to sparse work on the "dark side" of work integration (Sekiguchi et al., 2008;Burton et al., 2010;Allen et al., 2016). ...
Article
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This study investigates why some employees intend to leave their jobs when facing conflict between family responsibilities and job routines. The present study also reveals the moderating role of on-the-job embeddedness between role conflict and intention to leave the job. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, the paper investigates the buffering effect of the three on-the-job embeddedness components (fit, links, and sacrifice). Data were collected from banking officers because most of the employees have to face role conflict between family and job responsibilities, as banking is considered among the most stressful jobs. Collected data were analyzed by applying structural equation modeling. Results indicate that the role conflict significantly influences intention to leave the job. Furthermore, the study shows that on-the-job embeddedness moderates the relationship between role conflict and intention to leave. The results suggest that organizations can reduce turnover intention during times of work and life conflict by developing employee on-the-job embeddedness. This study provides some insights to managers on why many employees leave their jobs and how to overcome this problem. Management should also offer extra and available resources in periods of greater tension to minimize early thinking regarding quitting.
... We partnered with Qualtrics-a United States based online survey administration firm-to identify a sample of job seekers. Qualtrics has become an increasingly popular means by which researchers can efficiently obtain data from individuals who meet relevant criteria (e.g., Allen, Peltokorpi, & Rubenstein, 2016;Eberly, Holley, Johnson, & Mitchell, 2017;Strauss, Griffin, & Parker, 2012). Study participants had to (a) be actively searching for a job and (b) have a Facebook site. ...
... It can be categorized into on-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness. Prior research has shown how job embeddedness with organizations of individuals prevents them from leaving negative work situations (Allen et al., 2016), thereby alleviating the impact of job search on turnover (Swider et al., 2011). However, although prior research has laid a comprehensive foundation in examining the moderating effect of job embeddedness on employee work behaviors, on-the-job embeddedness and off-the-job embeddedness are theoretically distinct concepts (Porter et al., 2019) and, thus, have a different and respective influence on employee work behaviors. ...
Article
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Scholars have widely acknowledged that proactive career behavior is essential for individuals to proactively build their careers, as well as facilitate positive career outcomes. However, there are still many questions about how to activate proactive career behavior. In the current study, we consider whether, how and when regulatory focus of individuals would evoke their proactive career behavior. Based on career construction theory, we utilized the career adaptability framework to develop and test the mediating effect of individual regulatory focus on proactive career behavior through career adaptability. Moreover, we further proposed that job embeddedness plays a contingency role in moderating the extent to which regulatory focus contributes to proactive career behavior with the mediation of career adaptability differently and uniquely. Using a sample of 247 participants and collecting data in three waves, we found that the promotion focus of employees positively influences their proactive career behavior through the mediation of career adaptability. Furthermore, the indirect effect of promotion focus on proactive career behavior via career adaptability was moderated by the dichotomy of job embeddedness of individuals respectively and differently. Specifically, the positive relationship between promotion focus and proactive career behavior via the mediation of career adaptability was strengthened by the on-the-job embeddedness of employees, whereas the relationship was weakened by their off-the-job embeddedness. The overall findings broaden our understanding in terms of the underlying mechanism of proactive career behavior, suggesting that the promotion focus of individuals fosters proactive career behavior via career adaptability, and on-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness as contingency factors alter the effect of career adaptability.
... This is the first article published from these datasets. The use of Prolific to collect data has gained momentum more recently due to its reliability (e.g., Jun & Wu, 2021) and is similar to data collected through other online platforms such as Qualtrics (e.g., Allen et al., 2016;Courtright et al., 2016;DeCelles et al., 2012;Thompson et al., 2020). Additionally, when best practices are followed (e.g., Aguinis et al., 2021), such online panel data sources capture nationally representative and experienced samples (Porter et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The current COVID-19 pandemic has claimed millions of lives all across the globe, making death more salient to many who may not have been readily cognizant of their mortality. While employees in certain occupations routinely deal with the idea of death or mortality (e.g., hospital workers, firefighters, and police officers), it is uncommon for the average employee to be within an environment that makes them aware of death. However, death awareness has been found to be negatively related to many important outcomes for the organization, including creativity. In the present study, using four-wave longitudinal data collected weekly-during late-June to late-July, 2020, we examine how employees react during the initial peak of COVID-19 pandemic in the United States in terms of death anxiety and death reflection (two different reactions to death awareness) and whether or not death anxiety and death reflection are related to creativity. Conducting cross-lagged panel modeling on four-wave longitudinal data obtained from 605 full-time employees, we find that positive outcomes can come from such trying times as death reflection is positively related to creativity. We offer timely, valuable implications for theory and practice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... The second argument is that the misfit between current status of staying and the preferred status of leaving causes cognitive dissonance and emotional exhaustion, thereby decreasing job performance. For example, individuals exposed to abusive supervision who are unable to leave their jobs report higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depression (Allen et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Drawing on the theory of proximal withdrawal states (Hom et al., 2012), we propose and examine the presence and effects of latent withdrawal profiles (LWPs) that characterize employees’ participation in, or withdrawal from, an employing organization. Drawing upon survey and archival data of IT employees over a 30-month period, we found evidence of four distinct LWPs: enthusiastic stayers, reluctant stayers, reluctant leavers, and enthusiastic leavers. We examined the differential effects of LWPs on an expanded set of turnover outcomes, including actual turnover of all participants, post-exit destinations among those who left, and more importantly, on job performance of those who did not act upon their desire to leave. We found that among those who stayed, performance outcomes of enthusiastic stayers and enthusiastic leavers were higher than those of reluctant stayers and reluctant leavers.
