Article

Features of N-Glycosylation of Immunoglobulins from Knockout Pig Models

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Abstract

For the first time, the N-glycosylation patterns of immunoglobulin G (IgGs) isolated from the serum of two varieties of knockout pigs (lacking N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and/or α 1,3 galactose) were examined for the presence of potential glycan xenoantigens and compared to N-glycosylation patterns obtained for wild-type (WT) pig IgGs. Glycopeptide analysis was chosen over glycan release, as protein-A eluates from pig serum may contain IgA and IgM as shown previously. The experiments focused on the analysis of tryptic glycopeptides EEQFNSTYR and AEQFNSTYR from IgGs, and excluded IgA and IgM, in which N-glycosylated peptides have different sequences and masses. WT pig IgG glycopeptides showed the presence of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and absence of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). Released glycans from the protein-A eluate, however, showed the presence of both types of sialic acids, allowing Neu5Ac to be attributed to IgA and/or IgM. The WT IgG samples also showed the presence of glycans that could by composition have been α-galactosylated, but treatments with α- and β-galactosidases produced inconclusive results as to the linkage nature of the terminal Gal residues. Single knockout (α-Gal transferase) pig IgG was shown to contain Neu5Gc residues, and there was a definite absence of α-Gal. Double knockout pigs (DKO for α-Gal transferase and cytidine monophosphate-A-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH)) showed the definite absence of α-Gal and Neu5Gc. Instead of the latter, Neu5Ac residues were observed. Further investigation into the sialylation patterns of WT and DKO pig IgGs consisted of esterifying the glycopeptides to allow the detection and differentiation of α-2,3 and α-2,6 sialic acid-galactose linkages. Fucosylation levels were also compared between IgG species.

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... There have been reports on the mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of pig immunoglobulins (IgG) in relationship with use in a xenotransplantation context [1][2][3][4]. These studies have explored the amino acid composition and glycosylation of pig IgG according to glycoproteomic [2,3] and glycomic [1] workflows involving the enzymatic digestion of whole antibodies. ...
... There have been reports on the mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of pig immunoglobulins (IgG) in relationship with use in a xenotransplantation context [1][2][3][4]. These studies have explored the amino acid composition and glycosylation of pig IgG according to glycoproteomic [2,3] and glycomic [1] workflows involving the enzymatic digestion of whole antibodies. Glycoproteomic workflows resulted in the identification of many peptides that could be matched with the conserved gamma portion of the heavy chains of some of the 11 subtypes of pig IgG [5], including N-glycopeptides EEQFNSTYR and EAQFNSTYR [3]. ...
... The two groups of antibody fragments of primary interest are the antigen-binding fragments (Fab) and class-defining crystallizable fragments (Fc). The hinge region of immunoglobulins (IgGs) is readily accessible to proteolytic attack by enzymes [9,10], and cleavage at that point produces F(ab') 2 or Fab fragments and the Fc fragment. Papain is a nonspecific thiol-endopeptidase and has a sulfhydryl group in its active site, which must be reduced for activity. ...
... 12,[16][17][18] Non-immunosuppressed patients with severe burns treated by engineered pig skin dressings develop a long-lasting increase in their anti-Neu5Gc antibody levels. 14 Similarly, an intravenous (IV) injection of rabbit anti-human thymocyte IgGs, which display α-Gal and Neu5Gc carbohydrate antigens detectable by mass spectrometry analysis, 19,20 also induce a vigorous immune response against α-Gal and Neu5Gc antigens in non-immunosuppressed patients causing serum sickness in almost all cases. 21,22 In contrast, kidney recipients receiving ATG as an induction treatment in association with a cocktail of modern immunosuppressive agents develop a late antiNeu5Gc response, and this response is stronger in patients who develop an early serum sickness disease (SSD). ...