... Job embeddedness is a gathering of social, psychological, financial and environmental powers that involve employees into an emotional ground [4]; [48]. Job embeddedness is distinctive because it emphases on both work and non-work forces [54] that root employees to become involved in their current job [15]; [24]; [95]. ...
Article
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Today, the issue in organizational commitment can be clearly seen in abseentism of staff, non challant attitude towards work, making other personal business a priority allowing ones primary obligation to suffer. It is quite obvious in academic environment, in an attempt to meet up with family and social needs, most academic staff have side businesses that compete with their research and teaching responsibilities in the school. This has become necessary because the government has failed in its duties to higher institutions, which are constraint that made many academics work under difficult circumstances. This study assesses the mediating effect of job embeddedness on the relationship between work life balance and organizational commitment. Literatures were reviewed related to the variables in the research with consistent findings. This study selected different combination of variables peculiar to Nigerian environment pioneered by previous authors, the selected determinants of quality of work life revealed positive relationship with job embeddedness and organizational commitment. Hence, it is concluded based on the literature reviewed that quality of work life has significant relationship with job embeddedness and organizational commitment. It is therefore advised that employers should encourage employees in the higher institution of learning to be embedded in the organization, because highly embedded employees are needed to achieve improved future organizational commitment. Index Terms-Organizational Commitment, Quality of work life, Job embeddedness.
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Although a litany of theoretical accounts exists to explain why mistreated employees engage in counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs), little is known about whether these mechanisms are complementary or mutually exclusive, or the effect of context on their explanatory strength. To address these gaps, this meta-analytic investigation tests four theoretically-derived mechanisms simultaneously to explain the robust relationship between leader mistreatment and employee CWB: (1) a social exchange perspective, which argues that mistreated employees engage in negative reciprocal behaviors to counterbalance experienced mistreatment; (2) a justice perspective, whereby mistreated employees experience moral outrage and engage in retributive behaviors against the organization and its members; (3) a stressor-emotion perspective, which suggests that mistreated employees engage in CWBs to cope with their negative affect; and (4) a self-regulatory perspective, which proposes that mistreated employees are simply unable to inhibit undesirable behaviors. Moreover, we also examine whether the above model holds across cultures that vary on power distance. Our meta-analytic structural equation model demonstrated that all but the justice mechanism significantly mediated the relationship between leader mistreatment and employee CWBs, with negative affect emerging as the strongest explanatory mechanism in both high and low power distance cultures. Given these surprising results, as the stressor-emotion perspective is less frequently invoked in the literature, this paper highlights not only the importance of investigating multiple mechanisms together when examining the leader mistreatment-employee CWB relationship, but also the need to develop more nuanced theorizing about these mechanisms, particularly for negative affect.
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which social media content via social contagion may affect the job behaviors of employed individuals. Specifically, by integrating the unfolding model of voluntary turnover and social comparison theory, this paper explores whether receiving an update about a peer’s career advancement on professional social networking sites (SNSs) increases an individual’s propensity to engage in job search. Design/methodology/approach In this analysis, the authors matched individuals’ survey data ( n =125) with information received from a recruiting agency on employees’ subsequent job search behavior (i.e., sending a resume to the agency). Findings The results indicate that the relationship between career advancement updates on SNSs and job search behavior was stronger for employees with higher perceived employability and, contrary to our hypothesis, for those more embedded within the organization. Practical implications More employable and more embedded individuals perceive social cues from social media, and these cues positively relate to their job search behaviors. To address this trend, organizations could develop a social media strategy and implement retention measures to prevent the job search (and thus potential turnover) of employable and embedded individuals. Originality/value This research contributes to the job search literature by examining the role of professional SNSs in driving job search behavior among employed individuals.
Article
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Bu çalışma, psikolojik sözleşme ihlalinin algılanan örgütsel destek (AÖD) ve işe gömülmüşlük ile ilişkisini incelemektedir. Özellikle, bu çalışma psikolojik sözleşme ihlali ile işe gömülmüşlük arasındaki ilişkide AÖD’nin aracı rolünü araştırmaktadır. Kaynakların korunması kuramını temel alan bu araştırma, psikolojik sözleşme ihlalinin çalışanların örgütsel destek algısını zayıflatacağını ve buna bağlı olarak da çalışanların işe gömülmüşlüğünün azalacağını ileri sürmektedir. Araştırmanın verileri, Türkiye’de farklı alanlarda faaliyet gösteren özel sektör kuruluşlarından toplanmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemi, en az bir yıl örgüt tecrübesine sahip, tam zamanlı çalışan, 642 kişiden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmanın hipotezleri yapısal eşitlik modeli, bootstrap yöntemi ve ANOVA kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular, aracılık hipotezinin desteklendiğini göstermektedir. Bu doğrultuda, psikolojik sözleşme ihlalinin azalan AÖD üzerinden çalışanların işe gömülmüşlüğünü düşürebileceği tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, bulgular, yaş, örgüt tecrübesi ve iş pozisyonunun işe gömülmüşlük ile anlamlı ve pozitif ilişkili olduğunu göstermiştir. Aynı zamanda, araştırmanın sonuçları işe gömülmüşlük ölçeğinin Türkiye bağlamında geçerli bir yapıya sahip olduğuna ilişkin destek sağlamıştır. Bu çalışma, psikolojik sözleşme ihlalini işe gömülmüşlüğe bağlayarak psikolojik sözleşme ihlalinin çalışan ve örgüt üzerindeki zararlı sonuçlarını genişletmiştir. Araştırmanın katkıları, pratik çıkarımları ve kısıtları tartışılmış, gelecek çalışmalar için öneriler sunulmuştur. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among psychological contract breach, perceived organizational support (POS) and job embeddedness. Specifically, this study tests a mediation model wherein psychological contract breach predicts job embeddedness through POS. The model basically draws on conservation of resources theory (COR). Based on COR, this study proposes that psychological contract breach to be associated with low POS and consequently with reduced job embeddedness. Data were collected from a variety of organizations in Turkey. The sample included 642 fulltime employees with at least one-year tenure. We tested our research hypotheses using structural equation modeling, bootstrapping and ANOVA.The results provide support for our mediation hypothesis suggesting that psychological contract breach predicts employees’ job embeddedness through their POS. Our findings also show that age, organizational tenure and job position are positively and significantly related to job embeddedness. Furthermore, our findings indicate that job embeddedness measure is valid construct in the context of Turkey. As this study is the first to link psychological contract breach to job embeddedness, it expands the harmful consequences of psychological contract breach on both employee and organization. Theoretical and practical implications and limitations are discussed, and directions for future research are proposed.
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore retention strategies that healthcare administrators use to retain mental health workers in community mental health clinics. The study was guided by the question What strategies do HCAs use to retain their MHWs with more than 2 years of experience? Methods A qualitative case study analysis was performed. Interviews were conducted with six healthcare administrators at Fort Worth area community mental health clinics. Interviews were coded using thematic analysis. To increase the study’s reliability and validity, the interview guide was field checked by experts and member checking performed on interview transcripts. Results The healthcare administrators identified six strategies for retention: providing good benefits packages, promoting worker health and wellness, providing competitive salaries, giving workers flexible scheduling options, incentivizing workers with rewards and positive reinforcement, and maintaining open communication channels. Conclusions The results from this study have positive implications for mental health workers, patients, and community mental health clinics. The strategies identified in this study can be implemented to increase worker satisfaction and reduce turnover. In doing so, patients will receive higher quality care and organizations will be more attractive to prospective employees.
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Although greater on- and off-the-job embeddedness are both predominately assumed to constrain voluntary turnover, we theorize how greater off-the-job embeddedness could lead employees facing high interrole conflict to be more likely to quit, though greater on-the-job embeddedness would reduce turnover likelihood in the face of conflict. Accordingly, we hypothesized that higher off-the-job embeddedness would strengthen the positive relationship between interrole conflict and turnover, whereas we expected higher on-the-job embeddedness would weaken the positive relationship between interrole conflict and turnover. To ground these diverging perspectives, we adopted the conservation of resources theory approach to job embeddedness (Kiazad, Holtom, Hom, & Newman, 2015), arguing that when employees report significant interrole conflict between work and home domains, they focus personal resources into those domains in which they are highly embedded (i.e., on- or off-the-job). We further hypothesized that the strength of on- and off-the-job embeddedness moderation effects would differ depending on the direction in which conflict is experienced (i.e., from work-to-home or from home-to-work). Data from 717 working mothers in Japan, with responses collected at three time points over 14 months, largely supported these hypotheses along with some interesting nuance.
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Purpose – The aim of this study is to examine the effect of work-life balance on life satisfaction in the context of mediating role of job embeddedness. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire-based study was carried out 598 employees who work in the accommodation establishments, located in the tourism destination of Manavgat, Antalya. The data were obtained using Hayman's (2005) Work-Life Balance Scale, Mitchell et al's (2001) Job Embeddedness Scale and Diener et al’s (1985) Life Satisfaction Scale. Findings – As a result of the correlation analyses, statistically significant relationships were found between work-life balance and job embeddedness, job embeddedness and life satisfaction, and work-life balance and life satisfaction. Regression analysis and Sobel test findings reveal that job embeddedness has a mediating role in the relationship between work-life balance and life satisfaction. Discussion – This study reveals that the effect of job embeddedness on the relationship between worklife balance and life satisfaction is statistically significant. In addition, the significant relationships between the variables discussed in the study indicate the importance of the relationship between job embeddedness and life satisfaction, as the work-life balance affects both the business and private life of employees. In this context, if the individual's work-life balance is deteriorated, both his work life and his private life are affected, and then his life satisfaction is also affected. The use of applications to be associated with job embeddedness in businesses will be an important force that increases employees' commitment to the organization. At this point, it would be appropriate to pay particular attention to personal values to be compatible with the values of the organization in order to increase employee embeddedness.
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Purpose This study aims to explore how information technology (IT) companies that provide professional information systems/IT solutions to business clients can enhance employees’ service innovation performance. Design/methodology/approach Self-reported data were collected from 251 employees over two periods, along with their supervisor-reported data. The model was tested using structural equation modeling. Findings Employees’ engagement fully mediates the impact of innovative self-efficacy and social identification on service innovation performance. Employees’ customer orientation and feeling trusted both strengthen the transformation of service innovation engagement into service innovation performance. However, IT employees’ embeddedness, unexpectedly, significantly weakens the link between engagement and performance in business-to-business (B2B) service innovation contexts. Research limitations/implications The sample was collected in Taiwan, where the IT industry is dominant and employees’ values and team interactions are influenced by Chinese culture. Data drawn from a single industry, involving a particular culture, limit claims of external validity. Practical implications Managers can encourage participative decision-making, or hold official platforms where peers and clients can exchange ideas, leading to higher levels of feeling trusted and customer orientation, which both strengthen the link between service innovation engagement and performance. Moreover, highly embedded members can easily discuss novel ideas with team members and obtain improvement-oriented feedback, which ensures highly embedded members can keep focusing on service innovation. Originality/value This study provides a more nuanced picture of predictive factors for individual innovation behavior in B2B service innovation contexts in which employees provide business clients with professional, innovative IT solutions through team-based projects.