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Antibodies of non‐human mammals are glycosylated with carbohydrate antigens, such as galactose‐α‐1‐3‐galactose (α‐Gal) and N‐glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). These non‐human carbohydrate antigens are highly immunogenic in humans due to loss‐of‐function mutations of the key genes involved in their synthesis. Such immunogenic carbohydrates are expressed on therapeutic polyclonal rabbit anti‐human T cell IgGs (anti‐thymocyte globulin; ATG), the most popular induction treatment in allograft recipients. To decipher the quantitative and qualitative response against these antigens in immunosuppressed patients, particularly against Neu5Gc, which may induce endothelial inflammation in both the graft and the host. We report a prospective study of the antibody response against α‐Gal and Neu5Gc‐containing glycans following rabbit ATG induction compared to controls. We show a drop in the overall levels of anti‐Neu5Gc antibodies at 6 and 12months post‐graft compared to the pre‐existing levels due to the major early immunosuppression. However, in contrast, in a cross‐sectional study there was a highly significant increase in anti‐Neu5Gc IgGs levels at 6months post‐graft in the ATG‐treated compared to non‐treated patients(p=0.007), with a clear hierarchy favoring anti‐Neu5Gc over anti‐Gal response. A sialoglycan microarray analysis revealed that the increased anti‐Neu5Gc IgG response was still highly diverse against multiple different Neu5Gc‐containing glycans. Furthermore, some of the ATG‐treated patients developed a shift in their anti‐Neu5Gc IgG repertoire compared with the baseline, recognizing different patterns of Neu5Gc‐glycans. In contrast to Gal, Neu5Gc epitopes remain antigenic in severely immunosuppressed patients, who also develop an anti‐Neu5Gc repertoire shift. The clinical implications of these observations are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Glycosylation is a common co- and post-translational protein modification, having a large influence on protein properties like conformation and solubility. Furthermore, glycosylation is an important determinant of efficacy and clearance of biopharmaceuticals such as immunoglobulin G (IgG). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) shows potential for the site-specific glycosylation analysis of IgG at the glycopeptide level. With this approach however, important information about glycopeptide sialylation is not duly covered because of in-source and metastable decay of the sialylated species. Here, we present a highly repeatable sialic acid derivatization method to allow subclass-specific MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of tryptic IgG glycopeptides. The method, employing dimethylamidation with the carboxylic acid activator 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and the catalyst 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt), results in different masses for the functionally divergent α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids. Respective lactonization and dimethylamidation leads to their direct discrimination in MS and importantly, both glycan and peptide moieties reacted in a controlled manner. In addition, stabilization allowed the acquisition of fragmentation spectra informative with respect to glycosylation and peptide sequence. This was in contrast to fragmentation spectra of underivatized samples which were dominated by sialic acid loss. The method allowed the facile discrimination and relative quantitation of IgG Fc sialylation in therapeutic IgG samples. The method has considerable potential for future site- and sialic acid linkage-specific glycosylation profiling of therapeutic antibodies, as well as for subclass-specific biomarker discovery in clinical IgG samples derived from plasma.
Article
This study evaluated the effectiveness of irradiated porcine tendon xenografts for lateral collateral ligament (LCL) reconstruction. Twenty healthy adult beagle dogs underwent LCL reconstruction using irradiated porcine tendons treated with poly-gamma-glutamic acid. Serological and histological assessments were performed to evaluate host immunological response at 3 and 12 months after surgery. The healing and functional integrity of the LCL reconstructions were assessed by mechanical testing and gait analysis. Histological assessment of the porcine xenografts showed gradual host cellular infiltration and graft collagen remodeling during the healing process. Porcine xenografts showed angiogenesis and no signs of inflammatory reaction. Additionally, biomechanical and gait evaluations supported graft functional integration with no differences between normal and porcine xenograft reconstruction at 12 months after surgery. Irradiated porcine xenografts showed greater cellular responses and healing properties in short- and long-term evaluations. Irradiated porcine tendons appear to be useful as xenografts for the reconstruction of damaged ligaments.
Article
Human beings do not synthesize the glycolyl form of the sialic acid (Neu5Gc) and only express the acetylated form of the sugar, whereas a diet-based intake of Neu5Gc provokes a natural immunization and production of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in human serum. However, Neu5Gc is expressed on mammal glycoproteins and glycolipids in most organs and cells. We review here the relevance of Neu5Gc and anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in the context of xenotransplantation and the use of animal-derived molecules and products, as well as the possible consequences of a long-term exposure to anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in recipients of xenografts. In addition, the importance of an accurate estimation of the anti-Neu5Gc response following xenotransplantation and the future contribution of knockout animals mimicking the human situation are also assessed.
Article
Protein glycosylation is an important post-translational modification associated, among others, with diseases and the efficacy of biopharmaceuticals. MALDI-TOF-MS can be performed to study glycosylation in a high-throughput manner, but is hampered by the instability and ionization bias experienced by sialylated glycan species. Stabilization and neutralization of these sialic acids can be achieved by permethylation or by specific carboxyl group derivatization with the possibility of discrimination between alpha2,3- and alpha2,6-linked sialic acids. However, these methods typically require relatively pure glycan samples, show sensitivity to side reactions, and need harsh conditions or long reaction times. We established a rapid, robust and linkage-specific high-throughput method for sialic acid stabilization and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, to allow direct modification of impure glycan-containing mixtures such as PNGase F-released human plasma N-glycome. Using a combination of carboxylic acid activators in ethanol achieved near-complete ethyl esterification of alpha2,6-linked sialic acids and lactonization of alpha2,3-linked variants, in short time using mild conditions. Glycans were recovered by HILIC SPE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS in reflectron positive mode with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as matrix substance. Analysis of the human plasma N-glycome allowed high-throughput detection and relative quantitation of more than 100 distinct N-glycan compositions with varying sialic acid linkages.
Article
Xenotransplantation, or the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, was proposed a long time ago as a possible solution to the worldwide shortage of human organs and tissues for transplantation. In this setting, the pig is currently seen as the most likely candidate species. In the last decade, progress in this field has been remarkable and includes a better insight into the immunological mechanisms underlying the rejection process. Several immunological hurdles nonetheless remain, such as the strong antibody-mediated and innate or adaptive cellular immune responses linked to coagulation derangements, precluding indefinite xenograft survival. This article reviews our current understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in xenograft rejection and the potential strategies that may enable xenotransplantation to become a clinical reality in the not-too-distant future.
Article
Unlabelled: Haptoglobin (Hp) and immunoglobulins are plasma glycoproteins involved in the immune reaction of the organism after infection and/or inflammation. Porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD), formerly known as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), is a globally spread pig disease of great economic impact. PCV2-SD affects the immunological system of pigs causing immunosuppression. The aim of this work was to characterize the Hp protein species of healthy and PCV2-SD affected pigs, as well as the protein backbone and the glycan chain composition of porcine Hp. PCV2-SD affected pigs had an increased overall Hp level, but it did not affect the ratio between Hp species. Glycoproteomic analysis of the Hp β subunits confirmed that porcine Hp is N-glycosylated and, unexpectedly, O-glycosylated, a PTM that is not found on Hp from healthy humans. The glyco-profile of porcine IgG and IgA heavy chains was also characterized; decreased levels of both proteins were found in the investigated group of PCV2-SD affected pigs. Obtained results indicate that no significant changes in the N- and O-glycosylation patterns of these major porcine plasma glycoproteins were detectable between healthy and PCV2-SD affected animals. Biological significance: PCV2-SD is a disease of great economic importance for pig production, characterized by a complex response of the immune system. In the search of a better diagnostic/prognostic marker for porcine PCV2-SD, extensive analyses of the Hp protein backbone and the glycan chains were thoroughly analyzed by various techniques. This resulted in detection and confirmation of Hp O-glycosylation and the glyco-profiling of porcine IgG and IgA. The N- and O-glycosylation of these major porcine plasma glycoproteins appears to be not affected by PCV2-SD infection. Interestingly, these data suggest that this viral infection, which significantly affects the immune responses of the host, leaves the biosynthetic glycosylation processes in the liver and immune cells unaffected. Lack of PTM changes is in contrast to findings in humans where for both proteins pattern changes have been reported in several chronic and inflammatory diseases. This underlines the importance of studying species in detail and not reaching to conclusions by analogy. Furthermore, since Hp is usually quantified by immunoassays in clinical routine analyses, our findings indicate that no bias in Hp determination capabilities due to an altered carbohydrate pattern is to be expected.