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We all know people who want to make a change in their careers but do not act on this desire. Yet this phenomenon, recently labeled “career inaction” (Verbruggen & De Vos, 2020), has received almost no research attention to date. To address this gap and enrich our understanding of career inaction, this paper explores the lived experiences of 43 individuals characterized by inaction. Employing a qualitative research design and informed by the broader literature on psychodynamics, we find that people's experience of inaction is emotionally tense and situated among the interaction of three psychodynamic “me”-identifications: the “striving me,” the “comfortable me,” and the “uncertain me.” Our study further identifies various tension-easing strategies that help people ease the psychological strain of career inaction, even though their inaction often continued. Altogether, our study enriches and extends extant theorizing on career inaction and calls for a renewed focus on bounded rationality and emotionality in contemporary careers.
Purpose The study adopts the conservation of resources (COR) theory for providing a better theoretical understanding of punitive supervision as an antecedent of employees’ minor deviant behaviors (namely, employee time theft and knowledge hiding) via creating cognitive mechanisms (employees’ perceived incivility). The purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating role of employees’ RESILIENCY on employees’ ability to buffer the impacts of punitive supervision. Design/methodology/approach Data was gathered from 265 frontline hospitality employees in Pakistan. A survey was administered in person to establish trust and rapport with employees and so, collect reliable data. Findings The findings confirmed a direct and mediated impact of punitive supervision on employee minor deviant behaviors via creating perceived incivility. The moderating role of employees’ resiliency was also confirmed, as the employees’ resiliency helped them mitigate the impact of punitive supervision on perceived incivility. Research limitations/implications Data was collected from employees’ perceptions working in one industry and cultural setting. As employees’ perceptions (influenced by their cultural background) significantly affect their interpretations and reactions to punitive behavior, future research should validate and refine the findings by collecting data from a wider and diversified cultural and industry setting. Practical implications The findings provide theoretical explanatory power of the drivers and the contextual factors leading to minor employee deviant behaviors. The findings guide managers on how to develop pro-active and re-active strategies for deterring the occurrence and eliminating the consequences of punitive supervision. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature in multiple ways. It identifies and validates punitive supervision as an antecedent of Deviant Work Behavior (DWB). It provides a theoretical underpinning for explaining how punitive supervision spurs cognitive mechanisms, which in turn drive DWB. It also studies the nexus between destructive supervision and its outcomes in its entirety by studying the mediated and the moderating impacts of punitive supervision and perceived incivility, respectively.
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The present study extends the body of research on turnover by examining the impact of abusive supervision on turnover in the context of entry-level hospitality employees, drawing on conservation of resources theory as an overarching theoretical lens. In addition, this research examined moderators in the abusive supervision–turnover relationship, specifically constituent attachment and employee age. With a sample of 980 restaurant front-of-house employees, data on abusive supervision, constituent attachment, and age were used to predict turnover over a 6-month period via logistic regression. Abusive supervision increased turnover among the sample overall. However, the effect was stronger for younger employees. In addition, constituent attachment increased the likelihood of turnover for younger employees who experienced greater abusive supervision. The present study serves to validate the adverse impact of abusive supervision on turnover along with factors that may strengthen or attenuate its impact.
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Purpose This study aims to investigate the possible negativity of job embeddedness in developing countries. Operationally, the study aimed to configure the relationship between job embeddedness and cyberloafing with respect to both contextual (job satisfaction) and individual (internet addiction) factors. Design/methodology/approach Incorporating the conservation of resources theory and reactance theory into the theory of job embeddedness, the present study adopted a resource-based approach to job embeddedness to examine its main and moderated effects on cyberloafing in a three-way interaction model. With the focus on public organizations, 500 administrative employees from an Iranian university were surveyed using self-reporting measures, and the collected data were analyzed using partial least squares–structural equation modeling and hierarchical moderated multiple regression. Findings As predicted, job embeddedness was positively associated with cyberloafing; however, in contrast with predictions, job satisfaction had no inverse impact on the job embeddedness–cyberloafing relationship, and its role was limited to neutralizing the increasing effect of internet addiction. Practical implications Consideration should be given to how job embeddedness interacts with contextual and individual moderators to affect cyberloafing. In particular, this study implicated some practical procedures to provide employees with on- and off-the-job resources and avoid fighting over the organization's resources. Additionally, this study provides insights into embeddedness-satisfaction interplay to provide employees with propitious work conditions in line with organizational productivity. Originality/value There is little research on the association between job embeddedness and counterproductive work behaviors, and the findings are inconsistent. A review of the literature revealed no study addressing cyberloafing implications of job embeddedness. This study expands the literature by theoretically and empirically correlating job embeddedness and cyberloafing in a non-western developing country. Accordingly, the significance of this study is its capability in mitigating cyberloafing behaviors by promoting the adverse job embeddedness.
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While organizations increasingly rely on headhunters, little research has focused on what kinds of employees are contacted by headhunters and how these contacts are related to turnover. This study uses an exploratory sequential mixed‐method design to examine what kinds of employees contingency headhunters contact and why some of them leave. Using the case of Japan, where foreign subsidiaries use headhunters extensively to recruit host country nationals (HCNs), we first conducted interviews with 131 clients, headhunters and HCNs (candidates). The findings indicated that the contacts made by headhunters were guided by the HCNs’ age, gender, education level, English proficiency, tenure and prior placement by headhunters. The findings also showed that headhunter contacts drive up turnover, and that job alternatives and job embeddedness moderate the relationship between headhunter contacts and turnover. We used these findings and research on the unfolding model and headhunters to develop an abductively derived research model and hypotheses. In another study, we tested these hypotheses by time‐lagged survey data from 456 HCNs in foreign subsidiaries. The survey findings showed that headhunter contacts mediate the relationships between English proficiency, tenure and prior placement by headhunters, and that job alternatives and job embeddedness moderate the positive relationship between headhunter contacts and turnover.
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Theory and research have focused mainly on negative aspects of work-to-family conflict (WFC) and positive aspects of job embeddedness on a range of outcomes. However, due to the lack of research integrating these constructs, less is known what happens when working parents high on embeddedness face WFC. This study uses the conservation of resources theory to examine moderating effects of on-the-job embeddedness between the relationships of WFC and four outcomes: voluntary turnover, emotional exhaustion, guilt, and hostility. Data were derived from 724 working mothers in Japan at three points in time over a 14‐month time period. Results show that while respondents high on on-the-job embeddedness facing WFC had lower voluntary turnover, they reported more emotional exhaustion, guilt, and hostility. The findings contribute to the literature by linking WFC to specific emotion-related outcomes and by providing evidence of the “dark side” of job embeddedness.
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Background The purpose of this study was to explore retention strategies that healthcare administrators use to retain mental health workers in community mental health clinics. The study was guided by the question What strategies do HCAs use to retain their MHWs with more than 2 years of experience? Methods A qualitative case study analysis was performed. Interviews were conducted with six healthcare administrators at Fort Worth area community mental health clinics. Interviews were coded using thematic analysis. To increase the study’s reliability and validity, the interview guide was field checked by experts and member checking performed on interview transcripts. Results The healthcare administrators identified six strategies for retention: providing good benefits packages, promoting worker health and wellness, providing competitive salaries, giving workers flexible scheduling options, incentivizing workers with rewards and positive reinforcement, and maintaining open communication channels. Conclusions The results from this study have positive implications for mental health workers, patients, and community mental health clinics. The strategies identified in this study can be implemented to increase worker satisfaction and reduce turnover. In doing so, patients will receive higher quality care and organizations will be more attractive to prospective employees.
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Previous research has focused on general best practices for onboarding organizational newcomers. In this study, we shift the conversation to address the question: for whom are certain socialization tactics more or less beneficial? Whereas institutionalized socialization tactics provide considerable structure and help newcomers adjust, less is known about whether and how individual psychological differences cause some newcomers to react differently to the same tactics. To examine the interplay between organizational socialization efforts and newcomer individual differences, we hypothesize that newcomers’ work locus of control (WLOC) moderates the relationship between socialization tactics and voluntary turnover. We also examine the indirect role of newcomer work adjustment—role clarity, work mastery, social integration—and job embeddedness in transmitting the interaction between socialization tactics and WLOC to turnover. Data collected from 676 newcomers in various organizations provided general support for our hypotheses: Newcomers with an external WLOC showed higher social integration and embeddedness and lower turnover under institutionalized tactics, but lower social integration and embeddedness and higher turnover under individualized tactics. Their turnover was also reduced from individualized to institutionalized tactics. In contrast, newcomers with an internal WLOC were less influenced by either socialization tactic approach in terms of their social integration, embeddedness, or turnover.
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Even though epidemiological evidence links specific workplace stressors to health outcomes, the aggregate contribution of these factors to overall mortality and health spending in the United States is not known. In this paper, we build a model to estimate the excess mortality and incremental health expenditures associated with exposure to the following 10 workplace stressors: unemployment, lack of health insurance, exposure to shift work, long working hours, job insecurity, work-family conflict, low job control, high job demands, low social support at work, and low organizational justice. Our model uses input parameters obtained from publicly accessible data sources. We estimated health spending from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and joint probabilities of workplace exposures from the General Social Survey, and we conducted a meta-analysis of the epidemiological literature to estimate the relative risks of poor health outcomes associated with exposure to these stressors. The model was designed to overcome limitations with using inputs from multiple data sources. Specifically, the model separately derives optimistic and conservative estimates of the effect of multiple workplace exposures on health, and uses optimization to calculate upper and lower bounds around each estimate, which accounts for the correlation between exposures. We find that more than 120,000 deaths per year and approximately 5%-8% of annual healthcare costs are associated with and may be attributable to how U.S. companies manage their work forces. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to management practices as important contributors to health outcomes and costs in the United States.
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A growing body of literature suggests that organizational leadership is linked to a wide variety of employee outcomes, both positive and negative, relevant to occupational health and safety. All organizations have individuals in a leadership role, but few researchers consider leadership training as an effective intervention. This may be because such studies are difficult to conduct and because the target, being the employees, is indirect. In this paper for the special edition of Work & Stress, we review studies linking leadership to individual well-being and safety in organizations. These include studies concerning leadership style, abusive supervision and organizational fairness. We highlight intervention studies that suggest that these linkages are causal and that leadership development, usually in the form of training, is an effective intervention in occupational health psychology. It is proposed that leadership development should be a main target for research on interventions in Occupational health psychology. The characteristics of leadership development interventions and directions for future research are discussed.