Article
The temporary or long-term xenotransplantation of pig organs into people would save thousands of lives each year if not for the robust human antibody response to pig carbohydrates. Genetically engineered pigs deficient in galactose α1,3 galactose (gene modified: GGTA1) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (gene modified: CMAH) have significantly improved cell survival when challenged by human antibody and complement in vitro. There remains, however, a significant portion of human antibody binding. To uncover additional xenoantigens, we compared the asparagine-linked (N-linked) glycome from serum proteins of humans, domestic pigs, GGTA1 knockout pigs, and GGTA1/CMAH knockout pigs using mass spectrometry. Carbohydrate structures were determined with assistance from GlycoWorkbench, Cartoonist, and SimGlycan software by comparison to existing database entries and collision-induced dissociation fragmentation data. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of reduced and solid-phase permethylated glycans resulted in the detection of high-mannose, hybrid, and complex type N-linked glycans in the 1000-4500 m/z ion range. GGTA1/CMAH knockout pig samples had increased relative amounts of high-mannose, incomplete, and xylosylated N-linked glycans. All pig samples had significantly higher amounts of core and possibly antennae fucosylation. We provide for the first time a comparison of the serum protein glycomes of the human, domestic pig, and genetically modified pigs important to xenotransplantation.
Article
Clinical xenotransplantation is not possible because humans possess antibodies that recognize antigens on the surface of pig cells. Galα-1,3-Gal (Gal) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) are two known xenoantigens. We report the homozygous disruption of the α1, 3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) and the cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) genes in liver-derived female pig cells using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was used to produce healthy cloned piglets from the genetically modified liver cells. Antibody-binding and antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity assays were used to examine the immunoreactivity of pig cells deficient in Neu5Gc and Gal. This approach enabled rapid production of a pig strain deficient in multiple genes without extensive breeding protocols. Immune recognition studies showed that pigs lacking both CMAH and GGTA1 gene activities reduce the humoral barrier to xenotransplantation, further than pigs lacking only GGTA1. This technology will accelerate the development of pigs for xenotransplantation research.
Article
Sialylated carbohydrates usually decompose by loss of sialic acid when ionized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) as the result of the labile carboxylic proton. Stabilization has previously been achieved by forming methyl esters with methyl iodide, a procedure that eliminates the labile proton. In this paper, we describe an alternative procedure for methyl ester formation that provides information on the sialic acid linkage directly from the MALDI spectrum. The sugars were desalted, dissolved in methanol, and treated with 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM). After removal of the solvent, the products were transferred directly to the MALDI target and examined from 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Small amounts of N-glycans derived from biological sources benefited from an additional clean-up stage involving Nafion 117. alpha(2 --> 6)-Linked sialic acid produced only methyl esters whereas alpha(2 --> 3)-linked sialic acids were converted into their lactones providing a 32 Da difference in mass. Negative ion collision-induced decomposition (CID) mass spectra of these neutralized glycans provided information, in many cases, on the antenna of N-linked glycans to which the variously linked sialic acids were attached. The method was applied to N-linked glycans released from bovine fetuin and porcine thyroglobulin.
Article
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is glycosylated in both the Fc and the Fab regions of the protein with a heterogeneous ensemble of structures (glycoforms) that is both highly reproducible (i.e. nonrandom) and site specific. In normal IgG, the 2 highly conserved oligosaccharides of the Fc region are found buried between the CH2 domains, forming specific protein-saccharide interactions with the Fc protein surface. One of the functions attributed to the Fc oligosaccharides of normal IgG is to maintain the conformational arrangements of the Fc domains as well as the hinge regions. These structural features are necessary for Fc effector functions such as Clq and monocyte binding. A hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is a dramatic increase in the presence of serum IgG containing Fc oligosaccharides lacking an outer arm galactose residue (termed 'G0' glycoforms). The increased level of G0 has been shown to be directly related to the pathogenesis of RA. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation studies of the Fc region from normal and RA IgG, as well as examination of x-ray structures, show that the G0 oligosaccharides have an increased mobility resulting from the loss of binding between the G0 oligosaccharide and the Fc protein surface. From these observations it follows that regions of the protein surface that are normally covered by the oligosaccharide are revealed. The newly accessible protein surface could have lectin-like activity and also be inherently antigenic. In addition, the more mobile G0 oligosaccharide can be recognised by mannose binding protein. As the mannose binding protein can activate complement, and the Fc oligosaccharide would not normally be accessible to protein recognition, this finding might suggest a specific role for the G0 glycoform in inflammation when the appropriate IgG glycoforms are clustered.
Article
The present study reports data on the site-specific glycosylation of human IgG. The structures of a series of biantennary complex carbohydrates isolated from IgG were determined by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Differences were found in the structures and occurrences of the carbohydrates in Fab and Fc regions. Carbohydrates from the IgG of RA patients were shown to have a higher degree of truncation relative to carbohydrates from normal serum IgG. Differences in the mobilities of truncated oligosaccharides versus those with a 1,6-arm galactose residue were demonstrated using NMR relaxation measurements. The mobility differences of the carbohydrates are discussed in terms of specific carbohydrate-protein interactions, and the possible molecular basis for RA and other diseases involving Fc glycosylation deficiencies.
Article
The consideration of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates as biopharmaceuticals is an emerging topic in drug design. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of N-glycans was performed to examine the influence of N-glycan core fucosylation on lectin-binding properties and biodistribution. As a first step in a systematic comparison of N-glycans, the core fucose moiety was chemically introduced into a complex-type biantennary heptasaccharide azide. After deprotection and attachment of a spacer, the terminal sections of the N-glycan were elongated enzymatically. Conversion of the amino group in the spacer to an isothiocyanate gave derivatives allowing convenient ligand attachment to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The resulting neoglycoproteins contained an average of 2.9-4.6 chains per carrier molecule. Relative to unsubstituted biantennary complex-type N-glycans, the core fucosylation appears to favor the extended orientation of the alpha 1,6-arm. This was deduced from an up to 5-fold alteration of affinity for lectins in solid-phase assays. Marked differences were also found for cell surface binding of cultured tumor cells, for staining of tumor cells in lung sections, and in organ distribution. In vivo, the alpha 2,6-sialylated neoglycoproteins showed a reduced serum half-life in mice relative to the alpha 2,3-sialylated isomer and the non-fucosylated congeners. These results support the notion that changing the shape of a glycan provides a promising strategy to optimize the affinity of protein-carbohydrate interactions. Overall, our study underscores the importance of chemoenzymatic synthesis to define the effect of chain orientation on the ligand properties of N-glycans.
Article
The identification of glycosylation sites in proteins is often possible through a combination of proteolytic digestion, separation, mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem MS (MS/MS). Liquid chromatography (LC) in combination with MS/MS has been a reliable method for detecting glycopeptides in digestion mixtures, and for assigning glycosylation sites and glycopeptide sequences. Direct interfacing of LC with MS relies on electrospray ionization, which produces ions with two, three or four charges for most proteolytic peptides and glycopeptides. MS/MS spectra of such glycopeptide ions often lead to ambiguous interpretation if deconvolution to the singly charged level is not used. In contrast, the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) technique usually produces singly charged peptide and glycopeptide ions. These ions require an extended m/z range, as provided by the quadrupole-quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument used in these experiments, but the main advantages of studying singly charged ions are the simplicity and consistency of the MS/MS spectra. A first aim of the present study is to develop methods to recognize and use glycopeptide [M+H]+ ions as precursors for MS/MS, and thus for glycopeptide/glycoprotein identification as part of wider proteomics studies. Secondly, this article aims at demonstrating the usefulness of MALDI-MS/MS spectra of N-glycopeptides. Mixtures of diverse types of proteins, obtained commercially, were prepared and subjected to reduction, alkylation and tryptic digestion. Micro-column reversed-phase separation allowed deposition of several fractions on MALDI plates, followed by MS and MS/MS analysis of all peptides. Glycopeptide fractions were identified after MS by their specific m/z spacing patterns (162, 203, 291 u) between glycoforms, and then analyzed by MS/MS. In most cases, MS/MS spectra of [M+H]+ ions of glycopeptides featured peaks useful for determining sugar composition, peptide sequence, and thus probable glycosylation site. Peptide-related product ions could be used in database search procedures and allowed the identification of the glycoproteins.
Article
Hybrid and complex N-linked glycans were ionized by electrospray in the presence of ammonium nitrate to give [M + NO3]- and [M + (NO3)2]2- ions. Low energy collision-induced decomposition (CID) spectra of both types of ions were almost identical and were dominated by C-type glycosidic and cross-ring fragments, unlike the corresponding spectra of the positive ions that contained mainly B- and Y-type glycosidic fragments. Also, in contrast to fragments in the positive ion spectra, many of these ions appeared to be produced by single pathways following proton abstraction from specific hydroxy groups. Consequently, many ions were diagnostic for specific structural features. Such features included the composition of each of the two antennas, the presence or absence of a bisecting GlcNAc residue, and the location of fucose residues on the core GlcNAc residues and on the antennas. C-ions defined the sequence of the constituent monosaccharide residues. Detailed fragmentation mechanisms are proposed to account for several of the diagnostic ions.