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This paper reviews studies concerned with abusive supervision and provides a constructive revision of Tepper's 2007 model. As a result of our review of the recent research, we revised the 2007 Tepper model and added additional variables and casual paths to increase its explanatory potential. The model we propose distinguishes between abusive supervisory behavior and abusive supervisory perceptions, suggesting that each of these variables needs to be studied separately until we know more about how they are related. The revised model also explicitly recognizes possibilities for reverse causation and stresses the importance of subordinates' individual differences such as attribution style, negative affectivity, and implicit work theories, which have the potential to account for significant variability in subordinates' perceptions of abuse. Suggestions for future research based on the original relationships identified by the Tepper review as well as the variables and causal paths suggested in the revised model are provided. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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A large body of sleep physiology research highlights a broad array of effects of sleep on human functioning. Until recently, this literature has been completely isolated from the organizational psychology literature. The purpose of this paper is to further extend the sleep literature into the organizational psychology literature, with a focus on self-regulation in the workplace. I summarize the sleep literature into a model of sleep self-regulation. Next, I highlight initial research in organizational psychology which has drawn from basic sleep physiology research. Following this, I generate new propositions linking sleep to work withdrawal, goal level, incivility, and defection in workplace social dilemmas. Finally, I close with a discussion of methods for conducting sleep research in organizational psychology, as well as some promising areas for future research.
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An interactive model of social undermining and social support in the workplace was developed and tested among police officers in the Republic of Slovenia. As predicted, social undermining was significantly associated with employee outcomes, in most cases more strongly than was social support. High levels of undermining and support from the same source were associated with negative outcomes. However, support from one source appeared to only modestly attenuate the negative effects of social undermining from another source.
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Does investing in employees' marketable skills reduce turnover? This study uses insights from human capital theory to explain how general skill development and promotion relate to voluntary turnover. Data from 9,439 salaried employees of a large manufacturer show that participation in tuition reimbursement reduces turnover while employees are in school. Voluntary turnover increases when individuals earn graduate degrees but is significantly reduced if they are subsequently promoted.
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Unpleasant events are a fact of organizational life. The way in which people respond to such events, however, varies. In the present study, we hypothesized and found that some individuals choose to respond to negative events in ways that helped the organization. Instead of withdrawing in an attempt to “get even” by reducing work outputs, these individuals improved their in-role and extra-role performance. The study examined the role that job embeddedness plays in creating this work enhancement reaction. Specifically, we discovered that on-the-job embeddedness helps reduce the impact of negative shocks on organizational citizenship and overall job performance. The findings of this study have important implications for both theory and practice.
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Purpose We examine how supervisor stress is associated with employee-rated abusive supervision. In addition, we test the premise that higher levels of physical exercise by supervisors can buffer the negative effects of stress on their relationship with their subordinates. Design/Methodology/Approach A matched sample of 98 employed individuals and their direct supervisors was used to test our hypotheses. Findings Results suggest that increased levels of supervisor-reported stress are related to the increased experience of employee-rated abusive supervision. We also find that the relationship between supervisor stress and abusive behavior can be diminished when supervisors engage in moderate levels of physical exercise. Implications While the current economic conditions and a host of other trying workplace factors mean that supervisors are likely to experience workplace stress, we found evidence that they do not necessarily have to transfer these frustrations onto those they supervise. Our study supports a link between supervisor stress and employee perceptions of abusive supervision, but this is a link that can be loosened if supervisors engage in moderate levels of physical exercise. Originality/Value The results of this study add to the modest number of antecedents to abusive supervision that have been discovered in existing research. In addition, this is the first study to examine how exercise can buffer the relationship between supervisor stress and employee perceptions of abusive supervision.
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This study examined the relationships between attributions of targets regarding the causes of abusive supervision and their responses. Following Bowling and Beehr's (2006) Attribution-Based Model of Workplace Harassment, we hypothesized that the relationships between abusive supervision and (a) subordinate well-being, (b) behaviours directed at harming the supervisor, and (c) behaviours directed at harming the organization would be moderated by self-directed, supervisor-directed, and organization-directed attributions, respectively. Data collected in two waves from a sample of 381 participants employed in a variety of different work settings were analysed using moderated regression analysis. These analyses suggest that abusive supervision was more strongly related to counterproductive work behaviour directed at the organization among subordinates who attributed the abuse to the organization than among those who did not attributed it to the organization. Contrary to our predictions, abusive supervision was more strongly related to employee well-being among subordinates who were low in self-directed attributions than in subordinates who were high in self-directed attributions. We conclude that subordinate attributions play a potentially important role in how workers respond to abusive supervision.
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Given the extensive research on the topic of voluntary employee turnover in the past decade as well as new managerial approaches to employee retention, labor market dynamism, and evolution in research methodology and technology, it is important that researchers evaluate the current state of the field. In this chapter, we critically review prior research to provide a solid foundation and clear perspective to guide future research. Some of the major trends of the past decade include: (1) new individual difference predictions of turnover (e.g., personality, motivating forces); (2) increased emphasis on contextual variables with an emphasis on interpersonal relationships (e.g., leader–member exchange, interpersonal citizenship behaviors); (3) enhanced focus on factors looking specifically at staying (e.g., organizational commitment and job embeddedness); and (4) dynamic modeling of turnover processes with the consideration of time (e.g., changes in job satisfaction). We believe these trends point to a number of important issues to consider in the next decade, including the influence of social networks, differences across cultures, temporal aspects (e.g., early vs. late turnover), consequences of turnover, multi‐level investigations of turnover and other types of withdrawal (e.g., retirement).