Article
The alpha-gal epitope (Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-(3)4GlcNAc-R) is abundantly synthesized on glycolipids and glycoproteins of non-primate mammals and New World monkeys by the glycosylation enzyme alpha1,3galactosyltransferase (alpha1,3GT). In humans, apes and Old World monkeys, this epitope is absent because the alpha1,3GT gene was inactivated in ancestral Old World primates. Instead, humans, apes and Old World monkeys produce the anti-Gal antibody, which specifically interacts with alpha-gal epitopes and which constitutes approximately 1% of circulating immunoglobulins. Anti-Gal has functioned as an immunological barrier, preventing the transplantation of pig organs into humans, because anti-Gal binds to the alpha-gal epitopes expressed on pig cells. The recent generation of alpha1,3GT knockout pigs that lack alpha-gal epitopes has resulted in the elimination of this immunological barrier. Anti-Gal can be exploited for clinical use in cancer immunotherapy by targeting autologous tumour vaccines to APC, thereby increasing their immunogenicity. Autologous intact tumour cells from haematological malignancies, or autologous tumour cell membranes from solid tumours are processed to express alpha-gal epitopes by incubation with neuraminidase, recombinant alpha1,3GT and with uridine diphosphate galactose. Subsequent immunization with such autologous tumour vaccines results in in vivo opsonization by anti-Gal IgG binding to these alpha-gal epitopes. The interaction of the Fc portion of the vaccine-bound anti-Gal with Fcgamma receptors of APC induces effective uptake of the vaccinating tumour cell membranes by the APC, followed by effective transport of the vaccinating tumour membranes to the regional lymph nodes, and processing and presentation of the tumour-associated antigen (TAA) peptides. Activation of tumour-specific T cells within the lymph nodes by autologous TAA peptides may elicit an immune response that in some patients will be potent enough to eradicate the residual tumour cells that remain after completion of standard therapy. A similar expression of alpha-gal epitopes can be achieved by transduction of tumour cells with an adenovirus vector (or other vectors) containing the alpha1,3GT gene, thus enabling anti-Gal-mediated targeting of the vaccinating transduced cells to APC. Intratumoral delivery of the alpha1,3GT gene by various vectors results in the expression of alpha-gal epitopes. Such expression of the xenograft carbohydrate phenotype is likely to induce anti-Gal-mediated destruction of the tumour lesion, similar to rejection of xenografts by this antibody. Opsonization of the destroyed tumour cell membranes by anti-Gal IgG further targets them to APC, thus converting the tumour lesion, treated by the alpha1,3GT gene, into an in situ autologous tumour vaccine.
Article
Endogenous ligands have not, to date, been identified for the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R), which is abundantly expressed by parenchymal cells in the liver of mammals. On the basis of the rapid clearance of BSA bearing multiple chemically coupled sialic acid (Sia)α2,6GalNAcβ1,4GlcNAcβ1,2Man tetrasaccharides (SiaGGnM-BSA) from the circulation, and the ability of the ASGP-R hepatic lectin-1 subunit to bind SiaGGnM-BSA, we previously proposed that glycoproteins modified with structures terminating with Siaα2,6GalNAc may represent previously unrecognized examples of endogenous ligands for this receptor. Here, we have taken a genetic approach using wild-type and ASGP-R-deficient mice to determine that the ASGP-R in vivo does indeed account for the rapid clearance of glycoconjugates terminating with Siaα2,6GalNAc. We have also determined that the ASGP-R is able to bind core-substituted oligosaccharides with the terminal sequence Siaα2,6Galβ1,4GlcNAc but not those with the terminal Siaα2,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc. We propose that glycoproteins bearing terminals Siaα2,6GalNAc and Siaα2,6Gal are endogenous ligands for the ASGP-R, and that the ASGP-R helps to regulate the relative concentration of serum glycoproteins bearing α2,6-linked Sia. • clearance • galactose • N-acetylgalactosamine • hepatic lectin • serum glycoproteins
Article
Characterization of glycopeptides has become an important tool toward a better understanding of the molecular details in carbohydrate-protein interactions. In this approach, oligosaccharides are commonly not detectable under mass spectrometric conditions because of ionization suppression by deglycosylated peptides. Their composition is only deduced from the mass differences between glycopeptides and corresponding deglycosylated peptides. Here, we describe how carbohydrates can be easily detected in the PNGase-treated samples and structurally investigated next to the peptides. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated through the analysis of tryptic glycopeptides obtained from human IgG. Following deglycosylation with PNGaseF and derivatization with phenylhydrazine, MALDI spectra produced ion peaks of labeled oligosaccharides and deglycosylated peptides. The relative abundances of individual oligosaccharides were consistent with those of the glycopeptides. MALDI-MS/MS provided useful data for the structural elucidation of oligosaccharides, including the assignment of dominant isomers and glycosylation sites in peptides. MALDI-MS/MS fragmentation patterns of deglycosylated peptide ions indicated glycosylation sites at asparagine 297 and 299. The observed peptide of the composition ADQTVYR, described for the first time in this study, indicated new glycosylation sites in IgG1 human myeloma plasma.
Article
Sialylated glycopeptides contained in liquid chromatographic fractions of bovine alpha1-glycoprotein tryptic digests were isolated from asialo peptides using capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE effluents were deposited directly onto a metallic target and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. This method allowed the characterization of four N-glycosylation sites in the glycoprotein, and each site was observed as a set of sialylated peptide glycoforms. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm peptide sequences and glycan content in glycoforms. The CE method developed for this study resulted in a very clear separation of the sialylated from the asialo content of glycoprotein digests and proved very useful in the determination of the nature and location of sialylated glycans along the protein chain. This article is the first report describing the use of on-target CE fraction collection using a MALDI removable sample concentrator.
Article
The structure of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides attached to the antibody constant region (Fc) of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) has been shown to affect the pharmacokinetics and antibody effector functions of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). However, it is still unclear how differences in the N-linked oligosaccharide structures impact the biological activities of antibodies, especially those lacking core fucose. Here, we succeeded in generating core fucose-lacking human IgG1 antibodies with three different N-linked Fc oligosaccharides, namely, a high-mannose, hybrid, and complex type, using the same producing clone, and compared their activities. Cultivation of an α-1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) knockout Chinese hamster ovary cell line in the presence or absence of a glycosidase inhibitor (either swainsonine or kifunensine) yielded antibody production of each of the three types without contamination by the others. Two of three types of nonnaturally occurring atypical oligosaccharide IgG1, except the complex type, reduced the affinity for both human lymphocyte receptor IIIa (FcγRIIIa) and the C1q component of the complement, resulting in reduction of ADCC and CDC. The bulky structure of the nonreducing end of N-linked Fc oligosaccharides is considered to contribute the CDC change, whereas the structural change in the reducing end, i.e. the removal of core fucose, causes ADCC enhancement through improved FcγRIIIa binding. In the pharmacokinetic profile, although no significant difference of human neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-binding affinity was observed among the three types, the complex type showed longer serum half-lives than the other types irrespective of core fucosylation in mice, which also suggests the contribution of the nonreducing end structure. The present study provides basic information on the effects of core fucose-lacking N-linked Fc oligosaccharides on antibody biological activities.
Immune phenotype and IgG characteristics of Neu5Gc and alpha-1-3-gal double knockout pigs
  • A Salama
  • S Conchon
  • A Perota
  • B Martinet
  • J P Judor
Salama A, Conchon S, Perota A, Martinet B, Judor JP et al., (2015) Immune phenotype and IgG characteristics of Neu5Gc and alpha-1-3-gal double knockout pigs. Xenotransplantation 22 (S1):S2-S47 no. 348.
Derivatization of sialic acids for stabilization in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and concomitant differentiation of alpha(2 --> 3)-and alpha(2 --> 6)-isomers. Rapid communications in mass spectrometry
  • S F Wheeler
  • P Domann
  • D J Harvey
Wheeler SF, Domann P, Harvey DJ (2009) Derivatization of sialic acids for stabilization in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and concomitant differentiation of alpha(2 --> 3)-and alpha(2 --> 6)-isomers. Rapid communications in mass spectrometry: RCM 23: 303-312.