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Psychology has increasingly turned to the study of psychosocial resources in the examination of well-being. How resources are being studied and resource models that have been proffered are considered, and an attempt is made to examine elements that bridge across models. As resource models span health, community, cognitive, and clinical psychology, the question is raised of whether there is overuse of the resource metaphor or whether there exists some underlying principles that can be gleaned and incorporated to advance research. The contribution of resources for understanding multicultural and pan-historical adaptation in the face of challenge is considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We reconceptualize employee turnover to promote researchers' understanding and prediction of why employees quit or stay in employing institutions. A literature review identifies shortcomings with prevailing turnover dimensions. In response, we expand the conceptual domain of the turnover criterion to include multiple types of turnover (notably, involuntary quits) and multiple types of staying. Guided by the premise that "everyone eventually leaves; no one stays with an organization forever," we also suggest considering where leavers end up-or post-exit destinations, such as another job, full-time parenting, or educational pursuits. We propose "proximal withdrawal states" that motivate members to participate or withdraw from organizations as an expanded criterion. These motivational states precede turnover and are derived from 2 overarching dimensions: desired employment status (whether employees want to stay or leave) and perceived volitional control (whether quit or stay decisions are completely up to them or at least partially under external regulation). Crossing these dimensions yields 4 prime states: enthusiastic leavers and stayers and reluctant leavers and stayers. We further subdivide these mind-sets into subtypes by differentiating employer from other forms of external control (e.g., family). Focusing on more common subtypes, we explain how they arise from particular motivational forces and profile how they differ by attitudes, behaviors, and turnover speed and destinations. We further discuss ways to measure this expanded criterion and proximal states (and subtypes) and investigate the latter's profiled differences. Finally, we discuss scientific and practical implications and future research directions.
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A model is presented that summarizes existing knowledge concerning job insecurity, points at its deficiencies, and identifies further research needed to understand the nature, causes, and consequences of this increasingly im- portant phenomenon. Such knowledge is crucial because job insecurity is a key element in a positive feedback loop that accelerates organizational decline. Four recent phenomena in the United States have made job insecurity a particularly important variable for organizational scholars to understand. First, the prolonged economic downturn beginning in the mid-1970s resulted in the highest rates of job loss since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Second, there has been an upsurge of mergers and acquisi- tions since the mid-1960s. These events often result in job loss or a curtailment in the privileges and ex- pectations of job incumbents. Third, the rapidly changing industrial structure-from a predominantly manufacturing economy to a service economy and from the predominance of basic industries to the rise of high-technology industries-has changed many people's assumptions about the stability of their employers. Fourth, the trend toward decreasing union representation of the U.S. workforce means that an increasing number of workers are vulnerable to the effects of unilateral decisions from which they
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Drawing on justice theory, I examined the consequences of abusive supervisor behavior. As expected, subordinates who perceived their supervisors were more abusive were more likely to quit their jobs. For subordinates who remained with their jobs, abusive supervision was associated with lower job and life satisfaction, lower normative and affective commitment, and higher continuance commitment, conflict between work and family, and psychological distress. Organizational justice mediated most of these effects, and job mobility moderated some of the deleterious effects of abusive supervision.
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A growing literature explores abusive supervision, nonphysical forms of hostility perpetrated by managers against their direct reports. However, researchers have used different terminology to explore phenomena that overlap with abusive supervision, and extant research does not devolve from a unifying theoretical framework. These problems have the potential to undermine the development of knowledge in this important research domain. The author therefore provides a review of the literature that summarizes what is known about the antecedents and consequences of abusive supervision, provides the basis for an emergent model that integrates extant empirical work, and suggests directions for future research.
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Voluntary employee turnover is expensive. Companies that successfully retain the best and brightest employees save money and protect their intellectual capital. Traditional approaches to understanding turnover place accumulated job dissatisfaction as the primary antecedent to voluntary turnover. However, we show that precipitating events, or shocks, more often are the immediate cause of turnover. Using data from more than 1,200 “leavers,” we describe the nature, content, and role of shocks in turnover decisions. We then provide strategies to help organizations manage shocks, and thereby control turnover. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A scale designed to assess various aspects of the burnout syndrome was administered to a wide range of human services professionals. Three subscales emerged from the data analysis: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Various psychometric analyses showed that the scale has both high reliability and validity as a measure of burnout. Since the publication of this article in 1981, more extensive research was done on the MBI, which resulted in some modifications of the original measure. The present article has been re-edited to reflect those modifications. However, it does not include other new additions (which are contained in the MBI Manual distributed by the publisher, Mind Garden).
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The present meta-analytic study introduces an overall model of the relationships between job embeddedness and turnover outcomes. Drawing on 65 independent samples (N = 42,907), we found that on-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness negatively related to turnover intentions and actual turnover, after controlling for job satisfaction, affective commitment, and job alternatives. In addition, the negative relationships between on-the-job embeddedness (off-the-job embeddedness) and turnover criteria were stronger in female-dominated samples and public organizations (collectivistic countries). Finally, turnover intentions, job search behavior, and job performance fully (partially) mediated the effect of on-the-job embeddedness (off-the-job embeddedness) on actual turnover. The research and practical implications of our findings are noted, in light of study limitations and future research needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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Although both downsizing and voluntary turnover have been topics of great interest in the organizational literature, little research addresses the topics' possible relationship. Using organization-level data from multiple industries, we first investigate whether downsizing predicts voluntary turnover rates. Second, to support our causal model, we examine whether aggregated levels of organizational commitment mediate this relationship. Third, we test whether the downsizing--turnover rate relationship is (1) mitigated by HR practices that either embed employees in their organization or convey procedural fairness and (2) strengthened by HR practices that enhance career development. Results support the hypothesized main, mediated, and moderated effects. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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A new construct, entitled 'job embeddedness,' is introduced. It includes individuals' (1) links to other people, teams, and groups, (2) perceptions of their fit with job, organization, and community, and (3) what they say they would have to sacrifice if they left their jobs. We developed a measure of job embeddedness with two samples. The results show that job embeddedness predicts the key outcomes of both intent to leave and 'voluntary turnover' and explains significant incremental variance over and above job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job alternatives, and job search. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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When I was first approached about writing this specific chapter, I must admit to being a little intimidated by the title I was asked to speak to — particularly because of its assumption that those who occupy editorial roles “develop knowledge.” Even if some do, the thought that I may have ever done this in any of my editor or associate-editor roles is a claim or idea that I might have a hard time defending if pressed.
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We argue that different types of perceived managerial controls that convey performance standards to subordinates increase the perceived relevance of particular aspects of fairness in organizations. We introduce the concept of fairness monitoring to characterize subordinates' efforts to gather and process fairness information to make sense of their organizations. In scenario and survey studies, we found that subordinates who perceive market controls engage in distributive fairness monitoring, subordinates who perceive bureaucratic controls engage in procedural fairness monitoring, and subordinates who perceive clan controls engage in interpersonal fairness monitoring. We also found that asserting clear controls and promoting the type of fairness that subordinates monitor most closely produces a positive three-way interaction affecting job satisfaction.
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This research assessed the causes and consequences of job insecurity using a new theory-based measure incorporating recent conceptual arguments. We also compared the measure's reliability and construct validity to those of two existing global measures of job insecurity. Results indicated that personal, job, and organizational realities associated with a perceived lack of control are correlated with measured job insecurity. Job insecurity in turn leads to attitudinal reactions— intentions to quit, reduced commitment, and reduced satisfaction. These results generally support the utility of our new measure and provide important directions for future research.
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In this article, we examine the history and development of job embeddedness, beginning with the story of the idea's conception, theoretical foundation, and original empirical structure as a major predictor of employee voluntary turnover. We then consider more recent expansions in the theoretical structure and empirical measurement of job embeddedness, exploring job embeddedness as a causal indicator model versus a reflective model. Next, we review some promising expansions of embeddedness to new domains (e.g., family embeddedness) as well as important contingency factors that enhance or diminish its impact. Finally, we describe how job embeddedness affects important organizational outcomes beyond turnover, including job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, innovation, and the development of social and human capital. Throughout the article, we provide our opinions on how the theory and research on embeddedness have progressed as well as ideas on how it can be improved.
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In contrast to the vast literature on voluntary turnover, the job embeddedness theory describes why individuals choose to stay in their organizations. Because this theory has been developed and validated mainly in the USA, this study explores its applicability and functioning in Japanese organizations through 110 interviews with managers, employees and executive-search consultants. While the original theory provides a useful framework to explain the web of forces that embed people to their organizations, a distinctive set of cultural and institutional factors affected job embeddedness in Japanese organizations. In particular, on-the-job ties and sacrifices were important job embeddedness dimensions in Japanese organizations.
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To test a proposed model of the job insecurity (JI) process that treats cognitive JI and affective JI as separate constructs, this study investigates organizational-level employee involvement and communication practices that influence the level of cognitive JI; increasing levels of cognitive JI in turn can create an affective reaction (i.e., affective JI). This affective reaction then influences individual psychological and behavioral outcomes. With two waves of data from three large Chinese organizations, the model test results show that employee involvement decreases cognitive JI perceptions. This reduction then leads to lower affective JI. Affective JI in turn relates negatively to employee psychological well-being but positively to both supervisor-rated job performance and affective JI six months later. The effect of cognitive JI on employee outcomes is partially through affective JI. Cognitive JI has a direct impact on psychological well-being but not on job performance. These findings offer key theoretical and practical implications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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A growing body of empirical evidence in the management literature suggests that antecedent variables widely accepted as leading to desirable consequences actually lead to negative outcomes. These increasingly pervasive and often countertheoretical findings permeate levels of analysis (i.e., from micro to macro) and management subfields (e.g., organizational behavior, strategic management). Although seemingly unrelated, the authors contend that this body of empirical research can be accounted for by a meta-theoretical principle they call the too-much-of-a-good-thing effect (TMGT effect). The authors posit that, due to the TMGT effect, all seemingly monotonic positive relations reach context-specific inflection points after which the relations turn asymptotic and often negative, resulting in an overall pattern of curvilinearity. They illustrate how the TMGT effect provides a meta-theoretical explanation for a host of seemingly puzzling results in key areas of organizational behavior (e.g., leadership, personality), human resource management (e.g., job design, personnel selection), entrepreneurship (e.g., new venture planning, firm growth rate), and strategic management (e.g., diversification, organizational slack). Finally, the authors discuss implications of the TMGT effect for theory development, theory testing, and management practice.
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Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, this research examines the linkage between abusive supervision and work withdrawal from a stress perspective, focusing on the moderating role of subordinates' emotion-regulation strategies and the mediating role of emotional exhaustion. Survey data included 254 ranked officers in 55 workgroups of the Taiwan Ministry of National Defense. The HLM results suggest that subordinates' emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and work withdrawal only when subordinates engaged in high-frequency expressive suppression or low-frequency cognitive reappraisal. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.